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CANADIAN HISTORY 1867-1899
CANADIAN HISTORY 1900-1999
CANADIAN HISTORY 2000-2009
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Prior to 1867 the culture in the West was governed by the Indian, Metis and British through the Hudson Bay Company.
The American "Manifest Destiny" philosophy had a profound impact on the Canadian Peoples, their lands, their rights, and their culture.
The Americans believe they are superior to all other cultures.
All are not capable of self-government (especially Indians, Metis, and non-European in origin).
The right to extend boundaries of freedom (over Indians, Spain, France, Mexico & Canada).
Might is right.
The governing principles of the British WERE:
The British are superior to all other cultures.
Majority does not rule.
Only the British have a right to democracy (to vote).
Civilization interferes with commerce.
February 9: New York Dr. Lewis Sayre claims circumcision cures polio, spurring a trend that leads to almost universal genital mutilation.
HMS Ontario a British Warship built this spring, caught in a sudden gale sank in the fall, in Lake Ontario, taking 120 passengers including 30 American prisoners to their death in 500 feet of water. It was finally found, intact on June 2008.
1791 The Constitutional Act established two Provinces in British North America, Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec).
Upper Canada abolished slavery but not the practice.
The Panic of 1797 was a recession that lasted until 1800
December 14: George Washington (1732-1799) died from pneumonia. Modern doctors suggest he was killed by bloodletting a common procedure in those days. They took 5 pints of blood from the President. Dr. James Craik (1730-1814) a Scot, Dr. Gustavus Richard Brown (1747-1804) a Scot and Dr. Elisha C. Dick (1762-1825) an American of Scottish decent were the attending doctors.
Only 50 cities in the world had a population greater than 100,000 people.
Lower Canada abolished slavery but not the practice.
The depression of 1807 lasted until 1814.
whole continent of North America appears to be destined by Divine Providence to
be peopled by one nation, speaking one language, professing one general
system of religious and political principles, and accustomed to one general
tenor of social usages and customs. For the common happiness of them all, for
their peace and prosperity, I believe it is indispensable that they should be
associated in one federal Union" so wrote John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) and
President of the USA (1825-1829)
He was an early advocate of the 'Manifest Destiny'. The principles of Manifest Destiny are the virtue on the American People and their institutions have a mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and making the world in the image of the U.S.A, in the destiny under God to accomplish this work. HE BELIEVED;
In American continentalism
The expansion of slavery
The annexation of Mexican territory
The expropriation of New Caledonia to the Alaska border
The expropriation of the Columbia District of Oregon, Washington and Idaho.
The annexation of Canada but believed they would join the USA on their own given time.
He served warning to Europe that America was no longer open to colonization with the Monroe Document of 1823.
David Wingfield b-1792 served as a British seaman on the upper Great Lakes during the war with America. He was captured and returned to Britain in 1816.
In December retired President John Adams of the USA, in office (1791-1801) said he could have conquered Canada if he was still in power. He said he'd have made "short work" of Canada. First by asserting naval control over the Great Lakes and then amassing an unstoppable army of 35,000 soldiers.
24: As the British/Canadian army
of approximately 4,000 approached, the majority of the 8,000 Washington
residents fled the city. The American defenders, with President James Madison in
attendance, were quickly routed by the invaders in a battle at Bladensburg a few
miles from the city
The British and Canadians marched on and burned the American capital of Washington.
Of the Senate house, the President's palace, the barracks, the dockyard, etc., nothing could be seen except heaps of smoking ruins
The Americans would later white wash to cover the battle scars and since then it become known as the White House.
griped the U.S.A.
The treaty of 1818 as a result of the American-Canadian war of 1812 established the 49 parallel from Minnesota to the Stony Mountains later called the Rocky Mountains. This was driven by the American 'Manifest Destiny' policy was to attempt to take by force all of North America. They believed it was their God given right.
The panic of 1819 was the first major financial crises.
About 30,000 abandoned, neglected or orphaned children lived on the streets of New York and were called "Street Arabs", but they were mostly British, Irish and German immigrants children.
Cholera spread from London to Canada causing an epidemic.
A second cholera epidemic hit Canada
President Andrew Jackson caused a depression in the United States by preventing the re-charter of the Second Bank, calling it a money monster.
