B.C. HISTORY 1790-1799
METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN B.C. index
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index
The Chinese originally discovered Fu Sang (British
and they most likely discovered Quadra's Island first.
The native population of Quadra's (Vancouver) Island and British Columbia are estimated as between 300,000 to 400,000 and fall into seven language groups.
About this time some of the Haida of Queen Charlotte Island (Haida Gwaii) migrated to Prince of Wales Island in southern Alaska. After firmly establishing themselves the Tlingit People arrived from the interior. Some suggest the Haida and Tlingit are related because of common cultural traits. Others suggest they are not closely related. Linguistic studies suggest they are not related. However both cultures have a maternal system, and similar clans.
The Natives around the Kitwanga trading village on the Kitwankul River, British Columbia began a period of warfare over trading rights that lasted until the 1830's.
The Kutenal (Kootenay) of Tobacco Plains, B.C. and Waterton, Alberta are virtually wiped out by smallpox.
A mysterious colony of potters settled in the valley between Vancouver Lake and the Columbus River in 1400. The Colony disappeared by 1700. The "Asian Pot Wreck" 15 nautical miles off the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait hauled up Asian pots, and numerous articles of trade of Japanese/Korean/Chinese origin.
The British Admiralty instructed their sea captains to confiscate all personal journals at the end of exploratory voyages. Sailors were prohibited from divulging where they had gone. Spain and Russia didn't broadcast their voyages. This secrecy partially accounts for the imbalance in general keneral knowledge of the first European approaches to B.C. The stories of how and why scurvy-ridden sailors reached the Pacific Northwest this century makes for a festinating hodge-podge of fact, fantasy and vainglorious quests.
January 26: On Tuesday at 9:00 P.M. an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 struck off the west coast of Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island, Washington and Oregon. The earthquake occurred in the Cascadia seduction zone. The resulting tsunami killed 1,000's of people and the villages of Pacheena Bay, Quadra (Vancouver) Island were wiped out, according to Indian tradition. Oregon natives speak of the days when whales were carried over the land and dropped, rivers became salty during the floods, and canoes where thrown into the trees. The tsunami hit Japan causing 9 foot high waves doing much damage. The west coast Peoples, based on their oral history requested in the twentieth century, the Federal Governments help to move their villages to higher ground, but were refused. It is noteworthy that major earthquakes occur off the west coast of Canada every 500 to 800 years. Most considered the Indian story of a tsunami as mythology until the Japanese account supported their story. It is noteworthy that the entire Pacific coastline dropped 3-6 feet.
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) an Irishman of Gulliver's Travels fame published 1726 and included a saga of traveler from New Albion being blown off course into the Pacific Northwest in 1703 to the Land of Giants called Brobdingnag which corresponds to British Columbia. It is noteworthy that John Ledyard (1751-1789) noted the Russians reported seeing an Island in the Pacific Northwest inhabited by people of Gigantic size.
Santiago Zabalburu is believed to be ship wrecked in Nehelem Bay, Oregon. Some survivors intermarried with the local aboriginal population.
A Spanish galleon named San Francisco Xavier was shipwrecked on the Oregon coast. near Nehalem sand spit, near the base of Neahkahnie Mountain, Oregon. The Ttillamook People speak of their ancestors recovering goods from the galleon. It is not reported if there were survivors.
The British chartered the South Sea Company giving it dominion over the west coast of America to a distance of 300 leagues out to sea. British vessels until 1833 were required to acquire licenses from the company as well as the East India Company.
Some believe the first Russian expedition to the Pacific Northwest occurred about this time.
The Russian Zar Peter the Great (1672-1725) of Russia sent Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681-1741), of Denmark to prove Asia and America are separate continents and he sailed the Bering Strait in August 13, 1728. His failure to land on America was highly criticized.
Michael Gvozdev sailing east of Siberia recorded sighting a "large country" (bolshaya zemlya). The sighting is likely Alaska.
The Russian traders are working the coast of British Columbia this decade.
Aleksei (Alexei IIich) Chirikov (1703-1748) made landfall north of Dixon Enterance, in Alaskan territory on July 15, 1741 about 5 days before Bering made land fall. A crew in two boats went ashore and were assumed killed. The Haida of Quadra's Island were aware the natives shot arrows and killed the Russians.
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681-1741) and Aleksei Chirikov (1703-1748) explored the northwestern coast of America down to55 degrees, under the banner of Tsarist Russia. Word of his voyage would reach the Canadian prairies as well as Spain. Traders are obviously crossing the Rocky Mountains.
Vitus Bering (1681-1741) charts show the Pacific coast of America down to California and appear to display the Columbia River?
The Tlingit of southern Alaska encountered the Russians this year.
During the Summer and Fall of 1741, Bering and Aleksei Chirikov (1703-1748) separately sighted the great shoulder of northwest America. But Bering's crew was soon besieged by scurvy. Weak from sickness and lack of food, the Saint Peter put in a bay along a large island off Kamchatka, where the ship broke up. Here Bering died in early December, giving the island his name. His survivors spent the winter on the island, subsisting on the seals and the other abundant wildlife. Next year, 1742, they built a small boat from the wreckage and eventually made it to Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka.
(I)-Alexi Chirikov (1703-1748) , Russians from Kamchatka, landed Sitka, Alaska Territory. They sent two small boat ashore, but never heard from these men again and assume they were captured by the natives, or that they deserted.
The Russians are moving down the west coast of New Russia. The Russians would eventually establish Bodega Bay and Russian River in California to grow food for the trade in New Russia. The Russians went as far south as Santa Barbara, California.
July 17: (I)-Vitus Bering sighted Mount St. Elias. St. Elias Island was later renamed Kayak Island.
July 18: Lisianki Strait, Aleksei Chirikov (1703-1748) sent an eleven-member reconnaissance party ashore in a longboat. They failed to return so July 23 a search party of four men were sent and also didn't return.
July 18-24: Aleksei Chirikov (1703-1748) noted that 15 men were lost near Chichagof Island and the total assumed dead in this voyage number 22 men.
November 4, Twelve crew members are dead from the Vitus Bering expedition leaving Sven Waxell (1701-1762) in command. This expedition was using a map by Joseph Nicolas de L'Isle drawn in 1731 and revised in 1733. Waxell wrote "By now so many of our people were ill that I had, so to speak, no one to steer the ship. Our sails, too, had worn so thin that I expected them to fly off at any moment. When it came to a man's turn at the helm, he was dragged to it by two others of the invalids who were still able to walk a little, and set down at the wheel. There he had to sit and steer as well as he could, and when he could sit no more, he had to be replaced by another in no better case than he... our ship was like a piece of dead wood, none to direct it." They tried to anchoring near some land they sighted, presuming they had reached Kamchatka on the Russian mainland. In fact this was Bering Island, located about 175 km. from Kamchatka. Waxell wrote "Our plight was so wretched that the dead had to lie for a considerable time among the living, for there was none able to drag corpses away, nor were those who lived capable of moving away from the dead. They had to remain lying all mixed up together in a ring with a little fire in the center." George Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746) was one of the 46 men of the original 78 Vitus Bering's expedition. The Great Northern Manatee (Hydrodamalis gigas) or sea cow was named after him. Steller's sea cows measured up to 25 feet in length and 22 feet around. sometimes weighing more than 8,800 pounds. They were relentlessly hunted to extinction.
