EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
This year is known as the year of the four Roman Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba (68-69) (murdered), Marcus Salvius Otho (69-69)(suicides), Aulus Vitellius (69-69) (killed) and Vespasian (69-79) (Legate of Judea) prevailed. The Senate is considered as helpless during this period of internal revolution.
The Judah staged a full-scale revolution that required the attention of six Roman Legions. The Roman General Vespasian marched on Jerusalem leaving scorched earth behind him and driving the Zealots into Jerusalem. The Zealots turned against the hereditary Temple aristocratic and high-priestly leaders replacing them by lot with lowborn individuals. This stage of the rebellion represents the peasants against the aristocrats.
The Judah Sects complained that the tax rate of 25 percent on top of the temples 22 percent is unacceptable. Civilis the Roman commander guarding the Rhine also rebelled against Rome in support of Vespasion. At this time Rome is gripped by a civil struggle between Aulus Vitellius and Vespasian who would become Emperor. Many outlying regions seized this as an opportunity to gain advantage.
Pliny the Elder a Roman historian is exploring the Jordan Valley and Dead Sea regions. A few miles south of Jericho, where Qumran lies, he described a settlement of deeply religious men, whom he called the Essenes. The settlement has no women and the Essenes no money yet by recruitment through thousands of ages a race in which no one is born lives on forever. The Messianic Essenes gathered and copied texts from diverse places, placed them in terra-cotta jars and sealed them behind false rock faces for safekeeping. The texts included Greek and Hebrew from the Book of Isaiah to land deeds, marriage contracts, bill of divorce, scriptural commentaries all mingled. They even included a list of the hidden treasures of Jerusalem suggesting the Messianic Essene are likely a main stream Judaeans. The Dead Sea Scrolls are the oldest source of the Old Testament and does not include the book of Esther. The Romans later this year occupied the Qumran temple and the fate of the Messianic Essene Sect is unknown. It is believed the Dead Sea Scrolls are buried this year. The Essene Sect had groups of followers in every town of Judea and is likely absorbed into one of the evolving Judo-Christian Sects. The Dead Sea Scrolls are believed to cover the period of 150 B.C. to 68 A.D.
Titus Flavius Vespasian Augustus (69-79) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. Emesa, Commagene and Armenia Minor are annexed into the Roman Empire. It is noteworthy that the apostles Jude and Bartholomew established the Byzantine Christian Armenian Church.
A team of international scholars claims to have found the
first archaeological evidence dating from around the time Jesus lived, and which
could be linked directly to his earliest followers.
Exploring a previously unexcavated tomb three kilometres south of
Jerusalem, the researchers discovered burial boxes, or ossuaries, decorated with
early Christian iconography. They
date from before 70 AD, when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans.
Until now, the earliest known Christian art, located in catacombs beneath
the city of Rome and in Coptic caves in the Egyptian desert, dates from the late
third or early fourth century AD.
On one box in the tomb they found a Greek inscription which, translated, calls on God or Jehovah to rise up or to raise up, an apparent reference to resurrection.
The first church (chapel) of Arabic (future Muslims), followers of Judaism and followers of Christianity, co-existed at Rihab, Northern Jordan. Archeological findings suggest it existed (33 - 70 A.D.) period.
The Titus Flavian son of Emperor Vespasian (70-79) and heir to the Roman Imperial throne (79-81) and eighty thousand men put an end to all Jewish independence and destroyed the second temple of Jerusalem, sets it afire and tore down the walls. Some suggest it is Titus Flavian who carried off the Ark of the Covenant and the seven-branched candelabra, both sacred emblems of Judaism. Vespasin and Titus are of humble origin and strove to maintain peace within the Empire. The Judah debated in the town of Yagnar, which books to include in the Bible. This is believed to be the first complete Old Testament. Some books included by Christian sects are not included by the Judah sects.
It is noteworthy that Jerusalem had a special access gate for the Essene. This gate is past the place called Bethso in the southwestern corner of Jerusalem's old first wall. It is believed the gate was installed about 30 B.C. by Roman engineers and destroyed in 70 AD.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are completed by a Judo-Christian Monastic Sect called Essenes who lived 200 B.C. to 70 A.D around the Dead Sea. It is known that some early Judeo-Christians withdrew into the desert to a Monistic existence. Some believe this Judah Sect eventually evolved into some of the early Eastern-Christians. The Greek Orthodox Christians as an example hold the Monastic tradition as an ideal. The last of the Dead Sea scrolls is written in Aramaic. The Messianic Essenes are also traced to 8th century Kerites a heretical Judah sect from Persia who followed the Essene writings. Some suggest that the Gospel and Letters of John could be written by the Essene or are based upon the Essene documents of Qumran. The Messianic Rule of the Essenes "when they shall gather for the common table the priest shall bless the first fruits of bread and wine, thereafter the Messiah (Jesus) of Israel (Judah) shall extend his hand over the bread, and all the congregation of the Community utter a blessing.
