Rome would adopt the Real Estate ownership belief.
These principles would become endemic in Europe.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Japan's Empire is started this period.
Buddhism also begins during this period.
It is noteworthy the in Egypt prior to this time slavery was marginal in Egypt. Evidence suggests the majority of slaves were well treated and some rose to become high ranking officials. This principle appears to be an old world wide belief. In contrast the Greece and later the Roman culture adopted the Mesopotamian belief of slave holding and institutionalized slavery. The Greece considered slavery the core of their political organization, their ideal of democracy, where freemen lived on the backs of slaves who could be disposed of at will. In essence they were a non-person. Their principle was that a city taken in war, the people and property became the property of the captor. The Principle of might is right is born. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) the Greek philosopher would argue that those without spirit (meek) are only suited for slavery. Those with spirit and intelligence make natural leaders. This insidious paternal philosophy would infect Europe causing suffering and death of tens of millions of innocent people. It is not by accident that scriptures would suggest that the meek shall inherit the earth.
The Cimmerians (Assyrian Gimirrai) from the Crimean Peninsula (Russia) pushed across the Caucasus southward into Asia Minor attacking the Urartu and Phrygia and threatened the Assyrian Empire from the north. They defeated the Urartian and established themselves in the Republic of Georgia. They are now pushing along the south shore of the Black Sea harassing the Phrygia and the kingdom of Lydia. Other Cimmerians are entering the North Western corner of Iran forming alliances with the Mannai and Medes.
The Delphi Temple (1,600-500 B.C.) of female oracles are working at their peak of influence. Delphi, Greece is considered the center of the universe with the French, Italians and Middle East people coming to hear their prophecies.
The Assyrian recorded a belief in Ohrmazd a God of good and Ahriman a Destructive Spirit who is slow in knowledge, whose will is to smite, and is located deep down in darkness. Ahriman has existed for three thousand years. A mixed reign of Ohrmazd and Ahriman would last for another three thousand years. The last three thousand years Ahriman would be made powerless. Other sources suggest the cycle is 12 thousand years rather than 9 thousand years. This thinking evolved into man as being the good and women as the Whore demon of evil (Ahriman) as his companion. They even created Jeh a queen of her species, chief of all Whore demons. Woman here after is subservient to Ahriman and is the cause of the defilement of man. The extension of a sinful world is a natural outcome of this type of thinking. In Greater Anatolia (Greek) (Italy) 47 skeletons out of 272 showed signs of syphilis.
It is believed that the tradition of Halloween originated about this time with the Celts of the Westward Islands who donned freighting costumes to fool evil spirits.
The Philistine Achish (Ikausu) son Padi, King of Ekron built a temple, excavated in 1996. Ekron according to Samuel I captured the Ark of the Covenant but returned it to Judea after a plague afflicted Ekron.
The Great wall of China was begun about this time, further constructed (221 B.C.-210 B.C.) and completed (1368-1644)
The Biblical King Manasseh (699-643 B.C.) son Hezekiah (Ezechiah) and Hephzibath ruled Judah.
King Manasseh (699-643) encouraged his people to worship Canaan gods as well as Yahwea the God of Moses. It is noteworthy to recall the Canaan worshipped the Great God El, the God of Abraham. Hilkiah discovered, some say invented, the Book of the Law attributed to Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.). The book now called Deuteronomy is claimed to be found in the temple. It is claimed Shaoan the secretary of Josiah read the law to King Manasseh (699-643) some time during his reign. Hilkiah demanded no religious tolerance.
The Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) finally retaliated against the Elamite for supporting revolt in Babylonia. A sea force manned by Phoenician and Cypriot sailors is sent down the Tigris to Upa (Opis) then overland to the Euphrates and joined the land army at Bab-Salimeti near the mouth of the river. The Assyrian troops crossed the Gulf, landed in Elamite territory, conquered a few cities and returned loaded with spoils of war. The Elamite King Hallushu (Halutush-Inshushinak) immediately retaliated and captured Sippar. Ashur-nadian-shumi son of the Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) is captured by the Babylonians and sent to Iran for execution.
The Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) blind with rage for the death of his son avenged himself on Babylon by destroying the sacred city, the bond between heaven and earth. He kills the inhabitants, young and old, fired buildings and leveled the city, turning it into a pasture. He removed the dust of Babylon as presents to the most distant peoples.
Esarhaddon (680-669 B.C.) son the Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) became King of the Asyrian Empire. The High Priests had decreed that Babylon could not be rebuilt for 70 years but the Book of Fate is turned upside down and the figure 70 becomes 11 so Esarhaddon taking his entire reign rebuilds Babylon. This action won the hearts of the Babylonians who in 675 B.C. repulsed the invasion of their country by the Elamite Humba-haldash.
The Scythians (Ishkuzai) out of Russia joined the Cimmerians in Asia Minor, Armenia and Iran. They formed an alliance with the Urartians and captured the Kingdom of Phrygia. King Esarhaddon (680-669 B.C.) of Syrian Empire counter-attacked and drove the hordes beyond the Kizil-Irmak River.
King Abdi-Milkuti of Sidon revolted, is caught and beheaded by the army of King Esarhaddon (680-669 B.C.). The inhabitants are deported to Assyria and the lands given to the city Tyre.
King Esarhaddon (680-669 B.C.) of the Syrian Empire finally turned toward Egypt/Ethiopia (Pharaoh Taharqa) to retaliate for years of subversive activities within Palestine against the Empire. He took Egypt deporting all Ethiopians, took the Pharaoh's Queen, his harem, Ushanahuru his heir apparent, his other children, his possessions and sent them to Assyria. He appointed everywhere in Egypt new kings, governors, officers and administration staff. He installed the Asyrian Gods demanding sacrificial dues to Ashur and annual tribute to Syria.
Pharaoh Taharqa the Kushite (Sudanese) returned from the south and recaptured Egypt. King Esarhaddon (680-669 B.C.) of the Syrian Empire on his way to Egypt with a large army to restore it to Syrian control fell sick in Harren and died. King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) assumed the leadership of the Syrian Empire. Ashurbanipal has received a through education in the House of Succession, division and multiplication, all scribal knowledge of heaven and earth, the Script of Sumar, the Script of Akkad, the stones before the flood etc.
It is noteworthy that the King is also the High Priest and subject to fasting, humiliations even death for the sins of the community. A substitute king can be chosen by a prophetess in a trance, given a lady of the court in marriage and put to death with his wife after a short reign.
King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) of Syria continued his fathers work and again took Egypt easily defeating the Pharaoh Taharqa army. The Pharaoh however again escaped. King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) established a larger armed force of Assyrians, Phoenicians, Syrians, Cypriots and Egyptian soldiers recruited in the Nile Delta. The army left Memphis marching towards Thebes when Lower Egypt revolted. The army returned to put down the revolt.
King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) of Syria put King Iakinlu of Arvid the Phoenician under his yoke for forcing a foreign vessel to unload cargo in Arvad instead of a Assyrian port.
The Syrians having secured Lower Egypt now marched on Thebes and at long last, they ransacked and destroyed it, carried away heavy booty beyond counting including two obelisks each weighing 38 tons. Southern Egypt never recovered from this devastation and no longer posed a threat to the Syrian Empire. This is likely the only firm date that Archaeologist and Biblical scholars will agree on dating as a proven historical event.
King Ba'alu of Tyre refused to continue to pay tribute as his stronghold built on an island is reputed to be impregnable. King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) of Syria besieged, reduced to famine and obliged the proud Phoenician people of Tyre to surrender.
Japan officially marks this year as their beginning with Emperor Jimmu (Jimmu Tenno). He is claimed to be direct descendent of the Sun Goddess.
A Celtic burial site at Hohmichele, near Heunsberg, Austria contained draperies that included Chinese silk thread.
A revolt led by Psamtik (Psammetichus I) assisted by
Ionian and Carian mercenaries expelled the Assyrians from Egypt pursuing
them as far as Ashdod, Palestine. The Asyrian army is engaged in
war with the Elamites and Ashurbanipal.
