EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIAN INDEX 1 AD - 499
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Galivs Caligula (37-41) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. If not insane at this time he is a megalomaniac, irrational and soon become totally unbalanced. He considered himself as a god and desired for an absolute monarchy. He murdered his own brother among countless others during his reign.
Stephen of Jerusalem, a Hellenistic Judo-Messianic sect leader, angers the Orthodox Judah community by claiming that many of the old biblical traditions are obsolete. He advocated the New Sect break from traditional Temple worship. He accused the Judah religious leaders of being a stubborn people, with pagan hearts and pagan ears always resisting the Holy Spirit. He is martyred (36-37) by stoning for his heretical ideas. If death is by stoning then it is likely authorized by the High Priest Jonathan (36-37). When they stoned him to death, it is said Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul the Roman witnessed the event with self-proclaimed approval. That day a bitter persecution started against the Judo-Messianic Sect disciples. Everyone except the apostles fled to the country districts of Judaea and Samaria. Because of the persecution of Stephen some escaped as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch and began converting the uncircumcised.
Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul the Roman went from house to house
arresting both men and women sending them to prison. Philip the new
Hellenistic apostle went to (Caesarea) Samaria in Palestine preaching,
curing the sick and driving out unclean spirits. Marcellus
(37-37) is appointed Prefect of Judea. Marullus (37-41) is appointed
Prefect of Judea.
It is interesting to note that Simon Peter (d-64-67) of Bethsaida is teaching that the Judo-Messianic sect followers must follow Judah tradition, just as Christ did during his lifetime.
The Judo-Sadduccees Sect divided into two fundamentally opposed groups.
These sects are the Orthodox Sadduccee with their militant attachment to
the law and the Messianic Sadducees Sect. The Essenes are also a
Messianic Sect. The Galilean Sect generally follows the beliefs of
the Pharisee Sect that is middle of the road but have an inviolable attachment
to liberty. This faction would eventually become the Zealot Sect
but the term Zealot is not used until about 66 A.D.
Flavious Josephus (37 or 38-100) alias Joseph Ben Matthias the Hebrew historian is born into the Jerusalem Temple's aristocracy and claims to be a descent from the royal priesthood of the Hasmoneans through his mother. He later deserted his heritage and moved to Rome. Many suggest he is a traitor.
Theophilus (37-41) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem of the Sadducees Sect.
Philip of Bethsaida on the road from Jerusalem to Gaza encountered a eunuch, an officer at the court of the Queen of Ethiopia on his way home. Philip of Bethsaida converted the eunuch who spread the good news of Jesus from Azotus to Caesarea.
Simon Peter and John son Zebedee visited Philip the Hellenist in (Caesarea) Samaria in Palestine.
Herod Agrippa I (41-44 as king) son Aristobulus visited Alexandria in Egypt and the popular reaction to his visit is a series of anti-Jewish attacks tolerated or instigated by the Roman Governor of Egypt. Jews are arrested, scourged, tortured and then crucified.
Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul, the Roman belonged to the rigid sect of the Pharisees. It is suggested that Saul is a convert to Judaism as he aspired to marry the High Priests daughter following in the footsteps of Herod. The Pharisees are intending to slaughter any members of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus or any of his disciples either men or women. Word had arrived in Jerusalem that the Jesus Sect had spread to Domascisus (Syria) and Saul is determined to crush this new expansion. On the road between Jerusalem and Damascus of Syria his disciple Luke (not the Apostle Luke) claims Saul is struck down and converted to the Jerusalem Community Sect of James the Just by Ananias of Damascus. Saul himself however never makes this claim and many biblical scholars question the validity of Luke’s account in the Acts of Paul. The Apocalypse of Paul by an unknown author is denounced by the Roman Church but renders a vision and revelation of Saul's conversion more consistent with Paul's own writings in 2 Corinthians. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) a self proclaimed Apostle however claims to be appointed directly by God rather than through Jesus or any of his Apostles. It is noteworthy that Simon Peter or any other Apostle never endorsed Paul as an apostle with the laying on of hands. An Apostle is one who witnessed Christ first hand being sent forth to preach the word of God. The Gospels are also strangely silent concerning this Judo-Roman-Pharisee. His letter to the Galatians suggests Paul avoided the Apostles to capitalize on the Jesus incident to create his own following. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul, the self-proclaimed apostle and a Roman-Jewish-Pharisee-Christian, began preaching in the synagogues at Damascus that Joshua (Jesus) is the Son of God and it is said the people are amazed. The amazement is that Saul is considered to be Roman who deserted his Pharisee faith and is considered to be of the darkness. The current belief is that a Pharisee will travel over sea and land to make a single convert and make him twice as fit for hell as the teaching Pharisee. A plot is developed by the Nazirite Zealots to kill Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul so he fled the city with assistance of the Herodian Priests and Roman soldiers. The Zealots took an oath not to eat nor drink until they have killed Paul. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul in Galatians 1-16 suggests that after his self proclaimed conversion he did not go to Jerusalem to meet with the Apostles but went to Arabia.
