EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX
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Pict and Celt ships are visiting Iceland and knew of three other lands beyond Iceland to the west, so reported the Greek named Demetrius, who is a Roman Government employee in Tin Island (Britain). He described a large land that the natives called Cronus. The land of Cronian legend is where Titan and Cronus are imprisoned.
Evaristus (about 91, 100-109) likely a Jewish-Greek Paulist but some suggest he is a Jew from Bethlehem (Ephrath) is listed as the 2nd or 4th Papa of Paulist Rome depending on which tradition one follows. His tenure is claimed as from eight or nine to thirteen or fourteen years. One tradition suggests he divided the Roman parishes among his followers. Some suggest he follows Anacletus (79-91) as Papa of Paulist Rome and Clement I (91-101) precedes Anacletus.
The Paulist and Christian Churches are in theological disarray. Marcion, a shipbuilder and merchant suggested that the Paulist and Christian Churches should have their own Bible separate from the Jewish scripture. He suggested the writings of Luke and Paul should be selected so as not to confuse the people. Other leaders suggested other, geographically popular, writings should be included as a unifying agent. This strategy to incorporate and absorb other religious traditions would prove highly successful among Greek and Roman cultures. The down side is the Church is forced to compromise many early Christian principles of equality, sharing and tolerance. About this time the biblical book called the Apocrypha is dropped from the evolving bible. Biblical texts are compiled from numerous different texts of the same book. These early authors tried to reconcile these differences based on current accepted theology.
The Marcion doctrine (100-165) establishes a new Christian sect that rejected a Jewish God that is harsh and cruel who exterminated whole populations in his passion for justice. The Marcion sect attracted a huge following who rejected a Jewish God who they say is lustful for war. The Jesus God is placid, mild and simply good and excellent much like the God of Abraham EL (Elohime).
The social order of early Judo-Christians became tied to a strict interpretation of Biblical Order. Property is held in common. Women are treated as equals including leading the community in prayer. This idealistic interpretation of Jesusí teachings is short lived in Europe. About this time a great schism developed among the Roman and Jewish Christian traditionalists. Their arguments cited Paul's writings and Jewish tradition that eventually led the Roman Church to create a male dominated social order. Paul, a self-proclaimed apostle, had preached that man did not come from woman since he is the image of God and women did not come from God but from man and is therefore subject to man. Women should be kept silent. This major theological error of Paul's would plague the Roman Paulist Church. Paul failed to remember that Christ himself chose to come from woman and not man. Women are displaced from teaching roles and the holding of property in common is abandoned. This alignment with Jewish tradition failed to attract Jewish converts. Some believe the Gospel according to John is written after 100 AD. Other Evidence suggests it is written before 70 A.D. by the Messianic Essene likely making it the first Gospel to be recorded.
The Christian Coptic Church of Egypt and Ethiopia refused to accept the duel nature of Jesus as man and God. Some believe that the Acts of the Apostles is written about this time.
The Han Empire in China at this time is equal in size to the Roman Empire. The Roman economy relied on slavery where as the Han Empire relied on its free peasants. The Han Empire was trading with the Roman Empire.
The camel imported from Asia is first being used in the Sahara desert.
Migrants from Indonesia and Malaysia are settling on the Philippine Islands.
Ts'ai Lun of China created paper from hemp, tree bark, rags and fishnets that quickly replaced silk and bamboo strips. Papermaking didn't reach Europe until the 12th century.
Emperior Shangdi of China ruled 106 A.D.
Emperior Andi of China ruled (106-125)
An Essene of the Judo-Christian Sect named Simon is recorded to have interpreted the dream of Archelaus. This is important as some suggest the sect had been abandoned after the fall of Jerusalem.
The Hsiungnu Tartars recaptured Hami on the northern Turkestan trade route to the West. They would hold this important post until 131 AD.
Alexander I (?109-116?) likely a Paulist is the son of a Roman also named Alexander is appointed (5th or 6th) Papa of Paulist Rome with estimates of 7 to 10 years reign. Others suggest this claim is obscure. It is claimed he introduced the Last Supper tradition into the mass. The Messianic Essenes are the first to practice this tradition. It is noteworthy that Jesus is an Essene being baptized by John the Baptist who is also an Essene.
A Roman edict to force solidarity in religion required all people to worship the state deities and then they are free to worship other Gods. Those who do not conform are to be executed under Roman Law. Many Jews and Christians refused to render unto Caesar and are persecuted under the law. At this time it is written that Nero, in order to stifle the rumor (the he had set Rome on fire) ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians; these he punished exquisitely.
