Riel should hang... though every dog in Quebec bark in his favor
( I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) attempted to orchestrate the genocide of the Metis
THIS PERIOD COVERS 1878 TO 1882
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
William Campbell Metis, b-1878 N.W.T. son Nancy Campbell, Metis b-1856 N.W.T. Married about 1873 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
(III)-Henry Donald Metis b-1878 d-1943 Edmonton son (II)-George Donald
and Betsey (II)-Elizabeth Brass, Metis b-1836 Swan River, daughter of (I)-Peter
Brass b-1794, Henry living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Len Last suggests Henry married Caroline Bird Metis b-1878 d-1920 Cooking Lake,
Brothers and sister of Caroline Bird are:
Nicolas Bird (1881-1913)
Elizabeth Bird (1883-1888/89)
Flora Anne Bird (1885-1947) married Calder
Joseph Hebert (Hibert, Hiebert) of riverlot
#1 Strathcona was from Quebec and land claimed in the late 1870's. He
married Mary Douglass (1852-1924) daughter of John Douglass and epouse Dr Joseph
Clarke. Mary married 1892 Allan Omand (1857-1931) of riverlot #3, which he
sold 1900 to Dan McFadyen d-1899/1902 period. Allan deserted wife
and kids and she returned to her riverlot #1.
Ted Omand b-1896
William F. King Dominion Land Surveyor in the Edmonton Settlement (and Strathcona) he recorded there was a substantial Metis & Indian majority on both sides of the North Saskatchewan River. However by 1882 survey the Ango Saxons out numbered the Metis.
Fredrick Rowland b-1844 N.W.T. married about 1878 Adaline b-1856 N.W.T. 1891 census Edmonton
Betsey Rowland b-1878 N.W.T daughter Fredrick Rowland b-1844 N.W.T. and Adaline b-1856 N.W.T. 1891 census Edmonton
"This reminds me of the infamous quote of ( I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891), true to his nature, stated: "Riel should hang... though every dog in Quebec bark in his favor". The Author D. Garneau
Hi Dick (from Sharon Seal with thanks!)
These names came from an 1878 Cypress Hills Petition, which I found in a book covering the transcript of the Louis Riel Trial and all of the evidence submitted for the trial. There are several (8-10) separate petitions from different groups of Metis in the West, and I am transcribing the names for all of them. The petitions themselves are quite fascinating and eloquent, at times heart wrenching to read.
Here is Cypress Hills Petition signatures, for an example of what will be in the document that I will send, if this is something you would like to have:
Starting on page 298:
"Petition from Half-Breeds
Living in Vicinity of Cypress Hills received through the North-West Council, not
dated, covering letters from the Lieut.-Governor of the North-West Territories,
dated 30 September 1878
concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government
Petition of 1878 from the Cypress Hills Metis, signatures:
Jean B. Lange
William Soan Jr.
Joseph Ouellette sen
Joseph Ouellette jun
Joseph Edouard Marion
Louis Malaterre jun
Andre Trottier sen
Alique Peltier Isadore Trottier
Jean Baptiste Trottier
Andre Trottier jun
Alexandre Trottier sen
Alexandre Trottier jun
Pierre Bonno sen
Pierre Bonno jun
Welsh jun Cuthbert Dusanne
Chs Pierre Le Maire
Pierre Le Maire
Joseph Le Maire
Leander Say Farmah
Edward Say Farmah
Chs Pierre Cardinal
Jean Baptiste Laframboise
Joseph Tait sen
Joseph Tait jun
Pierre Leveille sen
Baptiste Falcoe jun
Joseph Sparvie sen
Joseph Sparvie jun
Jean Baptiste Sparvie
266 signatures We tend to forget that Cypress Hills in Saskatchewan and Alberta was a large Metis community during the Buffalo (Bison) hunting era. The population of Cypress Hills des Metis was larger than Fort Edmonton but was relegated to the back pages of history.
Ambroise Adam, Metis, born November 1856 son Baptiste Adam, Metis b-1820 and Marie Boyer, Metis b-1825; married 1878 Clarisse Paul, Metis born 1857 Fort Edmonton daughter Louison Paul b-1830 and Catherine Gladu, b-1833.
Tail Creek, marriage Jean Baptiste Anass, Metis b-1857, Alberta married Amelia, Metis b-1853 Alberta. Children include Peter b-1879 Alberta, Bella b-1880 Alberta, James b-1882 Alberta, Daniel b-1884 Alberta, Mary b-1885 Alberta, Elizabeth b-1887 Alberta, Sophia b-1890 Alberta, Margret b-1893 Alberta, William J. b-1896 Alberta, all born Alberta likely Tail Creek.
Lucie Louise Arnault, Metis, b-1878, St. Albert (Alberta), daughter, Irenee Arnault, a whiteman and Isabelle Chalifoux dit Labouteille, Metis, b-1847.
Julien Belcourt, b-1878, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) son Eswin Belcourt, b-1843, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Louise Paul b-1857, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Justin Blandion, Metis, b-1878, St. Albert (Alberta), son Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
Julienne Bourassa, b-1878, Dunvegan, Athabasca (Alberta) daughter Louis Bourassa and Rosalie Forcier; married Xavier Piche, b-1878 Red River son Francois Piche, b-1835 Red River and Nancy Ross, b-1840 Red River.
Therise Callihoo L'Iroquois, b-1820 d-1878, St. Albert (Alberta) daughter Louis Kwarkwentha Callihoo L'Iroquoise, b-1872, Quebec and Marie Katis of the Sekdnaise tribe, of the Montagnais Nation; married Francois Berland, Metis, son Jean Baptiste Berland and Susanne McLeod a Nepissing
Patrick Courteoreille, Metis born February 15, 1878, Alberta son Louis Courteoreille, Metis born August 16, 1849 Alberta, married about 1877 Alberta most likely Lac Sainte Anne, Sophie Metis born May 19, 1849, Alberta, living La Sainte Anne 1901.
Augustin Deschamps, b-1878, Alberta (Alberta), son Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
Peter Descheneaux, Metis, b-1878 Red Deer River, beyond Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) son Charles Descheneaux, Metis, b-1852, married 1874 St. Albert, Anne Tanner, Metis b-1857.
William Dumont, Metis, b-1878, Calgary, (Alberta) son Jean Baptiste Dumont Jr. Metis, born June, 1852, Slave Lake (Alberta) and Philomene Vanesse Metis born October 1856.
Morak Fraser b-1878 N.W.T. son Collin Frazer (Fraser), Metis b-1849 N.W.T. and Floria Metis b-1850 N.W.T, 1891 census Edmonton.
Lawrence (Larry) Garneau, Metis, is born April 4, 1878 Old Strathcona, North West Territories, died 1918 son Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis, (1850/52-1912).
William Gladstone, Metis b-1878 Alberta son Marie Gladstone. Metis b-1858 Alberta, living Fort MacLeod, Alberta 1901.
June: Fort Calgary, birth, (II)-Alfred Glen, Metis, son (I)-John Glenn, born 1833 and Adelaide Belcourt, Metis born August, 1851.
Albert Gray Metis born March 14, 1878 son Magloire Gray, Metis born May 15, 1849, Alberta married about 1877 most likely Lac Ste Anne, Genevieve Metis born April 30, 1850 Alberta, living Lac Sainte Anne (Devils Lake) 1901.
(I)-Thomas Kerr (1858-1946) joined HBC (1878-1946) Saskatchewan District. Children not traced but George Kerr and J.R. Kerr d-1897 might be his children?
Basile Larance, b-1800 Red River de Metis, 1st married likely Fort Macleod (Alberta) to unknown, 2nd married 1878 Fort Macleod (Alberta), Madeleine Campion, b-1860, St. Alberta (Alberta).
Louise Lavallee b-1837 Red River married about 1877 likely Red River Catherine b-1846 Red River living Alberta 1878 to 1886 and at Lac La Biche, Alberta 1901.
Marie Louise L'Hirondelle, Metis b-1878 Lac La Nun ( Alberta), daughter Augustin L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1849, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Nancy Bellerose, b-1857.
William Loutit? b-1878, NWT son Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Tail Creek des Metis, birth Bella MacFadden, Metis b-1878 Alberta married before 1898 and this is likely her married name. One child is recorded William b-1898 Alberta most likely Tail Creek.
C. A. Magrath b-1860 is a Dominion of Canada Land Surveyor in Western Canada from 1878 to 1885. He settled in Lethbridge to become its first Mayor in 1891.
Tail Creek (Alberta) east of Red Deer is a major settlement and focus point for the bison (buffalo) hunts. The Metis gathered from St. Albert, Lac Ste Anne, Fort Edmonton, Lac la Biche and other Metis centers and the town swelled to 1,000 people, in some four hundred cabins. Most considered the Metis as unorganized and carefree by nature but during their spring and fall bison (buffalo) hunt they were better organized than any army. The hunt was governed by the strictest rule and ritual. It was the happiest of times, for these proud peoples, or so reported Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, of Old Strathcona. After the hunt and processing of hides and meat the dancing and partying continued all night to the Red River fiddle. This would be the last major bison (buffalo) hunt..
J.B. McDougall, Metis b-1878 Alberta living Morley, Alberta 1901.
Emma Quintal, b-1878, Lac La Biche (Alberta), daughter, Etienne Quintal, b-1851, Lac La Biche (Alberta) and Marie Cardinal, b-1853, Lac La Biche; 1st married constance Cardinal, born December 16, 1877; 2nd married, 1901 Louis Pruden, b-1879, Lac La Biche.
Harriet Rhan, Metis b-1878 Alberta granddaughter (I)-William Gonan b-1823 Orkney Island and Sara Metis b-1833 Red River, living Lakeland, Alberta 1891.
William Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., married 1878 Calgary, Marguerite Ward b-1859 Red River.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Donald Whitford Metis b-1843 Red River married Margret Metis b-1853 Alberta. Five children are recorded, Ann b-1879 Alberta, Elizabeth b-1883 Alberta, Catherine E. b-1885 Alberta, George b-1888 Alberta, Samuel b-1890 Alberta most likely all Tail Creek. Also living with them are grand children Margaret b-1898 Alberta and William b-1901 Alberta. Also living with them are two unidentified children Ellen b-1893 Alberta and Nancey b-1895 Alberta.
(II)-James Gibbons (1839-1928), the Metis, made formal entry of the homestead, in Edmonton, Laurier Park area, which he had lived on for a few years. He registered with Mr. Gauvreau, who represented the Government at Fort Edmonton. James had been in and out of Edmonton since 1865: gold mining, free trading and freighting. George Emerson and Tom Lynch introduced 200 head of Montana cattle stock into the Fort MacLeod area. Fire swept through the town of Tail Creek and only one building in four hundred survived, eventually being carried into Stettler as a reminder of this ghost town. The NWT passed an ordnance, establishing the branding of sheep, horses and cattle.
The Salois or Laboucane Metis settlement is established this year. It was also called Duhamel settlement or Battle River settlement. The six Laboucane brother's- Elzear, Jean Baptiste, Gabriel, Pierre, Guilliam and Jerome- arrived at the Duhamel settlement from White Horse Plains. Abraham Salois, Metis b-1830 and Francois Dumont Metis b-1820 had established the first settlement in the Battle River Valley in 1875. The Laboucane arrived later in 1878.
The Metis town of Tail Creek, with 2,000 people and 400 permanent buildings, is destroyed by fire in 1898? (others suggest 1878), leaving only one building without damage. It is noteworthy the the largest town west of Red River is destroyed, but little exists in the history books to mark its passing. It is known that the Church, Hudson Bay Company and Mounted Police were not happy with its existence; each for their own reasons. The Metis had a Red River Cart train transportation monopoly and could trade anywhere. They were self reliant with their own government and religious culture. The Mounted Police discontinued their sub-post at Tail Creek, owing to a shortage of Med in A Division.
A new gristmill was built 24 km down river from St. Albert. A dam was built on the Sturgeon river to power the mill. Besides grinding wheat the Metis adapted it to saw timber, planning lumber and making shingles. It burnt down in 1890, was rebuilt and operated until 1899.
John Alexander Mitchel arrived Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta) via ox-cart with Frank Oliver. Mitchel acquired 200 acres of land in Old Strathcona (Alberta) which he sold later for $1.00 per acre.
This year was a low water year and the Northcote could only make two trips and only as far as Carlton House and suffered damage in running down Cole's Falls. "struck upon the starboard quarter forward and across to the port side about two-thirds of her length breaking eighty-three frames and damaging her planking". The steamer Northcote was grounded for the season due to low water on the Saskatchewan. Cart brigades were organized to handle the freight.
A law requiring the branding of livestock was passed in 1878 at the second session of the Northwest Territories government. Cattle population had grown significantly, as had rustling and this was designed to curtail the practice..
January 18: Victoria, Alberta, located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth Margaret Jane Spence, daughter, Andrew Spence Sr., b-1842 and Nancy Whitford, b-1850.
March: Dunvegan, Athabasca, birth Prudent D'Amours, son, Theophile D'Amours, b-1842, Quebec and Margueite Bourassa, b-1852; married November 22, 1898, Fort Vermillion (Alberta), Marie Louise Beaulien, born January 24, 1880, Fort Chipewyan daughter Francois Beaulieu, died November 23, 1895 and Rose Lamoureux, born July 6, 1863, Fort St. John..
March 6: Fort Calgary, birth Marie Josephine Deschamps daughter Jean Baptiste Deschamps, Metis, b-1849 and Catherine Vandel, Metis b-1846.
April 14: Victoria, Alberta, located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth William Whitford, Metis, son Simon Whiteford, Metis b-1849 Alberta and Elizabeth Anderson, Metis b-1859 Alberta, living Pakan, Alberta 1901, daughter John Anderson Jr. b-1827 and Christie Whitford, b-1833.
April 18: St. Albert (Alberta), birth Pierre Blandion, son John Blandion and Olive L'Hyrondelle, b-1855 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
May 11: Fort Calgary, birth, Daniel Belcourt, son Alexis Belcourt, born October 26, 1847 and Catherine (Caroline) Smith.
June 6: Lac La Biche (Alberta), birth Mary (Nancy) Johnson, daughter Charles Johnson, b-1829 Red River and Agathe Anger, b-1848, Fort Vermilion, Peace River District (Alberta) daughter Baptiste Auger, b-1827 and Josephte Chalioux,
June 20: Caroline, Bird, Metis, b-1878, Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta), died 1886, daughter, William Robert Bird, Metis, b-1826 and Fanny Shirt, Metis, b-1856.
September 21: A petition received this date Prince Albert but collected earlier of Metis and Old Settlers concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government;
George McKay William Spencer jun
Harry C. Denny Arthur H. Spencer
Joseph Legarrach Alex Rupert Spencer
Andrew Flitt David Cameron
James McKay sen Joseph Halwel
John McDonald Jacob Beads
John Beemer John Marceill
J. Lestock Reid
John C. MacIntyre J. Honeysill
Edward Spencer Thomas Hourie
Robert Harper William Inkster
James A. Barker Charles George Bird
Philip Turner W. W. Clarke
Alex McBeath T. Beads
G. P. Lee Thomas Corrigal
Thos Taylor jun John Whitford
Joseph Finlayson Nicholas Bird
Thos. McKay Samuel J. Cook
James Stevenson Magnus Whitford
John Turner William Robertson
Murdock McRae James Beads
James McArel John Beads
Harry A Reid David Marceill
Peter Work Geo. Robinson
P. J. McDermott William Hodgson
Charles Whitford William Robinson
C. A. Whitford George Whitford
H. C. Whitford Alex Prudens
Jeremiah Whitford Edward Albert Hourie
Thomas Whitford Samuel Hourie
Simon P. Whitford Charles Thomas Whitford
James Whitford Simon Whitford
Alexander Whitford James Whitford
Archibald Whitford Cory Whitford
Edwin Whitford Fred. Whitford
W. C. Anderson John Beads
J. M. Anderson Colin Whitford
David Anderson John Hourie
Thomas D. Anderson John Henderson
William Sandson Alex Robertson
William Sandson Watogalie
George Sandson Henry Hourie
John Juner James J. Beads
Handery Howes George Whitford
John Whitford John Charles Whitford
James Sandson James Whitford
James F. Anderson
Peter Hourie Bernard Brewsler
Thomas T. Hourie Robert Umphreyville
Alexander Hourie John Umphreyville
Edwin J. Hourie Jeremiah Umphreyville
C. Mair Malcolm Umphreyville
James Dreaver Zaccheus Umphreyville
R. Deacon John Turner
H. W. McKenny Peter Turner
George Sutherland George Goodfellow
James Isbister James Goodlad
H. H. Bartlett Joseph Thompson
Rock McIver Philip Thompson
John McKay William McBeath
G.E. Mills William Spencer
George McBeath Henry Erasmus
David Ballentine Ernest Edward Wood
J. M. Coombs (Incumbant St. Mary’s Church)
H. M. Oldham Hiram Gosee
A. J. Sutherland R. J. Pritchard
Wm. McDonald George Forneret, B.A.
Thomas Powell (Church of England Missionary)
William Spencer sen J. B. Wood
John A. Spencer Richard Mare
J. W. Hurd
147 signatures , representing 1000 to 1200 souls
October 28: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Justine Beaudry son Narcisse Beaudry, b-1845 and Lucie Breland, born February 22, 1848 Red River
November 2: Robert McKernan who arrived 1875, settled into the southwestern district of Old Strathcona near McKernan Lake which eventually was drained and filled. The lake was a favorite picnic and skating party location for early settlers. McKernan was known to have built the Dominion Hotel (1903) and Princess Theatre (1915)
November 24: Cypress Mountains, Patrice Breland writes: The news here, although not very good, because the Buffalos (bison) are very scarce in the neighbourhood, they are plentiful on the other side of the line along the Milk River, but there is great inconvenience to go and hunt in that direction because the Americans defend it, they have made prisoners. Antoine Brillant the elder, Peter Lapierre, Alexander Brillant, Pierre Labruler, Ambroise Chartrant, Charles Demontigny and Joseph Azure, they have all been made prisoners with their families. They were arrested at Fort Belknap, they have been released after 7 or 8 days after, without being fined provided they don't return and tell folks that other prisoners will be put in gaol for two years and their horses and carts taken. I have learned that the Teton (Sioux) go hunting on the other side of the line numbering 300 men. The Teton are not numerous here. They are about 50 lodges and the Sante about 30 lodges, and the remainder of the Teton with Sitting Bull are at the Mud house on White River (Utah), I have learned that they are about 1,000 lodges. I think I will go very soon to trade with these people...
Ambroise Adam, Metis, b-1779, St Albert, (Alberta), son Clarisse Paul, Metis, b-1857 and Ambroise Adam aka Fagnant b-1856.
Vitaline Blandion, Metis, b-1879 St. Albert (Alberta), son Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
John Brazeau, b-1850, Fort Assiniboine, son, Joseph Edward Brazeau and Marguerite Brabant alias Salois, Metis b-1815, Fort Edmonton, daughter Augustin Brabant and Anmgelique Lucir b-1800; married 1879 Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Adelaide Ward.
Joseph Dumas b-1879 N.W.T. living Mountain Mill, Alberta 1901.
Nellie Gladstone, b-1879 likely Fort McLeod (Alberta), son William Gladstone (1845-1891) and Marie Samat Vandal, b-1855.
Joseph Gervais b-1879 N.W.T. son Culbert Gervais b-1846 and Mary Metis b-1836 N.W.T., all living Mountain Mill, Alberta 1901.