King Psamtik attempted to discover if the Egyptians are the most ancient of mankind but concluded the Phrygians surpassed them in antiquity according to the Memphis priests of Hephaestus.
King Shamash-shum-ukin brother to the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) closed the gates of Sippar, Babylon and Barsippa to the Assyrians. He formed a secret alliance with Phoenicia, Philistines, Judah, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, the Chaldaeans of southern Iraq, the Elamites and even Lydia and Egypt to attack simultaneously. The plot is discovered and the Assyrians marched on Babylon, brother against brother.
Babylon is under siege for three years of perpetual battles. King Shamash-shum-ukin of Babylon lost hope and legend says he set fire to his own palace and perished in the flames this year. Sumer and Akkad are pacified and King Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.) put Kandalanu on the Babylon throne. The rebels are punished leading to war against the Arabs. Uate and his allies the Nabataeans who lived around the Dead Sea are defeated. The Abiate and his Qedar tribe are cut off from all water wells and forced to kill their camels and drink blood and filthy water against their thirst. The Arabs are subdued, enslaved and there possessions sold.
645 B.C. According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the next seventy years (645-574) covers the duration of the Jewish captivity and therefore does not list a high priest for Jerusalem.
Biblical King Amon (643-641) son Manasseh (699-643) and Meshullemeth encouraged his people to worship Canaan Gods as wells as Wahweh. His officers plotted against him and killed him in his palace. The subjects struck down the officers and proclaimed the king’s son Josiah as his successor.
The first horse race on record was in the Olympic Games of Greece and the first prize was a "woman of well-rounded domestic skills.". Women were considered as possessions of men. Many were captive slaves.
The Biblical King Josiah (641-610 B.C.) son Amon and Jedidah at age 8 years ruled Judah.
All rebellious factions who supported the Babylonian revolt by this date are subdued. The land of Elam is devastated, the Elamites are vanquished along with their gods that are thrown to the winds. The land of Egypt is lost to the Empire. Elam is conquered but turned into ruins, Babylon is devastated, and the Phoenicians are enslaved, losing their maritime and colonial empire to their Greek rivals.
King Gyges of Lyclia, Turkey minted one of the earliest known coins.
The Scythians out of Turkestan followed the Cimmerians, subjugated them and struggled with the Assyrians and the Medes. They eventually reached Northern Italy, Bavaria and East Germany. They are lightly armed horsemen using Turkish bows made of bone and tendon. The Scythian worshipped the Great Goddess (Mother Earth) that persists in Russian folklore. It is believed they practiced a political democracy that debated public affairs in clan or tribal assemblies.
The Assyrian King Assurbanipal (668-627) of Nineveh on the Upper Tigris River had defeated Egypt and believed that he had no other equal left in the world. His death this year marks the beginning of the disintegration of the Assyrian Empire.
Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah of Anathoth begins to preach his prophecies. There is little doubt that the Biblical book attributed to Jeremiah is actually compiled and written by his disciples. Some believe his disciples actually composed some portions of the Biblical book.
The Biblical record suggests the Book of Deuteronomy is discovered in the First Temple of Jerusalem. The Jewish belief of living the letter of the law rather than the spirit of the law likely originated about this time. Strangely this belief is attributed to a woman, the prophetess Huldah. The Biblical King Josiah (641-610 B.C.) gathered the priests of Judah and the old Israel Kingdom who did not worship Yahweh and slaughtered them on their own alters and on these altars burned their bones.
A coalition of Babylonian, Medes and Chaldeans began a rebellion against Sardanapalus to end Assyrian rule. The ancient Assyrian capital Nineveh fell when the Tigris river overflowed knocking down a portion of the great wall surrounding the city. The wall is sixty feet thick and one hundred feet high. An oracle had foretold the city would fall if the River Tigris became an enemy. The city is sacked, burned and systematically destroyed, so deep ran the hatred for Assyrian rule.
