Slavery was institutionalized
they could be killed without recourse.
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The female Bischof-Speyer Neanderthal skeleton found near Speyer, German was carbon dated to 19,300 B.C. but recent tests date it to 1,300 B.C. This and other carbon dating errors of skeletal remains in Germany has thrown current theories concerning prehistory in doubt. It this and other dating corrections holds true there can be little doubt that Neanderthal Man did not become extinct, they are us.
A study on Neanderthal DNA revealed a mutation in MCiR gene that codes for a protein involved in the production of melanin, a substance that gives skin its colour. It is thought to be responsible for red hair and pale skin (fair complexions like Celtic humans.). The Neanderthal fossils were from El Sidron in northern Spain and Monti Lessini, Italy.
The first Celts are believed to have evolve from the Hailstatt culture of Austria, about this time or earlier.
Amenemope an Egyptian author is believed to have influenced
the Biblical Book of Proverbs.
During the eleventh and twelfth century hundreds of new settlements were founded in the hill country of central Canaan but there is no evidence connecting these settlements to the Hebrew or Israelites.
A fifty-foot boat constructed of oak planks each weighting more than one ton each is discovered at Dover England. Some suggest the Proto-Celt is in Europe about this time. Others suggest they didn't originate in Europe.
The oldest know shipwreck dates to about this time, the era of the fall of Troy and reign of King Tut (Tutankhamnun). It was found off the southern coast of Turkey at Uluburun (Big Nose/Cape). He was called the boy king but in fact was about 20 years old a man in those times. He reigned for 9-10 years and was one of the greatest periods of restoration in the history of Egypt. He was involved in military campaigns and died from an infection as a result of an accident.
Yahweh Sabaoth God of Armies, the warrior god, the god of volcanoes is believed to be the tribal God of Midian, Jordan. The God of Abraham El Shaddai (High God of the Mountain) is a friendly, fatherly God who even takes human form, he is not like the terrifying God of the Yahweh sect. The people of Deir el-Balah, on the Gaza Strip, have adopted Egyptian burial customs, and are producing giant anthropoid coffins.
Thera volcanic fallout of 1628 B.C. places Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1187-1156 B.C.) dynasty 20, or based on the Pellegrino theory (1300 B.C.), for his victory over the People of the Sea including the Minoan-Philistines. Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) or based on the Pellegrino theory (1300-1269 B.C.) or (Rohl theory places his reign as (824-792 B.C.)) defeated the invading northern People of the Sea that included the Philistines. Many Philistines are pressed into the Egyptian strongholds as mercenaries. The Philistines as a result adopted Egyptian burial customs about this time. The Semitic-Habiru (Hebrew?) are not politically active in the Egyptian-Canaan-Philistine region and are likely nomadic in nature during this period. No record exists of the movements of the Semitic-Habiru (Hebrew?) for the past 150 years. The Hebrew tradition suggests they have been conducting guerrilla warfare during this period with little success and the Israelites are even delivered into the hands of their enemies. The Semitic-Habiru (Hebrew?) has been attacking the well-fortified Canaanite and Philistine cities. The Egyptians dealt a severe blow to the Philistines making them vulnerable to the guerrillas. Ramses III records defeating the Libyan hordes in year 5 and again in year 11 when they tried to settle in the Delta. Worker strikes on building projects of royal tombs are noted toward the end of his reign. Conspirators in the harem attempted to assassinate the king. There are also accounts of the robbing of tombs and the trials of thieves.
In year 8 the Mediterranean tribes are pushing the Libyans toward Egypt, many are mercenaries in the Egyptian and Hittite armies. Some settled in Egypt and many more settled in Palestine and Syria. Conditions in Asia also caused a great migration. The Sherdan, Shekelesh, Denen, Peleset, Tjekker and Weshesh, with ox-cart and all their baggage overran the Levant. The Great Hittite empire collapsed, but Ramses III checked the enemy army before it reached Egypt. Many Sherdan and Kehek joined the Egyptian army as mercenaries and eventually settled as farmers. The Peleset settled on the southern strip of Levant giving the land the name Palestine.
China produced the first known written book this year. It is noteworthy that Greece would not produce a written book for another 800 years.
The Thracians were a warrior people who lived in Bulgaria 1,300 to 500 B.C. They were reduced to vassals by the Persians and practiced polygamy.