The Patriots of Canada present 92 resolutions for political and economic reform and are rejected by the British Government. Mass meeting, riots and armed encounters soon followed in protest to the British decision.
The First most Severe Depression occurred in America caused by careless lending by banks and reckless land speculation. The Government was warned but refused to listen.
A depression gripped the United States, land ownership was seen as the road to prosperity. The west was seen as freedom, and prosperity so the slogan of 'Boundaries of Freedom' was created to support the Manifest Destiny.
The United State first proclaimed the Manifest Destiny. this year, that assumed the Americans, a naturally superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, was divinely destined to expand across North America (Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Central America) to the exclusion of Indians, Black and Hispanic Peoples. The American Constitution did not apply to non-Anglo-Saxons in practice until the late 20 century. It was and is an ingrained ideology in American political to achieve their ambitions through 'might is right'. They used this philosophy to annex Indian Nation Lands throughout the U.S.A., Canadian lands in Washington, Idaho. Montana and Oregon, Mexican lands of Texas, New Mexico and California. They attempted to take Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. The Spanish exploration of central North America accounted for nothing, not even respect. The threat of invasion was always present for 200 years in North America.
A document is found describing ice hockey in Upper Canada written by a English soldier. However John Franklin notes in 1825 defines the game of hockey in the NWT.
The United States developed the Manifest Destiny during the 1840's for control of North America. This was fueled by their inability to manage their own affairs which manifested itself by their depressions of 1818 and 1849. The cry became 'Boundaries of Freedom' but it excluded those people who they perceived as being incapable of self-governing, such as Indians, Canadians and Mexicans. The fact that they continue to refer to themselves as 'Americans' speaks to this failed destiny.
Brown (1818-1880) a journalist and politician from Edinbourgh, Scotland launched
the Toronto Globe aka The Globe and Mail
April: The U.S.A. annexed Texas in violation of the Treaty of Limits signed in 1828 recognizing that Texas was a Territory of Mexico. This would lead to war with Mexico (1846-1848) and the annexing of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Navada, Arizona and California. The Columbia District of Canada would be annexed, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana on threat of war.
May 19: Sir John Franklin set out from England, on a mission to find the Northwest Passage through the Arctic. He had two Royal Navy ships — the HMS Erebus and the HMS Terror — a crew of 135, and provisions for what was expected to be a three-year journey.
August: two European whaling ships had a chance meeting with the Franklin Expedition as they waited to cross Baffin Bay to Lancaster Sound. That would be their last contact with the outside world.
July: The Philosophy of "Manifest Destiny" is entrenched by the Americans to justify atrocities committed against First Nation Peoples, the Spanish and Canadians.
Pope Pious IX became the longest reigning pope in papal history, reigning until 1878, who, in 1870, would proclaim the dogma of papal infallibility that would not allow the Church to renew itself. Future historians may well refer to this dogma as the beginnings of the decline and fall of the Roman Catholic Empire.
During the summer Canada opened its doors to Irish immigration as a result of the potato famine. Over one million Irish died and over one million migrated to avoid starvation. The U.S.A. had a closed door policy towards the Irish. Most Irish immigrants were poor and sick, starving, many too ill or weak to work, the U.S.A. knowing this raised their health standards and enforced the Passenger Acts…and refused the destitute emigrants landing privileges. They were turned back to sea. Many of them then headed to Canada, hoping for a second chance. America rejected the likes as the ancestors of Henry Ford, Bing Crosby and John F. Kennedy, as undesirables.
June 1: The first ships from Ireland arrived, they were cargo ships mostly transporting logs on the return trip, not really suitable for passenger service. The Irish had to bring their own food and had no toilet facilities. They numbered 100,000 this summer but would eventually number 250,000.. Typhus was a major concern, many families were split-up at departure, identified by black spots on the tongue but typhus was contagious before symptoms appeared. Lice was the main carried and the overcrowded ships were infested. It is interesting to not that human lice has only been around for about 70,000 years. About 5,000 died on the trip and were buried at sea. During June about 13,000 Irish are quarantined at Grosse IIe, Quebec. About 398 ships were inspected at Grosse Île and 441 at Quebec.