The insane Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) proclaimed himself a living God and commanded that Jerusalem worship him as the King of the Jews. This action is likely taken to defocus the Judah prophecy that said a world ruler (The Messiah) would come out of Palestine from the House of David. The King of the Jews deeming the Jews are disrespectful of his divinity ordered the placement of statues of himself as Zeus incarnate in Jerusalem's Temple. He ordered Petronius the new Syrian Governor to take two legions (12,000 soldiers) into Judea to enforce his edict. Caligula the King of the Jews banished Herod Antipas I (4 B.C. - 39) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa to Gaul for requesting the title of King.
James (d-62) Bishop of Jerusalem, High Priest son Zebedee, the Righteous, the Ebionite began preaching a Judo-Messianic Sect faith that would next century become known as Christianity. It is clear he had no intention of creating a new religion but is a Judah Sect reformer. James wore priestly robes and is allowed to enter the innermost and holiest of the Judah Temples. He is also called the Brother of the Lord. Later Christian tradition attribute an Epistle to him but this is not likely nor accepted by all Christians. The Letter of James is in nature of the Essene Sect style. This sounds like confusion between James son of Zebedee and James the Just brother of Jesus.
Jerusalem is still divided into numerous religious groups and Sects. The first major division is among the ruling class of Establishment or Herodian Sadduccees and the Orthodox (Purist) or Nationalistic Traditions. The second major division is along a Messianic and non-Messianic belief. The evolving Nationalists (Zealots) are mainly drawn from the Pharisees and Messianic Essenes Sects. The Essenes however are claimed to be non-violent in nature. The Sadducees are the religious establishment and align with the Roman power base to maintain their position. Many from all Sects follow a more Liberal philosophy than the Sadducee position. The Judo-Messianic Sect members are split between following Jewish tradition like Christ and abandoning some if not all the Jewish tradition. King Agrippa I at this time and his son Agrippa II (60 A.D.) observed the Torah thereby aligning them with the Orthodox camp.
The Judah Sects both Purist and Messianic Sects embraced a historic tradition a Community Rule that only differed in the belief that the Messiah is coming or the Messiah has come. Examples are; anything touched by Gentiles is unclean and cannot be consumed or offered in sacrifice. Gentiles are not allowed in the temples. He who can't see or hear or has damaged male organs is unclean and shouldn't enter the temple or marry. Intermarrying is polluting the Holy Seed. The Ammonite and Moabite and the bastard are especially singled out.
The Perfection of the Way Sect of Jerusalem is being led by James the Greater (d-62). Bishop of Jerusalem, High Priest remains faithful to the Torah following the Jesus tradition. He would likely be more aligned with the Messianic Essenes and Judah Sects. James (d-62) the Greater insisted upon righteousness, abstention from blood, fornication and food/things sacrificed to idols. The Judo-Hellenistic-Messianic sect, formally led by Stephen (d-37) wanted to break away from Temple worship, as did other Opposition Sects. Some Pharisee Sects at this time are not allowed to sacrifice in the Temple. The Pharisee and Sadducee have some fundamentally differing doctrines. It is noteworthy to remember that many Judah Sects existed at this time and most still sacrificed in the Temple including the new Judo-Messianic sects both Orthodox and Liberal. The Orthodox Judah Sects began proclaiming the Gentile sacrifices as impure being a sacrifice to idols that seduces them. The Semite faithful are told not to marry the Semite-Ammonite, Semite-Moabite, those bastards and men with crushed testicles and damaged male organ who are entering the assembly of the Temple. Do not bring dogs into the Holy Camp of Jerusalem is the cry of the Orthodox. It is noteworthy that the Judah people are descendants of the Semite-Canaanite as are the remnants of the Israelite Sect.