Constable Marmaduke Graburn of the NWMP from Ottawa was the first policeman to be killed in the west. He was shot to death near Horse Camp an outlying camp serving Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills. An Indian named Star Child was a prime suspect but insufficient evidence at trial brought acquittal.
Ambroise Gray Metis born May 1, 1879 son Magloire Gray, Metis born May 15, 1849, Alberta married about 1877 most likely Lac Ste Anne, Genevieve Metis born April 30, 1850 Alberta, living Lac Sainte Anne (Devils Lake) 1901.
William D.P. Hardisty, Metis b-1879 N.W.T. son Elizabeth Hardisty, Metis b-1850 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Harriet Johnstone, Metis b-1879 N.W.T. living Southern Alberta 1891.
Boniface Laferte, b-1851 Red River, married 1879 Fort Providence (Alberta) Madeline Bouvier, Metis b-1862, fort Simpson daughter Joseph Bouvier (1817/23-1877) and Catherine Beaulieu Metis .
Henri Laferte-Lanaix, b-1879, Fort Providence (Alberta) son Henri Laferte-Lanaix, Metis, b-1849, Fort Chipewyan (Alberta) and married Catherine Bouvier Metis b-1856/62, Fort Simpson,
Lewis Larocque Metis b-1879 Metis son Louis Larocque Metis b-1850/52 Red River and Angelique Metis b-1851/52 N.W.T., living Edmonton 1891 and 1901.
Samuel L'Hirondelle, Metis b-1879 Lac La Nun ( Alberta), son Augustin L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1849, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Nancy Bellerose, b-1857.
John James Loutit Metis b-1879, Fort Chipewan son Ellen Loutit b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton, John joined HBC (1910-1915) Athabasca/MacKenzie.
George Maunsell formally of the NWMP put 103 head of cattle out on the range of Milk River Ridge in Southern Alberta this year but rustlers got most of them.
(II)-Matt McCauley born 1850 Owen Sounds, Ontario, died October 1930 Sexsmith, Alberta, arrived Red River 1871 and Fort Saskatchewan (Alberta) to farm.
Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894) said "They (the Indians) appear still to think the poor creatures can gain their livelihood by hunting, as if everyone didn't know that there is nothing left for them to hunt".
(II)-Henry John Moberly (1835-1931) born Penetanguishene, Lake Huron (Ontario) son (I)-John Moberly b-1789 Russia, and Mary Fock from Russia, joined HBC 1853-1891) Lake Huron, Saskatchewan District, Athabasca and Ille-a-la Crosse, assigned Fort Vermillion (1879-1885)
Edmonton, birth (II)-James Ross son (I)-Donald Ross (1840-1915) and (II)-Olive Blewitt born 1850
James Russell, Metis b-1879 Alberta married to Rosa Metis b-1877 Alberta living Lethbridge, Alberta 1901.
St. Albert, (Alberta) Julien Ward, Metis, b-1879, son, Peter Ward, b-1840 and Rosalie Bisson, b-1843.
William Scullen Jr., b-1879, Calgary, d-1879William Scullen (Whiteman) Sr.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage John Tanner, Metis b-1854 Alberta married Rosealley Metis b-1864 Alberta. Two children are recorded Jean Baptiste b-1880 Alberta and Gilbert b-1883 Alberta most likely Tail Creek.
A large fire on Cyprus Hills drove the game from this region, and by 1880 the Metis also departed.
John Muir traveled the lower Stikine River, British Columbia, calling it the Yosemite, a hundred miles long. Someone said its a land where Canada could hide England, and the English would never find it.
Canadian scientist Sandford Fleming in Toronto announced his idea of dividing the world into twenty-four time zones, each with its own standard time. By 1900 the world had converted to his proposed system..
Shipment of bison (buffalo) hides to Fort Benton (Montana) from Alberta dropped from an average of 70,000 hides a year to 14,000 hides a year.
It is reported that 5 different Metis settlements exist in Cypress Hills (Alberta/Saskatchewan) this year.
Between 1789-1883 the NWMP brought in cattlew to the Cypress Hills.
The decision was made to only run the Northcote to Carlton House, offload to the Lily for the trip to Fort Edmonton. The Northcote only made three trips this season. Its last trip carried several farm instructors, agricultural equipment, seed, and fifty-two head of livestock. Agriculture and animal husbandry, other than horses, officially arrived in the Fort Edmonton Area.
January 7, Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta), birth Mary Whitford, daughter Francois Whitford Sr., b-1835 and Jane Anderson, b-1845.
March: Forks of the Red Deer River, (Alberta), birth/death Joseph Bird, son Philip Bird and Mary Kipling.
March 20: Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), birth Nancy Gladu, daughter Edward Gladu, born August 1847, Lac La Biche and Betsy Constant, Metis, b-1845; married, (II)-William Alexander Gairdner, Metis born July 24, 1876, Fort Chipewyan, son (I)-William Fredrick Gairdner, (1839-1905) and Flora Flett, b-1857;.
May: Fort McLeod (Alberta), marriage Peter McEwen and Mary Gladstone, born July 2, 1864, Fort Brenton, Montana, daughter William J. Shanks Gladstone, b-1824, Quebec and Harret LeBlanc, b-1835, Fort Edmonton (Alberta).
August: The Lily steamboat arrived Fort Edmonton carried Lieutenant Governor Laird and his party from Battleford on an official visit to what they called the upper settlement. An official salute of the ancient cannons was fired to acknowledge their arrival. On the return voyage two days later, the Lily steamer hit a rock, just below Fort Saskatchewan and quickly filled with water. The vice-regal party had to row home down river in a skiff.
September 16: Lac La Biche Mission District (Alberta) birth Frederick Lavallee, son Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
October 7: St. Albert (Alberta), birth, Antoine L'Hyrondelle, Metis, son Jean Baptiste L'Hrondelle, Metis b-1854 and Elizabeth Beaudry, b-1861; married Lusie Page, born February, 1884, St. Albert (Alberta).
October 14: A man named Bowies was lynched by the cowboys in Indian Basin (Alberta). He had refused to assist in their fight of a prairie fire and after the cowboys got it out, they went to the creek where he was camped, took him out and hung him.
October 14: Ottawa made the decision to run the railway through to Edmonton. The first agricultural society in Edmonton is formed this year. Malcolm Norris established a saw and grist mill east of Edmonton. Mr. William Bird's mill on Mill Creek didn't always operate, due to lack of sufficient water. Monsieur Alexander Tache of Saint Boniface suggested to J.S. Dennis Deputy Minister of the Interior that a special area be set aside for the Metis.
November 17: Fort Walsh (Alberta), The North West Mounted Police required a large number of horses to support their activities. These were pastured at various points around the fort. To guard the herds against maurauders, guard camps were established with three to four men. There had been a great deal of opposition from the Blood Indians to the setting up of a camp ten miles north of Fort Walsh, that was manned by five men and a cook. Constable Marmaduke Graham a recent recruit had left this camp to check on some horses when he was shot in the back. Louison Leveille, a scout tracked the movement of the horses and Robert McCutcheon actually discovered the body. Graham became the first North West Mounted Policeman to lose his life in the line of duty. (I)-Jerry Potts Metis b-1844 and others attempted to track the killer but lost the trail. Star Child, a Blood Indian and an unidentified person is believed responsible for the murder. Star Child was eventually captured, tried and acquitted. He later became a scout for the NWMP. The Mounties never got their man.
Nobember 18: Mrs Robert Belcher wife of an RCMP man says the hamlet of Fort Edmonton on the north side of the Saskatchewan River consisted of 14 men and 6 women. She says John A. McDougall, Frank Oliver, Kenneth MacDonald and Donald Ross were early residents.
Caroline Adam, Metis, b-1880, St Albert, (Alberta), daughter Clarisse Paul, Metis, b-1857 and Ambroise Adam aka Fagnant b-1856.
Isabel Blandion, Metis, b-1880 St. Albert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
Patrice Blandion, b-1880, St Albert (Alberta), son John Blandion and Olive L'Hyrondelle, b-1855 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Michel Calehoue, b-1880 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) son Joseph Callio b-1848 Lac Sre Anne (Alberta) and Elizabeth Plante, born MNay 12, 1858 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta); married Aelia b-1886.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Felix Blivan, Metis b-1856 Alberta married Ann Metis b-1864 Alberta, one child is recorded William F. b-1881 Alberta likely Tail Creek.
Henry Campbell Metis, b-1880 N.W.T. son Nancy Campbell, Metis b-1856 N.W.T. Married about 1873 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Rose Chalifoux, Metis b-1880 Lac La Nun (Alberta), son Joseph Chalifoux, Metis, b-1838, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), and Julie Campion, b-1841 Lake McLeod
Joseph Descheneaux, Metis, b-1880 Fort Saskatchewan son Charles Descheneaux, Metis, b-1852, married 1874 St. Albert, Anne Tanner, Metis b-1857.
(I)-Francis Jeffery Dickens (1844-1886) R.C.M.P. is again stationed Fort MacLeod.
Joseph Dumont, Metis, b-1880, Kootney Lake, (Alberta) son Jean Baptiste Dumont Jr. Metis, born June, 1852, Slave Lake (Alberta) and Philomene Vanesse Metis born October 1856..
Anson Ely, a United States army deserter, married Fort MacLeod, Susy, daughter Stokos Minnestokos, a Blood Indian.
Loria Fraser b-1880 N.W.T. daughter Collin Frazer (Fraser), Metis b-1849 N.W.T. and Floria Metis b-1850 N.W.T, 1891 census Edmonton.
Alexander Garneau, Metis, is born February 22, 1880 Old Strathcona, North West Territories, died 1918, son Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis (1850/52-1912).