Grosse IIe, Quebec had been established in 1832 as a quarantine station because of the cholera pandemic in England. About 7,553 Irish died in 1847 on which 1,545 are listed as unknown, while in quarantine (other suggest it was closer to 20,000 for the whole period and likely includes those lost at sea). However many Torontonians fled the city and others hung signs 'no Irish'. But more importantly most citizens pitched in to accommodate the Irish.
Toronto Council were mostly British Orange Lodge Folks who help the Irish in low regard. They considered the Irish to be sub-servant, lazy good for nothings. The Toronto police treated the Irish like cattle. Bishop Michel Power the first Catholic Bishop of Toronto convinced Council to prepare as he had visited Ireland recently and knew what was coming. The Bishop was to lose his life to typhus.
Toronto had a population of 20,000 people and 40,000 sick and malnourished Irish descended on the town. About 10,000 were quarantine in rapidly constructed buildings but about 1,100 died while in quarantine. Many Canadians lost their lives helping the Irish. Towns like Quebec, Montreal, Kingston and Toronto had typhus outbreaks .
The Marx's Communist manifesto is published
The three-penny beaver postage stamp was issued, the first stamp in the world that did not depict a ruling monarch.
The word 'prehistory' was coined this year by Daniel Wilson, professor of history and English at the University of Toronto. It means any time before written historical records.
The HMS Investigator from England under command of Robert McClure was abandoned in Mercy Bay just east of Beaufort sea and was discovered in 2010.
The potato chip was invented in 1853 in Saratoga, New York
Toronto, marriage Thomas F. Cary d-1860 married Mary Anne Shadd Cary (1823-1893) a free Black Lady who was working the Underground Railway to Canada. She wrote: "You have a right to your freedom and to every other privilege connected with it and if you cannot secure these in Virginia or Alabama, by all means make your escape without delay to some other locality in God's wide universe."
The panic of 1857 saw the failure of Ohio live Insurance.
The Canadian oil boom, triggered in 1857 with the sinking of the first oil well, had gone bust in 1876.
Members of the John Palliser (1817-1887) a wealthy Irish landowner, expedition of (1857-1859) included Dr. James Hector, geologist-doctor, Eugene Bourgeau, a French botanist, Thomas Wright Blakistan and John William Sullivan under Royal Geographical Society, the British government and the Hudson Bay Company, claimed that while the semi-arid area (Praries) was ill-suited for civilization, a northerly fertile belt could maintain stock-raising and agriculture. The HBC did not support colonization as it interfered with business. Why we honor this inept expedition is beyond my understanding. See 1858 below.
The Henry Youle Hind (1823-1908) George Gladman and Simon James Dawson expedition of (1857-1858) saw the potential for agriculture of the Prairies basically refuting the Palliser expedition results.
James Miller Williams of Canada drilled the first commercial oil well in America at Oil Springs, Ontario.
July 31: Members of the John Palliser (1817-1887) expedition of (1857-1859) heard an enormous herd of bison well before they actually saw it. "[The animals] were in such numbers that their grunt sounded like the roar of distant rapids in a large river, and caused] a vibration also something like a trembling in the ground." This elitist expedition didn't see the potential for cattle or agriculture on the Prairies of future Canada. They didn't wonder what these enormous herds of bison ate? Some estimated the bison numbers in the millions. Their final report released 1863 received little interest in Europe and slowed settlement of the west by decades. To but this in perspective in January 1, 2009 Alberta had 5.9 million cattle in this land not suitable for civilization. By 1915 the Prairies produced 300 million bushels of wheat. By 1929 the Prairies produced 500 million bushels of wheat. By the 1970's over 30 million tones or 20% of world exports. Just think the Canadian Prairies plant over 30 million acres to wheat.
Edwin L. Drake launched the first successful oil well in United States near Titusville (Pennsylvania).
In 1859, a search party hired by Lady Jane Franklin found a message left in a cairn on Victory Point, King William Island. The ships had become trapped in the ice in Victoria Strait in late 1846, and remained there for a year and a half.
The message said Sir John Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and by the following spring another 24 members of the crew had perished. In April 1848 the rest of the crew left a note saying they were to set out on foot, for a destination they would never reach.
John Forbes, of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia designed the first spring skate. According to legend, the Iroquois attached shin bones of animals to their footwear with leather thongs in order to travel across frozen bodies of water.
Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus and Encyclical, which would adversely affect the Canadian Roman Catholics and may explain why the Church acted as it did. Many axioms of democracy are explicitly stigmatized as heresies. It stated that the Church had the right to avail herself of force; that there should be no separation of Church and State and that the Roman Catholic religion be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other modes of worship. The encyclical condemned those who pressed for liberty of speech, conscience, worship and of the press. Protestantism is declared not to be a religion. A true Catholic could not abandon intolerance. No one; whether Catholic, Protestant or unbeliever, had the right to read a book banned by the Church. No marriages except those solemnized by the Roman Catholic Church could be valid.
September 1: Delegates arrived in Charlottetown for a week of meetings for the Maritime union, but soon expanded to include the Provinces of Canada, setting the stage for Confederation. Sir Antoine Aime Dorion (1818-1891) leader of the French Parti Rouge did not attend nor the meeting in Quebec in 1864 or in London 1866-1867 Conferences and therefore was not considered a father of Confederation. Confederation delegates were not interested in independence from Great Britain. Dorion however wanted to forge closer relations with the USA.
Slavery is finally abolished in the United States after the American Civil War (1861-1865) was fought over the issue and 630,000 soldiers died.
June 9: One of the most insidious terrorist organization was created in the United States. Ku Klux Klan (KKK). It started out as a fraternal organization based on white supremacy. It quickly escalated into an anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Catholism and Nativism organization. This was a short step into terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation mostly against African Americans. The organization strongly apposed Negro equality. The next step was easy, gang rape, whippings and murder to intimidate others. Few were ever persecuted as Politicians, Judges and Police were part of the KKK. At its peak in about 1926 its membership stood at 6 million or 20% of eligible males with some areas as high as 40%. It's influence lasted into the 1960's about 100 years. Its underlying principle of white supremacy is still alive into the 21 century. The two most evil principles embraced by Americans are 'Manifest destiny' and 'ethnic supremacy'.
(I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) first Prime Minister of Canada led the Conservative party from (1867-1891). He was the son of Hugh MacDonald and Helen Shaw and married 1843, his cousin Isabella Clark d-1857, they had one son Hugh John MacDonald b-1857. He later married Susan Agnes Benard and had one daughter in 1869, died 1933, mentally and physically disabled. He was known to be a heavy drinker. He only care for office, for the power, for the sake of carrying out his own views, of what is best for the country, with little or no regard for the desires of the people. In 1874 he lost the election by soliciting bribes during the transcontinental railway's construction and it was called the Pacific Scandal and involved other Conservatives who solicited $360,000 (about $10 million in 2012 value) from Sir Hugh Allen..
Residential boarding schools for natives is growing in popularity among Eastern Canadians as a way to achieve cultural assimilation by isolation. This strategy would prevail for the next one hundred years with devastating consequences. This model is the same model as the Nazi Concentration camps, only the target is different, the mind and soul vs. the body.
Russia sold Alaska to the United States at less than 2 cents an acre because Russia considered the British an enemy and didn't want them bordering Russia.
Thomas D'Arcy McGee (1825-1868) a politician, journalist, poet, historian and Father of Confederation, was assassinated in a supposed Irish nationalist plot. He was a friend of the corrupt John A. Macdonald and supported Confederation, the transcontinental railway and distained against the American Manifest Destany.
July 1: The Dominion of Canada came into existence with the passage of the British North American Act. 'Women are not persons in matters of rights and privileges.' British North America Act, 1867.
July 1: The Dominion of Canada came into existence. Canada, however, was not allowed to deal directly with other states (such as the Indian and Metis states), control immigration or command Canadian armed forces, except through British Officers. The Hudson Bay Company believed it would help them by providing status and authority in the commerce of land sales to support their colonization policy. Canada consisted of southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The population of Canada is three million, three hundred thousand. Louis Riel (1844-1885) arrived at St. Paul, Minnesota, having been educated at the college de Montreal. More than two thousand caravans of ox-drawn Red River Carts with iron or steel wheels made the trek from Red River to St. Paul, Minnesota this season. Some of their return cargo is glass panes for windows, spinning wheels, looms and tools. All aspects of life on the Red River are improving. Most houses had floors and partitioned rooms. This is the year that General Philip Sheridan, Commander of the division of the Missouri, became infamous for his racist quote: "The only good Indian is a dead Indian".
The U.S. having declared war in 1846, this year forced Mexico to cede 55% of its lands to them. This included Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas and parts of Colorado, Nevada and Utah. The lesson to the world is that might is right. Canada would have to cede land to the US or face war.
The infamous (I)-John A MacDonald (1815-1891), Prime Minister of the Liberal Conservative Party, for a strong, highly centralized, unitary government, made the following statement: "The French half-breeds at Red River are pertinacious resolved to keep the North West a buffalo reserve forever." (I)-John A MacDonald (1815-1891) was a militant Orange Man since 1844. The Orange Order had a violent birth in Loughgall, Ireland in 1795, paying ideological homage to the British Crown and Protestantism. They were a secret society that promoted volunteer militia units for mutual aid and were focused on infiltrating the Civil Service for power. Its power peaked during the MacDonald reign but was still influential into the 1950's. Many considered the Orange Men as the storm troopers of the Ontario Liberal Conservative Party.
Between 1869 and the 1930's about 100,000 British children called 'Home Children' between the ages of 4-15 years old who were abandoned, neglected or orphaned were sent to Canada. Children at that time were considered as property, not persons and had no rights. The were basically shipped west to help on the farms. Some were adopted, some worked as indentured slaves until age 18 years, some were abused. Orphan Trains out of New York carried between 150,000 to 200,000 (some say 400,000) children to 47 States during 1854 to 1929. The children were mostly British, Irish and German immigrants. The children were lined up on the train stations and prospective families selected the ones they wanted and the remainder returned to the train and on to the next town.
Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick joined Canadian Confederation.
February 9: New York Dr. Lewis Sayre claims circumcision cures polio, spurring a trend that leads to almost universal genital mutilation by 1890. Nearly every child in so called developed countries practiced genital mutilation and it became the most common operation. Various tribes, cultures practice genital mutilation of both males and females, for various reasons, starting before 10,000 B.C. The reasons recorded are:
Coming of age rituals in teenage.
Purity rituals at birth.
To identify slaves.
Restricted to the country rulers in the Sudan in 3,200 B.C..
Religious reasons handed down from the Egyptians from 6,000 B.C..
To prevent sexual impropriety especially among women.
To prevent masturbation in 1830's in France.
To prevent syphilitic sores on the genitals in 1740's.
The world was slipping into depression with falling prices, bankruptcies and souring unemployment. This depression lasted 1873 to 1878.
Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada.
John A. Macdonald's government is swept away, some say because of the Canadian Pacific Railway scandal. Others suggest it was because of the Liberal governments treatment of the French and Metis. He was arrogant, and held the Metis and French in contempt. The British considered him a backwoods upstart and the Americans didn't even know who he was.
George French is responsible for organizing the first Mounted Police and their march west. He was forced to resign in 1876 because he had discovered that Ontario was misinformed about conditions in the West. Lt. William Butler was a liar, or more likely the infamous (I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891).
September 24: (I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) announced the formation of the North West Mounted Police.
Her Majesty's Poor Law Inspector reported that the poor indentured children deported to Canada under Britain’s emigration policy has grave concerns. Living conditions in Canada are more strenuous combined with loneliness, homesickness, recollections and attachments of children isolated from kinfolk and homeland. John Walters wrote in 1875 that the poor children are not wanted in Canada as they have their own poor children to handle. It is noteworthy that over 80,000 child slaves are deported to Canada by 1930. Britain, Canada and the major Churches condone this moral and social degeneracy. The Roman Catholic Workhouse Association is deeply involved.
By the end of this decade Maritimes fishermen, Quebec lumbermen, Ontario farmers, railway men, industrial workers and professional men by the thousands are streaming across the border in to the United States. American workers received 50¢ to $1.00 more a day and received annual holidays, unheard of in Canada. Life in Canada was bleak
Sr. John A. McDonald lost the election because of bribes.
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) a Scottish/Canadian invented the telephone, right! Not so, in March 1875, Alexander attended a demonstration of the Reis Telephone conducted by Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institute, invented in 1861, in Germany, by Phillip Reis. Alexander however did file a patent for the telephone this year.
"The 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no values to us." A Western Union internal memo.
A number of Jesuits who were expelled from France have taken up residence in Toronto.
September 8, 1880, with C $25,000, The Imperial Oil Company, Limited was formed. Its charter was "to find, produce, refine and distribute petroleum and its products throughout Canada." With two refineries, one in London and the other in Petrolia, the total capitalization was an impressive Canadian $500,000. Frederick Fitzgerald, a builder of the London Water Works who also dabbled in furniture, liquor, groceries, and oil, became Imperial's first president. Its vice president, Jacob Englehart, who by age 33 had 14 years experience in oil, having started his first refinery at age 19.
Imperial Oil Company was selling to Winnipeg, a frontier town of 8,000, as well as opening up an office in Montreal. Imperial Oil, carried in Imperial's hand-made barrels, rode on Imperial-built wagons across the prairies of the Northwest Territories to Hudson's Bay Company posts. Imperial became so well known for its sturdy oak barrels, that, although the company offered a generous Canadian $1.25 refund for each, most homesteaders chose to keep them and convert them to washtubs, rain barrels, and armchairs.
In 1881-82 about 6,000 Chinese are hired to build the CPR railway at a dollar a day. Non-Chinese were paid two dollars to two fifty a day. The Chinese were forced to buy their supplies from the CPR store and had to build their own camps. It is noteworthy that the B.C. Government did not want to employ the Chinese but the Federal Government said they were necessary or the railway couldn't be built.
The Church of England Society for providing homes for waifs and strays, know called The Children's Society, was established in London this year to ship child slaves to Canada as cheap labor. Many of the children were kidnapped and records were falsified to disguise their origins. It is estimated that 50% were abused. Canada is paid $2.00 per child slave and a cash bonus of $5,000 for every 1,000 children sent. The British were told the Home Children were of fine British stock that would improve the Canadian gene pool. The Canadians were told they were a cheap labor pool and had tainted blood, were criminals, imbeciles, thieves and carriers of syphilis. Under the Canadian Master and Servant Act, the children were bound to work for their sponsors until they were age 18, and were subject to fines and imprisonment if they ran away.
Adolphus Washington Greely (1844-1935) a U.S. Army officer in 1881 was given command of a two year Arctic expedition called the Lady Franklin Expedition that was authorized in October 1879 International Polar Conference in Hamburg, Germany. He had no Arctic experience but part of his 25 man crew included Eskimos. A wooden post was established named Fort Conger, at Lady Franklin Bay on the east coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada that is located a few miles across Robinson Channel from the Greenland coast. A supply ship was to bring supplies and relief personnel in the next summer of 1882 and in the summer of 1883 to bring the party home. This site was chosen as in 1875 the Nares Expedition had discovered a deposit of coal.
Greely Expedition Roster, 1881 (Lady Franklin Bay Expedition).
The Greely Expedition was an operation of the United States Army Signal Corps.
1st Lieutenant Adolphus W. Greely, (1844-1935) one of the six survivors
2nd Lieutenant Frederick F. Kislingbury, he was relieved of duty for disagreeing with Greely.
2nd Lieutenant James B. Lockwood, set a new record in northern expeditions reaching 83" 24' N. Latitude, May 1882
Octave Pavy, Physician & Naturalist, died June 6, 1884
Sergeant Edward Israel, astronomer
Sergeant Winfield S. Jewell
Sergeant George W. Rice
Sergeant David C. Ralson, b-1847
Sergeant Hampden S. Gardiner
Sergeant William Cross
Sergeant David L. Brainard, born December 21, 1856, died March 22, 1946, one of the six survivors and reached 83" 24' N. Latitude May 1882, wrote "This man (Greely) (I cannot call him a gentleman) comes among us like a serpent in Eden and creates eternal hatred towards himself"
Sergeant David Linn
Corporal Nicholas Salor
Corporal Joseph Elison, born January 12, 1849, died July 8, 1884
Private Charles B. Henry, shot by Greely for alleged stealing food
Private Maurice Connell, one of the 6 survivors.
Private Jacob Bender (George Layerzaph), a tin smith, born July 5, 1852, died June 6, 1884, Greely threatened to have him shot for siding with Frederick Kislingbury.