Some mark this as the beginning of the sea otter (enhydra lutris linnaeus) fur trade. The sea otter range is from Japan to Alaska to California. The Russians realized the value of the trade with China when the Bering expedition returned with 900 pelts gathered in 1741. The Russians basically had a monopoly of the trade until the 1770's.
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681-1741), of Denmark sailing for Russia with 10,000 men mapped the west coast of North America, specifically Alaska. It is noteworthy that the term Parka (parki) from the Mongoloid Peoples of Siberia was eventually used to describe the Inuit skin or outer coat.
In the Summer of 1743, Basov and some 30 pioneers (called promyshlenniki in Russian, a rough equivalent to American hunting frontier men), went to the Bering Island. His crew, in accordance with the Russian custom, took the voyage "on spec:" each was assigned an agreed-upon number of shares. If the voyage went well, then everyone would collect; If not, they would be paid nothing. Basov returned safely, bringing back a rich reward in furs: a total value of over 200,000 rubles! After this he made three more trips, all successful, after which he, most likely, retired.
The early Russian method of acquiring furs was to sail to a native village, take hostages either by means of violence or with the threat of violence, demanding furs in exchange for the lives of their women and children. The native women would be used as concubines when the natives were away. If the natives failed to deliver the requisite number of furs, hostages would be executed. On the Island of Attu in 1745, the Russians executed 15 Aleuts to set an example.
Soto Kanopee Metis b-1750 on Columbia River son Kanopee a shipwrecked Spaniard and a Cascade woman. Three Spaniards survived the shipwreck and set out over land to return to civilization.
Lisims/Nass Valley, 60 miles north of Terrace, B.C. had a major volcanic eruption causing the death of 2,000 Nisga People.
About this time the Spokane Indians recorded the eruption of Mount St. Helens or so they reported in about 1800.
Gerhard Muller produced a map of the Pacific Northwest based on the works of Semen Dezhnev 1648, Bering voyages of 1728 and 1741. He revised his map in 1758. Thomas Jefferys translated Mullers book of 1758 in 1761.
The Hezeta (Bruno de Hezeta) Expedition to the Northwest Coast in 1755 is recorded in the Benito de la Sierra journal.
The First known Metis in the Pacific Northwest is likely among the Haida of Quadra (Vancouver) Island about this time. The Franciscans reported sightings of fair-haired, blue-eyed Haida at Langara Island, B.C. in 1774 placing their birth about this time. The discovery of an iron boarding poke also suggest early visitation. Sigismund Bacstrom in 1792 confirmed the blue-eyed Haida near Langara Island.
The Russian traders attacked Kanaga, plundered, and razed the entire Aleut Village and collected their furs.
The Nez Perce People acquired the horse, adopted the tepee and traveled 3-4 hundred miles to the Montana buffalo hunt from the junction of Washington, Oregon and Idaho.
The Russians worked their way eastward from island to island, exploiting the natives. They reached the eastern most islands of the Aleutian chain, the Fox group, including the Islands of Umnak, Unalaska and Unimak where they met with resistance. The Aleuts and Eskimo rebelled rather than give up their women as hostages and concubines.
Mount Hood, Oregon erupted.
Indian legend speaks of an Indian maiden who saved a shipwrecked red-haired sailor on Nahalen Beach. Lewis and Clark found a freckled, red-haired Indian (Metis) near this place in 1806.
Deguignes of France wrote the Chinese discovered Fu Sang (America).
On Umnak, a native attack decimated a party of Russian traders, only a few escaped to their ship
The Aleuts destroyed a Russian fleet of five ships out of Kamchatka. These small raids on landing parties and attackes on anchored ships proved successful until 1765.
Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772) produced a map this year covering the Olympic Peninsula which was used in 1775 by Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) y Dudagoitia to navigate to Point Grenville.
Ivan Solovief a Russian trader out of Okhotsk organized and led an armada against the Aleuts. The ships equipped with canon and heavily armed mercenaries, attacked island after island. The bombarded the palisade Aleut villages, overran resisters and either executed prisoners, men, women and children or took them as slaves and concubines. The population of the Aleuts declined drastically during the Russian-Aleut war.
Smallpox ravaged the Pacific Northwest this decade and the carrier has not been determined.
The Nuu-chah-nulth of Nootka Sound were skilled in hunting marine mammals from sea otters to whales. Eight to a boat, they paddled as far as 25 miles out to sea to hunt whales, braving open ocean swells and unhindered westerly winds in huge 30 to 35-foot canoes made from the hollowed-out trunks of giant red cedars often rigged with animal-skin sails. The Nuu-chah-nulth canoe had a relatively flat bottom, a vertical stern, and a painted, carved upswept bow that ended in a wolf head. The people from Yuquot were often at sea for several months and journeyed hundreds of miles. These seafaring skills support the theory of ocean voyage down the American Pacific coast.
Viceroy Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua of Mexico was ordered to investigate the Russian activity in the Pacific Northwest. Instructions are not to take anything from the Indians against their will, but only in barter or given by them through friendship. All must be treated with kindness and gentleness.
The estimated population of the West Coast of Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) before European contact is 100,000. It is estimated that European disease caused an 80% population loss within a few decades.
Francisco A. Mourelle de la Rua (1750-1820) recapped the Perez expedition and first contact with the Haida as follows: "Iw was then observed that they were of robust stature, cheerful in appearance, with beautiful eyes and handsome faces. The hair consisted of a queue, although some simply had it tied up. They had beards in the manner of the Chinese: they are white in color, and many of them have blue eyes. The women are good looking; they have the lower lip perforated, in which incision is inserted an object that is different in size depending on whether (the wearer) is young or old; it appeared that only the married ones had them. Both sexes exhibited docility and agreeableness; women were dressed in pelt tunics fitted to the body, with bracelets of copper or iron, and rings of the same metals." There can be little doubt these People are Metis in nature and the cultural mixing likely goes back 50 to 100 years.
Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) expedition to British Columbia resulted in the publication of the first Spanish map of the Pacific Northwest covering California to north of the Queen Charlotte Islands, 54° 40 minutes north. Actually the first map was made by Josef de Canizarez, Perez's pilot and included Nootka Sound (Surgidero de Sn. Lorenzo). It is noteworthy that the Spanish were aware of Nootka Sound before this expedition. Perez received no credit for his expedition as it was not the first for Spain but when the U.S. acquired Spanish claims in 1819 Perez was brought to prominence. Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) claimed all the Pacific Coast to Alaska for Spain.
The Haida told many stories of shipwrecks off their shores from the Columbia River to the tip of Quadra's Island. This doesn't agree with the European recorded story that the Haida were in awe at the first ship that arrived Nootka Sound. It may also account for the metal artifacts in their possession.
By this year the Spanish navigators had charted
the Pacific rim up to the Queen Charlotte Islands, in the Viceroyalty of New
Spain, while the Russian fur
traders are pushing southward from Alaska as they didn't support the Louisiana
land deals between England, France and Spain . It had become evident
that a North West Passage didn't exist. The Spanish claimed to have
discovered Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and British Columbia, New Spain, the Russians were trading in
the area, the Chinese claimed to be first in 1421 and the English laid claim
under threat of war the might is right philosophy. BUT what about the
local residence? The Nootka People?