Some claim that Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, obtained a large tract of grazing land at Hay Lakes, near Camrose. I haven't located any record but he might have rented it. He contracted for the Hudson Bay Company out of Edmonton; ranging and wintering their horses. This item has not been verified but he did control a lot of land; some say 149 farms (a farm equals 160 acres) some farms in these days were 80 acres..
Fort MacLeod, birth William Gladstone son William Gladstone Jr., (1845-1891), and Marie Samat Vandal, b-1855.
Justine L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1880, St. Albert (Alberta) son Euphrosine Beauregard, Metis, b-1851 and Magloire L'Hyrondelle, b-1850, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Edouard L'Hirondelle, Metis b-1880, Lac La Nun ( Alberta), son Augustin L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1849, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Nancy Bellerose, b-1857.
Nancy L'Hyrondelle, Metiis, b-1880 St. Alberta (Alberta) daughter John L'Hyrondelle, b-1851 St. Albert (Alberta) and Angelique Callion, Metis, b-1865 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
(II)-Matt McCauley (1850-1930) arrived Fort Edmonton from Fort Saskatchewan to start a cartage Company. He also joined forces with Bill Howey to open a butcher shop in Edmonton.
Donald McLeod, the bachelor's, cart arrived Fort Edmonton from Fort Carlton with bacon for the HBC. The HBC let a contract to Alex Robinson for 200 tons of coal. The coal is to be taken out of the banks of Mr. Grants property.
Sharlott Rowland b-1880 N.W.T daughter Fredrick Rowland b-1844 N.W.T. and Adaline b-1856 N.W.T. 1891 census Edmonton
Tail Creek des Metis, birth, Mary Whitford married Sam Todd. This family came many years early with 18 Red River carts hauled by oxen, except for two horses. Elizabeth Whitford is a daughter of Francis Whitford and Jane Anderson, Francis is brother of Donald Whitford, brother of Archie Whitford born 1877 and brother of Mary Whitford; Elizabeth married Anderson.
Mountain Mill, 60 miles west of Fort Macleod, was created to teach the Blood Indians of the area the lumbering trade. John Kean of Orillia, Ontario came out to set up the operation but it failed, some say, because John Kean could not work with the Indians. Others said it was because the Indians didn't want to work. One year after it was built Edgar Dewdney recommended it be sold. The enterprise was sold to Peter McLaren, of Perth, Ontario with W.R. Lees running the operation. Despite a change of management every year or so, the managers from Ontario treated their workers like slaves.
Some little known Metis settlements, which formed after the exodus from Red River include:
Sturgeon Lake east of Lac Ste Anne
Big Lake east of Lac Ste Anne near St. Albert
Flying Shot Lake west of Grande Prairie
Tail Creek des Metis at the Red Deer River and Buffalo Tail Creek.
Kelly Lake near Pouce Coupe, B.C. on the Alberta, B.C border.
Boundry Creek about 12 miles west of hiway #2 between Cardston and Carway was a little known Metis settlement at its peak contained 55 houses and 182 people. It was a hunting/trading settlement but also attracted gold miners from Montana. Some suggest a gang of counterfeiters may have held up in the area. The RCMP suspected horse and cattle stealing and established a post at Police Lake.
Fort Calgary and vicinity hosted a population of 75 people.
Fort Normandeau (1880/1885-1895)
Fort Normandeau (1880-1895) is built near Red Deer, (Alberta). It was named after Lieutenant Normandeau of the 65th Montreal Rifles whose orders were to build a fort at the Red Deer River crossing. Instead of building a fort, Lieutenant Normandeau commandeered a hotel and turned it into a fort. Some suggest this fort was built in 1885.
Tail Creek and Cypress Hills began to diminish in value for the Metis as the bison (buffalo) became more scarce.
Two farms were established in the Cypress Hills to demonstrate farming to natives. One was 48 km northeast of Fort Walsh, near Maple Creek, and the other was at Head of the Mountain.
Dan Williams aka Nigger Dan, the first Black Man in the north arrived Fort Saskatchewan and is charged with attempted murder by James McKinlay. Banjo Mike acted as his counsel and said "Let me tell you this: I know as many miners know, that Dan Williams can take the eye out of a jackrabbit at every pop at a hundred yards. Gentlemen, had Dan William had the slightest intention of harming Mr. McKinley, he would not have been here today to tell you the amusing little story whereby he gives you credit from some sense of humor without paying you much of a compliment for intelligence." Williams beat the charge.
Frank Oliver bought a downtown Edmonton lot from Malcolm McLeod for twenty five dollars. Malcolm McLeod got twenty five dollars worth of job-printing from Frank's Bulletin printing press.
Coal was noted in the Drumheller (Alberta) area but no commercial activity would take place until the turn of the century.
Tony Cashman noted that Laurent Garneau Metis (1840-1921), the first settler in the Garneau area, in 1874, planted a Manitoba Maple on his property, east of HUB Mall. That Manitoba Maple stands today, with four trunks, just off 111th Street. "Garneau was the most sought-after fiddler in the town of Strathcona. At one time, he was supposed to play a town dance, but the Town of Strathcona had locked up his cattle for roaming at large. He refused to play until his cattle were released," Cashman said, laughing. Eventually, the cattle were released, Garneau relented and the dance went off without a hitch. Tony Cashman didn't date this incident so it is arbitrarily placed here. Strathcona didn't become a town until (1899-1907) and a city (1907-1912)
The Hudson Bay Company to open the steamboat business to the public. The tariff rates for freight and passangers was from Lower Fort Garry to Fort Edmonton, freight at 6 1/4˘ per pound, cabin passengers paid $70, while deck passengers were assessed $35.
The summer and autumn was unusually wet so the Northcote made five trips to Carlton House and the Lily made six trips to Fort Edmonton.
Fort Edmonton; Mr Wadsworth of the Canadian Government defrauded the Stony Mountain Indians by keeping their treaty money. It is not know if they eventually received it.
Norman MacLeod arrived old Fort MacLeod, Alberta.
Crowfoot, the great Chief of the Blackfoot Confederation, gave permission for the CPR to cross Blackfoot land. They crossed between Medicine Hat and Calgary. The Chief received a life time pass, which he wore around his neck in a leather case. The CPR honored the pass that he used on occasion.
The naming of Whitehorse, Yukon is attributed to a unnamed poetic prospector who on descending the Yukon River this year thought the white-water rapids with their purling caps resembled the manes of white horses flying in the wind.
March 13: Victoria, Alberta located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth Maria Spence, daughter, Andrew Spence Sr., b-1842 and Nancy Whitford, b-1850.
April 12: A petition received this date by the government but collected earlier by Charles McKey and other Metis concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government;
Charles McKay Susan Moar
Margaret McKay Mary Ann Moar
Caroline McKay his
W. Joseph McKay Donald C. X Moar
John Richard McKay mark
Roderick McKay Alexander Moar
Hebrun Moar her
her Mrs. Pauline X Murray
Mrs. Laura X Moar mark
James Moar Mrs. Mary X McLeod
George H. Moar mark
May 19: Petition from residents of Edmonton signed by Octave Majeau and other Metis concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government.
Charles Majeau Johnny Catara sen
J. Bte L’Hirondelle Ferdinand Callarycord
Norbert L’Hirondelle Bte. Courtepatte
Marteau L’Hirondelle Dieudonne Courtepatte
Laurent L’Hirondelle Pascal Savard
Andre L’Hirondelle Michel Plante
Cyprien L’Hirondelle Victor Laurence
Samuel Cunningham Louis Larocque b-1850/52 Red River
Jean Laderoute Henry Leblanc
Olivier Laderoute George Donald
Magloire Grey Peter Pambrun
Cyprian Gray Henri Dufresne
George Hodgson John Sinclair
Charles Gladu Alexander Rowland
Adolphe Perreault Joe Norn
Joseph Chalifou Alfred Smith
Paul Chalifou Joseph Turner
Antoine Galarneau Joseph Page
Anselme Malette Elzear Page
J. Bte Roberson Norbert Bellerose
J. Bte Galarneau Joseph Chartier
Antoine Savard sen Antoine Blandion
Antoine Savard jun Emile Bellerose
Joseph Fagnant Narcisse Bellerose
Charles Beuaregard Alexander Savard sen
Octave Bellerose Alexander Savard jun
Roger Berard Abraham Neault
Bpte Suprenant Edouard Neault
Augustine Gladu Edouard Durocher
Jeremy Gladu Xavier Durocher
Alexis Gladu Johny Roland
Thomas Boucher Adolphe Roland
Cyprien Boucher Louis Chastellain
Ambroise Boucher Narcisse Beaudry
Jeremie Auger Pierre Beauregard
Joseph L’Hirondelle Joseph Beaudry
Leon Delorme Noel Courtepatte
Pierre Delorme sen Noe Delorme
Pierre Delorme jun Francois Dufresne
Bte. Pepin Peter C. Pambrun
Paul Lebrun Isadore Pambrun
Gabriel Lafleur Edouard McGillivray
Joseph Paquette Philip Whitford
James Cunningham Philip Tate
Albert Cunningham Joseph Trover
Edouard Cunningham Simon P. Whitford
September 2: Petition from Peter Lapierre and other Metis concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government. This petition was addressed to the Marquis of Lorne, "This humble petition of Peter LaPierre, Simon Blondin, John Fisher, Alexander Fisher, John Simpson, Xavier Denomme, and others, halfbreeds of Qu'Appelle Settlement;
Simon Blondin sen Geo. Fisher (John’s son)
John Fisher Moise Vallee
Alexander Fisher Charles Desjarlais
Louison Blondin James Grant
Zacherie Blondin Clement Pelletier
Napoleon Blondin Antoine Larocque senior
Antoine Fayant sen Antoine Larocque junior
Joseph Blouin Jean Sinclair jun
Xavier Denomme Louison Flammand
Jean Blondin Maxime Flammand
Napoleon Hamelin Pierre Poitras jun
Isaie Poitras William Daniel
Francois Desmarais Modeste Daniel
Samuel Turcotte Joseph Daniel
William Fayant Alexis McKay
Antoine Fayant jun Joseph Parisien
Jean Louis Fayant Roderick Ross
Francois St. Denis sen Pierre Ross
Baptiste Robillard Roderick Ross jun
Francois St. Denis jun Pierre Ross
Joseph Racette Alfred Fisher
Charles Racette sen John Simpson jun
Toussaint Gallerneau Andrew Klyne
Thomas LaPierre George Fisher sen
Jean Bapt. Dauphinais St. Pierre Poitras
Baptiste Laliberte Bte. Desjarlais
Norbert Welsh Pierre Desjarlais
Isadore Plante Isadore Desjarlais
Jean Sinclair sen Joseph Poitras
Mathias Sansregret Joseph Pellerton Bouvette
Alex. Pellitier Pierre Pellitier
Hilaire Boucher Napoleon Pellitier
Augustine Brabant sen St. Pierre Blondin
Augustine Brabant jun Ambroise Blondin
Michel Desjarlais Stanislaus Desjarlais
Edbert Desjarlais Joseph Racette sen
Michel Desjarlais Joseph Marion
Francois St. Denis sen Daniel Dumas
Alexis Honore Lazarus Laliberte
Cuthbert St. Denis Joseph Delorme
Francois Morin Thomas Desjarlais
Xavier Morin Mathias Desjarlais
Xavier Plante Alex Larocque
Pierre Bonneau sen William Larocque
Pierre Bonneau jun Edward Brabant
Charles Bonneau William Daniel jun
Julien Bonneau Joseph LaPierre
Baptiste Morin Theophile LaPierre
Camille Morin Thomas Kavenaugh on behalf of
Archy Klyne Elisa Klyne, his wife
Theophile Klyne Thomas Kelly, on behalf of his wife
Elie Bliouin Veronique Klyne
Gregoire Ledoux Joseph Hugomardt Ptre, O.M.I
114 signatures (includes 2 wives listed)
September 8: Imperial Oil Limited is incorporated at London, Ontario. Both Gerald and Richard D Garneau b-1937 would be later be employed with this Company. Imperial Oil Limited would later become known as EXXON Corporation because neither Canada nor England could see any future in the Oil Business.