The Syrian Governor Petronius with his army is camped at Ptolemais on the Mediterranean seacoast due west of Galilee. He is under orders of Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) to establish his statue in the Jerusalem Temple. Many tens of thousands of Jews unarmed with their women and children approached the Roman army pleading that they not profane their Temple in Jerusalem and promise their loyalty to Rome. Petronius withdrew his troops to Antioch and the timely assassination of the Emperor Caligula in 41 saved Petronious from execution.
It is believed that Mary b-18-20 B.C., the mother of Jesus, b-4-6 BC., she was born into the Essene sect, died in Jerusalem about this year and was buried in the Valley of Cedron. Others disagree saying she lived with John at Ephesus and was assumed into heaven. The assumption into heaven hypothesize was adopted as Catholic doctrine by Pope Pius XII in 1950.
The Essene Sect used the term of finding the Way in the wilderness. The followers of James the Just used the term Perfect or Perfection of the Way to describe their Sect.
Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) is assassinated. Emperor Tiberius Claudius Drusus (41-54) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and he pacified Spain. Romans considered him a driveling imbecile, subject to the whims of his (four) wives. He reinstated all lands ruled by King Herod the Great to King Herod Agrippa I son Berenice and Aristobulus, who ruled Palestine (41-44). Aristobulus is the daughter of Herold the Great. Herod Agrippa I also is give the title King of the Jews. He resided in Jerusalem and observed the Jewish tradition of his people. Matthias (41-42) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem. This appears to be in error? Agrippa removed Theophilus son Ananus as high priest making Simon (Cantheras), the son of Boethus, the new high priest. Simon's daughter had married King Herod.
The Pharisee Pollio and Sameas advised the people of Jerusalem to open the city gates to Herod Agrippa I (41-44). Herod appointed Ismael son Fabi as High Priest. Herod bestowed favors on the Pharisee and executed some members of the Sadducee. Some suggest a man named Saul had invited the Romans into Jerusalem to put down an uprising. This could be Saul alias Paul (10-67) the Greek Roman citizen. This action set the stage for Rabbinical Judaism. It is noteworthy that the Pharisee (Rabbinical Sect) is not popular at this time. The High Priest Ismael son Fabi a Pharisee so divided the priesthood that stones are thrown and many Sadducee priests are starved to death due to withdrawal of their food.
Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul claims to have visited Cephas (Peter)
in Jerusalem and stayed with him fifteen days, three years after his conversion
and five years after the death of Jesus. He also claims to have visited
with James the Lord's brother. Saul insists he did not go to ask
their permission for what he was doing and it was just for a visit.
During the reign of Claudius the Galilean Sect of Jews attacked (about 41-45) the Sumaritans. The Zealots Eleazar, son of Deinaeous and Alexander from Jerusalem raised a band of brigands and attacked the Samartian towns massacred the inhabitants, sparing neither young nor old, and set fire to the villages. Cumanus (38-52) from Carsarea led a cavalry troop called the Sebastenians against the Zealot brigands. Many of Eleazar's companions are killed. The Romans put down the rebel Galileans placing them, their wives and children into slavery. Some Jews pleaded that Jerusalem be spared retaliation for burning the Samaritan towns. Many of the Zealot army scattered all over the country plundering and killing. The High Priest Jonathan (36-37) of the House of Annas sent a delegation to Syrian Governor Quadratus blaming Cumanus (38-52) for the riot. Syrian Governor Quadratus as an example crucifies many rebels. He caught 18 Zealot leaders and had them beheaded. He ordered the high priest Jonathan, the son of Ananias and current high priest Ananias, Ananus (43-43), the son of the latter and some other Jewish notables, together with most distinguished Samaritans to report to Rome Emperor Claudis (41-54). Caesar would eventually banish Cumanus (38-52).
Joseph Cabi son Simon is High Priest of Jerusalem.
The Roman Empire began the conquest and occupation of England.
Peter (d-64-67) alias Symeon or Simon (also Cephas meaning rock) born
Bethsaida, on the Sea of Galilee a married man living in Capernaum a disciple
of John the Baptist son of Jonas is the leader and spokesman of the Apostles.
Peter's brothers are Andrew, James (d-43) and John. This likely means
brothers in Christ rather than real brothers? It is noteworthy that
Simon Peter (d-64-67) is excluded from the first lists of Bishops of Rome
and it isn't until the late 2nd century or early 3rd century that the Roman
Church considers him as the first Pope. It is noteworthy that in
the 4th century St. Peter and Paul are considered as joint founders of
the Roman Church. All first century claims to Papal succession is
highly speculative due to the dynamic nature of the various movements.
Early members of Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus
at Capernaum are called Minim meaning sects holding views unacceptable
by Pharisaic tradition. They are also known as the followers of the
Way a term from the Essene philosophy.
Simon a renowned great magician of Samaria converted to the Judo-Messianic sect and followed Philip and is astonished by the miracles. Simon Peter (d-64-67) and John the son Zebedee visited the growing Samaria church to lay on hands to raise some members to Apostles.
James (d-62) the Righteous (the Just), had gained favor even with the Judo-Pharisees, leaders of the synagogues who are becoming prototypes for the coming age of rabbinical Judaism. The Judo-Sadducees, an aristocracy of high priests saw James (d-62) the Righteous as a growing threat to their power because of his very Righteousness. The Judo-Sadducees is remnants of the Herodian dynasty of Roman puppets. The Judo-Sadducees proclaimed that James (d-62) the Righteous One has gone astray and his death is prophesied by Isaiah 3:10-12. The Judo-Sadducees bludgeoned James (d-62) the Righteous to death in order to fulfil scriptures. The Qumran of the Messianic Essenes refers to James (d-62) as the Teacher of Righteousness. This is likely because he is of the Judo-Messianic sect who did not reject the law and covenant. King Herod Agrippa I (41-44) deposed the high priest Ananus (Anas) II (43-43) son Ananus I (6-15) after only three months because he ordered the stoning death of James (d-62) the brother of Jesus. Ananus (Anas) II the High Priest followed the teachings of the Sadducee Sect that are heartless when they sit in judgement. The King appointed two high priests in his place namely Jesus son of Damnaeus and Jesus son of Gamaliel. After this these two high priests hurled stones at each other.
Herod Agrippa I King of the Jews (41-44) orders the beheading of a senior Apostle James (d-43) son Zebedee, brother of John. This account differs from the historian Flavious Josephus (37-100). After he saw this pleased the Jews, he proceeded to arrest Simon Peter during the festival of Unleavened Bread (Passover).
Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul claimed that after his lengthy stay
in Arabia he returned to Damascus, Syria. Saul's disciples claim
he then traveled Damascus to Jerusalem. In Jerusalem Paul alias Saul
(10-67), creator of the Paulist Cult and a Pharisee, says that he boldly
preached about the city but many of the Jerusalem Community of James the
Just, brother of Jesus Sect are in fear of this man. Barnabas a companion
and fellow preacher with Paul vouched for him but the Zealots are determined
to kill him. The Herodian brotherhood knew of the plot so they took
him to Caesarea and sent him to Tarus in the Roman Province of Cilicia
the place of his birth. Paul records that he stayed in Tarus for
the next fourteen years. All records suggest the Jerusalem Community
of James the Just, brother of Jesus is totally unaware of Paul and it is
highly unlikely that he preached throughout the city. This story
is likely added to establish credibility.
James the lesser alias the just, cousin and brother of Jesus, chief among the Apostle and first bishop of the Christians in Jerusalem in the Protevangelion Gospel attributed to James the just, claims to have retired to the desert (Jericho) until the death of Herod. Some claim that James the Just, Brother of Jesus is injured in an attack by Paul (Saulus) the Herodian but escaped.
Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul, of the Paulist Cult, and his disciple Barnabas are mistaken for the messengers of the Gods Zeus and Hermes (Thoth) by the people of Lystra, Turkey. Hermes the Greek alias Thoth Trismegistus the Egyptian as a spirit concept is a messenger of the gods. The people labeled Paul as a disciple of Thoth meaning an interpreter of the divine will of mankind. Based upon this understanding others suggest Paul is being mistaken for the messianic messenger of the Mount of Olives the so-called Egyptian. Antioch, Syria becomes the center of the Judo-Hellenistic Messianic sect. This is the year in Syria that some allege that Simon Peter (d-64-67) the Judah-Messianic leader and Paul alias Saul (10-67), of the Paulist Cult, a Roman heatedly argued the keeping or abandonment of ancient Jewish tradition, according to Paul. There is no evidence to suggest Peter even knew that Paul existed. Simon Peter (d-64-67) the Joshua-Judah leader, keeper of the covenant had been preaching that Judo-Messianic sect members must observe Jewish tradition just as Joshua (Christ) had remained in God's covenant. Paul alias Saul(10-67), of the Paulist Cult argued that it is not necessary to follow Judah tradition. This likely represents the beginning of the schism between Eastern and Western Messianic orthodoxy. It is noteworthy that the Messianic Essenes Dead Sea Scrolls prophesy, that the Messiah will not turn aside from the Commandments of the Holy Ones. The actions of Paul the Roman clearly violates this prophesy leading many of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus to consider Paul (10-67) a heretic of the darkness. Paul would be considered the liar who rejects the law and covenant that is disguising him as a servant of righteousness, the sons/servants of darkness. It is very evident that Paul or the authors attributed to Paul borrowed heavily from the writings of the Essene Sect and this likely infuriated the Essene Scribes. It is noteworthy that Paul is Roman, a Pharisee and a killer of Jews and that would not sit well with the Essenes under any conditions.
The Romans sent four legions (20,000 men) to subdue the Belgae of England.
King Rhoemetalces III (38-44) of Thraces, Bulgaria was murdered in a coup led by his wife. He was the last sovereign of the Odrysian Kingdom. It is believed there are 12,000 chariot burial sites in Bulgaria. The Roman Empire made Thrace a province in 46.
The Orthodox Judah Sects of strict observance began to persecute those who preached that it is not necessary to follow long held tradition. James the younger (d-62) son Alphaeus and brother Judas becomes the second Papa of Jerusalem. This is likely the motivation needed for Paul alias Saul (10-67), the self-proclaimed apostle alias a Pharisee, and a Roman citizen to depart from Jerusalem. If true this must be in 62 AD??
A large crowd assembled at Jerusalem for the feast of unleavened bread
turned on the guards for what they called an obscene gesture, an insult,
and a blasphemy against God. They began stoning the guards so Ventidius
Cumanus future Governor (48-52) ordered his 600 man Palestine auxiliary
force to prevent a general revolt. Panic seized the crowd and many
are trodden under foot and crushed to death. Twenty to thirty thousand
are killed during this Passover.
On the death of Herod Agrippa I King of the Jews (41-44) his daughter’s Mariamne age 10 and Drusilla age 6 are forced into prostitution by the Jews from the towns of Cesarea and Sebaste. Cuspius Fadus (44-46) is appointed Procurator of Judea and ordered by Caesar to chastise the towns of Cesarea and Sebaste.
During the reign of Cuspius Fadus (44-46) a prophet (magician) named Theudas persuaded a great number of people to follow him to the Jordan River where he would divide the river. Fadus sent his troops and slew many of them and cut off the head of Theudas.
Others suggest the 1st mission (45-49) of Paul (10-67) alias Saul, the self-proclaimed Roman Apostle of the Paulist Cult with Barnabas traveled this year from Antioch (Syria) via Cyprus to Attalia (Antalya, Turkey) and back to Syria and Jerusalem by 48. Paul himself however suggests he spent 14 years in Tarsus. Paul (10-67) of the Paulist Cult abandoned the ancient Hebrew dietary laws and circumcision clearly separating himself from the Covenant of the Holy Ones and the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus. The Apostles are admitting women to divine service, a clear transgression from ancient Judah tradition. It is noteworthy that the Paulist Cult preached equality yet retained the Judah tradition that women are servants to man.
Tiberius Julius Alexander (46-48) is appointed Procurator of Judea. Josephus the historian claims Alexander crucified James and Simon during his reign.
The Judo-Messianic followers are divided into three different
Sects, the Gentile Paulist Cult under Paul (10-67) and Barnabas, the Essene
Sects and the Judo-Greek Messianic sect including the Hellenistic Sect
under Peter (d-64-67) and James (d-62) the younger. Paul (10-67)
the leader of the Paulist Cult visited Jerusalem but did not visit any
of the Apostles likely for fear of rejection by the Church Council.
It is noteworthy that he didn't attend the First Council (48-49) of the
Messianic Gentiles and Judo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem this year.
The Paulest Cult would evolve into the Roman Catholic Cult having no direct
affiliation with the Christian Sects of Simon Peter. It is noteworthy
that Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian made no mention of Paul.
Ventidius Cumanus (38-52) is appointed Procurator of Judea.