Judaism and the Brotherhood of Jesus are still largely indistinguishable during the first century after the death of Jesus Christ. One serious difference being the latters belief that the messiah in the person of Joshua (Jesus) had come. The major theological difference is the failure of some Hellenistic Christians and Roman Paulists to follow Judah Law according to the Council of 49. During this Essenes Period Judaism is extremely diverse in its beliefs and values. On the Orthodox side the people are awaiting the messiah to wage war against the forces of evil in a final Apocalyptic Battle. A forty year battle of the children of light vs. the children of darkness. This is an ancient tradition that good triumphs over evil. The more Christian/Rabbinical form of Judaism had moved from speculating about God's activities in the world to analyzing and commenting on Scriptures and their meaning. It is clear that the Biblical texts are fluid and have evolved rather than being rigid like the fundamentalists would like them to be. In fact the canon or recognized set of collected works within the Scriptures that is considered authoritative varied with each religious sect. Roman-Christian Europe would embrace an Apocalyptic War set of beliefs and values and attempt to enforce them on their fellow man. Joshua, the Egyptian Christ, was not out to change the way people act or believe but rather to change the way they think through example and parable. The old Middle East way is to use fear, force and power as a persuader.
Titus and Tiberious Alexander lay siege to Jerusalem causing its complete destruction. The Roman-Christians believe this action revokes the special convenient between God and the Judah and the Judo-Christians for that matter. This belief makes the Judah people even more distrusting of Roman-Christians.
At this time there are six competing sects, the Parisees, the Sadducees, the Essenes, the Zealots and two groups of Christian Jews, the Nazarenes and the Edionites (Ebionites). The Ebionites would divied into two sub-groups the Nazarene Ebionites - The Profit of Truth and the Judaic Edionites - the Jewish Messiah. The Ebionites were followers of John the Baptiste and Jesus and were being led by James the brother of Jesus.
Some biblical scholars suggest John Mark of Jerusalem who assisted Peter, Paul who died 67 (a self-proclaimed apostle) and Barnabas is the first to recorded the Gospels this year in Rome based upon the teachings of Peter the Apostle. This is pure speculation with no basis in fact. It is noteworthy that Barnabas a companion and fellow preacher with the Paulist sect is attribute to writing the General Epistle of Barnabas. This Epistle had canonical authority in the early Christian Churches. This Epistle attributed to Barnabas however is likely written after 100 A.D. Early Roman Christian writings show no knowledge of the Gospel attributed to Mark. No evidence supports this theory and the earliest known fragments excluding the Dead Sea Scrolls are dated about 125-150 AD. The Oldest surviving copy of the book of Mark dates to 225 A.D. It is generally accepted that the Gospel according to Mark represents the oldest book and that the Matthew, Luke and John books used Mark as their source. The Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that maybe John is the first Gospel written. The Gospel according to Saint John is written by an Essene (a Jewish Sect) and is therefore likely the earliest version of Gospels. Others suggest the first records (Quelle) likely only represented the parables and the balance is later added resulting in some conflicting stories. The actual authors of the Gospels are not known. The Roman Church attributed them as Mark, Matthew, Luke and John but there is no basis in fact to support this contention. The gospel of Matthew is believed first written in Aramaic. Evidence suggests that these writings are copied from an early source called 'Q' or source. The earliest surviving copy of Mark is 225 A.D. and some suggest it is written with the implicit purpose to clear Judo-Christians of any involvement in the Judah rebellion. Matthew 23:8-10 commands "you are not to be called Rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all students. And call no one your Father on earth, for you have one Father, the one in heaven. Nor are you to be called instructors, for you have one instructor, the Messiah". This would tend to indicate that the Rabbi Pharisee Sect is gaining in authority over the Matthean Sect. The early Christians also had access to the Egyptian sacred writings and some of this philosophy like is incorporated into the biblical writings. Some of this philosophy is later discarded as Gnosticism (a Religion of knowledge or insight). It is noteworthy that most of the ten commandments can be sourced to the Egyptian philosophy. The final commandment of love of self and love of neighbor is also incorporated in Egyptian philosophy but not in Jewish philosophy.
The Epistles attributed to Paul the alleged Apostle that are rejected by the Roman Catholic Church is to the Laodiceans, to the Seneca and Thecla. These books make reference to Paul's book of many Epistles that were not authored by Paul but presumed to represent his teachings. Some of these books are believed authored by Paul and written by others. Some Christian churches include these books in their bibles. Some contend the Acts of Paul and Thecla dates to 492-496. It is noteworthy that all early gospels were written in Greek whereas Jesus and the disciples spoke Aramaic.
The Jewish aristocratic class of priests (Sadducees) is destroyed forever
and the scribal class of legal experts (Pharisee) inherited the Jewish
leadership. They assembled at Yavneh, west of Jerusalem near the
Mediterranean coast, to save Judaism. The Pharisee advocated religious
fidelity and moral integrity and extended the lost Temple ritual into every
Jewish home. The home regular meals will be observed as once was
the Temple and its sacrificial meal.
Return to Jerusalem of a group of Judeo-Christians (Epiphanius).
Gnostic philosophy (salvation by knowledge) predates Christianity, and likely has a Greek origin. It borrows tenants from Asia, Babylonia, Greek, Syrian, Judaism and now Christianity religions. Gnostics were stamped out by the 5th century.
Rome banished the professors of philosophy on the grounds their doctrines encouraged disloyalty.
Exodus 3, 15 reads You are to say to the sons of Israel; "YAHWEH, the God of your Fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you". This is my name for all time; by this name I shall be invoked for all generations to come.
YHW aka YHWH or more commonly YAHWEH (Yahew, Yahwe or Yahwa) is believed to have originated in Midiam (Saudi Arabia) was extensively used by the Jews prior to the destruction of the Temple by the Romans. After the destruction of Temple (Beit ha-Midkash) in Jerusalem Gods name was not to be spoken again. Observant Jews do not pronounce Yahweh because it is considered too sacred to be used for common activities. Even ordinary prayer is considered too common for this use. This is interesting as God was very clear, if we believe Exodus, he wanted his name to be used for generations to come. It would appear the Jewish culture abandoned their intimate relationship with God in 70 A.D.?
Emperior Zhangdi of China ruled (75-88)
Plutarch a Greek biographer recorded the sailing of pilgrims from Britain to a shrine beyond the Atlantic Ocean.
Flavious Josephus (37-100) wrote his history in Aramaic and over the next four years translated his books into Greek. It is noteworthy that only the Greek version survived. It is also noteworthy that the Greeks did not believe the antiquity of the Jews (5,000-yr.) but contend they originate from more recent times.
Cletus (Anacletus) (?76-88) a Paulist became the first Papa
of the Roman-Paulist Church and some claim he is appointed by Paul and
Peter. It is noteworthy that both Paul and Peter are claimed to have
died about or before 67.
King Alexander Jonathan (Jannaeus) died this year.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola (40-93) a Roman general is the Governor by conquered Britain (78-94).
Mount Vesuvious erupted August 24, blasting a column of pumice twelve miles into the air, destroying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Some sixteen to twenty five thousand people living in cities and towns around the base of the volcano had been killed. Pliny the Roman historian is among the causalities of Pompeii. Pliny the Younger, a Roman admiral sailed from Miseno to help evacuate the area. He wrote "A cloud formed...the only way I can describe it is to say that its appearance and shape were similar to that of a cluster pine tree." A plague swept through the Roman Empire ending in 88 and reports indicates that ten thousand people died a day at its height. At Herculaneum is discovered a symbol of a cross leading to speculation that Roman-Christianity is practiced in secret. The cross could be from 64 A.D. as it appeared to be covered probably during the period of persecution. The cross at this time is the symbol of slavery whereas the fish is the symbol of Christianity (freedom). To consider the cross as a Christian symbol at this time doesn't hold much credibility. The saying take up your cross and follow me would be the same as saying take up your gallows, or gas chambers, or guillotine and follow me. Excavation did not start until 1748.
Titus Caesar Vespasian (79-81) 'the conquer of Jerusalem' and eldest son of Emperor Vespasian (69-79) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. The citizens of Naples still speak Greek.
St. Anacletus or Anencletus also Cletus (about 79-91) likely a Greek Paulist is listed as the second Papa of Rome by the Paulists. Some papal lists in the 4th century listed Cletus as a different person than Anencletus. It is considered impossible to form any clear concept of his role in the early Churches. Eusebius (260-340) wrote Cletus died (93) in the twelfth year of Emperor Domitian's reign (81-96). Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) claim Clement (64-95) is appointed by St. Peter (d-64-67) as the first Papa of Rome. Others claim Clement is (91-101). All these claims are likely fabrications.
The Romans completed their infamous amphitheater called the Colosseum. The Roman Colosseum became the center of all Roman culture centered on violence and cruelty. This insatiable demonic desire for blood both animal and human lasted for 500 years of which 300 are under Christian control. The games usually began with the slaughter of animals. Human executions included crucifixion, burning and exposure to wild beasts. This is followed by gladiator fighting to the death including the use of women, children and blind people. The games are concluded by pure killing of criminals or slaves by cutting them down in there hundreds with sword, lance or spears.
Many Judah-Christian Sect followers are ejected from the synagogues because they refuse to observe the Torah. These are the followers of Paul, the Roman and self-proclaimed apostle, who preached a disregard for Judah traditions. Prior to this time Judaism had a strong position in the Roman Empire. Rome began to consider the Jesus sect as religious fanatics for breaking the faith of their fathers. The Romans highly valued those who followed ancestral customs.
Some believe the Gospels according to Mathew the publican is written 80-90 AD in Palestine is written in Hebrew and directed at Judaism. This is interesting given the language of the day is Greek and Hebrew a dead language. Mathew it is believed is grief stricken by the sacking of Jerusalem and the destruction of early Christian documents that he interpreted these events as a divine retribution for the Judah' rejection of Jesus the Christ. Gospels John and Luke are claimed to be written as the young Judo-Christian Church is abandoning its Jesus roots in Judaism. They ignored the Jesus Judah roots and incorporated an anti-Judah bias in their writings. Some believe the Gospel according to Luke a medical man of Antioch is also written about 80 to 90 AD. Biblical scholars suggest that both Mathew and Luke used Mark's version as a guide in their writings. It is quite clear that all these books are based on a common source book called 'Q'. The writings themselves suggest Matthew represent a more Judah perspective. No evidence supports this alleged early source and a much later date is most likely.
Titus Flavius Domitian (81-96) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and ordered hard fighting on the Danube against the Dacians. He is considered a cruel ruler with little respect for the Senate yet legislated against immorality and strictly controlled the governors.
Rome completed their defenses in England isolating the Picts and Celts from Caledonia to the north. The Hibernia or Celt-Scots at this time is in Ireland.
In the fourth year of Roman Emperior Domitian (81-95) the First Papa (Bishop) of Alexandria Annianus (63-85) died having served 22 years and is succeeded by the second Avilus (85-98), who reigned for 13 years according to Eusebius (260-339).
Scholars suggest the Gospel attributed to Matthew is written
(85-90) about this time in Antioch, capital of the Roman Province of Syria
and the third largest city in the Empire. The author of Matthew is
unknown but it is generally accepted it is a copy of the Gospel attributed
to Mark. This unknown author(s) omits, changes and adds to the Mark
Scholars also suggest the Gospel attributed to Luke is also written (85-90) in a Greek city of the Roman Empire. The author of Luke is also unknown but it is generally accepted it is a copy of the Gospel attributed to Mark. This unknown author(s) omits, changes and adds to the Mark source. Originally the Gospel of Luke is immediately followed by the Acts of the Apostles as a single linked, two-volume work.
It is likely that 'Q' (or source), Mark, Luke, Matthew and John represent five different Sects of early Christianity during the turbulent first century.
The Gospel attributed to 'Q' is Greek sources, likely written in Galilee.
The Gospel attributed to Mark reflects a major shift away from rabbi authority.
The Gospel attributed to Matthew reflects a major criticism of the Twelve Apostles, especially the inner Three.
The Gospel attributed to Luke and the Acts of the Apostles reflects a major shift from the authority of Jerusalem to Rome. The Acts written by Luke, a Syrian from Antioch is a follower of the Paulist Sect and uses his writings to attempt to legitimize Paul as an apostle but he contradicts Paul's own writings who said he had no contact with the real Apostles for the first 14 years.
The Gospel attributed to John is unlike the Mark, Matthew and Luke Synoptic Gospels. Experts can't agree if John is a copy of Mark or an independent work. The style is closer to an Essene sect style and therefore could be the earliest works.
The Gospel attributed to Peter dates to the late second or early third century in Egypt and is given little authority by conventional studies.
The Gospel attributed to Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector written in Greek and Coptic is found in Egypt and dates to 200-250. (Judas Didymus Thomas?), Didymus is Greek and Thomas is Syric and this Gospel likely originates in eastern Syria beyond the Euphrates. This Gospel emphasizes the authority of Thomas, especially against Peter and Matthew.
Emperior Hedi of China ruled (88-106)
The Judo-Christian Church is practicing equality by allowing women to lead in prayer, to sermonize and to give religious instruction. They also freely associate with slaves and gentiles. The Judah Sect are horrified and proclaimed this year it is better to burn the Torah than to teach it to a woman. The Roman Paulist Church would abandon this equality practice by 100 AD under mounting Roman pressure.
It is believed that the birth of Jesus stories are created and incorporated into Christian writings about this time. It is noteworthy that Paul in his writings about 48 to 62 contains no reference to the birth of Jesus except that he is born of woman of the house of David.
Eusebius (260-339) claims Anencletus (Anacletus) (79-91) after 12 years Bishop of Rome is succeeded by Clement (91-101) a follower of Paul. During Clement's reign the Church at Corinth had open dissension with the Church at Rome. Clement wrote his own Epistle according to Eusebius.
Clement I alias Clementis (64-95) a soldier of Paul and Presbyter is listed as the first Paulist Papa of Rome appointed by St Peter according to Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) who claim Clement (64-95) is appointed by St. Peter (d-64-67) as the first Paulist Papa of Rome. We need to remember that during Tertullian's time the Roman Paulist Church is under attack of not being of apostolic succession as Paul is not an apostle. Irenaeus of Lyons (about 180) and Hegesippus (about 160) claim he is the third head of the Roman Paulist Church. Others suggest he is Titus Flavious Clemens a cousin of Emperor Domitien (81-96), who is executed and his wife is exiled in 95 for atheism by adopting Jewish customs. Other historians claim Clement is actually the one of the Jewish slaves of Titus Flavious Clemens. Still others claim he is a fellow-worker of Paul, a self-proclaimed apostle and therefore not of the true faith. Some claim he is responsible for the First Epistle of Clement written about 96 to the church at Corinth. Some believe he is the author of the Second Epistle of Clement, other disagrees. Some suggest he may also be responsible for the Apostolic Constitutions a collection of Ecclesiastical law. It is important to remember that a monarchical, or one-man, episcopate (Pope) had not yet emerged in Rome at this time. Rome likely had three or more Papa's representing the various Christian sects known to exist. Irenaeus (about 180) wrote that Clement I had seen and conversed with the Apostles and therefore is a repository of their teachings and traditions. If this reasoning holds true then Paul (10-67) who had not conversed with the Apostles is not a repository of their teachings and traditions. Paul actually stated he is the authority and can lean nothing from the Apostles. This disagreement over Clement I likely represents the friction between the Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman Paulist Sects of this era. Writings attributed to Clementis concerning the Peter Sect and Paul Sect says these men who live such holy lives and are joined by a great multitude of the elect who by reason of rivalry are the victims of many outrages and tortures.
Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian wrote his Antiquities of the Jews containing the interval of 3,833 years. Josephus believed that Genesis is written by Moses but from a philosophical perspective. Josephus writes that Scripture says " A woman is inferior to her husband in all things." Let her, therefore, be obedient to him. It is noteworthy that this text didn't survive to current copies of the Old Testament. Josephus believed that Seth of Genesis is Seth or Sesostris, King of Egypt.
Some believe the Gospel attributed to the Apostle Thomas was being written about this time. Others suggest it was oral and finally put into writing in 140 A.D.
The Epistle of Barnabas is neither an epistle nor by Barnabas and is likely written 96-98 and shows no knowledge of the New Testament text. Nerva (96-98) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.
The Ebionites are considered a separate sect from the Nazarenes and were split between two groups the Orthodic Ebionites who believe:
and the Nazarene Ebionites who call themselves the Profits of Truth and believe:
The Ebionites (Ebionĉans or Elbionaioi) meaning poor men, were a group of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians who were prominent during the 2nd and 3rd centuries. They wrote the Ebionite Gospel about 150 A.D. likely in Syria or Palestine. It sourced the writings attributed to Matthew and some from writings attributed to Luke. Paul was considered an enemy of the church because he considered the Jewish Law irrelevant.
Trajan (98-117) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and sends ten legions (50,000 men) to subdue the Dacian people making this Rome's only Trans Danudian Province. Emperor Trajan conducted the greatest Roman games that continued for 123 straight days, offered the spectacle of 5,000 human and 11,000 animals murdered in cold blood. The crowds screamed for more blood.
The Apostle John lived in Asia from the time of the Roman Emperior Domitian's death until Emperior Trajan's time (96-98) and the Gospel attributed to him is considered the greatest of the four Gospels according to Eusebius (260-339).