October 26: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Auguste L'Hyrondelle, Metis, son Jean Baptiste L'Hrondelle, Metis b-1854 and Elizabeth Beaudry, b-1861.
Novemner, Fort Edmonton, Alex Stewart departed for the headwaters of the North Saskatchewan river on expedition.
November 21: Victoria, Alberta located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth Edwin Whitford, Metis, son Simon Whiteford, Metis b-1849 Alberta and Elizabeth Anderson, Metis b-1859 Alberta, living Pakan, Alberta 1901, daughter John Anderson Jr. b-1827 and Christie Whitford, b-1833.
December 8: The Edmonton Bulletin began publishing, being owned by Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, and Alexander Taylor. The paper is five and one half by eight inches in size printed on a toy hand press, by Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield.
The population of Calgary is listed as 100 and Fort Edmonton as 263..
Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Louison Beaudry son Narcisse Beaudry, b-1845 and Lucie Breland, born February 22, 1848 Red River.
Margaret Blandion, Metis, b-1881, St. Albert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
John Campbell Metis, b-1874 N.W.T. son Nancy Campbell, Metis b-1856 N.W.T. Married about 1873 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Agnas Cardinal, Metis, b-1881, Lac La Biche (Alberta), daughter Gabriel Cardinal dir Labatoche, b-1835 and Marie Bruneau, Metis b-1837.
Marcel Cardinal, b-1881, St. Paul des Metis (Alberta) son, Gabriel Cardinal dit Labatoche, b-1835 and Marie Bruneau, b-1837
Bill Cust near Sturgeon River (Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta) planted one hundred thirty acres to wheat, thirty six to barley and twenty to oats. This is likely (I)-William Cust, b-1825, of Ireland who homesteaded the Cut Bank Farm in St. Albert who this year harvested 130 acres, yielding 30 bushels to the acre, 12 acres of barley, yielding 36 bushels to the acre and 12 acres oats, yielding 25 bushels per acre. Its noteworthy that Sturgeon river starts at Big Lake, runs through St. Albert and enters the Saskatchewan River at Fort Saskatchewan.
(I)-Francis Jeffery Dickens (1844-1886) R.C.M.P. is stationed Blackfoot Crossing, Bow River (Alberta west of Fort Calgary).
Fort MacLeod, (Alberta), birth Madeleine Gladstone daughter William Gladstone Jr., (1845-1891), and Marie Samat Vandal, b-1855.
Veronique Gladu, b-1881, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) son Jean Baptiste Gladu, d-1881 and Mary Gaucher, born July 1849, Jasper House (Alberta); married 1895, Lesser Slave Lake, Bernard Giroux.
John Glen is at Fish Creek (south Calgary, Alberta).
Elizabeth Larocque Metis b-1881 Metis daughter Louis Larocque Metis b-1850/52 Red River and Angelique Metis b-1851/52 N.W.T., living Edmonton 1891 and 1901.
Alexander Loutit? b-1881, NWT son Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Napolian Majilvery? b-1881 N.W.T. son Isabel Majilvery? b-1835 N.W.T, 1891 census Edmonton
Calgary, (Alberta), marriage Joseph Paquette, Metis, b-1858, Fort Pitt (Saskatchewan) son Henri Paquette born April 20, 1814, Quebec and Cecile Durand, b-1837, Fort Edmonton (Alberta), ; married Isabelle Anihanis.
Dick Steel and Billy Inglis arrived Beaver Lake (Alberta), and harvested their first crop in 1882 of wheat, oats and barley.
A Stony Indian showed John Healy of Fort Whoop Up (Alberta), a sample of copper-lead bearing ore from across the Bow River from Castle Mountain in Banff National Park (Alberta), . Healy is credited with creating a shack town called Silver City, (Alberta), which peaked at 3,000 people. However it was the CPR who created a scam in 1883 that created Silver City.
McKernan's cow of the south side of the Saskatchewan River (Strathconia) gave birth to two fine heifers calves, cow and calves doing fine.
Patrick, a geophysical surveyor, was sent out to the N.W. Territories by the Federal Government to search for oil in the west. He immediately recognized the potential in foothills ranching. No mention was made of oil.
A.P. Patrick brought in 200 head of cattle to Calgary (Alberta), from Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The first grazing lease in the province was issued to the Cochrane Ranche Company Limited, incorporated by a powerful group of ranchers under the leadership of Senator Matthew Cochrane of Quebec.
R. Pottewell homesteaded in the Clover Bar District (Alberta).
Edmonton, birth (II)-Olive (Dolly) Ross daughter (I)-Donald Ross (1840-1915) and (II)-Olive Blewitt born 1850
Tail Creek des Metis, (Alberta), marriage Louis Rushell, Metis b-1859 Alberta son Angelie Rushell, Metis b-1830 Alberta; married Julie Metis b-1865 Alberta. Three children are recorded, John b-1882 Alberta, William b-1889 Alberta, Louis b-1897 Alberta likely all at Tail Creek.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Andre Rushell, Metis b-1862 Alberta so Angelie Rushell, Metis b-1830 Alberta; married Magdelaine Metis b-1866 Alberta. Four children are recorded: Joseph b-1882 Alberta, Elizabeth b-1892 Alberta, Colin b-1893 Alberta, and Phelamine b-1899 Alberta likely all at Tail Creek.
Charles T. Russell founded the Jehovah witness movement in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Fort Edmonton, marriage Godfrey McNeil Steele, to Julia Whitford, born October 11, 1863, Portage La Prairie, Manitoba.
Buck Smith is at High River south of Calgary.
The first settlers started to settle at Stony Plain, aka Dogrump Creek or Dog Creek, west of Fort Edmonton and were from Austria. Development was slow because Father Morin tried to discourage settlement in this area.
William Ust of St. Albert (Alberta) farmed 130 acres wheat, 12 acres of barley and 12 acres of oats. This appears to be an exaggeration for this time period.
Fort Edmonton, birth Maggie Vandal, Metis, daughter Norman Vandal, Metis, b-1857 and Julie Munroe, Metis, b-1859.
Edward Villeneuve Sr. married 1881, Lac La Biche, likely Lac La Biche, Alberta Adelaide Decoine, Metis, b-1860 Lac La Biche, daughter Francois Decoine Sr., married 1839, Lac La Biche and Josephte Desjarlais, Metis, b-1820.
John Ware (1845-1905) a black slave from South Carolina is believed to be working at the North West Cattle Company aka Bar U Ranch founded by Fred Stiman.
Charlotte Whitford b-1881 Red River, living Assiniboia West 1891. Assiniboia could refer to southern Alberta, or south western Saskatchewan, at this time.
The LaBoucane Settlement, at Duhamel; on the banks of Battle River, Alberta; 20 miles east of Wetaskiwin (hills of peace) ,was begun by the Abraham Salois, Metis b-1830 and Francois Dumont Metis b-1820 in 1875, others suggest LaBoucane, half-breed (Metis), families were involved but they arrived 1878 from White Horse Plains, Red River. By 1883, 10 families settled in the area, being engaged in transporting for the Hudson Bay Company.
In a census of South Edmonton, portion of treaty #6 records five hundred males and three hundred females; of which four hundred and eight speak French, two hundred and fifty speak English and ninety speak other languages.
The population of Calgary, likely only the immediate area, numbered 75 people.