Papua New Guinea a long tool made from a form of jade called jadeite only found in Mexico has puzzled scientists for years. An unpublished manuscript by a German scientist records he found a strange rock in Irian Jaya the Indonesian half of New Guinea which might be a close match.
Ramses (Rameses) II (930-863 B.C.) (1304-1237 B.C.) (1287-1220 B.C.) (1290-1224 B.C.) (1279 B.C.) dynasty 19, to (1430 B.C.) based on the Pellegrino theory, and the Sherden (Sardins or Sardinians) fought the Hittites at Kadesh. The Hittites are allies with Northern Syria, Anatolia, the Dardanians, Mksian, Pedasian, Lycian and others. The Egyptian allies are routed and nearly lost their army. The Egyptian and Hittite Empires however enter into treaty dividing Syria and Palestine becomes Egyptian. Egypt occupied and controlled Southern Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Saudi Arabia so it is unlikely that the Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) (Mosheh) sect and the Semitic-Hebrews are driven out of Egypt at this time as some claim.
Moses lived about this time, 1280BC-1200BC. We cannot be certain when Moses lived except that it was obviously before the Jews settled in Palestine, when they were still wanderers. The general opinion seems to be that it was at some time within the period of Ramesses and his son. The father-in-law of Moses was a Midianite. Moses reportedly died at Mount Nebo.
Ramesses II (the Great) ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty, 1279BC-1213BC. Seti I named him co-ruler early in his life. His capital city was Qantir, 75 miles north of Cairo. A detailed map of the city was created in 1998. His colossal statue, removed from Memphis, now greets the visitor when he leaves Cairo's main railway station. There are huge statues of Ramesses in the Luxor temple... and most gigantic of all, the seated colossi at Abu Simbel. He enlarged the Karnak temple on a scale which makes human beings... look and feel like ants. The tomb of Queen Nefertari, wife of Ramses II, Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, was discovered in 1904.
(19th) King Xiao Xin of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 3 years (1,278-1,275 B.C.)
(20th) King Xiao Yi of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 10 years (1,274-1,264 B.C.)
Ramses (Rameses) II (930-863 B.C.) (1304-1237 B.C.) (1287-1220 B.C.) (1290-1224 B.C.) (1279-1213 B.C.) dynasty 19, to (1430 B.C.) based on the Pellegrino theory, of Egypt is forced to sign a treaty of peace an alliance with the Hittite King.
Biblical Abimelech (1267-1264 B.C.) son Gideon (1307-1267) and his concubine (a slave girl) murdered the seventy sons of Gideon (1307-1267) his stepbrothers to become the first King of the tribes of Israel. Jotham the youngest son however escaped to Beer. Israel revolted against the King of Israel who killed 1,000 men and women of Israel. A woman finally killed him with a millstone.
Biblical Thola (1264-1241 B.C.) of Gilead became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
(21th) King Wu Ding of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 59 years (1,263-1,205 B.C.)
Pottery fragments found near Natadola in western Fiji, pushed back settlement of this island back 200 years. It was believed to have been made by the Lapita people, who populated Polynesia.
Upon the death of King Khattushilish III the Hittite Empire is attacked by the Hushki of Phrygia. The Egyptians considered the Phrygian culture more ancient than their own according to the Greek historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.). Manetho the Egyptian historian finds great fault with the Greek historian Herodotus (he spoke no Egyptian) for his ignorance and false relations of Egyptian affairs. Masses of strangers are pressing into the surrounding country. These strangers include the Semites, Indo-Europeans, Arameans, Asiatic (Semitic) and Minoan-Philistines.
Biblical Jair (1241-1219 B.C.) of Gilead became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
Mount Etna, located on the island of Sicily erupted and again in 1,170 B.C., 1,149 B.C., 525 B.C. and at regular intervals to present times.
Earthquakes during this period of 1225-1175, toppled some city-states and centers of trade and scholarship in the Middle East. Jericho, Jerusalem, Knossos and Troy were all hit.
During this period the Libyans driven by famine in their own land came into the Egyptian Delta. The Libyans under Mauroy formed a coalition with the Sea People who came as far away as Asia Minor and the Agean Sea with their families.
The Pharaoh Merneptah (1237-1209 B.C.) (1224-1214 B.C.) (1220-1210 B.C.) (1213-1204 B.C.) dynasty 19, wrote the Libyan Princes are prostrate, desolation is for Tehenu, and Hatti (proto-Hittite) is pacified. Plundered is the Canaan with every evil. Carried off is Ascalon, seized upon is Gezer, Yanoam is made as that which does not exist. Israel is laid waste, his seed is not. (This comment would suggest the Israelites are in Canaan). The inscription is significant in that it names Israel as people instead of land. This would imply that a kingdom of Israel does not exist at this time. Palestine is become a widow for Egypt. All lands together, they are pacified. The Pharaoh has bound everyone who was restless. In the fifth year of Merneptah's reign a Libyan prince led a coalition of Libyan tribes (the Libu, Meshwesh, and Kehek), the Sherdan (Sardinia), Shekelesh, Lukka, Tursha (Etruscans), Akawasha and Mediterranean’s against the towns of the Egyptian Delta. They are roundly defeated with 6,000 captives of Libyans and their allies taken. The Sea People about this time are invading Libya.
Merneptah (1237-1209 B.C.) (1224-1214 B.C.) (1220-1210 B.C.) (1213-1204 B.C.) dynasty 19, had to protect Egypt's Western frontier against a Libyan invasion. Libyan allies included Achaean (the Island People or Sea People), Tyrsenian, Lycian, Sardian or Latin-Sardinian and Siculi. The war resulted in 6,000 Libyan and ally’s dead and 9,000 taken prisoners. The Hittite Empire is suffering starvation and Egypt honoring their treaty of 1,280 B.C. sends grain to relieve the suffering
Some attribute Pharaohs Amunmose (Amenmesse) (1203-1200 B.C.), Seti II (1204-1198 B.C.), Siptah (1198-1193 B.C.) and Queen Tawosre (Tawosert) (1193-1190 B.C.) to the end of dynasty 19, others exclude them from the king list. The first Pharaoh of dynasty 20 Sethnakhte (1200-1198 B.C.) (1190-1187 B.C.) is recorded as the king who brought order out of confusion and reestablished peace.
Egyptian records suggest the Israelites are in Canaan at this time. Evidence suggests the Israelites evolved from the Canaanites.
Egyptians record that the Semitic (Jewish) people are in Palestine by the year 1207 B.C. Prior to this time the Egyptian Atenist Sect occasionally called the Israel people were nomads with no land. The biblical accounts of conquest are likely fashioned after the Egyptian conquests or others of the region.
(22th) King Zu Geng of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 27 years (1,204-1,177 B.C.) He may have ruled longer?
Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the historian places the Biblical Jephthah (1131-1125 B.C.) as (1201-1195) the Gileadite son of Gilead and a alien harlot became Judge of the tribes of Israel. Jephthah marched against and defeated the Ammonites. The men of Ephraim crossed the Jordan and engaged Israel but lost the war and 42,000 are killed.
The end of Mycenaean civilization in Greece. Others suggest it lasted from (1,600 BC to 1,100 BC). Historians can't agree if this civilization collapse was as a result of climate change, natural disaster or invasion by the Dorian culture.
Reign Pharaoh Sethnakhte (1200-1198 B.C.) (1190-1187 B.C.) of dynasty 20, others exclude him from the king list.
The Phoenicians sailed from their ports in Lebanon beyond the Straits of Gibralter to conduct trade in the Atlantic during the period of 1200 to 300 B.C. A ship wreck off the coast of Cartagena in southeast Spain confirms this and contained amber from the Baltic Sea, elephant tusks from the Atlantic coast of Morocco.
The Celts are believed to have originated about this time in France and Western Germany. They were noted to be a barbaric people who spread from Ireland to Turkey.
The Hittite town of Cappadocia, Turkey is destroyed. Evidence suggests the Hittite had previously displaced the Hattis people before losing the city. The Hittite Empire of the past eight hundred years basically disappeared by this time although some Hittite states lingered on in Northern Syria for a considerable time. The hill people (Assyrian) helped in their decline but did not replace them in power at this time. Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1187-1156 B.C.) or (1300 B.C.) dynasty 20, records a victory won by him over a people attacking the Delta from the sea, whom he called the Achaiwasha (Whhiwaya).
The Thera volcanic fallout of 1628 B.C. places Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1279-1156 B.C.) dynasty 20 reign as closer to 1300 B.C. These are possibly Homeric Achaeans. Raiding across the Mediterranean they had destroyed Crete. They may have also sacked the city of Troy. Others suggest these are the Minoan-Philistines from the Northern coast of Palestine. The Minoan-Philistines consisted of five tribes (cities) the Gaza, Asdod (Ashdod), Ashkblow (Ashkelon), Gath and Ekron who are believed to have come from Crete about this time. The town of Ekron is destroyed 603 B.C.
The Metapontians of Southern Italy are growing barley, wheat, olives
and grapes. The cultures that occupied these sites before the Metapontians
also grew the same crops. The Mycenaeans ancestors of the Anatolia
(Greek) are trading Italy and Sicily.
The Illyrian with mounted warriors and weapons of iron invade Anatolia (Greece) with their defending charioteers and weapons of bronze that is inferior and the Illyrian drove the Anatolia (Greek) before them to what is called the Dorian Migration and they resettle into city states. The Illyrian would eventually settle in Slovenia in northern Yugoslavia. It is interesting that Greek mythology symbolizes nearly all monsters as female. This suggests the Greek culture has nearly a pathological fear of women. The basis of this deep-rooted fear is not well understood but has very negative implications in Greek philosophy. Plato suggested holding wives and children in common. Women he considered as an exchange object, a possession to be held in common. Demosthenes defined three kinds of women, courtesans for the sake of pleasure, prostitutes for the daily care of the body and wives for legitimate children and guardians of the household.
The Semitic-Hebrew League of twelve tribes (1,200-1,000) legend is formed and the Judges (tribal leaders) watched over their religion. To the east is the Semitic-Ammonites (Jephthah)(Eastern Jordon), north the Djahi or Semitic-Phoenicians (sea people) and close at hand the Midianites (Gideon), Minoan-Philistine (Samson), Semitic-Edomites and Semitic-Moabites (Ehud). We need to keep in mind the Semitic-Canaanites (Phoenicians) is the aboriginal people of Palestine believed to have migrated from Mesopotamia. The period of the Books of the Kings of Palestine are believed to cover the period 1,200 to 1,050 B.C.
Some believe the Sea People at this time migrated into Lebanon and mixed with the Canaanites to create the Phoenician culture. DNA testing does not support this theory. All are of the same Peoples and Culture. A phonetic alphabet of 22 consonants developed along with a distinct Phoenician language. The Canaanite culture is declining about this time.
The Phrygian and Mysian people who's chief deity is Cybele (Ma) the Great Mother riding a chariot drawn by lions as found in 191 B.C. in Rome. These people from Thrace settled in central Anatolia, west of the Halys.
Homer's The Odyssey (Odysseus) clearly demonstrates that slaves who displeased their master could be disposed of at will in Greece. Slavery is an integral component of the Greek City State concept. This evil practice was adopted from the Mesopotamian culture then passed on to the Roman culture and then the Roman Catholic Church. To be more politically correct these cultures required a large class of 'un-free' to support their evil ambitions. It is noteworthy that the master had and frequently exploited, absolute rights of sexual access to both male and female slaves from their earliest times. Castration was frequently applied as punishment to recalcitrant male slaves.
The Phoenicians were referred to as Canaanites prior to this time. The Canaanites are the Phoenicians others say.
The Polynesians colonized Fiji and Tonga by 1200 B.C.
Olmec jade celt dated to 1,200 B.C. to 600 B.C. is found in Central and South America and many inscriptions strongly represents the Chinese Shang (1,500-1,000 B.C.) writings.
The first outbreak of human plague may have been the scourge that struck the Philistines in the 12th century BC. The Old Testament account mentions "mice that mar the land."
Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1187-1156 B.C.) or (1300 B.C.) dynasty 20, conquered Damascus (Syria) from the Hittite. Damascus had been previously under Egyptian rule from 1450-1350 B.C.
Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the historian places the Biblical Ibzan (Ibsan) (1125-1118 B.C.) as (1195-1188) of Bethleham became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
Biblical Tola (1194-1171 B.C.) son Anath became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
Pharaoh Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1187-1156 B.C.) or (1300 B.C.) dynasty 20, defended his northern frontier against land and sea invasion. The attackers are the Minoan-Philistine, Teucrian, Siculi, Danuna and others.
In his 5 & 11 years the Libyan attempted to secure portions of Egypt and are repulsed. It is interesting to note that Ramsis III is the first Pharaoh of Egypt to be depicted as a great conquer and killer. To this time the Egyptian culture because of its natural barriers (deserts) practiced mostly benevolent and materialistic cultural practices. This contrasted sharply with the Mesopotamian culture that practiced a patriarchal regime of war, conquest and slavery. Fundamental to this cultural anomaly is the treatment of their women. Prior to this time Egypt had regarded its women as equals whereas Mesopotamia cultures treated women as property. It is interesting to note that Ramesses II (1304-1237 B.C.) had 108 sons and that likely only represented his legitimate sons and suggest a breakdown of a historic monogamous society.
Josephus (37-100 A.D.) places the Biblical Elon (1118-1108 B.C.) as (1188-1178) of Zebulum became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
A great migration wave of island people came by land and sea to attack the Hittite Empire. These people included the Minoan-Philistine, Teucrian, Sicilian, Danuna and Weshesh. They established their culture in the Northern Syrian plain. These people had ox driven carts loaded with household goods accompanied by women and children. Large numbers of captives are taken to Egypt including 100,000 men and the Northern Palestine boarder is held.
Josephus (37-100 A.D.) places the Biblical Abdon (1108-1100 B.C.) as (1178-1170) son Hillel of Pirathon became Judge of the tribes of Israel.
(23th) King Zu Jia of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled about 16 years (1,176-1,160 B.C.)
Pharaoh Ramses (Rameses) III (1198-1166) (1186-1155 B.C.) or (1300 B.C.) dynasty 20, defended Egypt from the Meshwesh (Libya) taking 1,300 men and 700 women as prisoners. Egypt still held Palestine at this time. Egypt's Northern boundary is Djahi somewhere along the coast of Southern Phoenicia or Northern Palestine. Ramesses III is believed to be assonated by having his throat slit by his wife and her son in 1155 B.C.
Josephus (37-100 A.D.) contends that Israel is delivered into the hands of Palestine for forty years (1170-1130). Samson (1170-1150) is a judge under Philistine rule.
The Pharaoh Ramses (Rameses) IV (1166-1155 B.C.) (1156-1150 B.C.) dynasty 20, faced with the migration of hundreds of thousands of settlers into their Northern territories withdraws from Phoenicia and Palestine. These Island People focused their attention of the sacking of Troy. The Minoan-Philistines and Teucrians secure the coastal plain of Palestine. The Israelites are hold their Highland positions. The Palestine had the chariot and iron and the Israelites had neither. During the Israelites period of Judges the Palestine declared a monopoly on iron and attempted to keep this technology from the Israelites.
(24th) King Lin Kin of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 4 years (1,161-1,155 B.C.) Others say he ruled 6 years.
The Abbott Payrus documents the investigation of serious grave robberies during this period in Egypt.
This ends the Kassite (Hittites) Dynasty (1595-1157). Under the first Dynasty of Babylon most of the great Sumero-Akkadian myths and legends are updated, edited and rewritten into Standard Babylonian. Religious beliefs between man and gods shifted from stressing confidence to resignation, from focusing on faith to superstition.
(25th) King Kang Ding of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled about 8 years (1,156-1,148 B.C.)
The Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses III clearly had his throat cut in 1156 B.C. supporting the theory of the Harem Conspiracy where one of his wives murdered him to put her son Pentawere on the throne.
Pharaoh Ramses (Rameses) V (1155-1145 B.C.) (1150-1145 B.C.) dynasty 20. Royal records indicate the Pharoah (King) and the temples own most of the land. Thefts and embezzlements of cattle, cloth and grain by priests of the temple of Khnum at Aswan are recorded. The High Priest of Amun Ramsesnakhte (1166-1135) effectively gained control of the administration and wealth of both the Pharoah (King) and temple.
Pharaoh Ramses (Rameses) V (1155-1145 B.C.) (1150-1145 B.C.) dynasty 20 but effective control is with the High Priest of Amun Ramsesnakhte (1166-1135).
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