The first pagan mention of Christians was Pliny, then Tacitus in 115 AD and then Suetonius in 122 AD. They all agreed that Christianity at this time is a new, mischievous, depraved and excessive superstition. These Christians are in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it is light, when they sang in alterbate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a God, and bound themselves to a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food - but food of an ordinary and innocent kind. Pliny tortured and martyred two Christian female slave deaconesses to extract the real truth about the religion but could discover nothing more than depraved and excessive superstition.
Trajan's epistle to Pliny makes it clear that Christians may be allowed pardon, upon their repentance. Trajan established three principles: Do not go searching for Christians; Do not punish them if them repent; Do not accept anonymous accusations.
Caesar (98-117) annexed Armenia as a Province in 114, invaded the Parthia Empire in 115 conquering Adiabene and Mesopotamia to Charax and Assyria in 116 to the Tigris.
Sixtus (Xystus) I (?116-125) a Roman likely of Greek extraction is listed the Papa of Paulist Rome. The actual dates of his reign are unknown. He is believed to be the son of a Paulist priest. The Jews again revolted as did the peoples of the newly acquired territories. Both are suppressed with great severity.
The Roman Emperior Trajan attacked and captured the northern part of Mesopotamia this year.
The Roman Emperor Trajan invades Parthisa and takes Babylom. but sell the conquered lands back to Parthia in 117.
The Roman Emperor Hadrian (117-138) had a moderate tolerance to the Christian sects in the Empire. Hadrian immediately pulled the Roman legions back to the Euphrates.
Kanishka (120-160) a convert to Buddhism is considered the greatest of the Kushan Empire.
Emperor Hadrian (117-138) visited England and ordered the construction of the Hadrian wall in Scotland. Hadrian believed the Roman Empire needed to establish defendable boundaries.
The Romans built the wall of Hadrian (117-138) isolating the barbarian Pict and Celt of Scotland. The Romans had four legions in England and that should have been enough to control the Pict and Celt barbarians in the North. Hadrian likely ordered the building of the wall for personal ego reasons.
Emperior Shundi of China ruled (125-144)
Plague swept through much of North Africa, killing eight hundred thousand in Numidia and some two hundred thousand in the region around Carthage.
St. Telesphorus (?125-136) a Greek hermit is listed as a Papa of Paulist Rome who is the only 2nd century Papa of Paulist Rome whose martyrdom is reliably attested. His dates of reign are unknown. It is claimed he introduced the seven-day fast before Easter. The Roman Paulist Church at this time however did not observe Easter (the resurrection) so this claim is unlikely true.
The Roman Emperor Hadrian (117-138) wrote not to seek out Christians but once denounced and found guilty they must be punished.
The Roman Pantheon built about this time is believed to be a sundial.
Christian Irenaeus of Lyons (130-200) attacked the heretical
transcendentalism of the Christian Gnostic Sect. The Gnostic Sect
believed women are equal and can be ordained into the priesthood.
They also renounced worldly wealthy. Gnosticism is derived from the
Egyptian Gnosis philosophy that concerns itself with the Knowledge of God.
The Gnostic Sect read the Egyptian Books of Hermes, both technical and
philosophical and likely included them among their sacred books.
Irenaeus of Lyons (about 130-200) is Papa of the Greek Orthodox Christian
Church. The lost Christian Gospel written in Coptic, an ancient Egyptian
language that uses the Greek alphabet, is claimed by American scholars
to be written in the first or second century A.D. These Gospels have
clear differences from the Roman versions of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
but have similarities to the Lost Gospel of Thomas. The researchers
believe this discovery reinforces evidence of early rivalry of the Gnostic
Christians and the Orthodox Christian Churches. Much of the Gospels
are taken up with questions to Jesus by the Disciples, likely after his
death and resurrection and his answers.
Basilides a Christian Gnostic philosopher likely from Syria taught at Alexandria. He claimed to stand in the tradition of Peter the Apostle. He wrote a Gospel, a lengthy commentary on it, and a collection of Psalms; all these writings are destroyed or lost.
Carpocrates a Gnostic also taught in Alexandria and his writings also did not survive. He likely espoused the full equality of women.
The Judeo Messianic prophesies are again circulating to differentiate the Judeo Sect from the Roman-Paulist Sect and the other Judo-Messianic Sects. The Judeo Sect of Roman Jerusalem revolted under the leadership of the priest Eleazar and the fanatic Simon Bar-Cocheba. Roman Trajan Emperor Hadrian (117-138) a Spaniard sent his armies against the Judeo Sect to put down another rebellion.
The Jews of Judea again revolted being led by the priest Eleazar and the fanatic Simon Bar-Cocheba. This third Jewish War (132-135) ended with the entire Jewish culture being expelled from anywhere in the neighborhood of Jerusalem. This war was called the Shimon Bar-Kokhba rebellion.
The Romans suppressed the revolt and depopulated Judea and from this time forward the Judea Sect is only allowed to enter Jerusalem but once a year. This final action completed the denationalization of the Jews.
The Christians in Transjordania and Syria over the next twenty years become the Church of Ebionites (followers of James the Just) and do not accept the divinity of the Messiah and reject the Roman Pauline Letters. The Ebionites are Christianized Jews.
The Egyptian book of Hermes, the God who presides over learning, has for long been rightly regarded as common to all priests. Hermes is the true knowledge about the Gods (spirits). Hermes is considered a composite of all ancient writings of antiquity. Some (Seleucus) says the books number 20,000, others (Manetho) says they number 36,525 books. The books are written in Egyptian with some being translated into Greek.
The Romans build the wall of Caesar Antoninus Pious (138-161) from the Firth of Forth to the mouth of the Clyde to contain the Highlanders the Pict.
Hyginus (?138-142) a Greek philosopher from Athens is listed as a Papa of Rome. It is claimed he organized the clergy on a hierarchical basis. During his reign (140) the Christian Gnostic Church leaders Valentinus of Egypt and Cerdo of Syria came to Rome. Gnostics means those who know. The Gnostic Church held the belief in female wisdom a philosophy from the ancient goddess Sofia believed to have originated in Egypt. His length of reign is unknown (4-12 years). The Roman Paulist Church would later in the 4th century condemn all Gnostics as heretics and martyr them by their tens of thousands. The Christian Churches have broken into small unstable sects, often at odds with one another. The countries are filled with charismatic leaders, wandering preachers, zealots and mystics.
Marcion a wealthy son of the Bishop of Sinope (sea port of Pontus along the Black Sea) is the founder of the Marcionites religion believed in two Gods, one a harsh Jewish deity who imposed a death sentence on humanity when it could not meet his law's impossibly high standard, a bad god. The God of Jesus was totally unrelated, a loving deity. Those who followed the bad god would eventually go to hell. The Marcionites eliminated all traces of Judaism from their religions beliefs and were highly successful in Asia Minor and their influence was evident into the 10 century. Their beliefs included:
Marcion only trusted the Gospel according to Luke, rejecting Mathew and John claiming the editors were bias and had injected falsified texts.
The Roman Paulist Church is becoming fragmented over the Jewish issue. Some believed the Roman Paulist Church should reject all Jewish tradition while others held that Jesus is Jewish and followed Jewish tradition. The Roman Paulist Church as a compromise became committed to the concept that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah. Most Jews didn't accept Jesus as the Messiah because Jewish tradition foretold that the Messiah would be a political King who would free the Jews. They also claimed that Jesus never claimed to be the Jewish Messiah. The Roman Paulist Church branded all Christian sects as heretics who didn't follow this Roman interpretation. This proclamation clearly defined Jews versus Roman Paulist Christians and clearly established the basis for the persecution of the Jews. Interestingly the Marshinites who proposed this theology are excommunicated yet the Church incorporated some of their principles.
The Knostics (salvation by Knowledge) embraced
Irenaeus (120-150), the Orthodox Bishop of Lyons declaired the Genostics and their bibles as heretics but their Gospels were distributed from Gaul, through Rome, Greece to Asia Minor.
They believed among other things, tolerance of different religious beliefs within and outside gnosticism, lack of discrimination against women, and that salvation is achieved through knowledge.
Pius I (?142-155) son Rufinus from Aquilesia, a Roman slave is listed as Papa of Rome. Some place his reign after Anicetus (155-166). The humble beginnings are likely borrowed from his brother who is claimed to be a former slave and teacher of repentance. During his reign is the first hint of disputes about the rank (authority) of church leaders. The Christian Gnostics Church (those who know) leaders Valentinus of Egypt, Cerdo of Syria and Marcion of Pontus rejected the Old Testament view of God as being unfavorable with the God of Jesus. This synod expelled the Christian Gnostic Marcion of Pontus from the Roman Paulist Church in July 144.
Emperior Chongdi of China ruled (144-145)
Emperior Zhidi of China ruled (145-146)
Emperior Huandi of China ruled (146-168)