The first five books of the Old Testament (Torah or Pentateuch) once believed a product of a divinely inspired Moses could not have been written in their present form before this date. The Torah includes Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The J or Jahweh Torah is written between 922-722 B.C., the E or Elohim Torah is written between 848-722 B.C., the D or Deuteronomy Torah dates to the reign of king Josiah of Judah 622 B.C., and P or Priestly matters dates to between 722-609 B.C. It should be noted that the final edition was not a mere compilation or collation of alternative histories but a major reconstruction, an attempt to weave a seamless narrative out of these conflicting stories. It is to their credit that the left the two conflicting creation stories in the Genesis Myth.
Pharaoh Necho II (609-594) invaded Syria-Palestine defeating and killing
King Josiah (640-609) of Judah who foolishly tried to bar the Pharaoh's
way. The Biblical King Jeoahaz (Joahaz) (610 B.C.) ruled Judah for
three months before Pharaoh Necho II put him in chains taking him to Egypt.
606 B.C. The Babylonian King Nebupolassar (Nebuchadnezzar) began building his Empire on the ruins of the old Assyrian Empire.
The Biblical King Jeoiakim (Jehoiakim) (610-599 B.C.) ruled Judah. Pharaoh Necho II placed Eliakim son of King Josiah as King of Judah and changed his name to Jehoiakim. The country is heavily taxed to pay tribute to Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon invaded Judah making the King his vassal for three years. The King of Juda rebelled and Babylon sent the Chaldaeans, Aramaeans, Moabitesand Ammonites to finally and completely destroy Judah.
The Babylonian King Nebupolassar (Nebuchadnezzar) destroyed the Philistine city of Ekron
Phoenicians in the pay of Pharaoh Necho (Nekau)II (610-595) circled Africa, according to Herodotus (484-425) a Greek historian Others suggest he passes on dismissive reports from sailors that, while circumnavigating, they "saw the sun on the right side while sailing westwards". Owing to this brief mention, which is included almost as an afterthought, it has been argued that Africa was indeed circumnavigated by ancient seafarers, for this is precisely where the sun ought to have been..
Gaelic Celts, called the Gaels (Gauls), settled in Hibernia (Ierne or Ireland) integrating with the aboriginal peoples. The Anatolia (Greek) religion of 'city state' (Polis) a form of Imperialism appears in Massilia (Marseillies, France) about this time. This religion demanded utmost loyalty to law for social order and political ideals.
Massilia (Marseille France) is established by Anatolia (Greek) and Semitic-Phoenician colonists about this time. The Semitic-Phoenician discouraged the Anatolia (Greek) from settling in southern Spain and in Corsica. In Italy the Latin-Etruscans became hostile confining the Anatolia (Greek) to the south. Egypt reports that Anatolia (Greeks) and Semitic-Hebrews have established colonies in Egypt.
Babylon established a silver standard resulting in usury, mortgages and enslaved debtors. Private business flourished and families like the Egibi made a fortune in real estate, the slave trade and money lending.
The Latin-Etruscan Empire extended from Tuscany to cover most of Italy from the Po Valley in the North to Salerno in the South. Some believed they originated in Turkey as part of the Hittite Empire while others suggest they originated in Italy as a culture.
The Egyptian Pharaoh Necho commissioned Semitic-Phoenician mariners to voyage round Africa. Three years later they returned to report that the continent is surrounded by sea except at the point in Egypt where it joins Asia.
The Egyptians in 600 B.C. recorded the existence of Atlantis. This alleged myth was passed down through Solon to Plato who recorded it in 400 B.C. An epochal flood is believed to have swallowed up Atlantis.
Dilmum (Bahrain) in the Arabian Gulf was settled by the Greeks and renamed Tylos.
Aesop (620-560 B.C.) a slave of Greece said: "We hang the petty thieves, but appoint the great ones to public office." This holds true to modern times.
Poseidonia was founded about this time, likely by folks from Sybaris or Troizen, Greece. About 400 B.C. the Italians called Lucanians overran Poseidonia. Some suggest the Lucanians enslaved the Greek peoples but others suggest they just merged. However in 237 B.C. the Lucanian/Greek culture was conquered by the Romans who destroyed much of the city to be replaced to their liking except the temple which they retained.