The English suggest there are only 1,000 non-native settlers in Alberta. This likely excludes a few thousand Metis, who are not classified as settlers or non-native from a European perspective. It might be better to say that there are only 1,000 non-Canadians in Alberta. It is noteworthy that Tail Creek alone, in 1875, held 2,000 Metis, and greater Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) to the North likely contained 2,000 to 3,000 more Metis in two communities. We must exercise extreme caution when we use European or Hudson Bay population counts, as they do not normally reflect reality. It is noteworthy that a few thousand Metis reside in Lac St. Anne, Big Lake, St. Albert and Lac La Biche; not counting lesser settlements.
The people who have taken up land, which was not surveyed in the region of Fort Edmonton, built on it and made there homes there, thinking they will receive the title. Whether they will or not remains to be seen. This would include the Garneau Estate, and may account for the discrepancies of dates in some documents.
Several settlers arrived Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta) and made land claims. They had walked from Red River (Winnipeg, Manitoba) to Strathcona taking three months. The cost of steam boating was just too costly.
Cheap workers were required to build a railway across the Rockies and 17,000 Chinese responded for the brutally hard labor. They came as millhands, merchants, railway hands and gardeners.
The Dominion Government permitted the leasing of areas up to 100,000 acres to English ranchers for an annual rental of 1˘ per acre.
Both the Northcote and Lily steamers were overhauled and the Lily had her saloon enlarged and elegantly fitted up. It was a successful season on the Saskatchewan River..
January 1: Fort MacLeod, birth Norman Minnestokoas MacLeod, Metis son Colonel MacLeod and Indian woman.
January 11: Calgary. birth, Patrick Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., son William Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., b-1878, Marguerite Ward b-1859 Red River.
January 13: The good citizens of Fort Edmonton passed a resolution to relocate the Papaschase (Pap-Pa) Cree band in violation of Treaty #6. The Treaty is only signed twenty eight months earlier.
January 18: The Ottowa Free Press, January 18, 1881: “The Cree and the Sioux Indians in the North-West are at war on a small scale. Recently six halfbreeds and thirty Cree were killed by the Sioux in an engagement in the Cypress Hills.”
February 5: Lac La Biche, birth, James Edward Pruden son Charles Pruden Sr., b-1857, and, Rosalie Vandal, b-1859.
February 14, Pidgeon Lake, birth Elizabeth Whitford, daughter Francois Whitford Sr., b-1835 and Jane Anderson, b-1845.
March: Joseph Rabasca Deschamps, b-1881, Calgary (Alberta), son Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
April 4: The population of the west is: Manitoba 62,260, B.C. 49,459 and NWT 56,446.
May: Senator Matthew H. Cochrane, d-1902, used his Ottawa connections to allow the Cochrane Ranche Company (Limited) to received a Dominion of Canada charter giving it rights to 109,000 acres of ranchland, at a cost of 1˘ per acre a year. Duty payments on cattle imports from the United States were exempt. Headquarters was about one mile west of the present town of Cochrane. Other ranchers were understandably upset and retaliated by branding many Cochrane cattle as their own. In 1882 the cattle headquarters was moved near Waterton Lakes and another 100,000 acres acquired. This action effectively took 200,000 acres out of public access for agricultural purposes. He eventually purchased the southern property four $2 an acre or ($200,000). In 1906 almost the entire block was sold to the Morman Church for $6 million dollars, others suggest it sold for $6 an acre or $600,000). Cochrane eventually leased or owned 334,500 acres of Alberta land.
May 10: Lac La Biche (Alberta), birth Antoine Boucher son Narcisse Boucher Sr, b-1827 Quebec and Judith McCarthy, born December 10, 1935 Athabasca District; married Caroline, b-1883.
May 9: Nicholas Bird, Metis, b-1881, Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta), died 1886, son William Robert Bird, Metis, b-1826 and Fanny Shirt, Metis, b-1856.
June 10; The North-West Territorial government passed an 'Ordence respecting Fences', that stated that a lawful fence could be of board, rails, common wire or of barbed wire and a substantial top rail, the wires to be not less than three in number, or more than fourteen inches apart..
August: Fort Calgary (Alberta), birth (II)-William Glen, Metis, son (I)-John Glenn, born 1833 and Adelaide Belcourt, Metis born August, 1851.
September 23: Lac La Biche Mission District (Alberta) birth Joseph Emile Lavallee, son Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
November: birth Mary Ann Mary Bird, born November 1881, Red Deer River, North Swift Current, Assiniboine, died December 1882, in home of William Cromartie, South Branch of the Saskatchewan River, daughter Philip Bird and Mary Kipling.
November 3: Kenny McLeod (1858-1940) journey from Red River on foot, in the company of two other men with three oxen, three Red River carts, a buckboard, and a pony. After ninety-one days of travel, he arrived in Edmonton November 3. He traded a sack of flour to Frank Oliver for a building lot. In 1915 he built the McLeod Building in Edmonton.
December 31, Fort Edmonton, advertisement by Donald Ross, "A pig of the Shanghai pattern (female Gender) came to my premises two weeks ago. The owner better pay expenses and take it away, otherwise the pig will mysteriously disappear."
Marianne Belcourt, b-1882, St. Albert (Alberta) daughter Eswin Belcourt, b-1843, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Louise Paul b-1857, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Marriage Thomas Cardinal b-1863 Riding Mountain son Jerome Cardinal and Marianne Cardinal married Christine Moise, Metis b-1860 daughter Jean Baptiste (Kakakekamik) Moise b-1827 and Charlotte Wapisiokowan; 2nd married 1856 Madeleine Abraham; married 1868 Lac La Biche John Longmore Sr. b-1850 Fort Pitt son William Longmore and a Metis mother.
Daniel Belcourt, Metis, b-1857, St. Albert son Joseph Belcourt Jr., born November 28, 1823 and Madeleine Sapin dit Campion; married 1882, Calgary, Pauline Vanesse, born October 10, 1868 daughter Jean Baptiste Vanasse dit Anas Sr., born November 1833, Fort Edmonton and Catherine Cardinal, born February, 1838.
William F. Bredin acquired river lot#15a from Charles Gauther Metis b-1841 who moved his family to St Albert this year.
(II)-Frank Earnist Camsell Metis (1882-1922) son (I)-Julien Stewart Camsell aka Onion and Sarah Foulds (1849-1939), joined HBC (1906-1918) Mackenzie River
George D. Clark, b-1828 arrived Fort Edmonton (Alberta) this year and went to the US in 1884 but was back in 1893.
Marguerite Dumont, Metis, b-1882, Calgary, (Alberta) daughter Jean Baptiste Dumont Jr. Metis, born June, 1852, Slave Lake and Philomene Vanesse, Metis born October 1856.
Fred Eagle Tail Feathers aka Piiasotsis or Piitaikisom (Stud Horse) (1882-1954) White Pup Band of Siksika (Blackfoot of Southern Amberta married country style Margaret Monroe (1914-1976) born Browning, Alberta or Alberta died Glkacier Country, Browning, Montana, epouse Henry Cardinal of Onion Lake, Saskatchewan,
Roderick Fraser b-1882 N.W.T. son Collin Frazer (Fraser), Metis b-1849 N.W.T. and Floria Metis b-1850 N.W.T, 1891 census Edmonton.
Elliot Galt's North Western Coal and Navigation Co. opened its first coal mine on the Old Man River and the town of Coal Banks grew to eventually become Lethbridge, (Alberta). The old man River gets it name from the Blackfoot name Napi meaning The Old Man (God) who made the world and every thing in it.
Charlotte Garneau, Metis is born January 19, 1882, Old Strathcona, District of Alberta, died 1902 Strathcona (Alberta) the daughter of Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis, born (1850/52-1912).
Narcisse Ladouceur, b-1864, Lac La Biche, (Alberta), son Joseph Ladouceur, b-1813 Beacer River and Julie Auger, b-1822 Lac La Biche (Alberta); married 1882, Lac La Biche (Alberta), Julie Auger, b-1863, South Saskatchewan River, daughter Augustin Auger, b-1825, Lesser Slave Lake, Alberta and Sylvie Bruneau, b-1845, Lac La Biche (Alberta)
Alexander Leblanc aka White, born-1882 Mountain Hill, son Cornelious Leblanc Sr., b-1850, Fort Edmonton and Mary Favel, b-1858, Fort Edmonton.
Mathilde L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1882, St. Albert (Alberta) son Euphrosine Beauregard, Metis, b-1851 and Magloire L'Hyrondelle, b-1850, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Elizabeth Loutit? b-1882, NWT daughter Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
(I)-Joseph McFarlan of Ireland, on the Old Man River west of Fort MacLeod farms 80 acres producing 2,000 bushels of grain of which 250 is wheat. His brothers Ed and George also worked the land. They had 25-30 head of cattle from Montana to supply milk to the Northwest Mounted Police.
(III)-William McKay, Metis (1818-1883) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854); joined HBC (1837-1883) assigned Fort Edmonton (1882-1883)
Alexander McLeod acquired river lot #17 from Charles Gauther Metis b-1841as he moved his family to St Albert this year.
(I)-Allan Omand (1857-1931) married 1880 (I)-Jane Craigie d-1884 arrived Fort
Edmonton 1882 from Red River and settled river lot #3 Strathcona. It's
highly likely that river lot #3 had a previous owner. About
1900 he sold river lot #3 to Dan McFadyen d-1902 and Allan abandoned his wife
2nd marriage 1892 Mary Douglas Clarke Douglass of river lot #1
(II)-Ted Omand b-1896
Florah Paul Metis b-1882 N.W.T. daughter John Paul, Metis b-1842 N.W.T. married about 1882, N.W.T. Philomine Metis b-1851 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton (Alberta), 1891 census.
John Ware (1845-1905) a Blackman and freed slave from South Carolina arrived Alberta helping drive a large herd of cattle from Idaho to the Rocky Mountain foothills. It is believed he first arrived Calgary in 1876, joined the North West Cattle Company in Alberta in 1881 and married this year Mildred Lewis d-1905 and they had 5 children.
Dan Riley came west this year and settled near High River (Alberta).
Dick Steele and Billy Inglis produced a wheat crop at Beaver Lake that is 18 miles west of Vegreville (Alberta).
Calgary. birth, Thomas Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., son William Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., b-1878, Marguerite Ward b-1859 Red River.
Harry Taylor (Kamoose), a missionary, and whiskey trader, ran the MacLeod Hotel. A sign read "No Jawbone - in God we trust, all others cash." He gave special rates to 'Gospel Grinders' and the 'Gambling Profession'.
Edward Villeneuve Jr. Metis b-1882 Lac La Biche, Alberta, son Edward Villeneuve Sr., and Adelaide Decoine, Metis, b-1860, Lac La Biche.
Julian Ward, Metis, b-1882, St. Albert, (Alberta) son, Peter Ward, Metis, b-1840 and Rosalie Bisson, b-1843.
Jonas Ward, Metis, b-1882, Calgary, son, George Ward, b-1810 and Bethsey Turcotte.
St. Albert (Alberta), birth, Laurent Ward, Metis son, Peter Ward, Metis, b-1840 and Rosalie Bisson, b-1843.
Joseph Bannerman, freely and with great pride, called himself a "Claim Jumper", referred to the committee as 'Mob Law', and said that 'Hudson Bay rule' is the order of the day at Edmonton. Joseph Bannerman, using L. George of the A. MacDonald and company store, had jumped claim on the Methodist Mission site, established 1871 by (II)-Rev. George McDougall (1821-1`875) . No one anticipated that the first claim jumper would go after a church and graveyard for town lots.
Bannerman and company felt the site was easy picking because J. Sinclair had originally owned the land but never resided upon it. He sold it to a Mr. Anderson. Mr. Ross had also laid claim to the land, as did the church established in 1871. The Vigilance Committee was aware that L. George was a United States citizen and therefore not entitled to the privileges of the Homestead Act. A deputation consisting of Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Kippen, Anderson and others descended on A. McDonald and Company Store, demanding to know the intentions of the Company towards the claim jumped property. C. Stewart, of the Company, refused to provide answer to the 100 or so people who had joined the delegation. Police Captain Gagnon and Sergeant Major Belcher were noticeably absent, and the Committee was convinced the Mounted Police were in complicity with Bannerman and the Company.
Mr. George, of the Company, defended the removal of the claim jumpers building by threatening to shoot the Vigilance Committee, but a Mr D.R. Fraser and W Henderson disarmed him. It is noteworthy that 150 citizens showed up to dispense public justice. The Vigilance Society hauled Joseph Bannerman's nearly completed shack off the claim and hurled it over a precipice of the Saskatchewan River. Joseph Bannerman claimed the mob consisted of a few whites under Hudson Bay Company influence and many half breeds. Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, (II)-Matt McCauley (1850-1930), J. Lake, Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, D. R. Fraser and W. Henderson are placed under arrest, being charged with destroying a building valued at one hundred and twenty- five dollars. On February 21, 1882, J. M. Bannerman claimed that they were leaders of a riotous mob. G.S. Wood, T. Anderson, Don Ross, H. Belcher, John Ashen b-1850 ; who owned the future University property (Lot #5), and Joseph MacDonald; who owned the property just east of Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) the Metis, saw bail. Joseph Bannerman objected, saying that these men are not owners of real property. But the judge stated that 'no one held real property in the North West Territories except the Hudson Bay Company at this time', and he was satisfied with the bail arrangements.
W. F. Bredin a.k.a. Fletcher Bredi, came up the Whoop Up Trail from Fort Benton, Montana to Calgary; then up the Calgary-Edmonton Trail to Edmonton, and started the Buffalo Lakes Trading Post on the site later called Lamerton, in 1892. There was only 7 settlers in this area. Bredin sold out in 1895 to Joe Edminson.
Advertisements began appearing in United States news papers offering Canadian land free to pioneers. Homesteads on Dominion Land required entry fees of $10.00 on each quarter section of land.
The United States Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Walkers sawmill, under the out-bank of the Elbow River in Calgary, is in operation. I.G. Bakers operates a store near Fort Calgary. Old man Roselle sold his holdings on MacLeod Trail and the Elbow, Calgary to Stewart.
Lafayette French and O.H. Smith, Indian traders, established a Fort and Trading Post, immediately west of High River on the old Fort Benton Trail to Fort Edmonton. They ranched and cultivated about 40 acres of land. The stagecoach from Fort Benton used their Fort as a way station on its way to Fort Edmonton. Buck Smith squatted next to the French & Smith holdings.
The North West Cattle Company of Montreal brought 5,000 head of cattle from Montana into the High River District. They located at the site of the Mar-U-Ranch, later owned by Pat Burns. The Ranch was managed by Fred Stimson of Montreal.
Alberta, part of the North West Territories, is divided into the District of Athabasca in the north and the District of Alberta in the south. Most people of Alberta still refer to themselves as being in the North West Territories.
A trading post and stopping house were built at the Red River Crossing (6 km east Red Deer, Alberta) in 1882 and a permanent settlement began to develop around it. Red River first known as Waskasdo Seepee then shortened to Wapiti River or Elk River and then to its present form Red River (Alberta). It was a buffalo (bison) crossing and first used by the Indians.
It is estimated that 9,000 head of cattle exist in the NWT, mostly in Alberta.
Fort Calgary was torn down and rebuilt.
January 3: The first school house is opened in Edmonton with 25 boys and 3 girls. The Hudson Bay Company reclaimed their iron box stove and the school was shut down until a replacement could be found. Rev. D.G. McQueen claims that the first school house was built in 1881, Richard Secord being one of the first teachers.
January 7: Mr. R. McKernan of Two Hills gave a dance, with forty guests having supper. Dancing lasted until four A.M. Music is provided by three of the best violinists in this part of the country: Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) the Metis, Mouton, and Hamlin.
In early February a meeting was called to establish a Vigilance Committee to stop illegal squatters, specifically Joe Bannerman, M.P., the Honorable Minister of the Interior * and an adamant Orangeman from Winnipeg. Many say Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914) of the Mounted Police is his assistant. One hundred people attend, with Mr. J. Harris as chairman and G.S. Wood of the Hudson Bay Company as secretary. A. W. Kippen stated the objective of the meeting, and T. Anderson objected to a proposal which would make it a secret society. Kippen and Harris favored it being secret; Don Ross thought it shouldn't be secret, and Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, thought the society should be secret. The argument for a secret society, in dealing with the claim jumpers, was to prevent the churches and the Philistines from interfering in their activities. In their opinion, the law did not dispense justice and therefore public opinion must be the law. Only forty seven signed the roll and took the oath, and by mid month another meeting was called to change it from a secret society to an open one. About 100 concerned citizens then joined the committee. By the end of the month, the Vigilance Society stated they would not hold themselves to protecting property holders who were not members. * Tom Monto suggests John A. MacDonald was Minister of the Interior and that John Gilpin's Edmonton and District Settlers Rights Movement article says that Bannerman said he was acting under authorization on the Minister of the Interior.
February 28: Inspector Gagnon arrested Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, and M. McAuley, on the authority of J.M. Bannerman, for malicious injury to property. They would be acquitted June 15, 1882.
March 1: Inspector Gagnon arrested D. R. Fraser, J McDonald, A.W. Kippen, J Lake, G Gagnon, W Henderson and L. Garneu (Garneau), (1840-1921) Metis, on authority of J.M. Bannerman, for malicious injury to property. They would be acquitted June 15, 1882.
March 25: (II)-Richard Hardisty Metis (1831-1889) chaired the March 25, 1882 meeting, concerning the land uncertainty re claim jumpers, and the actions of the Vigilance Committee. T. Anderson, the Crown Timber Agent, made a motion to protect land rights. A.W. Kippen seconded the motion and the vote was unanimous. Reverend Pere Leduc claimed St. Albert, including the Bishop, is prepared to sign a petition to the Government. Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914) of the Police stated that he is pleased to see the first claim jumper stopped. However, he couldn't condone the Vigilance Committee's pushing the shack over the hill. Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914), Inspector and Superintendent of the police, stood accused of being hand and glove with the jumpers, which he denied. It is noteworthy that Jarvis stayed away when the trouble was brewing. This would not be the first or last time that the police avoided dangerous situations. It is noteworthy that 150 citizens led by Anderson, Kippen and Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, were involved in removal of the claim jumpers. Fraser and Henderson disarmed George who was try to protect the claim jump. The French river lot system is not challenged at the Edmonton colony to the same extent as it had been in Red River. The major deterrent is the Vigilance Committee. South of the Garneau Estate was the Papaschase (Papastayo) Cree Reserve. Some saying it extended north to Ellerslie. Lawrence and Eleanor Garneau, the Metis, are on very good terms with the Chief and his band.
April 15: Lawrence Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis, granted some of his estate, on the east side, to the Roman Catholic Mission to build a church, St. Michael, across the river from the Fort Edmonton. The church, Ste. Antoine, is 26' x 30', with 12' walls. Malcolm Norris and Ed Carney established one of the first stores outside the security of Fort Edmonton. It should be noted that John Norris had a long time operating store in west Edmonton. Father Fafard, founder of the Frog Lake mission, is killed during the 1885 conflict. One questionable report suggests that Mr. J.L. George claim jumped land south of 100 Avenue between 96 and 97 Street. They claimed that it was (II)-Richard Hardisty's land, which he had failed to live on. The Vigilante Committee is formed and they throw Mr. George's house over the hill. (I believe this story is a distortion of the facts, and probably planted by the Orangemen or Masons in Winnipeg, to place blame on the Hudson Bay Company). Work had begun on the construction of St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church, on Lawrence Garneau's Estate.