Who spoke for their rights as England and Spain squabbled?
The Nuu-chaf-nulth (Nootka) People have occupied the Nootka Sound for over 4,000 years and their name means the People of all along the Mountains or for short the West Coast People. The largest tribe of the Nootka are the Tla-o-qui-aht (Calayoquot) who claim to be originally from Kennedy Lake, east of Ucluelet, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island), New Spain. These Peoples are noted for their ocean going canoes and may represent some of the People who migrated up and down the Pacific coast to populate the the Americas. I have visited this area many times over the past 50 years and it is nothing short of paradise on earth, so I fully understand why these folks have stayed around for over 2,000 years.
Juan Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Island Majorca, Spain from Mexico explored and charted the British Columbia coast trading Nootka Sound, Island of Quadra (Vancouver Island) and the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). Second in command was Esteban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) . The natives of the North West Coast are well aware that the Spanish brought smallpox among them. It is estimated the population of the Northwest Coast fell from 188,000 this year to 38,000 in 1874. The estimates are questionable.
Father Juan Crespi born March 1, 1721, Palma, a Franciscan was part of the Juan Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) expedition to British Columbia noted the people (Haida) were pagans, for they sing the same songs as sung at the dances of pagans from San Diego to Monterey. He also noted they had a harpoon with a head of iron that looked like a boarding pike. Some pieces of iron and copper and pieces of knives clearly indicated prior contact which the crew debated. The Franciscans Tomas de la Pema y Saravia, b-1743, reported sightings of fair-haired, blue-eyed Haida at Langara Island, B.C.. Some speculate these were decedents of Francis Drake's crew from the Golden Hind voyage of 1577-1580, which most histories discredit. Drake reported he ran off a Chinese junk. The Haida themselves reported of sunken ships before this time so its possible there were survivors. Let us not forget the Russians have been in the area for a long time.
Francisco A. Mourelle de la Rua (1750-1820) recorded that Juan Perez (1756-1809) speaking of the Haida said "It was then observed that they were of robust stature, cheerful in appearance, with beautiful eyes and handsome faces. The hair consisted of a queue, although some simply had it tied up. They had beards in the manner of the Chinese; they are white in color, and many of them have blue eyes. The women are good looking; they have the lower lip perforated, in which incision is inserted an object that is different size depending on whether (the wearer) is young or old; it appeared that only the married ones had them. Both sexes exhibited docility and agreeableness; the women were dressed in pelt tunics fitted to the body, with bracelets of copper or iron, and rings of the same metals."
Jose Mariano Mozino b-1757, Mexico, who married 1778 Dona Rita Riveray Melo Montano in 1792-1793 conducted research at Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island (British Columbia) and recorded the People's first sighting of the Juan Perez (1756-1809) ship at first filled the natives with terror, and even now they testify that they were seized with fright from the moment they saw on the horizon the giant 'machine' which little by little approached their coasts. The believed that Quautz (God) was coming to make a second visit, and were fearful that it was in order to punish the misdeeds of the People. As many as were able hid themselves in the mountains, others closed themselves up in their lodges, and the most daring took their canoes out to examine more closely the huge mass that had come out of the ocean. They eventually had sufficient courage to go aboard and exchange gifts. He noted that polygamy was practiced by some.
January 24: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain, with a crew of 86 in the Santiago of 225 tons sailed from Port San Blas on the Baja Peninsula in the Santiago for the Pacific Northwest
March 11: until April 6th the Santiago remained in San Diago for structural repairs.
May 8: The Santiago reached Monterey, California and remained there until June 11, 1774.
July 18: At high noon the Santiago sighted British Columbia the northwestern coast of Graham Island, the largest of the Queen Charlotte Islands, also known as Haida Gwaii. Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) named the headland Punta Santa de Magdalena. Second in command was Jose Maretinez (1742-1798) and Fathers Crespi, b-1721 and Thomas de la Pena y Saravia B-1743, were on board. Eight Heida and a boy arrived singing and dancing, throwing feathers in the air. As more canoe arrived Father Juan Crespi noted they had a harpoon with a head of iron, looking like a boarding-pike.
July 19: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) traded with three canoes, beads for dried fish. He named the coastal mountains Los Cerros de San Cristobal (British Columbia), About 21 Haida canoes approached to trade and two canoes had only women and children aboard. This was a clear indication that ships engaged in trade was not a new phenomena and the People were not in awe or fear. Father Crespi, b-1721 said "Two of the pagans came aboard the ship and were much pleased with the vessel and things on board of it".
July 20: Twenty one canoes of Haida from Isla Langara approached the Santiago in trade. Father Crespi, b-1721 a Spanish Priest says two of the canoes held women and children. Two of the pagans came aboard the ship. Father Tomas de la Pena y Saravia b-1843 was on the trip. It was he who sighted a fair-haired, blue eyed Haida.
July 20: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) sighted land at 55 degrees latitude off the northern Queen Charlotte Island. The Haida paddled out to trade. Esteban Jose Martinez, (1742-1798) second in command expressed surprise at the size and quality of the Haida craft. The Spaniards agreed the Haida are a well-developed culture. They then sailed south to Nootka Sound and again traded with the natives. Perez (1756-1809) noted that the Haida were expert and skillful traders. They were not interested in beads or trinkets, having traded with the Russians for more than 20 years..
July 20: Esteban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) at Santa Margarita, B.C. (This must be an error as Santa Margarita is in California, maybe he means Santa de Magdalena) noted the presence of half of a bayonet and a piece of sword made into a knife likely obtained previously from the Spanish, Russians or Chinese. We assume the Pacific Northwest especially British Columbia was discover by the Spanish this year but this is not true so says the English because they didn't land and claim it for Spain..
July 25: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain visited Alaska and sighted the Queen Charlotte Islands off the coast of northern B.C. He traded the Noutka and the Haida Indians, and named the northwestern point of the islands Santa Margarita. He then sailed south to Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island), New Spain and discovered Nootla Sound on August 8, 1774. The Spanish believed they owned the Pacific coast of America by right of discovery.
August: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain contacted the Haidas and Nootkas on the Queen Charlotte Islands of the Pacific Coast, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. A map was produced as a result of this expedition by Josef de Canizarez .
August 7: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain, with a crew of 86 anchored near Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) but some contend he didn't make land fall because of rising winds and traded with the Nuu-chah-nulth. He named the entrance to Nootka Sound as Rada de San Lorenzo. He named Estevan Point just to the south as La Punta de San Esteban. The observed the Strait of Juan de Fuca according to Esteban Jose Martinez, (1742-1798). Perez (1756-1809) stated the Nootka were expert and skillful traders.
August 7: Juan Perez Hernandez born June 24, 1725, d-1775 discovered the Island of Quadra (Vancouver Island), Queen Charlotte Island and anchored in the Nootka Sound. His second in command was Esteban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) who was amazed at the quality and size of the Native canoes. One was paddled by 22 men.
August 11: The Santiago crew observed a mountain near Cape Flattery and Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) named it Cerro de Santa Rosalia (Mount Olympus).
August 28: The Santiago and crew arrived Monterey on the verge of scurvy.
August 28: The Spanish considered the expedition a failure as Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) had failed to sail to 60° as instructed, failed to reassert Spanish dominion for King Carlos III by enacting formal ceremonies of possession, as instructed, had failed to encounter any Russians and had not produced detailed charts. It is noteworthy that his pilot Josef de Canizarez had produced a costal map including Nootka Sound (Surgidero de Sn. Lorenzo) the northern tip of Graham Island ( Pta. de Sta. Margarita) and Mount Olmpus (Cerro de Sta. Rosalia). He would be recognized 45 years later for his significant expedition.
Juan Francisco de la Bodegay Quadra (1744-1794) with two ships explored the West Coast of America to the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska. This is the same area the Russians had explored in 1741. The Spanish were greatly impressed with the civilization of the Northwest Peoples. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra made three voyages 1775, 1779, and 1792
The Hezeta (Bruno de Hezeta) Expedition to the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1775 is recorded in the Benito de la Sierra journal. Miguel de la Campos wrote a Journal of Explorations Northward Along the Coast from Monterey in the year 1775. Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) is pilot for this expedition being demoted last year. He is believed to have died from typhus off the California coast November 3, 1775 and was buried at sea. It is noteworthy this expedition not only claimed Oregon and Washington for Spain but sailed 30 miles up the Columbia River claiming it for Spain. Louis and Clark are usually erroneously given credit for this discover.
March 16: An expedition from New Spain was ordered to chart the Pacific coast to 65 degrees north. Bruno de Hezata y Dudagoitia commanded, Juan de Ayala was a captain, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) a Creole (half Spanish, half black heritage) sailed as second mate under Captain Mantique. Three days out Captain Mantique was exhibiting signs of insanity and Bodega was given command.
July: Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) y Dudagoitia a Portuguese sailing for Spain sailed the West Coast of B.C. He explored and mapped the Washington State coast formally claiming it for Spain and met the people of southern Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island.
July 12: Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta), y Juan Perez, (1725-1775) and Juan Francisco de la Bodega, others from the Spanish ship Santiago land on the site of the future Grenville Bay and claim Nueva Galicia (the Pacific Northwest) for Spain. This is the first European landing in the future state of Washington. Bruno de Hezeta, Father Benito de la Sierra, Don Cristobal Revilla, the surgeon Don Juan Gonzales, and Juan Perez -- boarded the ship’s launch to conduct the formal act of possession.
July 13: The Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) y Dudagoitia expedition landed Point Grenville aka Martyr's Point (Grenville Harbour), Washington and traded with the natives. Two/three hundred natives (Quinault) attacked 7 of Hezeta's crew and killed them, hence the name Marty's Point. Hezeta had Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772) map of 1766 to help in navigation.
1775 July 14; Bruno Hecetra landed Moclips (Washington) and claimed the region for Spain. He also named Falcon Point, Cape Falcon near Cannon Beach, New Spain (Oregon)
July 14: Grenville Bay, Washington, Bruno Hezeta y Dudagoitia wrote: I landed accompanied by the Reverend Father Fray Bentito de la Sierra, Don Cristobal Reville, the surgeon Don Gonzalez, and some armed men. Only six Indians presented themselves to me ashore. They have beautiful faces. Some are fair in color, others dark, and all of them plump and well built. Their clothing consist of sea otter skins.
July 14: Manuel Marrique anchored Point Grenville, Washington. He sent 7 men ashore to cut timber for a new mast and to collect water. The natives ambushed the party and killed all 7 men. Marrique commanded one of the ships of the Juan Fransisco Bodega Y Quadra (1744-1794) expedition.
July 29: Bruno de Hezeta y Dudagoitia beset with scurvy at 50° north decided to return to New Mexico but Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) and supported by his pilot Francisco Antonio Mourelle de la Rua decided to sail on north.
August 11: Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) y Dudagoitia b-1750 reached latitude 49 degrees north near Nootka Sound and turned back but Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) continued on north. Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) b-1750 recorded passing the Straits of Juan de Fuca and wondered if it was the strait that Juan de Fuca had reported and a few days later he record the Columbia River, naming it the Bay of Assumption of Our Lady and placing it on his map.
August 15: The Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) and Francisco Antonio Mourelle de la Rua expedition reached 58 degrees north at Prince of Wales Island at the southern tip of Alaska. They named Mount Edgecumbe as San Jacinto. North of Sitka they erected a Spanish cross and formally declaired Spanish sovereignty over the Pacific Northwest in the name of Charles III, king of Spain and the West Indies..
August 17: Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) y Dudagoitia with the ship Santiago discovered the mouth of the Columbia River that he called Ensenada de Asuncion and is believed to have spread smallpox to the Western Washington Peoples reducing their population from 37,000 to 26,000. Hezeta wrote: "These currents and seething of the waters have led me to believe that it may be the mouth of some great river or some passage to another sea". Some believe this expedition brought smallpox to the Puget Sound tribes. This is not likely as little contact with the people was made. It is estimated that 11,000 Western Washington Indians died of smallpox in the 1770's.
August 18: Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) held a Christian ceremony at Salisbury Sound, Alaska, a place named Puerto de los Remedios by the Spanish. He formally claimed Alaska for Spain.
When the Spanish (King Charles III) became aware of the intent of James Cook (1728-1779) to intrude on their territory more ships were ordered for the west coast exploration of America.
James Cook (1728-1779) is given much more credit than he disserves for discovering things that had already been discovered by others. Cook had the latitude bearing for the Columbia River but failed to find it, he had the latitude for the Juan de Fuca Strait and said it didn't exist, he missed the Quadra's Island and spent 3 weeks at open sea before finding the well known Nootka Sound. His crowning achievement was the alleged discovery of Hawaii, but again many were here before him and he can't even claim credit for that discovery.
James Cook (1728-1779), an Englishman, is on the Pacific Coast and Alaska 1776 to 1778. They were in contact with the Eskimos (Inuit) and Nootkas. It is known his men had sexual relations with these people, likely resulting in Metis births.
The English were ignorant of the flourishing north west coast fur trade with China until this year.
Joseph Billings b-1758 visited Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island during Cooks (1728-1779) final voyage, he later joined the Russian expedition to map Siberia and Alaska. Captain Cook's (1728-1779) men were sexually active in Tahiti and Hawaii as well as Nootka and Unalaska (where the Russians had introduced VD.).
According to legend, a flotilla of giant cedar canoes was seen heaving towards the latest ship offshore Yuquot. Chief Maquinna had ordered his braves to observe the two ships and report back their findings. On board, they could see a white man with a hooked nose who looked like a dog salmon. Another, with a large hump on his back, appeared as a great sockeye come to life. They returned to their chief and reported that the ships were like "fish come alive into people".
James Cook (1728-1779) claimed to have landed near Duncan, Quadra's Island to cut spars for his ship. He said the broad inlet between 47° and 48° as sailed by Juan de Fuca, "we saw nothing like it" and Cook said "nor is there the least probability that ever such things existed."
Captain James Cook (1728-1779) sailed to Island of Quadra (Vancouver Island) looking for the outlet to the Northwest Passage. He landed at Uquote that he named King George Sound. The Peoples said nootka du sim, that means go around the harbor for a safe anchorage. This clearly implies they were quite conversant with sailing ships likely the Spanish and Russian traders. He didn't understand and assumed they meant the name of the place is Nootka Sound. The Nuu-chah-nulth villagers at Nootka Sound, west Island of Quadra (Vancouver Island) March 29, 1778 extended hospitality for a month to Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and company and traded sea otter pelts. Cook said these people conducted trade with great honesty but were mainly interested in metals for skins. Cooks men however wanted women and would trade their metal plates and cutlery for the women to be brought on board. When the women came on board they were raped and two officers David Samwell and Charles Clerk joined in the action. The infamous captain Cook (1728-1779) acted like a pimp and forced the women to remain on board to prostitute themselves under the threat of the ships guns. Over the next twenty five years this type of barbarism would continue resulting in arguments, rapes, beatings and even murder of the People under the most minor incidents. Cook never left his ship as he was fearful he would be killed because of these atrocities. The hatred began festering among the people and would reach its peak in 1803. It is noteworthy that the Chinese had explored this region starting about 1421.
Many erroneously give credit to Captain Cook (1728-1779) as the first person to discover Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) but the Spanish had already claimed the land and were preceded by the Chinese and Russians. Trade was flourishing between China and British Columbia when Cook arrived.
March: James Cook (1728-1779) arrived Oregon to discover the Northwest Passage and to commence the removal of the Spanish from the west coast. The Spanish have been in this region since the 16th century. He sailed the coast of British Columbia and Alaska.
March 7: James Cook (1728-1779), Bligh, George Vancouver (1757-1798) and John Ledyard reached the Oregon coast but missed the mouth of the Columbia River and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. James Cook said of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Columbia River "we saw nothing like it, nor is there the least probability that ever such things existed" This statement questioned the credibility of Cook.
March 30: James Cook (1728-1779) concluded the Nootka are mild and inoffensive, quick to trade and strictly honest in the process. He concluded they were very keen traders getting as much as they could for everything they had; always asking for more.
August 16: John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809) an Englishman launched the ship "Northwest" at Clayoquot Sound near Nootka on Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island). It was the first vessel built in the Pacific Northwest by the English. The Russians had built ships in this area before.
Ingnacio de Arteaga and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) sailed to Bucsreli Bay and mapped as far as Cook Island. They also completed the complex process begun earlier of claiming the Pacific Northwest (including the region we now call home) for Spain. New Spain covered the lands between California to Alaska. Actually all lands north of Mexico.
A major smallpox epidemic ravaged the west coast of Alaska and Canada. It started in Bucareli Sound on the western side of Prince of Wales Island (55 degrees 14 minutes). The Spanish expedition of Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1743-1794) is believed to have carried the dreaded disease. Bodega had charted every bay and inlet in search of the Northwest Passage. He went north to 58 degrees 30 minutes before turning back due to bad weather.
Juan Francisco Bodega Y Quadra Mollinedo (1744-1794) and Francisco Mourelle again explored the Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. They conducted ceremony and claimed Cook Inlet for Spain. The entire coast of North America was divided between Russia and Spain by discovery.
Captain James Cook (1728-1779) died this year in the Hawaiian Islands in a confrontation with the native peoples.
February 11: The frigates Princesa and Favorita, under the command of Lieutenant Ignacio de Arteaga and his second in command, Lieutenant Bodega y Quadra, of Peru, (1743-1794) left San Blas again. Their mission was to explore the northwest coast, and not to intervene with the assumed English navigators there. They charted every bay and inlet in search of the Northwest Passage, going north to 58 degrees 30 minutes before turning back from Alaska due to bad weather. They completed the complex process begun earlier of claiming the Pacific Northwest for Spain
birth (II)-Jack Ramsey Metis b-1780 Columbia District (Oregon) son shipwrecked (I)-Old Ramsey (1760-1790) and Tillamook woman.
The Russian traders visit the Eyak and Tlingit People of the Pacific Coast.
Laguivoise (L'auguvoise)(Wi-hmunke-wakan) an Iowa Indian woman born 1786/89 near Scott, Illinois, died September 3, 1850 Willamette Valley, Salem Oregon. She is also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin. Marie Aioe 2nd marriage Joseph Venier a French Canadian at Fort on Okanogon. It is noteworthy that Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) was a polygamist who was married to a Iowa woman and Yankton woman at the same time. Rarihokwats (suggests there is no evidence that either of the two Pierres were polygamists. He suggests Pierre Jr. who died January 1814 likely Oregon, married Iowa woman aka Marie Ioway or Marie Loway and Madonna of the Oregon Pass.) Pierre Sr. has about 12 children attributed to him. Pierre Jr 1780, Charles & Paul 1781, Louis 1782, Antoine 1785, Thomas 1787, Marie 1791, Jean Baptiste 1795, Elen 1796, Margaret 1800 (she claimed a Sioux mother), Comanaka/Comanna 1807, a baby 1811. It would appear that the lives of Sr. & Jr. are being confused (commingled) and/or there is a third Pierre? see 1808 2nd marriage. It is beyond my scope to untangle this mess but caution is advised when using this data. Thanks to Rarihokwats for bringing this to my attention.
Evstratii Delarov, Dmitrii Polutov, and Potap Zaikov explored Prince William Sound. Russia looked to expand fur outposts and hunting expeditions to the Alaska mainland as Aleutian fur resources disappeared. Navigator Stepan Zaikov visited Prince William Sound in the vessel Aleksandr Nevskii, belonging to the Lebedev-Lastochkin Company.
After some three decades of disorderly hunting and trading, a merchant named Grigorii Ivanovich Shelikhov, Ivan Golikov and a Golikov's relative, formed the Shelikhov-Golikov Company. Unlike individual promyshlenniki, Shelikhov wanted to establish a permanent presence in northwest Americas, targeting the Kodiak Island as the most desirable place for his base of operations -- off the mainland, yet close to it. Shelikhov knew that the nearest European settlement to Kodiak was a tiny presidio of San Francisco, founded about eight years earlier.
The Sinixt Indians of the Colville Valley suffered an 80% population decrease because of an outbreak of smallpox. This almost suggests fur traders were in the upper reaches of the Columbia long before they were recorded? This Indian tradition was confirmed by David Thompson recording pot marked faces of older tribesmen.
It is estimated that the Mexican smallpox epidemic killed 2/3 of the Stó:lô
People (People of the River) of the Fraser River.
Some say the Okanogon Indian population was reduced from 30-50% (1782-1783).
(I)-Old Ramsey (1760-1790) was shipwrecked 1782 at Nehalem Bay (Oregon) about 40
miles south of the mouth of the Columbia River. He was rescued by the
Tillamooks and married a woman from their tribe and had a number of
children. He contracted the small pox when it hit that region and died
(II)-Jack Ramsey Metis b-1780 has the features of his father,with red hair
(II)-George Ramsey Metis has the features of his mother so his head was flattened.
The Kalapuya People of Willama Valley (Willamette, Oregon) numbered between 10,000 and 12,000 people. The Smallpox swept the valley in (1782-1783) reducing the population to between 2,000 to 4,000 people.
Madame Natalie A. Shelikhova wife of Gregorii I Shelikhov, d-1795, founder of the Russian American spent two years on Bering Island, Kodiak Island and the American mainland becoming the first white woman in the Pacific Northwest. She made provisions for schools and for religious instruction of all children.
August: Shelikhov's flotilla of three ships carrying over 200 men, cattle, seeds, and other supplies was on its way. Shelikhov and his wife Natalia Alekseevna, a courageous and determined lady, were on the larger galiot Three Saints. Two other ships were called Saint Michael the Archangel, and Saint Simeon. By late July 1784, two of the three ships cast anchor in a bay on Kodiak Island. Naming the place the Three Saints Bay, in just 18 months Shelikhov and his men built a neat village with seven or eight individual dwellings, a number of bunkhouses, a counting house, barns, storage buildings, a smithy, a carpenter shop, and a ropewalk. In addition, a dozen or so outlying stations were established.
Filipp Mukhoplev and Potap Zaikov sailed to Prince William Sound from a trading station on Umnak Island. They remained until 1784 despite attacks from the Chugach Peoples.
Gregory Shelikov of Russia and Alexander Baranov established a permanent colony at Three Saints on Kadiak Island. Gregory Shelikov's wife starts the first Russian school in America. The village was destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami.
The Richard Cadman Etches and Company is founded in London to trade for furs on the Northwest Coast of America. Nathaniel Portlock and George Dixon. veterans of James Cook's third voyage, commanded the company's first two vessels, which were leased by the South Sea Company and the East Indian Company. This company merged in 1789 with that of the John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809) Company.
Jean Francois de Galaup comte de La Perouse (1741-1788) a Frenchman is commissioned to explore the Pacific and to search for a North West Passage. He sailed up the coast to Alaska and must have visited Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgis. He sailed to Atlaska, Korea, Japan, explored the sea of Japan, Hawaii, Macao, Philippines and Australia. His two ships sunk off the Vanikoro Island north of the New Hebrides.
John Henry Cox of Canton, China sent James Hanna d-1787 to Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island. B.C.) in the 60 ton brig Harmon renamed Sea Otter to harvest furs.
August 18: James Hanna d-1787 and 20 men traded for 560 sea otter pelts. An accident caused Maquinna a Nootka chief to attack Hanna's ship resulting in a loss of 20 men of Maquinna.
Jean Francois de la Perouse a Frenchman with 114 men and two vessels was sent to explore the Pacific Northwest. On June 23 he sighted Mount St Elias. June 24 they reached Yakutat, Alaska and traded with the Tlingit. La Perouse was disgusted by the huge lip-pieces worn by the women and noted the Tlingit were passionately fond of gambling. He sailed south, sighting the Queen Charlotte Islands and named Sartine Island northwest of Cape Scott. He went as far south as Monterey, California. Both ships were lost in a violent storm off Canikoro Island in the Solomon Islands in 1788 or 1789.
John MacKay an Irishman is believed to be the first to reside in British Columbia by wintering at Tahsis.
Jean François La Pérouse (1741-1788)
La Perouse commanded the French expedition of 1785, sailing in L'Astrolabe and La Bousole, and reached the west coast of Alaska in 1786. Intending to further the work of Cook and to establish some French claims to territory in the northwest, he made extensive surveys of the coastline between Monterey and Alaska. Nothing came of these efforts to establish sovereignty in this region and La Perouse and his two ships were lost in a storm in the Pacific in 1789.
June 25: James Charles Stewart Strange (1753-1840) of the East India Company, landed near Hope Bay, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island, B.C.). Alexander Walker b-1764 was in this expedition but did not hold Strange in high regard. Two ships were involved The Captian Cook alias The Betsey captained by Henry Laurie and the Experiment captained by Henry Guise. They had trouble searching for Nootks Sound.
July 7: James Charles Stewart Strange (1753-1840) arrived Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound where he established a hospital for his sick crew. Alexander Walker b-1764, a sailor walked freely among the Nootka People. John MacKay, assistant surgeon stayed in Nootka Sound when the Strange expedition moved on.
August: James Hanna d-1787 arrived Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island, B.C.) but discovered that the ships Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and the Experiment had taken all the available pelts. Cooks crew had planted a vegetable garden. As a result he was forced to sail north west up the coast exploring several inlets in trade. He crossed Lanes's Bay (Queen Charlotte Sound) to Fritz Hugh Sound. He sailed on to Brown's Island (Calvert Island and Goose Island), He then sailed to Scott Island (Lance's Island). Lands to the north was named as Nova Hibernia.
August 13: Nathaniel Portlock and George Dixon I discovered a Russian Factory at Russian Point near Coal Cove.
August 20: James (Liar) Meares I (1756-1809) at Cook's River (Cook Inlet) says the Tanaina People are fearful of the Russians. About one half of Meares crew died of scurvy this winter. The crew were fearful of taking anti-scurvy treatment.
August 20: James Charles Stewart Strange (1753-1840) sailed north to Prince William Sound and anchored at Snug Corner Cove, at the entrance to Port Fidalgo.
September: James Hanna d-1787 sailed south of Nootka to Clayoquot Sound and anchored near Ahousat on Vargas Island. He met with Chief Cleaskiwah.
September 5: One of John (Liar) Meares I (1756-1809) ships arrived Snug Corner Bay, in Prince William Sound, called the Sea Otter, under command of William Tipping of the Bengal Fur Company. He was last seen by James Strange heading to Cook's River (Cook Inlet) and was never seen again.
September 22: The Nathaniel Portlock expedition sailed the King George and George Dixon sailed the Queen Charlotte arrived Nootka Sound but couldn't enter so went off to Hawaii.
Charles Barkely (1759-1832) is reported to have entered the Juan de Fuca Straits. Six men from the Imperial Eagle ship commanded by Charles Barkley rowed up the Hoh River (Washington?, California coast?) to trade and were never seen again.
John Liar) Meares (1756-1809), trader, wrote the Nootka of Island of Quadra (Vancouver Island) it appears that the natives are such intelligent traders, that should you be in the least degree lavish, or inattentive in forming bargains, they will so enhance the value of their furs, as not only to exhaust your present stock, but also to injure, if not ruin, any further adventure. He had lost 23 men in Port Fidalgo and traded Cape Edgecumbe and an unknown inlet south of Baranof Island.
Archibald Menzies (1754-1842) collected West Coast specimens on the voyage of the Prince of Wales commanded by Captain James Colnett. Liar Menzies and George Vancouver (1757-1798) were always at odds, partly that Liar Menzies had previously visited Nootka Sound before Vancouver. Liar Menzies was considered as a spy for Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society.
The Imperial Eagle, commanded by Captain Charles William Barkley (1759-1832) reaches Hawaii (Owyhee). On its journey to the Pacific Northwest, a young Hawaiian woman named Winee becomes the personal servant of Frances Barkley, the captain's wife, and the first Hawaiian known to have visited the Northwest Coast. Winee went on to China and was left at Macao. She later found passage back to Hawaii courtesy of Captain John Meares. Unfortunately she fell ill during her journey and died February 5, 1788.
Charles William Barkley (1759-1832) with his wife Frances a red haired French girl, who died 1845, arrived 1787, Nootka Sound, on the British Columbia coast. Frances is likely the first European woman to visit the west coast of Canada. Dr John Mackay who sailed with Captain Cook and who lived with the natives for a year was also on this trip. They explored Nootka Sound for a month before discovering Barkley Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island). The Nuu-chah-nulth had their safe harbor at Ucluelet, Barkley Sound and are believed to have occupied this area for thousands of years.
Barkley Sound is the most beautiful place on the west coast of America for its isolated rustic beauty. This is the authors favorite camping and fishing location. About 18 miles over a logging road leads you to Toquart Bay at the head of Barkley Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and a beautiful isolated sandy beach. I have seen as many as 17 bald headed eagles in one tree at a time, a pod of killer whales (orca), a number of great gray whales in the Bay. Sea-otters love to steal bait or salmon by opening ice chests. Even in rough seas you can still fish in the lea of the numerous islands. Many times we have been driven from our fishing location by baby gray whales who come as close as 50 feet from the boat. The adults are not a worry but you never know what a baby will do. Many times the seals will lay in wait for you to catch a salmon, only to steal it right off your line. Some beaches have so many oysters it is hard to walk without stepping on them. Clams and crabs top off the menu. After you fillet your catch, just whistle, holding the entrails high in hand and an eagle will descend and take it from your hand. I was not so brave, so I usually threw it into the air, when the eagle was 25 feet away, and they seldom missed. It is famous for its great kayaking. We have visited this location twice a year for over 15 years. They have started to modernize this area so it's not as rustic as years ago.
Robert Gray (1755-1806), under command of John Kendrick (1740-1794), are sent by the Boston Merchants to trade the American Northwest coast using china for trade goods and for the sea-otter fur sales. They are given two ships: the Columbia Redivia and the Lady Washington commanded by Gray. This first voyage of 1787-90 marks the first Americans to sail around the world. They sailed the Queen Charlotte Islands and Quadra (Vancouver) Island. Gray's second voyage was 1790-93 when he captained the Columbia.
Some suggest British fur traders entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, believing its the fabled Northwest Passage,
May 14: George Dixon and the Queen Charlotte sailed from Port Chalmers on 14 May 1787, leaving Nathaniel Portlock and the King George in Prince William Sound. They entered a large inlet, Yakutat Bay which he called Port Mulgrave. The Queen Charlotte rounded Cape Edgecumbe and entered a large sound called Norfolk Sound (Sitka Sound) on 11 June. The ship stayed for 12 days while brisk trading took place with Tlingit and the sound was surveyed. A shirt was identified as being Spanish in origin and believed to have come from the Spanish in 1774/1775.
June: Charles Barkley married Frances Hornby Trevor b-1771 and while in Hawaii engaged Winee as a main and companion for his wife. Trevor is believed the first European woman to visit the Pacific Northwest. They arrived this month in Nootka Sound where they met John MacKay of the James Strange expedition of 11 months earlier. Barkley then moved on to another large inlet, which he called Barkley Sound after himself. Two features in the sound were named after his wife, Frances Island and Hornby Peak, while the ship's purser. Johnr Beale, was remembered by Cape Beale. Pelts were obtained in both sounds. A few days later, the Imperial Eagle crossed the entrance to a very large inlet. Barkley identified it as the mythical strait postulated by Michael Lok in his writing over 100 years earlier and named it after its supposed discoverer, the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Barkley made no attempt to sail into the Strait and, instead, sailed a short distance further down the coast. He sent a longboat ashore onto a small island but Beale and the other five men were all killed in a confrontation with Quileutes. The island was probably Destruction Island near the mouth of the Hoh River.
July: James Colnett in the ship Prince of Wales and Charles Duncan in the ship Princess Royal both of the King George's Sound Company arrived Nootka Sound. John Etches, Archibald Menzies and James Johnstone are among the crew.
July 1: George Dixon reached Langara Island at the north of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Juan Perez, the Spanish explorer, had stood off here in 1774. Dixon anchored the Queen Charlotte in Cloak Bay, named for the many pelts that were obtained there by trading with the resident Haida. After two days Dixon moved on passing Hippah Island and collecting many pelts. The southern point of the Queen Charlotte Islands was reached on 25 July. Dixon rounded it and began sailing north up the east coast of what he realized were islands. He named them after his ship. They had proven very profitable as over 1,800 pelts had been acquired.
August 6: Nathaniel Portlock reached an inlet south of Cape Cross and named it Portlock Harbour where he stayed for 17 days. He explored Salisbury Sound, went through Hayward Strait. He noted small pox among the Tlingit People that he attributed to the Spanish in 1775.
August 8: The Queen Charlotte encountered two ships leaving Nootka Sound. They were the Prince of Wales, commanded by James Colnett and the Princess Royal, commanded by Charles Duncan. They proved to be fellow ships of the King Georges Sound Company that had left Britain in September 1786. The meeting was providential for both sides. Dixon learned that Portlock was not at Nootka and there were no pelts left there so he could sail for Hawaii. Colnett and Duncan learned that there were no pelts in Prince William Sound and Dixon advised them to investigate the area inside the Queen Charlotte Islands.
September 27, 1787, Charles William Barkley (1759-1832) arrived Hawaii and departed October 8, 1787. They again visited Hawaii arriving November 8, 1792, departing November 15, 1792.
October 15: Captain James Colnett, commanding the Prince of Whales, still in Calamity Bay making repairs to his ship, fired upon the Tsimshian People for stealing. For the next three days any Indian sighted was fired upon.
October 19: The Tsimshian People returned fire (arrows) against the Prince of Wales.
October 25: The English crew of the Prince of Wales, in Calamity Bay, Banks Island, British Columbia, killed a Tsimshian man and woman and captured a woman slave. It would appear she was used as a sex slave.
November 1: Captain James Colnett, still in Calamity Bay, returned the slave girl to Chief Seax of the Tsimshian People. Being determined to form a Settlement at Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver) Island, build a fort and also craft to carry on the Trade on a large scale, the following Chinamen were put on board me for that purpose: 7 Carpenters, 5 Blacksmiths, 5 Bricklayers and Masons, 4 Taylors, 4 Shoemakers, 3 Seamen, 1 Cook. My complement now made Sixty in Number compos'd of English, French, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Chinese and all of them had from four to Two Months' advance according to the security they found and we were fortunate enough not to lose one Man by desertion. I had some difficulty getting the Chinamen on board, being obliged to smuggle them from the Shore to prevent the Imposition of the Mandarins.
Julia Flathead Rivet Metis or Indian b-1788 based on her death claims but others suggest she was born (1800-1886) daughter Theresa Flathead of Spokane (some suggest Theresa first married a Flathead?, others suggest Meti/Nez Perce (sometimes known as Flathead or other Salish) ) and stepdaughter was claimed to be Francois Rivet (Old Revay) b-1757. Francois Rivet married Therese Tete Platte (meaning a capable woman of the Platte River in Nebraska) in Montana on 1809 and had a child with her (some suggest this was a 1st wife and not Theresa Flathead); Julia married 1823, the 2nd wife of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) son (II)-Isaac Ogden and Sarah Hanson of Quebec. He never formalized his marriage because he believed country unions were as valid as church marriages. He firmly rejected the judgments that such unions were "sinful". It's noteworthy that Francois Rivet b-1757 a freeman was with Louis and Clark in 1804-1805 in the Columbia District, it is believed he lived among the Indians but he was with David Thompson 1809-1810. One reference was he was again with Julia Rivet in Colville Valley 1811-1812 where French Canadians and other free traders settled with their country wives and Metis children. Birth dates and ancestries are troublesome not likely to be resolved?.
Esteban Jose Martinez Fernandez Y de la Sierra (1742-1798) led an expedition to Alaska and as far west as Unalaska Island. He reported that the Russians had 6 trading posts and had intentions of establishing a trading post next year at Nootka Sound on the Spanish territory of Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island). Martinez (1742-1798) was order to make a settlement at Nooka Sound to deter the Russians. This became the first European settlement on the north west coast of America. It is important to remember that the Russians continued to claimed the Queen Charlotte Islands as late as 1821.
Captain John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809) arrives along with Tianna (Ka-i'ana) and 50 to 70 Chinese artisans at Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, to set up a fur trading post and establish British sovereignty. Nootka Sound is located 45 miles north of Tofino. He renamed Cerro de Santa Rosalia to Mount Olympus. He was flying a Portuguese flag to avoid an English license. He claimed he to have bought this land for two pistols. The chief said he had sold no land, only otter skins and they called him a Liar and the name stuck. Two American ships were told he only collected 50 skins all season but later claimed $210,000 dollars in damages from the Spanish. Meares went on lying claiming credit for others discoveries in a colorful account. George Dixon wrote an account exposing Meares as a liar. By 1790 Meares was eventually discredited in England but Spain lost the Northwest Coast because of threatened war and because of this English deception.
Captain John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809) named this headland Cape Disappointment because he failed to find the Northwest Passage. About 230 ships sank near this cape.
The journal of Captain James Colnett aboard the Argonaut from April 26, 1789 to Nov. 3, 1791 wrote:
Robert Gray (1775-1806) landed Tillamook, Oregon and he and his crew likely spread venereal disease among the People. Gray considered the People as "fine looking fellows" and "women very pretty". Records show he was a violent man towards the People on six occasions.
Marcus Lopez, a cabin boy, of Robert Gray is the first black person to set foot in the Oregon Territory.
The Russians claim Alaska and Queen Charlotte Islands.
The Governor General of Siberia stated that along the American mainland from the Island Kodiak and far beyond Cape St. Elias to California (San Fransico Bay) by my order and at company expense, the Imperial emblems have been left in many places, in order to place the people under the Russian sceptre.
Captain Esteban José Martínez in the ship Princesa claimed Montague Island in Prince William Sound for Spain, as Russian and English exploration encroached on Spanish claims in the Pacific Northwest.
Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and his crew appeared to have spread venereal disease from Hawaii to Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island). He searched for the Strait of Anian (Juan de Fuca Strait) and said the straits did not exist. He is often credited with the discover of Hawaii in January 19, 1778 but this is a great error. Hawaii has been know since 1570 and Cook said the Island had much iron trade good from the Spanish. The Hawaii people asked Cook for hamaite the Spanish word for iron. Captain James Cook (1728-1779) is mostly a come-by-late explorer traveling to areas already charted.
Barbell, Hatch and Bulfinch reached Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) having sailed from Boston.
The first recorded visits by the: Chinese to North America can be dated to 1788, with the employment of 30-50 Chinese shipwrights at Nootka Sound in what is now British Columbia, who built the first European-type vessel in the Pacific Northwest, named the North West America.
May: Charles Duncan in the Princes Royal put into Nootka Sound to build a new rudder.
May 13: William Douglas and John Meares are at Nootka Sound.
September 20: The ship North West America is built at Nootka Sound and its captain is Robert Funter.
Esteban José Martinez (1741-1798) and Gonzalo Lopez de Haro left San Blas carrying orders from the Viceroy in Mexico City to physically occupy Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and reaffirm Spain's claim to the New Spain Coast (British Columbia Coast). They carrying out of these orders caused some conflict with British traders there when the Spanish asserted their authority by establishing a settlement and a fort. They planted a garden that included cabbage, turnips, radish, lettuce, onion, and potatoes.
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, of Peru, (1744-1794) is in command of the naval department of San Blas which controlled Spanish interests in the Northwest coast, especially Quadra's Island ( Vancouver Island).
Robert Gray (1755-1806), of the United States sailing for Boston merchants in the ship Lady Washington, anchored at Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island ( Vancouver Island). He would later command the Columbia.
Jose Mariano Mozino a botanist is commander of the Spanish fort at Nooyka Sound.
The Russian American Fur Company is chartered this year,
John Kendrick, (1740-1794), of the United States , in the ship Columbia, anchored at Nootka Sound Quadra's Island (B.C.) and then went on to Japan. Joseph Ingraham was second mate and concluded the first ship to sail Nootka Sound was a Spanish ship. He said they were able to converse well with the natives who confirmed there was one ship before Cook. Ingraham repeated the story of one of Cook's men had purchased two silver spoons at Nootka Sound could only have originated from that preceding Spanish ship.
Jose Estevan Martinez (1742-1798), the Spanish commandant at Nootka Sound, Quadra Island (Vancouver Island), seized several British merchant ships for illegal trading in sovereign Spanish territory. England and Spain almost went to war over this incident. France was unable to support Spain due to their revolution and a compromise was reached..
This year, 74 more Chinese workers are brought to the Nootka Sound area. Using hand-hewn wooden boards and handmade nails, they construct houses, a wharf and a small ship's dry dock, as well as a Chinese version of an English fort. They also build the first ocean- going schooner, the forty-ton Northwest America. On its maiden voyage to the Queen Charlotte Islands, it is commanded by a crew of English and Chinese seamen.
The Spanish are building a fort at Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver, B.C.). As a result John Meares (1756-1809) of British Columbia, a renegade British Captain, returned to Britain and attempted to start war between Spain and the British.
John Kendrick in the ship Columbia Rediviva and Robert Gray in the sloop Lady Washington arrived the Queen Charlotte Islands now called Washington Island. They agreed to work different ends of the Islands. Gray sailed north to trade Bucarelli Bay and Kendrick sailed south to the tip of the Island. The Columbia dropped anchor off Anthony Island to trade with the Haidas. Kendrick considered the Haidas to be his inferior and used high-handed tactics and humiliated their chief Koyah. He forced the Haidas to turn over all their furs to obtain the release of their chief.
April 24: William Douglas in the Iphigenia Nubiana in Nootka Sound found The Lady Washington and the Columbia Rediviva under command of John Kendrick.
May 6: The first of the Spanish ships to exercise their authority arrived at Nootka. It was the Princesca, under the command of Esteban Martinez, who was also to be in charge of the Spanish Nootka base. For the first few days, relations between the Spanish and the British, the Americans, and the Nootkans were very cordial. However, on 13 May, a second Spanish ship, the San Carlos, commanded by Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, arrived, which seemed to give Martinez more confidence. The next day, 14 May 1789, Martinez (1742-1798) arrested William Douglas and his ship, the Iphigenia Nubiana. The Americans were left alone as observers.
June: San Lorenzo (Nootka/Yuquot). In June, 1789, Spaniards under Esteban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) established the first settlement at Nootka, to protect Spanish interests. They brought along a priest, medical doctor, a contingent of troops, and some livestock. They installed a fort, a 16-gun emplacement, a headquarters building, barracks, a bakery, sick bay, carpentry workshop, water wells, vegetable gardens, livestock pens, and cemetery.
June 5th: the Eleanora with 24 "Manila men" and the Fair American with 5 "Manilla men" sail from China for the Pacific Northwest coast of America.
November: The British 152 ton snow, the Mercury sailed to the North Pacific and was at Unalaska in October and November 1789. It was owned and captained by John Henry Cox who then took the ship to China. In 1790, it had changed its name to the Gustavus III and operated under a Swedish flag, though still owned by Cox. Its movements are unclear but it was on the Northwest Coast in 1792.