ALBERTA HISTORY 1899-1905
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THE GARNEAU HOME IS MOVED TO SAINT PAUL DES METIS
(I)-John Balsillie b-1839 joined HBC (1858-1873) York, Norway House, Red
River, married Adelaide Rowand Metis b-1852 daughter of John Rowand jr.
(II)-Agnus (Agnes) Balsille Metis
(II)-James Allen Rowand Balsille b-1876 joined HBC (1895-1928) Mackenzie River, married 9 kids, possible son Andrew Robert James Bannatyne and Margaret Louisa Rowand Metis b-1857
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Agustus Anelia, Metis b-1873 Alberta likely Tail Creek son Marie Anelia b-1825, Alberta; married Emile Metis born 1877, Alberta, three children are recorded Bella b-1896, Adolphe b-1897 and Gilbert b-1901, all likely at Tail Creek.
Willie Callihoo Metis born March 6, 1895 Alberta son Jean Francois Callihoo, Iroquois Metis born August 29, 1855 Alberta most likely Devil Lake (Lac Ste Anne) married about 1890 Elizabeth British Metis born August 25, 1871 Alberta, living Lac Sainte Anne 1901.
Joe Gauthier, a Metis, suicides at Cottonwood Creek (Henry House) and is buried at Jasper House on the Athabasca River.
Malcolm McIntry opened the first general store in the Parrish Block of Ole Strathcona.
Lady Aberdeen wrote: "There is a wee bit of jealousy amongst these good fathers as the popularity of Father Lacombe with the outer world. In truth, for one who has heard Bishop Grandin's name a hundred have heard of Father Lacombe & his influence over the Indians & of the way he exerts it."
The Parish of St. Anthony of Padvia, Old Strathcona is under the charge of St. Francis of Assisi, but eventually is run by the Oblates from St. Joachim across the River. The church, using 2 acres given by Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) and 1/2 of block 80 purchased for $300.00, was also used as a school. Father Lacombe (1827-1916) is Superior in Edmonton.
A Baptist, Presbyterian and Methodist church is built this year in Old Strathcona.at McDonald Avenue (83 Avenue) and Main Street (104 Street). It was replaced by a brick church in 1907.
Frank Osborn, William McGee and R. Garby are operating small dredges on the North Saskatchewan River out of Edmonton (Alberta).
The Calgary Herald was opposed to Father Lacombe's efforts to get the Metis of Lac La Biche on reserves as promised by Government, and stated that half breeds are poverty stricken, ignorant, shiftless, superstitious and a cheerfully immoral community. To support those who advocate restricting the Metis from commercial fishing, the Herald went on to say that they are poor boatman and fishermen and fairly representative of those Half breed settlements in Northern Regions. The Catholic Church, as part of its ongoing campaign, also espoused these ignorant beliefs and values. The Edmonton Bulletin called this type of campaign ignorant, prejudice, gross and insulting. However, it is part of a current attitude that is maintained to deny rights to the Native population. It is noteworthy that Father Lacombe is a Metis.
Waterton Lakes is made a National Park this year.
The town of Minnewanka Landing, Alberta is a town completely under water. Lake Minnewanka was dammed this year as well as in 1912, and 1941 submerging the town. The town can only be visited by scuba divers, which they do.
Father's Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) managed to get Father J. A. Therien to work in what some called the Metis utopia. Father Lacombe and the Metis favored Buffalo Lake but Fathers J.A, Therien and Morin favored the Morinville area. They finally compromised on the present St. Paul des Metis location. Father Lacombe approached Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) and Poitras to help create St. Paul des Metis (Alberta).
Father's Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) went down east to convince the Government to establish a Metis community near Buffalo Lake.
The town of Bow City about 110 miles east of Calgary began about this time with settlers occupying the river bank farms.
The Brackman-Ker mill opened near the Calgary and Edmonton rail line end in Strathcona. It was a first oat mill in Strathcona.
The settlers from Western Europe dried up. The CPR lobbied the government to admit settlers from Eastern Europe. The 1st priority was Austro-Hungarian Germans and only issued advertisements in German, the intent was to keep other undesirables out of Canada.