April: Veronique Deschamps, b-1882, Calgary (Alberta), daughter Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
June 15: The Edmonton Vigilance Committee is found not guilty of any criminal act. In a subsequent civil action, claim jumper Bannerman is awarded two hundred and forty nine dollars, this being the cost of materials. The judge stated that the Committee is within their rights to remove the structure, but that pushing it over the hill is going too far. Joseph Bannerman, Minister of the Interior, under ban of law, is prohibited from claim jumping in the future. The Eastern Land Companies saw the affair as Bannerman and Company representing high-minded, law-abiding, justice-loving, well-posted gentlemen, who should have been allowed to complete their glorious career of prosperity by stealing land from that riotous, red-handed mob of half-breeds. These folks from the east were referring to the 1869 Red River resistance and the execution of Thomas Scott.
June 17: A large hail storm struck Fort Edmonton, causing much damage. It then moved to the south side striking Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), A. Patton, Joseph MacDonald, (I)-John Walter (1849-1920), Irvine, Elmer and Hetherintton. They were the principle sufferers on the south side of the Saskatchewan River.
A Stony Indian took Tom Wilson in July to see the Lake of Little Fishes (Lake Louise), Banff. Wilson called it Emerald Lake and the first maps of the area used this name. The Banff-Jasper route is an old Indian trail through some of the most majestic scenery in the Rocky Mountains, previously known as the Stony Mountains.
A group of Icelanders from North Dakota arrived and settled Markville (Alberta, northwest of Innisfail or west of Red Deer. Their specialty was dairy farming.
July 1: "A letter written from Edmonton which I have seen lately in The Toronto Daily Globe wherein Laurent Garneau, (1840-1921) Metis is stigmatized as a Red River rebel is both false and cowardly and I consider the writer no better than an assassin that will stab a man in the back without giving him a chance to defend himself. This reply I think is as much as the coward and sneak is entitled to. P.S. Please Mr. Coward, next time you write to the Toronto Daily Globe, state your name and address that the rustics of Edmonton may know what kind of snake in the grass you are". Signed L. Garneau (1840-1921). The snake in the grass is most likely the Honorable Joseph Bannerman, Minister of the Interior and Company.
July 5 to 7: Chief Pah-pa-stay-on, of the Edmonton reserve, hosted Ooh-ne-pah-qua-see-moo-we-kah-mik. This is the occasion and place of fasting, thirsting, dancing, sacrificing and suffering in the redemption of vows. This is the most solemn religious occasion of the Cree and it was held below Fort Edmonton on the flats.
July 14: Victoria, Alberta located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth John Whitford, Metis, son Simon Whiteford, Metis b-1849 Alberta and Elizabeth Anderson, Metis b-1859 Alberta, living Pakan, Alberta 1901, daughter John Anderson Jr. b-1827 and Christie Whitford, b-1833.
July 20: Fort Calgary, birth Caroline Deschamps daughter Jean Baptiste Deschamps, Metis, b-1849 and Catherine Vandel, Metis b-1846.
July 29: (I)- John Walter's (1849-1920) ferry is finally operational.
August: Jasper House (Alberta), birth, Albert Gaucher, son, Michel Gaucher, b-1829 and Marie Karaconti, b-1846.
August 1: The survey of the Edmonton River property begins. Standard River lots were usually 19 chains wide by one mile deep, being one hundred and fifty five acres. The plan of Old Strathcona settlement, North West Territories, listed by M. Deane as River lot #7 (volume 47 - Folio 95) with: Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) as two hundred and sixty nine acres; to the west, A. Patton with two hundred fifty eight acres, and further to the west, Allan Oman with two hundred and seventy one acres. To the east of Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), (I)-John Walter (1849-1920)- with one hundred and twenty acres, Joseph McDonald- two hundred and thirty five acres, and further to the east, Thomas A. Anderson with one hundred and forty two acres. This comprised most of Old Strathcona. The Edmonton survey is neither the English square system nor the French River lot system; but a combination of both. It is noteworthy that the published survey is limited to the river lot properties only. Irving, Elmar and Hetherintton, who live on the south side of the river without river front property, for example, are not listed. It is noteworthy that some chose not to settle on river front property in order to limit the likelihood of eastern claim jumpers. This was a lesson learned from Winnipeg (Red River). This survey did not resolve the property disputes around Fort Edmonton, as some of the lands had been occupied for generations. By 1884, there were still 30 unresolved property claims. McDougall objected to the arbitration ruling of William Pearce; the Dominion Lands Board inspector sent to settle the issues. McDougall took his dispute into the courts well into the next century. Laurent Garneau (listed as Gurnow) (1840-1921) also disputed his property lines. Father Hippolyte Leduc, of the Catholic Mission, called William Pearce a racist, suggesting an anti-French, Metis bias in his decisions.
August 29: Petition from John Simpson and other Metis from Fort Qu'Appelle concern Metis land claims which the government ignored:
John Simpson Pollyon Blondeau
Antoine Larocque senior Joe Gosselin
Louis Flammand Gustave (Augustine) Flammand
Baptiste Robillard Baptiste Desjarlais
Matthias Desjarlais Leon Neault
Xavier Perrault Baptiste Dauphinaise
Antoine Hamelin Antoine Fayant
Kenneth McKenzie Jean Blondeau
Pierre St. Denis Antoine Larocque jr
Napoleon Hamelin Antoine Fayant jun
Louison Blondeau Simon Blondeau jun
Louison Blondeau William Fayant
Zacherie Blondeau Isadore Plante
Baptiste Ray John A. Cline
Francoise Perreault Chrysostome Robillard
Joseph Marion Norman Welsh
Camille Perreault Alphonse Martin
September 4: Petition from Gabriel Dumont, dated St. Albert de Padeau (St. Albert District) and other Metis concerning land claims which the government ignored.
Gabriel Dumant Baptiste Vandal
Jean Carron Antoine Ferguson
Baptiste Rochlot Baptiste Vandal
Moise Parenteau Joseph Touron
Baptiste Delorme Jean Carron
William Fidler Theophile Carron
Baptiste Boyer R. P. Tessier
Damase Carriere Mathias Parenteau
Andre Neault Zepherin Dumas
Napoleon Carriere Elzear Parisien
Patrice Touron William Natome
Calixte Touron A. Fidler
Antoine Vandal Isadore Villeneuve
Gervais Adolphe Nolin
Charles Lariviere Ignace Poitras
Francois Touron Theophile Goulette
Joseph Parenteau Jerome Racette
Xavier Batoche Charles Gareau
Joseph Vandal Maxime Poitras
Francois Fidler Emmanuel Champagne
Alexis Gervais Louis Batoch
September 20: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Joseph L'Hyrondelle, Metis, son Jean Baptiste L'Hrondelle, Metis b-1854 and Elizabeth Beaudry, b-1861.
September 27: Mr. Dean is robbed of six hundred dollars while in his survey camp, eight chains from Lawrence Garneau's (1840-1921) house. Thomas Chittick and William Houston are charged. Victoria Garneau (1869-1899) Metis and Louis Garneau (1874-1959) Metis provide testimony placing the accused at the location of the crime. Victoria Garneau, Metis, (1869-1899) stated that you didn't see people pass this way very often. Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, member of the North West Committee, member of the Vigilance Committee to protect the rights of land owners, wrote an editorial in the Bulletin, September 30, 1882, that angered the Metis of the area. The grant of land, south of Edmonton, to the Indians by Governor Morris at Fort Pitt is a great mistake. The land in question will be of great value in the future and thousands of dollar's will be required to do what a few sacks of flour will do now. This would not be the last time that Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, would attack the half-brothers of Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis. This incident would contribute to Lawrence's decision to enter politics.
October 14: Fort Macleod Gazette reported a man named Bowies was lynched by the cowboys at Indian Basin because he refused to help put out a prairie fire.
October 19: An Orange Lodge is formed in Edmonton.
October 23: Fort McLeod (Alberta), birth, Robert McEwen, son Peter McEwan and Mary Gladstone, b-1864.
October 23: Fort McLeod (Alberta), birth, William McEwen, son Peter McEwan and Mary Gladstone, b-1864.
October 29: Fort Calgary (Alberta), A.R. Dyre a North West Mounted Police Constable wrote: Fort Calgary is forty miles from British Columbia (50 miles as the crow fly's), Calgary is 102 miles from McLeod, the Commissioner and White are here from Ottawa, Captain McIllres is our commanding officer, Major Walsh is at Wood Mountain, 500 miles from here, we are going to have a dance and dinner, all the pretty half breed girls have been invited, Sergeant Severn and Constable McDonald applied for discharge and got them, they leave tomorrow, our Sergeant Major is going to leave also, I hear
November: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Placide Beaudry son Narcisse Beaudry, b-1845 and Lucie Breland, born February 22, 1848 Red River
November 8: Fort Calgary (Alberta), a North West Mounted Police Constable wrote: I do like Calgary better than either Walsh or McLeod, as it is in a very pretty part of the country. We moved into our new quarters on the 27th of Oct. having been in tents since the 3rd of June, the day we left the Missouri, and a day I'll never forget, as I nearly died for a drink of that common beverage called water, ugh it was awful. We gave a grand ball to the civilians last Friday night. We subscribed $250 and had the best supper ever given in this part of the country, We had the barrack rooms decorated with bead work, mottoes made of cartridges, revolvers and rifles on the walls. The music was two violins, a flute and banjo. Our Captain opened the ball with a little half breed and then we danced till 12 o'clock and then had supper. There was only one white woman and she was Dutch with hair like my tunic, and she had one side of her dress tacked up so as to show her white petticoat, but she showed her leg as well, up to the knee. The boys got back from Blackfoot Crossing alright, only one shot being fired at them, which came near enough private Hutchinson's nose. The C.P.R. is drawing nearer every day and will be here by next summer.
December 9: Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, acted as interpreter in the court case of A. MacDonald vs. Xavier Plante.
December 15: Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, went with horses and grain to meet J. McDonald ,who is bringing Norris and Carney freight.
ALBERTA HISTORY 1883-1886
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA index