EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
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The Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) began incorporating central Asia (Sinking) and much of what is now Russian central Asia as far west as the Caspian Sea.
Emperior Guang Wudi of China ruled (25-57)
Joshua (Jesus) (6 B.C. - 26 to 36) is an Essene Judaism is baptized into the Essene Judaism Sect by John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist from the wilderness the son of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Some suggest this places Jesus as a member of the Messianic Essene Zealot. Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the historian records that John the Baptism believed that baptism is not to gain pardon for sins committed, but as a consecration of the body implying that the soul is already thoroughly cleansed by right behavior. This radical Messianic Essene Judaism free alternative to the Temple cult that used the purification process for sin and charged its members for the service. The Roman Church would adopt the Herodian Sadducees Judaism Sect tradition of Baptism for sin belief. This Roman belief would imply that Jesus is born with sin and requires baptism for his sins. It is noteworthy that Paul the Roman is recorded as being pro-Herodian.
The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Essene document the procedures for Baptism being used for purification by the Holy Spirit. The Messianic Essene's from the wilderness believed the Messiah of Aaron and Israel will atone for their sins. The Messiah will be the way, the truth and the light. Baptism is an acknowledgment that the person has reached righteousness and not for ones sins. John (d-29) the Baptist from the wilderness represents this Essene Judaism Sect form of baptism. The Temple tradition of the Sadducee Judaism Sect is later adopted by the Paulist Cult, who considered baptism is for sin. The Gospels writers and Roman Christians would later adopt the Herodian Sadducess Judaism form of baptism.
The Messianic Essene Judaism considered Wisdom as a feminine Her. "Blessed is the man who grasps hold of Wisdom and walks in the Torah of the Most High and directs his heart to her Ways and restrains himself with her disciplines and always accepts her chastisements." Biblical text borrowed heavily from the Dead Sea Scrolls Beatitudes but shifted from a feminine to a neutral perspective.
It is believed Joshua (Jesus) moved about this time from Nazareth to Capernaum (Copernaum), Galilee a fishing village on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. Galilee is a hot bed of the zealot movement called the Galilean Sect. Joshua of Nazareth, the Jew established a number of important principles according to scripture. The Apostles and future Senior Church members are not freed from bad judgment. He using the real live examples of doubting Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector, Peters denial and the Judas scenario. Just as Satan entered into Judas so also he entered into Simon Peter (d-64-67). This clearly established that to be human and Christian is at times to be misguided, lack understanding and to make outright errors in proclaiming ones beliefs, values or doctrines. Human infallibility is as alien a concept to the early church as is a child that never falls down while learning to walk. His Church is for love and peace, there is no place for the sword for all that draw the sword will surely die by the sword. False gods and false prophets will arise and produce great signs and portents, enough to deceive even the chosen. You will know them however by their actions.
The Joshua philosophy (Judo-Christians) records vehement outbursts against the 'Scribes and Pharisees' who use legalism to reduce religion to the scrupulous observation of sacred rules. This Messianic schism that 'the letter of the Law kills vs. the spirit of the Law gives life' will dominate organized religion for the next two thousand years. Many of the Judaism sects of this period considered the Pharisees Judaism as a generation of vipers, like evil leaven (doctrine) in the bread (religion), and hypocrites between words and actions. The Pharisees Judaism in retaliation believed that Joshua of the Judaism sect received his power from the prince of the devils.
Caesar Tiberious Claudius Nero (14-37) son Julia appointed Pontius Pilate (26-36) as Prefect of the Roman Province of Judaea. Flavious Josephus (37-100) recorded a civil disturbance during Pontius Pilate's rule (26-36) as Prefect of Judaea, Palestine. The major issue in Jerusalem is the introduction standards bearing the image or medallion of the Roman Emperor. The Jews considered them as graven images that trampled on their laws.
Philo wrote; Pilate (Pontius Pilatus) being sent by Tiberius as procurator (Prefect) to Judaea, introduced into Jerusalem by night and under cover the effigies of Caesar that are called standards. This proceeding, when day broke, aroused immense excitement among the Jews, considering their laws to have been trampled under foot, as these laws permit no images to be erected in the city. Flavious Josephus (37-100) however considered this a bold step as previous procurators (Prefects) used standards with no ornaments. The people fell prostrate around Pilate's house (at Caesarea capital of Judaea) for five days and nights remaining motionless in protest. Pontius Pilatus (26-36) the Prefect of Judaea threatened them with immediate death unless they submitted. They all accepted martyrdom and Pontius Pilatus (26-36) is forced to submit rather than massacre so many. This report is similar to what Josephus the historian wrote.
The next day at the stadium of Caesarea Pontius Pilatus (14-37) addressed the people to persuade them into accepting the standards. Pilatus finally agreed to remove the standards to avoid a riot when the people offered their lives rather than transgress the law.
Later when Pontius Pilatus visited Jerusalem angry protesters surround him. The priests are angry because Pilatus used some of the sacred treasure to build an aqueduct to bring water to the people of Jerusalem. The tradition in Jerusalem is to use treasure funds for public works so the issue is likely a political power issue rather than a religious one. The people rioted when Pilatus refused to back down and the soldiers are ordered to stop the riot. A large number of rioters are killed and many more are trampled to death. The priest instigated the riot believing the threat of force would govern just as it had in Caesarea earlier.
A wooden stadium collapses in Rome killing between twenty and fifty thousand people.
Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch Galilee and Peresa had married the daughter of King Aretas of Arabia Petrea and had lived with her a great while. Antipas fell in love with Herodias daughter Aristobulus his brother and wife of his half brother Herod Philip (4 B.C. - 34 A.D.). To marry Herodias he must divorce the daughter of Aretas. This led to war between King Aretas and Herod. Herod's army is destroyed.
Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) likely selected his first four disciples this year.
1 James (the Just) son Zebedee brother John, a fisherman and associated with Simon therefore likely a follower of John the Baptist and an Essene.
2 John son Zebedee brother of James, a fisherman and associated
with Simon therefore likely a follower of John the
Baptist and an Essene.
3 Andrew of Bethsaida, Galilee son of John and brother of Simon, a fisherman and associated with Simon, also a disciple of John the Baptist and therefore likely an Essene.
4 Simon (Cephas & Peter) of Bethsaida, Galilee son of John
and Brother of Andrew, a fisherman, an associate of
James and John also a disciple of John the Baptist and therefore likely an Essene.
Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa and the son of Herod the Great (40-4 B.C.) built the city Tiberias at the lake of Gennesareth of Galilee. Strangers came and inhabited this city but a great number are Galileans. He freed many slaves and settled them in his city. He also admitted many poor people building them houses and giving them land.
Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea became fearful that John the Baptist (6 BC-29) is gathering a large crowd who are greatly moved by his words and this might lead to a rebellion. Flavious Josephus (37-100) goes on to records that John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist because of Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa the son of Herod the Great (40-4 B.C.) under suspicion is brought in chains to Machaerus and there put to death about this time. Scripture suggests he died before Christ. Herod Antipas noted that John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist a righteous and holy man had a growing following who are guided by John in everything that they did. He decided to strike first before John's work led to an uprising. It is noteworthy that John offered a radical alternative to the Temple cult that could be more easily controlled. Other accounts contend he is killed because he objected to Herod's marriage to his half brother Philip's wife. John the Baptist is killed by Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea at the insistence of his wife and niece Herodias in a dungeon of Antipas in Tiberias and not at Machaerus. Herodias had an insatiable ambition that finally led to the exile of Antipas and Herodias to Spain in 39 A.D.
The following people are also noted as disciples of Jesus:
Philip of Bethsaida in Galilee
6 Nathanael an Israelite from Cana in Galilee
7 Nicodemus the Pharisees
8 Lazarus of Bethany (two miles from Jerusalem) brother of Mary and Martha whom Jesus loved
9 Mary of Bethany, sister of Lazarus and Martha
10 Martha of Bethany sisters of Lazarus and Mary
11 Thomas (the Twin?), later called one of the 12, and likely a later retrofit. In the Syriac tradition he is
named Judas Thomas or Judas the Twin who is alleged to have spread Christianity into India.
12 Judas Iscariot son Simon
13 Judas son James
14 Mary of Galilee the wife of Clopas and sister inlay of Jesus
15 Mary of Magdala of Galilee
16 Joseph of Arimathaea, a secret disciple.
Christ appointed 70 other apostles who he sent out two and two ahead to each town. No list of the 70 is recorded. Judas also known as Thomas sent Thaddeaus one of the seventy to Edessa, to cure Aber Uchama the Taparch as Jesus had promised. The seventy apostles were teaching as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch but to the Jews only. At the time Paul was still persecuting the followers of Christ.
The rulers, elders and scribes, High Priest Annas (6-15), High Priest Joseph Caiaphas (18-36), High Priest Jonathan (36-37), Alexander and the Sanhedrin imprisoned Simon Peter (d-64-67) of Bethsaida and John son Zebedee later releasing them on order they stop preaching of the Messiah. The High Priest and Sadducees again jailed the Apostles, had them flogged and again ordered them not to preach of the Messiah. This is likely not historically correct, the author is likely attempting to incriminate the entire House of Annas.
Queen Helena of Abiabene (Hadayev) east of the Tigris River
with her husband and sons converted to Judaism.
Chaeremon the Stoic an Egyptian priest philosopher is the tutor of young Nero (54-68) in Rome before he became Emperor. The Romans traveled restlessly in search of Egyptian education (magic, astronomy, medical and philosophy) both in Graeco-Roman east and in the Egyptian Alexandria.
Some place the death of Jesus as this year in the month of Nisan. Eusebius claims that Pilate reported to Tiberious that Christ had rose from the dead and assended into heaven and therefore must be god. The Romans rejected this report as no god can be acknowledged unless approved by the Senate.
A. Avillius Flaccus, is Roman Governor of Egypt (32-38).
Some believe Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) is brought to trial in April of 33 A.D. Others suggest the year is 30 A.D. Some recent researchers concluded Jesus died at 3:00 P.M. Friday April 3, 33 A.D.
It is noteworthy to remember that 18,000 men are employed in building the Temple that Joshua (Jesus) threatened to destroy. The Temple is also a center of commerce when Jesus drove out the businessmen who sold goods and exchanged money.
Jesus a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He won over many Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. Men of the highest standing (of the Temple) condemned him to be crucified (by Pontius Pilatus (26-36)), the Roman Prefect of Judaea. Those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. The tribe of Christians, so called after him, has still to this day (93-94 A.D.) has not disappeared. This is the account of Antiquities according to Josephus (37-100) the historian. The Essene Sect records that the Branch of David, the leader of the Community (Messianic Christ) will with wounding be commanded to death by the Leader of the Community and all Israel, the high priest, also a Branch of David. Joseph Caiaphas (18-36) son in law of High Priest Annas (Anas) or Ananus I (6-15) of the Sadducee Sect is High Priest of Jerusalem.
It is noteworthy that the Romans would crucify thousands of Zealots leading some to speculation that Jesus may be closely related to one of the developing Zealot Sects. The actions attributed to Jesus suggest he is more closely aligned to the Essene Sect than the Zealots.
Some suggest Pontius Pilatus (26-36) Roman procurator (Prefect) of Judaea allowed the Judaean Sanhedrin (High Church Council) authority over the Messiah. Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36), of the Essene Sect is ordered executed having been found guilty of blasphemy and calling himself King of Judah (a Roman offense). The Jewish Essene Dead Sea Scrolls refer to Joshua as the Prince of the Congregation. If this were true the manner of death would likely be stoning rather than the Roman method of the tree. Before his death Joshua asked his Father to forgive them for they know not what they do. This beginning of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus is based upon brotherly love, sharing, understanding and forgiveness that would be tainted as millions would fight, die and be martyred in the name of Jesus. Some historians suggest Joshua's death could be as late as 29 A.D.
Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian wrote that Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He is the Christ (messiah) and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principle men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the time did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day (93-94 B.C.). Josephus the Jew being a Pharisee and a citizen of Rome did not personally believe this statement but recognized many fellow Jews did believe so he recorded it. He is likely recording and respecting an Essene Sect belief.
It is noteworthy that Joshua King of the Jews according to scripture is executed during the Passover and Barabbas under a death sentence is released. Philo writing a decade later described what decent Roman Governors did for crucified criminals on festival occasions; they postponed (not to remit it altogether) the execution until after the festival. Pontius Pilatus (26-36), the Roman Prefect of Judea is noted for his brutal crowd-control. This suggests the Biblical writers (likely Mark) deliberately shifted the blame for the execution of Christ from Romans to Jews.
The first assembly of the new Judo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem included Simon Peter (d-64-67) of Bethsaida, brother of Andrew and the son John and John alias Boanerges son Zebedee and brother James, James (d-62) son Alphaeus brother Judas and the brother of the Lord and Andrew of Bethsaida a follower of John (d-29) the Baptist and the brother of Simon Peter, Philip of Bethsaida and Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector, Bartholomew, Matthew alias Levi son Alphaeus a tax collector, James (d-62) the son of Alphaeus and brother Judas and Simon a Canaanite the Zealot and Judas the brother (son) of James. All 130 of the congregation are joined in prayer including several women, including Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. It is noteworthy that Hebrew women are not normally allowed at religious service of this nature. Matthias at this time is elected an Apostolate. This sounds like a retrofit not based upon historical reality.
It is noteworthy that of the seventy directly appointed disciples of Jesus no list has been found. It is also noteworthy that many of the Apostles daughters became prophetesses preaching the word of God.
Rome annexes Austria, formally called Noricam with a part of Pannonia. The Goth (Mongolian) from Scandinavia settled at the mouth of the Vistula, River (Russia) and would migrate southeast as the Visigoth (Wise or Western Goths) and Ostrogoth (Brilliant or Eastern Goths) in about one hundred years.
A secret disciple of Jesus, Nicodemus, a Pharisees ruler of the Jews, who quizzed and later attended to the burial of Jesus is attributed to the Gospel of Nicodemus formally called the Acts of Pontius Pilate. It is conjecture that this Gospel is a forgery written towards the close of the third century.
The first apostolic principle recorded after the death of Jesus is an Apostle does not accept other peoples money or property as they had given up their own property to follow Christ.
Stephen who is stoned to death is the first leader of the church then James 'The Righteous', the Brother of Jesus is elected by the Apostles including Peter, James and John to the Episcopal Throne of the Jerusalem Church. This is according to Eusebius (260-339). This would make him the first Pope of the Christian Churches. The early church did not use the term Pope or bishop at this time.
The next two decades after the death of Jesus are called the
dark decades as very little is known about this period of the early Christian
church. It is believed that four major Judaism sects existed at this
time in Jerusalem. The Judaism community includes the Pharisaic,
Sadduceean, Essene and Christian sects. The sects are struggling
with Greek cultural internationalism and Roman military imperialism.
It is written that Joshua (Jesus) selected 12 Apostles from his many disciples.
This is a Judaism tradition and likely is added at a much later date to
legitimize the various Christian Sect positions. Some evidence suggests
Simon Peter son John, James and John sons of Zebedee and Mary governs the
early church. Peter only considered himself as an Elder of the Church,
not its leader. All evidence points to James (d-62) the Just as the
leader of the Christian Judaism sect. The notion of Apostle, Bishop
and Pope is alien to this century. It is noteworthy that Mk 9:38
suggests that all Christian Sects must not be stopped as anyone who is
not against us is for us. It is also noteworthy the Essene Judaism
Sect and Josephus the historian both imply that the Jerusalem Community
of James the Just, an Ebionite Christian Judaism Sect, the brother of Jesus
is the most likely leader of the new James of Jerusalem Sect. James
the Just should be considered the first Pope for those who need continuity
Herod Philip (4 B.C.-34 A.D.) the half brother of Herod Antipas and tetrarch of Trachonitis and Gaulonitis died (late 33 or early 34) at Julias. His reign is one of moderation and quietness. Upon his death the territory is added to the Roman province of Syria.
Pontius Pilate (26-36) until this time was answerable directly to Rome. This year he is answerable to Vitellius, the legate to Syria.
A complaint from the Hellenistic-Messianic sect against the Hebrew-Messianic sect results in the election of Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas and Nicolus of Antioch as apostles. This officially established two early churches that would begin evolving different doctrines. This would anger the Synagogue of Freedmen who come from Cyrene and Alexanderia. The apostles now numbered 20 or more and only much later would the scribes attempt to historically limit the number to twelve the 12 ancient Jewish patriarchs. Simon Peter son John, James (d-43) son Zebedee and John son Zebedee are the first among the many apostles. They are all fishermen from the Sea of Galilee and worked together before Jesus arrived. It is also noteworthy that Andrew brother of Simon Peter and former follower of the Messianic Essenes (John the Baptist) is not among the short list.
The Judo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem is estimated to total some 5,000
members (likely inflated) causing uneasiness among the members of the Orthodox
Judah sect. These splinter sects are not uncommon at this time.
Theudas the prophet assembled some 400 followers in 45 A.D. and Judas the
Galilean had also attracted large crowds of supporters.
Ignatious of Antioch (35-107) is claimed to be the second bishop of Antioch after Peter the Apostle, according to Origen. Eusebius of Caesarea holds that Ignatius was the third bishop of Antioch after Peter and Euodius (d-69). Ignatious was arrested, escorted to Rome and martyred in the Coliseum according to Origen and Polycarp.
Mark Antony, the Roman, attacked Mesopotamia.
The Syrian Governor Vitellius ordered Pontius Pilatus (26-36)
Prefect of Judea to return to Rome to give the Emperor his account of matters
with which he is charged. He removed the high priest Joseph Caiaphas
(18-36). Jonathan (36-37) of the House of Annas became the high priest
of Jerusalem. Philo wrote to Emperor Caligula that Pontius Pilatus
(26-36) Roman procurator (Prefect) used briberies, insults, robberies,
outrages, wanton injuries, constantly repeated executions without trial,
ceaseless and supremely grievous cruelty. Flavious Josephus (37-100)
wrote Pontius Pilatus (26-36) is lacking in concern for Jewish religious
sensibilities and as capable of rather brutal methods of crowd control.
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EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX 1 AD - 499 AD