The ritual of circumcision, male genital mutilation has become a common practice among Jewish people. This practice was passed down to the Jews from the Egyptians. All Men (not boys) who came out of Egypt, all men of war, were circumstances. The Jews however did not adopt female genital mutilation. It's noteworthy that Moses and his sons were not circumcised and he discouraged it among the Jews during his reign.
599 B.C. The Biblical King Jehoiachin (599 B.C.) ruled Judah.
The Biblical King Zedekiah (Zedechiah) (599-588) ruled Judah. The Babylonian King Nebuchadnessar marched on Jeruselem and when they surrendered the King, his officers, nobles and eunuchs are carried off. He carried off 10,000 people all Jerusalem into exile in Babylon. Only the poorest people are left behind.
March 16: Jerusalem is captured by King Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 B.C.) of Babylon, the Semitic-Judahian King Jehoiachin (598-597) is deported with 3,000 Judah Sect members and replaced by Zedekiah (Zedechiah) (599-588). Ezekiel the prophet is deported to Tel Aviv near Nippur and Ur. He graphically referred to the old Hebrew Religion as filth.
Archeological evidence confirm that Ashura the female God of Israel is still being widely worshiped at this time.
A tablet is made naming a Babylonian officer called Nebo-sarsekim who was present when Nebuchadnezzar marched against Jerusalem.
The kingdom of Judah again rebelled against the Babylonian (Chaldean) rule being led by King Zedekiah (Zedechiah) (599-588), an uncle of Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562). The city is attacked for two years. July 9, 586 the city of Jerusalem in Judah is breached and the soldiers and eighty citizens are put to death. Following the relocation tradition of the Assyrians forty six hundred of the Judah Sect are rounded up and relocated to Babylon, Iraq. Many Judah Sect members also took refuge in Egypt. The Judahians of Egypt blamed Yahweh for the catastrophe. They told Jeremiah everything was fine until they are forced to give up the rites in honor of Ishtar, Queen of Heaven. It is noteworthy that this represents a backlash of the fundamental shift from maternal to paternalism. The First Temple at Jerusalem, is sacked and destroyed by fire. The Ark of the Covenant is lost. Cyrus the Great of the Persian Empire would eventually free the Judahians from their Babylonian captivity. This would be called their first pass over. This marks a turning point to the elimination of historic Ashara the Israelites Mother Goddess. While in captivity (586-538 B.C.) they adopted the Babylonian religious custom of devoting one day out of every seven to rest.
The Babylonians are noted for their advanced thinking in Mathematics and astronomy likely acquired from the Egyptians. The Anatolia (Greeks) used Babylonian Mathematics and Astronomy to predict the eclipse of the sun this year.
According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Josedek became the high priest of Jerusalem this year and sixteen high priests ruled Jersualem for the next 414 years ending with the high priest Eupator.
Athens, Greece established brothels using slave girls to raise money for the public purse.
King Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylonia besieged and gain control of Tyre, Phoenica, his predecessor had conquered Assyria.
Solo of Anatolia (Greece) ventured to Egypt to research the legend of the destruction of Atlantis that have been circulating since about 1,000 B.C.
Mohammed is believed by some to be born already circumcised giving rise to the practice among Muslims. This is highly unlikely but about 3,200 B.C. in the Sudan Region only the ruling class were circumcision which like led to this myth.
The Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562) died and restrictions on their Judahians slaves are lifted. Judahian scribes began gathering, assembling and editing hundreds of ancient documents to form the books of the Old Testament. Many of these early documents are Sumerian in origin.
Prince Siddhartha Gautama 'the Buddha' (560-483) or (521-441) of the Sage or Sakya tribe of Kapilavastu, the Wise and Enlightened One (Northern India) founder of the Buddhist Faith proclaimed salvation by reincarnation through self-improvement. Buddhism abandoned the Hinduism (Aryan) belief in the caste system. Buddha is born Nepal son Suddnodana, Prince of the Saka Clan. His mother is Maya. The faithful, purified by moral conduct, could ultimately enter Nirvana. Vardhamana the Mahavira (540-468) (India) preached self-punishment, ascetic living, self-castigation and fasting. In India Buddhism would begin replacing Brahmanism that had placed severe and authoritarian restraints on foreign voyages. Buddhism and Jainism rejected the belief of racial purity as espoused by the Brahman tradition. Buddha's sacred symbols are the sun, tree and serpent. They believe in a life after death and that Buddha (Saka-muni) is miraculously conceived. It is noteworthy that Buddhism believes that all life is suffering due to unsatisfied desires. The American Indians believed that the evil of man is due to unsatisfied desires. Some believe Buddhism represents a revolt against the domination of the Brahmans and their rigid formalism. Buddhism proclaimed an ultimate personal goal of perfection ignoring the existence of Hindu Gods and their caste systems. Others classify Buddha as a purely human religion. Some of these cultural beliefs would spread to China, Korea and Japan.
Buddha taught to live a life of compassion for all living beings, speaking and behaving gently, kindly and accurately and refraining from anything like drugs or intoxicants that cloud the mind. Buddha did not claim to have invented the system but to have discovered it; "I have seen an ancient path, an ancient road, trodden by Buddha's of a bygone age".
Croesus (560-546 B.C.) son Alyattes a Lydian is lord of all nations west of the river Halya (Syria). He conquered the Aeolians, Ionians and Dorians.
Confucius (551– 479 B.C.) was a sage and social philosopher of China. He married a young girl named Qi Quan at nineteen and she had their first child Kong Li when he was twenty. When asked, "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?" he replied "How about 'shu': never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself?" This was called the silver rule. Shu means forgivness. Later he stated it another way "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself"
The Semitic-Hebrew scribes who are currently compiling
the Bible (Torah) for the first time are well aware of the Sumerian-Babylonian
tradition that the world is created 500,000 B.C. when they set their beginning
at about 3,500 B.C. The Semites likely used this too different themselves
from the much older culture of the Sumerians. The 'P' document of
the Torah attributed to Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) is believed to be written
about this time by a Semitic-Hebrew held captive in Babylon and incorporated
much Babylonian tradition and Egyptian culture. The 'J' document
is considered an older document being based on the Gilgamesh epic and other
earlier legends of the Sumerians and Egyptian culture. These early
writings of history consisted of myth. legend and rumor.
Christian Church began celebrating January 1, as the Feast of the Circumcision (of Christ). This genital mutilation first appeared in Egypt in 6,000 B.C. and passed to the Jews during the exodus. Moses and his sons were not circumcised and he tried to stop the pagan ritual during his reign. The actual origin is not known but the aboriginal of Australia practiced genital mutilation in 10,000 B.C. believed as a puberty rite.
The neo-Babylonian King Nabonidus is an early archaeologist who dug and uncovered different levels of temples from 1,000 B.C. to Nimrod (Sargon the Great) and restored the temple and statues. He considered it an act of piety to restore ancient traditions. Nabonidus is mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
A pre-Celtic tin trading post is established before this time on the Isles of Scilly, Albion (Briton).
Cyrus the Great conquered Lydia. Cyrus created the Persian Empire that extended from the Indus Valley to the Mediterranean, from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. The tolerance and prosperity of the Persian (Iranian) rule allowed the Hebrew Bible to be compiled.
This is considered the beginning of the slow decline and fall of the 3,000 year Mesopotamian civilization. October 12, 539 B.C. the Persian Cyrus marched into Babylon unopposed as was Sippar previously. The Babylonians are treated with utmost respect. The Persian conquest of Babylon established Kurash as the first Achaemenian kings (539-331). The Greek historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) lists the Persian dynasty as Achaemenes, Teispes I, Cambyses, Cyrus, Teispes II, Ariaramnes, Arsames, Hystaspes, Darius, and Xerxes. It is noteworthy that Herodotus used myths and rumors in his records as did most early historical writers. Cyrus the Great captured Phoenicia turning it into one province of his vast empire.
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition during their domination under the Persian Empire (539-331 B.C.