July 18: Settlers from South Dakota stated they had suffered five successive crop failures, and this being the reason for their immigration to the North West Territories. Francis Exazier (Xavier) Gauthier (b-1846), wife Lumia and their children arrived Fort Edmonton in a covered wagon from the Dakota Territory. This is likely the same time his brother, Michael Stanislaus Gauthier (1850-1934) and wife Lea Ouimette (1850-1919) and family, moved from the Dakota Territory to Cove, Oregon.
August: Dawson Creek, Frederick Gardiner and his father Frederick Gardiner, a baker from Toronto find themselves at Dawson Creek in search of gold. He made a sketchbook of his journey. Its noteworthy that 13,934 boats of gold seekers had preceded them into the Yukon.
August 15: Edmonton's first hospital opened, being called the General Hospital.
December 28: The Federal cabinet passed an order in council, establishing the colony of St. Paul des Metis on a 99 year lease, at $1.00/year to expire 1994, on land next to the Saddle Lake Indian Reserve. This included Townships 57 and 58 in Ranges 9 and 10, west of the fourth meridian. Although a two thousand dollar grant is to be given for seed and equipment, the commitment is withdrawn in 1897. A board of management was formed, composed of the Bishop of Saint Boniface (Langevin), Bishop of Saint Albert (Vital Justin Grandin (1829-1902)), Bishop of Prince Albert (Pascal) two lay trusties J. Alderic Ouimet and Nicholas D. Beck and Father Lacombe (1827-1916). Father J. Adeodat Therien is appointed Resident Manager of the Project. This Board never met and the project is therefore the responsibility of Therien and Bishop Vital Justin Grandin (1829-1902). The Roman Catholic Church also received, to the Episcopal Corporation, leases for four sections of land for an Industrial School The announcement created howls of opposition. None so strong as (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917), Methodist, who wrote: "I very much admire the zeal of the promoter of this scheme and, from a purely ecclesiastical standpoint it looks wise, but I humbly think the reverend gentlemen is away off in 'social economy,' therefore as a citizen of this commonwealth I beg to record my firm protest against any such disposition of any part of this fair domain."
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) established Garneau Village just east of the St. Paul des Metis mission. He built a store, trading post, post office, three saw mills in the district, a sash and door factory and a mail and passenger service to Vegreville (Alberta).
James K. Cornwall aka Peace River Jim, born 1669, Brantford, Ontario arrived Alberta this year.
James Russell arrived at Drumheller Valley this year.
(IV)-Marion Salzl claims that (II)-Johaunes Salzl arrived at Morinville, North West Territories from South Dakota in 1896 (other accounts suggest he arrived 1895 with Anton Zettle who was also from Austria and Zell, South Dakota who homesteaded N-23-55-25-4 Morinville). She said that her father, (III)-Mathias Salzl, is age 11 at the time. The French at Morinville do not welcome the Salzl family. The French told their children not to talk to those Germans, even if they are Catholic. The 1901 census say they were at Rosebud Ridge, which I believe is south of Morinville. He acquired the following lands, S-27-55-25-4, SW-34-55-24-4 and NE-27-55-25-4.
Father J.A. Therian was appointed spiritual advisor for the St. Paul des Metis colony. He however believed the west can only be preserved for Catholics by French Canadians.
South Edmonton, better known as Old Strathcona, had a flour mill and brewery. Its population had grown to six hundred and fifty. Edmonton proper had three sawmills, a sash and door factory, two grist mills and two steam gold mining dredges in operation.
Clifford Sifton of Manitoba suggested that the solution to the labor and population shortage in western Canada was the Ukrainian. From 1896 to 1914, more than two hundred thousand Ukrainians are encouraged to immigrate to Canada.
Lacombe became a village this year.
Olds became a village this year.
Some segments of Ontario called Saint Paul des Metis an utterly bad policy to be condemned by every Orangeman who wish to see Canadians become united: a homogeneous English people. (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) argued against Saint Paul des Metis saying that if the Metis are to have a reserve like the Indians, then, like the Indians, they should not be permitted to exercise the franchise. The Calgary Herald objected to giving large grants of land to the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Leo XIII, in Encyclical after encyclical, defined that the Church has a right to a monopoly of religion in any Catholic Community. This Church thinking would undermine the success of St. Paul des Metis in future years.
A sawmill is established at Saint Paul de Metis, (Alberta) North West Territories by Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis of Old Strathcona, across the river from Fort Edmonton, as he took up residence this year in Saint Paul des Metis. Some suggest it was an open air affair and not fully operational until 1898. I assume 1896-1897 would involve cutting timber. The government promised seed and farm implements to start up the community but no farm implements or supplies were ever received. The Metis claimed that Father J.A.Therian, Oblate diverted the funds meant for the colony to church purposes..
Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield sat in the House of Commons as a Liberal 1896-1917.
Morman's created the town of Artna south east of Cardston, (Alberta) a creamery and cheese factory were built here in 1898. Artna is on the Montana trail and the RCMP were sure the settlers were bringing goods through Immigrant Gap and Whiskey Gap without paying duty but couldn't prove it.
Cabins and a post office are built at Oil City at Cameron creek, Waterton Park, Alberta in anticipation of an oil boom.
The North West steamboat was finally beached on the flats of Edmonton, the last of an era, gone but not forgotten.
Under continuing presser from big business the government finally issued advertisement in languages other than German, Between 1896 and 1914 the flood gates opened. Ukrainians, Austro-Hungaryians, Russians cane by the thousands.
April 13: Pincher Creek (Alberta) marriage William Henry Welsh to *Marie Simon, Metis, daughter Joseph Simon and **Adelaide Levesque. Metis b-1880 Maple Creek (Saskatchewan), witnesses; Frank Levasseur, Cuthbret Gervais and Father A. Lacombe, source Sharon Seal * Marie received Metis script 1900. ** Adelaide Adams, nee Larocque applied for Metis script August 1885 at Willow Bunch (Saskatchewan) Adelaide born September 20, 1860 St. Francois Xavier daughter Jean Baptiste Larocque and Julie Lemire, married 1881 Baptiste Adam .
July 15: Father Lacombe (1827-1916) issued a printed trilingual circular, in French, English and Cree, directed to the Metis and Natives who do not know how to earn a living, to come to St. Paul de Metis where land will be loaned, and that the missionaries will build a school to train Metis children in agriculture and ranching. He had persuaded Ottawa to provide land, and they approved the scheme but retained ownership of the land. Father Lacombe (1827-1916) said that eight Metis families are expected to settle on the land this year. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), the well-established Metis of Old Strathcona, had given his commitment to support this venture. Father Therein, brothers Augustin Nemoz and two Metis Frederic Durocher and Pierre Dion, arrived at Saint Paul des Metis. Father Therein wanted to ensure that no credit was allowed to any Metis, as bad habits had to be broken immediately. This is interesting because Father Therein always wanted gifts not loans. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, however, did loan money and equipment to some Metis, and later French settlers over the years. The Oblate party had to adopt the Metis pattern of hunting and fishing to survive the early years. Gabriel Cardinal, Johnny Cardinal, Alex Cardinal, Pierre Orkanes and Simon Marron (Desjarlais) are already established in the region. They purchased a building from Gabriel Cardinal for $10.00 to serve as a temporary residence. Father Therein demanded that all transactions be cash, trade or work-hours. It is noteworthy that many European settlers are given title free land and credit to establish themselves, whereas the Native peoples, who owned the land, couldn't hold title. Others to arrive this year are the Boudreau, LaBoucane, Dumont, Villeneuve, Montagnais and others. The Metis came from Battle River, Medicine Hat, Saint Albert, Lac des Brochets, Battleford, Duck Lake, Beaver Lake and Old Strathcona. It is obvious that the vision of Father Lacombe, Metis (1827-1916) and Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis is in direct conflict with the Federal Government and the Church, which demanded assimilation by elimination.
July 15: Fathers Therein, Legoff and Comire arrived St. Paul des Metis and set up their tent among three Metis houses. Father Therien adopted a firm policy of not giving anything to any Metis unless he earned it.
September 6: Father Lacombe (1827-1916) wrote that the history of past frauds, perpetrated upon these people (Metis children of this country) by the speculative and unscrupulous white men, obtaining from them their script for a mere song, seems to have emboldened him to go much further in this direction. The men who engage in this nefarious business know the unsuspicious character of the half breed. They seem to appreciate and profit from it, using it to rob him of his heritage. The law of the land would not permit a man to retain property taken from a minor; but it allows sharks to use legal devices to rob unwary people of their property. It would be hard to believe that within ten years this Church would be encouraging the French families from Quebec to claim jump the Metis land in Saint Paul de Metis. It would be equally hard to accept that this Church was defending the Residential School system to maintain their grants. Father Lacombe (1827-1916), the self proclaimed Metis, by his actions, was from God, not from the Church. Most of the other Oblates could not make this claim.
Richard Bedford Bennet (1870-1947) arrived Calgary (Alberta) to practice law by representing the C.P.R. He would become Prime Minister of Canada 1930-1935..
Baptiste Callihoo Metis born May 13, 1897 Alberta son Jean Francois Callihoo, Iroquois Metis born August 29, 1855 Alberta most likely Devil Lake (Lac Ste Anne) married about 1890 Elizabeth British Metis born August 25, 1871 Alberta, living Lac Sainte Anne 1901.
John Garneau of Old Strathcona
John Garneau (1885-1949) son Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) and Eleanor Taylor (1851-1912) and unknown
Charlot and Archange Garneau
Charlotte Garneau (1882-1902) she was thrown from a horse and killed.
Archange Garneau (1876-1918) died from the American flue.
both are daughters of Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) and Eleanor Taylor (1851-1912)
Elizabeth Gray Metis born November 1, 1897 daughter Magloire Gray, Metis born May 15, 1849, Alberta married about 1877 most likely Lac Ste Anne, Genevieve Metis born April 30, 1850 Alberta, living Lac Sainte Anne (Devils Lake) 1901.
Abram Pearce of Edmonton went to Catney, B.C to operate a saw mill.
Joseph Thompson of Ontario called Calgary "quite a dump" his first sight was "a slough with a cow tethered in the middle".
Strathcona's first hockey team was formed this year, they were a source of civil pride.
The Klondike Trail, some called it the Madness Trail to the Yukon gold. During the period 1897 and 1898 some 2,000 gold seekers departed Edmonton, (Alberta) on the Assiniboine Trail to Fort Assiniboine on the Athabasca River and then ventured North West over the Swan Hills wilderness. From the Peace River country they pushed on to the Yukon. Only a few completed the year-long journey and the trail was dotted with graves of those who tried but failed.
Edmonton became a supply base and proclaimed itself as the Gateway to the Klondike gold rush (the North). Klondike is from the Indian throndiuk; meaning river full of fish. Twenty women, including Mrs. G.E. (Nellie) Garner, passed through Edmonton to the Yukon gold fields. On September 9, 1897, T.W. Chalmers set out to investigate the possibility of building a road to the Yukon. Three such parties departed on the same quest in the last ten days. P.D. Campbell and J. R. Brenton, on August 31, are sent north by the Edmonton Board of Trade. The North West Mounted Police group set out on September 4, on behalf of the Federal Government. Bob Edward of Calgary Eye Opener fame, produced the first issue of the Wetaskiwin Free Lance.
Saint Paul des Metis had no school and the Metis began sending their children to the Anglican school at Saddle Lake. This action horrified Father Therien, who considered it a personal affront. Therien and the Oblate Order had no real experience at agriculture and this tended to be a humiliating experience. Father Lacombe (1827-1916) approached the Salesians of Italy, the Trappists of France, the Premonstratiens of Belgium and several others, without much success, for agricultural experience. Father Van Wetten of Belgium visited Saint Paul des Metis. He is amazed at the accomplishments, and a number of this order is enthusiastic, but the abbey would not support the venture.
The Oblate Fathers moved the first saw mill to Saint Paul des Metis. This mill is a horse powered contraption.
The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) drilled an oil well at Pelican Portage and struck gas at 824 feet. The gas blew free for 21 years at 8.5 million cubic feet of gas a day or 65 billion cubic feet in total..
In 1897, the Edmonton Bulletin and merchants of Edmonton convinced the Canadian Government to promote an all Canadian overland route to the Yukon. The old pack trail was upgraded to a cart and wagon trail. Ferries were put in place on the Pembina and Athabasca Rivers, and several stopping houses were established. Records indicate that the main stopping places were Riviere Qui Barre, Sion, Lac la Nonne, and Belvedere or McDonald's Crossing.
Octave Majeau (1844-1923) and Emilie L'Hirondelle (1848-1932) and family settled at Lac La Nonne, North West Territories in 1897 or 1898.
The Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co. founded by William Fernie and James Baker opened their coal operation on the B.C. side of the pass.
The Hudson Bay Company established a trading post at Sagitiawah at the confluence of the Athabasca and McLeod Rivers later called Whitecourt, Alberta. The first permanent settler was John Goodwin in 1905.
(Alberta) located highway 45 just west of Andrew (Alberta) means three wise men
and the star of the east. It is a Russian town and a priest and deacon
from Seattle visited the area and conducted the first Russian Greek Orthodoc
Church service on Canadian soil. A post office was established July 1,
1899 and the first postmaster was Theodore Nemirsky.
June: The Bow River in Calgary rose about 5 meters turning downtown into a lake, washing out bridges, shot-circuiting electricity and cutting CP lines to Vancouver.
August 8: Pincher Creek (Alberta) birth Sarah Welsh, Metis baptized October 3, 1897 daughter William Henry Welsh and Marie Simon, Metis b-1880, godparents Robert Gladstone and Azilda Gervis, Rev. A. Blanchet OMI; source Sharon Seal
September: The successful gold miners washed gold from the North Saskatchewan River using sluice boxes called grizzlies.
December 6: The W.J. Morse Klondike Gold Rush party arrived Old Strathcona. They represnted the Northwest Mining Developing and Trading Company of Chicago. They were equipped with 12 sleighs with 50 dogs and sixteen sleighs for its 35 horses. They planned to build boats at Fort Nelson to go up the Laird and Frances Rivers or over land to Pelly Banks. Most of these overland expeditions failed..
Baptiste Vaness Metis born 1833 died 1920 Content, Alberta and his wife Catherine born 1840 died 1905 Content. Archie McLean, M. Taggart and Hugh McTaggart are at Concert, Alberta.
Father Morin took thirty seven United States French families from the New England States to his favorite location, Morinville.
Abram Pearce returned to Edmonton to move a saw mill out to Athabasca Landing , sawed lumber and built boats for Klondikers.
Micheal Stanislaus Gauthier (1850-1934) and family are living in Cove, Oregon, and the children attend the 13 mile school.
A Prairie fire destroyed Tail Creek des Metis, one of the finest democratically run, free-trading communities in the history of Canada. Only one cabin survived. It was removed to a nearby farm and eventually to Stettler, Alberta. The settlement reached its peak about 1875 and began its decline in the 1880's, as the bison (buffalo) declined. Most assume Tail Creek disappeared, but it was rebuilt and called Content, Alberta, named after Albert (Alphonse) Arthur Content, born August 13, 1861, Beauharnois, Quebec, who built a lumber mill there. The Metis that didn't have summer houses in other Metis communities melted into the surrounding growing communities.
About 2000 gold prospectors flooded through Edmonton, this year. The Klondyke Gold Rush swelled the population of the town of Edmonton to 2,500 people. The Klondyke Gold Rush is named after the river of the same name in northwestern Canada. The name, however, is a corruption of an Athapascan dialect "Thron Duick"
Sam McGee, an Irishman, born 1867 Ontario and died 1940 Beiseker, Alberta, married Ruth Warnes, traveled to the Yukon this year. Sam McGee is immortalized by a poem by Robert W. Service (1874-1958):
:Now Sam McGee was from Tennessee, where the cotton blooms and blows.
Why he left his home in the South to roam ‘round the Pole, God only knows.
He was always cold, but the land of gold seemed to hold him like a spell;
Though he’d often say in his homely way that “he’d sooner live in hell.”
On a Christmas Day we were mushing our way over the Dawson trail.
Talk of your cold! through the parka’s fold it stabbed like a driven nail.
If our eyes we’d close, then the lashes froze till sometimes we couldn’t see;
It wasn’t much fun, but the only one to whimper was Sam McGee.
And that very night, as we lay packed tight in our robes beneath the snow,
And the dogs were fed, and the stars o’erhead were dancing heel and toe,
He turned to me, and “Cap,” says he, “I’ll cash in this trip, I guess;
And if I do, I’m asking that you won’t refuse my last request.”
Well, he seemed so low that I couldn’t say no; then he says with a sort of moan:
“It’s the cursed cold, and it’s got right hold till I’m chilled clean through to the bone.
Yet ‘taint being dead--it’s my awful dread of the icy grave that pains;
So I want you to swear that, foul or fair, you’ll cremate my last remains.”
A pal’s last need is a thing to heed, so I swore I would not fail;
And we started on at the streak of dawn; but God! he looked ghastly pale.
He crouched on the sleigh, and he raved all day of his home in Tennessee;
And before nightfall a corpse was all that was left of Sam McGee.
There wasn’t a breath in that land of death, and I hurried, horror-driven,
With a corpse half hid that I couldn’t get rid, because of a promise given;
It was lashed to the sleigh, and it seemed to say: “You may tax your brawn and brains,
But you promised true, and it’s up to you to cremate those last remains.”
Now a promise made is a debt unpaid, and the trail has its own stern code.
In the days to come, though my lips were dumb, in my heart how I cursed that load.
In the long, long night, by the lone firelight, while the huskies, round in a ring,
Howled out their woes to the homeless snows—O God! how I loathed the thing.
And every day that quiet clay seemed to heavy and heavier grow;
And on I went, though the dogs were spent and the grub was getting low;
The trail was bad, and I felt half mad, but I swore I would not give in;
And I’d often sing to the hateful thing, and it hearkened with a grin.
Till I came to the marge of Lake Lebarge, and a derelict there lay;
It was jammed in the ice, but I saw in a trice it was called the “Alice May.”
And I looked at it, and I thought a bit, and I looked at my frozen chum;
Then “Here,” said I, with a sudden cry, “is my cre-ma-tor-eum.”
Some planks I tore from the cabin floor, and I lit the boiler fire;
Some coal I found that was lying around, and I heaped the fuel higher;
The flames just soared, and the furnace roared—such a blaze you seldom see;
And I burrowed a hole in the glowing coal, and I stuffed in Sam McGee.
Then I made a hike, for I didn’t like to hear him sizzle so;
And the heavens scowled, and the huskies howled, and the wind began to blow.
It was icy cold, but the hot sweat rolled down my cheeks, and I don’t know why;
And the greasy smoke in an inky cloak went streaking down the sky.
I do not know how long in the snow I wrestled with grisly fear;
But the stars came out and they danced about ere again I ventured near;
I was sick with dread, but I bravely said: “I’ll just take a peep inside.
I guess he’s cooked, and it’s time I looked;” . . . then the door I opened wide.
And there sat Sam, looking cool and calm, in the heart of the furnace roar;
And he wore a smile you could see a mile, and he said: “Please close that door.
It’s fine in here, but I greatly fear you’ll let in the cold and storm—
Since I left Plumtree, down in Tennessee, it’s the first time I’ve been warm.”
"There are strange things done in the midnight sun
By the men who moil for gold;
The Arctic trails have their secret tales
That would make your blood run cold;
The Northern Lights have seen queer sights,
But the queerest they ever did see
Was that night on the marge of Lake Lebarge
I cremated Sam McGee."
The Plaindealer newspaper is claimed to start in Old Strathcona this year. It would appear that the Strathcona Chronicle started about this time.
Alberta experienced drought this year.
Mountain View is a town between Waterton and Cardston created by the Mormons and contained a creamery, carpenter shop and a smithy. Ruffy, Kratz and Belvedere brought in cheese making equipment from Utah by wagon and set up a cheese factory. Nearby Cadwell (Alberta) was also created about this time by the Mormons and contained a sawmill. Cadwell slowly relocated to Hillspring 7 miles north, starting in 1911. Cardston is incorporated as a village.
STEAMER THE MINNOW
The steamer 'The Minnow', that was built in Red River, operated Fort Edmonton to Prince Albert (Saskatchewan).
Pincer Creek became a village this year.
Medicine Hat became a town this year.
The first automobile arrived in Calgary.
Coutts (Alberta) was nothing more that a single tent.
In the Duhamel Settlement aka Battle River Metis Settlement the Metis are confining the education of their children to Protestant ministers because of their contempt the the Catholic Church and their treatment of Metis land claims.
Many Metis were addicted to drunkenness and debauchery because of the Oblate Missionaries.
Alexander Loiselle and his son Louis Loielle arrived Snake Lake, aka Methy Lake (1814) and Swan Lake (1859) and finally it was called Sylvan Lake (Alberta) some time after 1900. They arrived, some say 1899, with the makings of a saw mill and set up shop.
The Russian Greek Orthodox Church was split between the United Greek Catholic Church or Uniates who accepted the Pope of Rome as spiritual head. The Orthodox Church centered itself at Star, Alberta about six miles west of Wostok, Alberta. However when they went to the Land Office in Edmonton to get title to the land that had been promised to them by the Canadian Government, they were dismayed to discover that Bishop Legal, co-adjutor to Bishop Grandin of St. Albert and known as the French Bishop, had already made claim to their lands. The Government relinquished all claims to Bishop Grandin and issued certificates to the trustees of the Star Church effective July 6, 1899. Star formally Edna, formally Limestone Lake is about 60 km east of Fort Edmonton.
The Cree and Metis frequented Old Strathcona with their Red River carts and their traditional tipis. Most people don't appreciate that the Canadian Mounted Rifles formed in 1901 used the traditional tipis made from canvas.
A law requiring the branding of livestock was passed in 1878 at the second session of the Northwest Territories government. More than 3000 cattle and horse brands had been registered by this year and by 1975 there were more than 50,000 registered brands.
June: The Bedard Tannery was moved into a more permanent building located west of (I)-John Walter's (1849-1920) sawmill. Many ox hides from the Barren Lands of the MacKenzie find their way into the vats of the tannery. It is believed the Bedard Tannery was established by William M. Bedard an immigrant from St. Paul, Minessota who arrived late 1897. He started in two log buildings at the corner of White Avenue and 110 Street..
June 13: The Yukon district is established. Collie and Stutfield follow the Indian trail and observe the Columbia Ice fields. Pierre (Jack) Lacombe (1827-1916), from St. Laurent near Montreal, is a baker who moved to Boston Massachusetts. The family claimed him as a relation to Alberta's famous Father Lacombe. He then moved from Boston to Montana, Pincher Creek and finally to Fort Edmonton. In Edmonton, he married Victoria Garneau, Metis, born 1869, and they moved to Saint Paul de Metis where Victoria died in 1899. They had no children, and then Pierre Lacombe married Duchene of Pincher Creek, who died 1916. Pierre Lacombe died St. Paul 1932.
July: Caldwell (Alberta) In May 1898 David Henry Caldwell Senior, of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, with his wife Fanny left St. John, Utah for Canada. They traveled in covered wagons with 4 married sons; David Henry, Jr., James Albert, Abraham Alvin, and John Edgar with their families and unmarried son named Walter. Three married daughters; Caroline Gillman, Fanny Garner, Alice Morgan and their families and three younger daughters also accompanied their parents. They arrived in Canada in July 1898 and settled on a flat between the Belly River and Fish Creek, laid out a town site and called it Caldwell, North West Territories.
December 10: Old Strathconia aka South Edmonton voted on an incorporation name, among Paridise, New Edmonton, and Minto but Strathcona prevailed.
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