Private Francis Long
Private William Whisler
Private Henry Biederbick
Private Julius Frederick
Private William A. Ellis
Private Roderick R. Schneider
Jens Edward, hunter and dog driver (Greenland native) Eskimo
Thorlip Frederick Christiansen, hunter and dog driver (Greenland Native) Eskimo, reached 83" 24' N. Latitude May 1882
2nd Lieutenant James B. Lockwood, Thorlip Frederick Christianson (Eskimo) and Sergeant David L. Brainard, of the Greely Expedition, set a new record in northern expeditions reaching 83" 24' N. Latitude, May 1882
In the summer of 1882 the supply ship for the Lady Franklin Expedition had to turn back because of heavy ice.
!882 to 1886 was classified as a depression.
Imperial Oil suffered a major setback. During a thunderstorm in July, lightning hit an Imperial refinery, sparking a fire that burned its London processing operation to the ground.
A second supply ship for the Lady Franklin Expedition was crushed by heavy ice and sank. Adolphus Washington Greely (1844-1935) because no supply ship had arrived abandoned Fort Conger to head south as previously arranged to supply point Smith Sound. There they found a small cache of previsions with a note of the fate of the supply ship. They built a crude shelter and settled in for another winter. President Chester Arthur (1829-1886) and the Secretary of War Robert T. Lincolin did nothing to aid in the recovery of the Greely Expedition.
Sandford Fleming of Canada developed 'standard time' to accommodate the railway scheduling. Prior to this time time was reckoned by high noon.
"We tacitly abandon ourselves to the notion that our United States have been fashioned from the British Islands only - which is a very great mistake" Walt Whitman.
Many bills to appropriate funds for the recovery of the Greely Expedition were defeated by Congress. Had it not been for the persistent activities of Greely's wife Hennietta Hudson Nesmith (1849-1918) who he married in June 1878, the Greely Expedition survivors would have been lost. Congress finally begrudgingly approved funding for a recovery operation.
January 17, 1884 first man on Greely Expedition dies of starvation.
June 5: Greely orders the execution of Private Charles B. Henry.
June 22: The Greely Expedition as
it now became known started out as a party of 25 men was reduced to 6 through
starvation, drowning, hypothermia and the execution of private Charles B. Henry
for stealing food. The survivors had reverted to cannibalism and eating
shoe leather. They were finally rescued June 22, 1884.
The U.S.A. Congress said they would never again support an Arctic Expedition.
The public greeted the remaining Greely Expedition members as hero's but the government were cool and refused to recognize the achievements of this expedition. Cannibalism, in fighting, finger pointing and inept command dogged Greely for months. Sic corpuses of the Greely Expedition were examined and showed signs of cannibalism.
It is noteworthy that Sergeant David L. Brainard (1856-1946) diary of events have been expurgated by omitting details and changes to Brinard's style of writing.
From 1885 to 1923, 97,000 Chinese immigrants to Canada were forced to pay a discriminatory head tax to enter the country. That tax, at times equivalent to more than a year’s earnings, was a major source of revenue for government in an era before personal income tax. A $50 head tax was imposed on Chinese immigrants and women and children were prevented from coming to Canada. This racist action would see a full apology from the Canadian Government in June 2006.
January: (I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) announced that a commission would be appointed to investigate and report on western problems. Police, Government officials and private individuals appealed unceasingly to Ottawa, but MacDonald's delays are notorious and a mere promise of a commission of inquiry seemed to hold out but small hope of redress.
A battle emerged between George Westinghouse (1846-1914) an advocate for AC (alternating current) and Thomas Edison (1847-1931) advocating DC (direct current). DC could accommodate large amounts of power over longer distances but AC at the time was more economical and its range could be extended using transformers.
Up until this time the primary use of oil was for kerosene for heating and light.
June 23: “Is our climate changing? The succession of temperate summers and open winters through several years, culminating last winter in the almost total failure of the ice crop throughout the valley of the Hudson, makes the question pertinent. The older inhabitants tell us that the winters are not as cold now as when they were young, and we have all observed a marked diminution of the average cold even in this last decade.” – New York Times, June 23, 1890
(I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891), a Scott, leader of the New Liberal Conservative Party, died and ended a gloomy period for Native Canadians. The Canadian population stood at four and one half million.
The first Ukrainians from the Provinces of Galicia and Bukovyna in the Austria-Hungarian empire arrived at the port of Montreal. They immediately traveled by train to Winnipeg. This first party consisted of Ivan Pylypin (Pillipin) (1859-1936) and Vasyl (Wasyl) Eleniak b-1883 and his son Vasyl L. Elyniak, Lurko Panischak was rejected and had to turn back in Europe as he didn't have enough money to reach Canada. At this time East European folks were not welcome in Canada. They came without their wives and children because of fear of the unknown. It took 2 1/2 days to reach Winnipeg. It was obvious we were in wild country. They took out homesteads on two quarter sections for $10.00 each. A chance encounter with a shoemaker who said "It's warmer in North West Territories (Alberta) go take a look). Ivan went to the land office to enquire and was told "Fine we will give you free train tickets. Go pick a good piece of land. We got lots." Ivan took the train to Calgary and liked what he saw so he returned to Winnipeg. He then went back to Austria-Hungarian in early 1892 to get the wives and children.
By 1893 Imperial Oil Company had 23 branch offices spread from Halifax to Victoria.
Immigrants from western Europe were considered preferred, all others were classed as undesirables. The Dominion Government deemed immigrants from Eastern Europe were just not suited for the rigors of Canada West as they called the North West Territories. The Slavs. were classified as uncultured, lazy and lacking initiative for frontier life. It's noteworthy the English were also classified the same way by the Scotch in early Canada during the fur trade.
El Nino was first discovered by fishermen off the coast of Peru in the late 1800's. During 1895-1896 the Southern Region of Australia suffered a heat wave causing 437 deaths.
The gold reserve of the U.S. Treasury was saved when J.P. Morgan and the Rothschilds loaned $65 million worth of gold to the United States Government.
The settlers from Western Europe dried up. The CPR lobbied the government to admit settlers from Eastern Europe. The 1st priority was Austro-Hungarian Germans and only issued advertisements in German, the intent was to keep other undesirables out of Canada.
February 24: “The question is again being discussed whether recent and long-continued observations do not point to the advent of a second glacial period, when the countries now basking in the fostering warmth of a tropical sun will ultimately give way to the perennial frost and snow of the polar regions.” – New York Times, Feb. 24, 1895
Under continuing presser from big business the government finally issued advertisement in languages other than German, Between 1896 and 1914 the flood gates opened. Ukrainians, Austro-Hungaryians, Russians cane by the thousands.
July 11: (II)-Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919) the 1st francophone Prime Minister is so far the longest unbroken serving Prime minister of Canada, July 11, 1896 to October 6, 1911 (15 years). He firmly believed in "civil liberty" for all Canadians.
In the winter of 1897-1898 news spread of a Klondike River gold discovery in Canada's Yukon. Men and women from all over the world converged on two small settlements Skagway and Dyea both in Alaska. The route of choice was the 33 mile long Chilkoot Trail that some 25,000 to 30,000 people used. The path was so narrow that sleds and pack animals were almost useless. The worst part of the trail was the 'Golden Stairs' of 1,500 steep steps carved out of ice and snow. Skagway survived with about 800 people but Dyea is a ghost town. The area was originally occupied by the Tlinget people who numbered 5,000 to 8,000 people.
Unable to convince Canadian or British banks or private investors to gamble with large amounts of capital, in 1898 Imperial Oil Company turned to the U.S. Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, who had offered to purchase Imperial years earlier. On Dominion Day in 1898, Standard Oil (now called Exxon) assumed a majority interest in Imperial. Imperial took over Standard Oil's Canadian assets on February 23, 1899, including its refinery in Sarnia. Standard worked to keep its ownership of Imperial secret, giving Canadian government officials Imperial Oil stock as hush money. Canadian and English investors could not see a bright future in oil and basically sold our heritage to the USA.
When Spain declared war on the United States, the U.S. in turn declared war on Spain but lied and backdated the declaration by three days so it would look more heroic to have declared war first.
April 21: US President William McKinley declared a state of war with Spain and established a blockade of Cuba. It is noteworthy that January 1, 1898, Spain had granted limited autonomy to Cuba but the US wanted Spain out of Cuba and resented their presents in Pueryo Rico and the Philippines. Some consider this American-Spanish War as the end of the Spanish Empire.
May 2: War has broken out offshore Philippines between Spanish and American war ships.
May 8: Gun fire is heard off the coast of Newfoundland. The firing lasted for 15 minutes and it is assumed two ships were likely involved, Spanish and American.