The magnificent Mesopotamian city of Babylon is leveled by fire that broke out after the Persian King Cyrus the Great conquered it in 539 and the cities famed Hanging Gardens are destroyed. King Cyrus allowed religious freedom including allowing the Jews to return to Judah and rebuild their temple. About 42,000 Jews returned from Babylon and Tel Aviv to Judah. The majority however did not return. It is believed that Semitic-Judaism is completely restructured at this time with major modifications being made to the Torah of the Moses 'P' Sect. Many of these changes are called 'P' for these unknown authors.
Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great, Emperor of Persia began a campaign against Egyptian citizens.
The Babylonian soldiers are enrolled in the Persian army, in the conquest of Egypt, with King Cambyses of Persia.
Babylon (Iraq) lost its grip on Palestine leaving nothing to keep the Judah Sect in Iraq. Many scribes migrated home bringing with them their first official synthesis of Middle East tradition into biblical texts. Work would continue 538-516 B.C. to begin what is called the second Temple Period.
The Persian Empire marched on Egypt but the army is believed lost during a storm in the desert. The remains of the vanished 50,000 Persian army was recently found. Cambyses II a Persian burned the Egyptian fortress of Migdol.
The Persian King Darius (517-481 B.C.) son Hystaspes established military Governors, tax collectors and Royal inspectors throughout Babylon. A Persian code of laws is imposed as far as the Indus Valley.
Druid temples are noted by Hecateus of Abdera and likely represent educational structures that teach theology, law and cultural tradition. Polybius (202-120 B.C.) also makes mention of Druid temple structures. It is noteworthy that from about this time until 1 A.D. thousands of people are murdered from Ireland to Germany and thrown into the bogs. Some speculate that this is a religious cultic practice.
The Etruscan patrician families of Rome set up a quasi form of government elected for a one-year term. This marks the beginning of the Roman Republic. Three classes of people existed in the Roman Republic, the slaves, the plebeians (ordinary folks) and the patricians (descendants of the first ruling families. The patricians served in the governing bodies of the Roman senate. The struggle for power began almost immediately between the Patricians and the Plebeians. The Etruscans believed that men and women were equal and the Greeks considered this as immoral. Women participated in the games and all social events. The Greeks would not consider taking their wives to social events.
Upanishads writings of India make reference to the scriptures wherein lay the truth. The Scriptures suggest one should give away all ones possessions to gain Divine favor. This is the earliest reference to the West Coast American Indian Potlatch ceremony. The Upanishad firmly establishes the Brahmin (Aryan people) as a reverenced race, supreme entities that effectively replaced the ancient concept of God. It also speaks of the house and King of Death who is not allowed into heaven. The King of Death taught man to sacrifice with fire.
Austria is a flourishing iron age civilization. The Vandal (Asding & Siling), Visigoth and Hun culture would eventually absorb these Romano-Celtic people. The Greek historian Hecataeus first mentioned the Celts this year. The Greek traders arrived Britannia Island calling it Albion (a Celtic name) and Ireland Island calling it Ierne (also a Celtic name). Another wave of Celts having arrived in Gaul. The legend of the Little People or Fairies is believed to be based upon a race of small people who hid under ground during the Celt invasion this year. The Luchorpan or Little People are believed to be the people of the Goddess Danu who ruled Ireland before the Celts. The Egyptians also attributed dwarfism from 2,500 B.C. to a tribe of Little People. Trade contact between England and the mainland declined and regional differences began to develop in the Westward Islands (Britain).
The Romans expelled the Latin-Etruscan King from Rome establishing a transitional 'city-state' to Republic. The Roman Republic however would not control the Italian Peninsula until 272 B.C. Roman power focused on ownership of land. Landowners had a monopoly of membership in the Senate.
The practice of scalping attributed to the North American Peoples is believed to have originated among the Scthians of Southern Russia about this time. This barbaric practice would be carried to America by the Dutch, French and English as proof for bounty payment.
A ruler in Zeng, China is buried with 21 teenage female attendants. The Greek adopted the Chinese principle of equal opposites that conflicts with East Indian principles of continuum, not the parts but the whole. The Europeans would adopt the Greek rational method.
The Greeks understood the principles of machines that they called simple
five, the lever, wheel, axle, pulley, inclined plane and screw. This
understanding is treated as toys because human slave labor is considered
much more economical.
The Scythian horsemen swept into and occupied Northern Russia.
It is suggested this is the first time the five books of the Torah are
pulled together. Many orthodox Jews believe they are written by Moses
(ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) and are the divine word of God. Most scholars
believe the Torah evolved over the past two thousand years with many authors.
About this time, after the Babylonian exile Semitic-Hebrews began changing
the spring equinox into their Passover festival. It became fashionable
to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Lead smelting in Greece and Roman territories as well as in other European centers is estimated to produce 90,000 tons of lead ingots per year. Greenland ice samples suggest pollution equals about 15% of lead gasoline pollution from 1930-1990's levels. No estimate is made of the number of people killed or driven mad by lead poisoning.
The Celts settled Salzburg, Austria because of the nearby salt veins. The Celts displaced the other languages of Europe with their own about this time. Some believe the Celtic culture arrived Britain and Ireland about this time having arrived from central Europe.
Celts are believed to have arrived Ireland this year.
Halloween has its roots in antiquity but some point to this period as the beginning of a Celtic feast called Samhain. It marked the beginning of a season of darkness and cold. Some believed evil spirits roamed the earth playing tricks on living humans. Bonfires were lit, dainty foods and sweets were served and folks danced, some times in costumes. The Romans adopted the feast but called it Pomoma or Feralia to bring peace to the dead. About 800 AD the Christian Church adopted the ritual but called it All Saints or All Souls Day.
Hanno a Phoenician (Canaanite) explorer circumnavigated Africa. He reported at the southern end of Africa the sun shone in the north. The Greek historian Herodotus who reported this incident considered it ridiculous.
A chariot burial site of a member of the Parisii People was discovered in Yorkshire, UK dating to 400-500 B.C. Its lone occupant is aged 30-40 years. The Parisii People originated in Northern France.
The Filipino People are trading with Java and Sumatria. It is noteworthy that the Philippines is composed of some 7,000 Islands.
The Phoenician navigator Hanno was likely the first to circumnavigate Africa, around 500 B.C. He observed that at the southern end of Africa the noonday sun shone in the north.
The Niger's inner delta, contains thousands of town sites, including the oldest in sub-Saharan Africa, built between 500 B.C. and 1,400 A.D. are being mined for terra-cotta artifacts, by the 21st. century..
Iron was known in China before 500 b.c. but it was very rare and valuable.
The Chinese learned to ferment soybean around this time. The fermentation removed toxins and made soy easier to digest. It had already been used for thousands of years as fertilizer.
A major earthquake occurred in the Middle East.
The use of diamonds in polishing was first believed used in India.
The city of Tel Kedesh in upper Gaulee region of Israel has turned up
thousands of artifacts during its period of 500 B.C. to 2 A.D. The city is
1/2 mile long and nearly as wide. They know the mounds were occu8pied
3,150-2,300 B.C. but it was a highly contested region.
King Antiouchus III (324-261 B.C.)
Antioclius IV (215-164 B.C.)
Between about 500 B.C. to 500 AD "the Thracians were the most powerful people of the world except for the Indians' so wrote the Greek historian Herodotus. The Thracians were at their peak of power about 400 B.C. politically, culturally and militarily and occupied the Balkans, parts of Western Anatolia from the Aegean to the Carpathian Mountains and as far as the Caucasus. Relatively little is known about these peoples. They believed in the immortal nature of the human soul, which may have influenced the early Christian community.
Babylon revolted against Persian rule. Their put down is brutal and complete. The cost of living doubled, interest rates rose to 40-50% and the will of the people is broken. Babylon simply slipped into decay. Persians (Arabic (Semitic)s) believed in Allah as a God. They also believed that the Holy of Holiest is the Kaaba (the Black Stone of Mecca). Arabic (Semitic)s at this time also worshipped various Goddesses.
The Egyptian citizens whom Cambyses of Persia had enslaved in 530 B.C. revolted from control of Darius (517-481 B.C.) this year. The Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) suggests Darius died during the preparations for his war against the Greek and Egyptians. His son Xerxes became his heir leaving the revolted Egyptians and Athenians alike unpunished by Darius.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC