EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX 1 AD - 499
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Aksum, aka Ethiopia became one of the first kingdoms to accept Christianity as its national religion. It is noteworthy that Ethiopia, the Land of Punt, also has a long-standing Jewish tradition.
Basil (330-379) is Papa of Caesarea.
About 15,000 to 20,000 Roman bronze coins dated to the reign of Constantine (300-337) are discovered in Thornbury, southwest, England.
Constantine I, decreed every man would henceforth be compelled to follow the profession of his parents and marry into the same family profession. Some zealots believe he saw himself as Christ's representative on earth and the head of the Church. For some five centuries after Constantine reign, the Emperor called and presided over all Ecumenical Councils, promulgated their decisions by Imperial decree and ratified elections to all the Patriarchies. All religious doctrines, documents and claims developed during this period should be rationalized. It is said that Emperor Constantine had a cold and terrible lust for power.
Four early heresy issues arose within the Roman Church:
1. Good and Evil - Gnosticism from Persian sources,
Marcion doctrine (100-165)
2. The Trinity - Arianism that is being spread by the Goth (Visigoth and Ostrogoth from Scandia), and Vandal,
the Germanic-Mongolian peoples.
3. Nature of Christ - Christological Heresy that was settled 451.
4. Church and State - Spiritual vs. Secular (Authority vs. Responsibility) that is not resolved to this date.
Gregory of Nyssa (335-395) is Papa of Nazianzen.
St. Mark (336-336) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome and little is known about the man as he is likely another puppet of the Roman Emperor.
St. Julius (337-352) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome.
Constantine I (274-337) had murdered his second wife and some say he built
a church to ease his conscious. On his deathbed it is alleged he
converted to Christianity and promised to visit all the holy places if
God will spare his life. Claims of this nature should be taken with
a grain of salt.
Upon the death of Constantine as the effective head of the Roman Church squabbling again broke out among the various Christian Churches.
Julius Papa of Rome (337-352) held a Roman Church synod at
Rome but the Eastern Churches refused to attend. The Eastern synod
extended no special status to the Papa of Rome. The Council of Antioch
in 341 reaffirmed the condemnation of Athanasius of Alexandria (d-373)
and attacked the theology of Marcellus, one in being with the Father.
Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem does not accept the book of Revelations as part of the New Testament.
The Council of Gangra, "if anyone, on the pretext of religion, teaches another man's slave to despise his master, and to withdraw from his service, and not to service his master with good will and all respect, let him be anathema" (dammed). This was encoded in canon law and clearly condones slavery as an institution.
Despite the constant squabbling between the various Christian Churches the Papa's of the Church began acquiring monarchical qualities like a Bishop of later times without reducing the superiority of the patriarchs. The five patriarchies are Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexander, Constantinople and a poorly represented Rome. The Orthodox Christian Church power base resided in the Eastern Church and not in the Western Roman Church. It is noteworthy that the Eastern Churches also trace their Papal authority back to Peter. Peter is to the Eastern Church as Paul is to the Western Church.
The two Roman Emperors, Constans (337-350) and Constantius II (337-361) called a General Council at Serdica (Sofia). The Roman Church held its opinion against the Federation of Eastern Churches. The Federation of Eastern Church issued an encyclical excommunicating leading Roman Papa's including Julius Papa of Rome whom it branded as the cause of all the trouble. The Roman Papa's continued to hold council but Julius Papa of Rome did not attend. Likely the Emperors saw him as a divisive factor.
Some suggest Christianity arrived Aksum aka Ethiopia, Africa about this time maybe earlier. Donatus of North Africa is the first prophet to stress that only 144,000 people would be chosen by God. He is branded a heretic.
Cyril (313-386) is Papa of Jerusalem (350-386).
Liberius (352-366) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome. Liberius Papa of Rome is the first official listed Papa of Rome not recorded as a saint. The anti-Papa of Rome Saint Felix II (355-365) is elected by the same Papa's who elected Liberius Papa of Rome. There is little doubt that Emperor Constantius II (337-361) is the official head of the Roman Church and is trying to force the Eastern and Western Churches to resolve their differences.
The first record of Christians celebrating Christmas occurred in Rome this year.
Liberius Papa of Rome requested a synod to resolve East West differences but when the Papa's own legates sided with the Eastern Church he demanded a new general council at Milan. Emperor Constantius II (337-361) used bullying tactics to extract a condemnation of Athanasius from all the delegates except three Nicenes, who are promptly exiled. Liberius Papa of Rome however resisted bribery and threats to compromise and is brought by force to Milan and then proving unyielding are banished to Beroea in Thrace.
Saint Felix II the anti-Papa of Rome (355-365) is elected by the same Papa's who elected Liberius Papa of Rome. These Papa's had solemnly sworn an oath they would not elect another Papa of Rome until Liberius died. The election of Saint Felix provoked a violent popular reaction but many considered Liberius Papa of Rome a traitor to orthodoxy and a persecutor of the faithful.
A tsunami struck Alexandria killing about 50,000 people ushered in a two-century period of seismic activity and rising sea levels that radically altered the Egyptian coastline.
Liberius (352-366) Papa of Rome exiled at Beroea under pressure from the local Papa capitulated to the Papa's and submitted to the Emperor of Rome. His own letters suggest he is ready to pay almost any price to return to Rome.
Emperor Constantius II (337-361) allowed Liberius Papa of Rome to be brought to Sirmium (Mitrovica in Yugoslavia) where he signed a proclamation rejecting the Nicene, one in being with the Father, declared the Son to be like the Father in being and indeed in everything. The Roman Church is told that Liberius Papa of Rome could return to Rome only if he reigned jointly with Saint Felix II Papa of Rome. It is noteworthy to remember that the Roman Empire had been jointly ruled from time to time. The Roman Church is jointly ruled for the next seven years. The supporter's of Liberius Papa of Rome acclaimed one God, one Christ, one Papa. The Roman government supported Felix Papa of Rome and Liberius Papa of Rome is not invited for example to the synod of Rimini in 359.
The Eastern Papas synod of Rimini adopted the Arianizing creed. Liberius Papa of Rome not being invited issued a decree after the death of Emperor Constantius in 361 setting aside the Arianizing decision.
The Roman Christian Church is considered a radical sect by the Romans and is meeting in private homes. This Roman Cult uses a symbol of a fish as their Icon.
Laodocia Council of 30 churches of
Asia Minor; Criteria for the New Testament writings include that they must be
written by an Apostle or during the time of the Apostles, that they must support
true doctrine and must have wide spread usage. Thus, even though the Shepherd of
Hermas, the First Letter of Clement, and the Didache may have been widely used
and contain true doctrines, they were not canonical because they were not
apostolic nor connected to the apostolic age, or they were local writings
without support in many areas. The letters of Paul (the Pauline Epistles)
were included even though he was not an Apostle.
3 Pauline Epistles
4 General Epistles
11 Date of completion
13 Early Manuscripts
14 Early Versions
Liberius Papa of Rome adopted a conciliatory posture at the synod of Alexandria and subsequently allowed communion to those who objected to his positions provided they adhered to the Nicene faith. This posture would continue until his death. His attempt at atonement suggested to the Roman Church that he is a weak Roman and this only tended to continue to divided their support. The Roman belief of absolutism does not sit well with any conciliatory posture. It is noteworthy that the Romans gave us the Modern Bible and the Rome principle of absolutism is incorporated. Any reference in the bible to re-incarnation is removed.
The Homer scheme algorithm attributed to William George Homer (1786-1837) was actually discovered by the Chinese and recorded this date. Many Europeans throughout history claim others discoveries as their own, not giving credit as to source.
The bishop assembled in the Council of Laodicea that is generally of more importance than the Council of Nice reject the book of Revelations.
July 21: Much of the Roman Empire is shaken by a horrible phenomena. Tremors are reported in Sicily, Greece, Egypt and Dalmatia (Yugoslavia). Alexandria. Egypt awakened to furious thunder and lightning and the sea departed only to return to flood Alexandria for miles inland, some fifty thousand people died. It is believed a tsunami hit the eastern Mediterranean.
July 21: An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died. Stone pillers have been recovered but it is impossible to say if they are from the Temple of Isis or even Cleopatra's palace. It is noteworthy that Cleopatra's suicide was in 30 B.C.
Saint Felix II Papa of Rome died in November and is included in the list of Papa of Rome and martyrs were as Liberius Papa of Rome is not sainted.
Liberius (352-366) Papa of Rome died and a papal war erupted between Ursinus (366-367) Papa of Rome and Damasus I (366-384) Papa of Rome a Roman, keeping in mind St. Felix II (355-366) Papa of Rome is considered an anti-papa to Liberinus. Damasus I Papa of Rome had followed Liberius Papa of Rome into exile in 355 then took service with Felix Papa of Rome in Rome, then in 358 returned to Liberius Papa of Rome. Damasus I Papa of Rome also had requested and received the support of the Roman Government. The followers of Liberius Papa of Rome elected Ursinus (366-367) a deacon of Liberius as the Papa of Rome. Ursinus (266-367) Papa of Rome lost and became the anti-papa of Rome.
Damasus I Papa of Rome immediately hired a gang of assassins to storm the Julian basilica to massacre the Ursinians. Fighting ensued for three days and at the end 137 bodies are removed from St. Mary Major all followers of Ursinus. The Emperor sent Ursinus Papa of Rome into exile and Damasus Papa of Rome claimed his authority as successor to St. Peter. To obtain the position he had to renounce his wife and family. This claim is not made by the Fathers of the Church but began a president hither to unsupported by theology. Mob violence continued for another three weeks. The Papa of Rome required constant police protection against Ursinus Papa of Rome followers. The Papa s of Italy is shocked by the events that weakened the moral authority of the Roman Church. Damasus I Papa of Rome (366-384) became known as 'the matrons' ear-tickler due to his attention to the wealthy ladies. He led a magnificent life style and is considered impossibly arrogant.
Damasus I (366-367) Papa of Rome asked the prefect of Rome, a pagan with many priestly titles, to convert. He replied, willingly, if you make me Papa of Rome. The Papacy had acquired much property, power and luxury that even surpassed that of the Emperor's table. St Jerome (340-420), devoted to pagan learning and the secretary to Damasus Papa of Rome compiled the first Latin bible called the Vulgate. Jerome loathed women and said St. Peter only washed away the dirt of marriage by the blood of martyrdom. Understandably the Vulgate bible that is still authoritative in the Roman Church contained many errors. Jerome (340-420) realized that the Semitic-Hebrew name Joshua had been incorrectly translated as Jesus. The correct translation of Jesus Christ (the anointed one) is correctly Joshua, the Messiah. Saint Jerome (340-420) acknowledged the ancient copies of the Gospel of the Birth of Mary attributed to Saint Matthew and that it is considered genuine and authentic by several of the ancient Christian sects. Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, and Austin, also mentioned a Gospel under this title. It is acknowledged that the Jerome version of the Mary Gospel according to Matthew differed in some specifics from other more ancient copies.
The Celt of Caledonia continued to cross the Hadrian wall and attack the Roman army. The Scandinavian Germanic Saxon, Frank and Anglo tribes began to raid the coast of Celtic Gaul. Ursinus (366-367) Papa of Rome returned to Rome in triumph being allowed by Emperor Valentinian (364-375). His jubilation is short lived as Damasus I Papa of Rome bribed the court to again exile the anti-Papa of Rome and his clergy and many of his followers to Gaul. Many followers continued to meet in the cemeteries but are soon brutally dislodged by the Papa's henchmen.
The bishop of Athanasius (193-373) of Alexandria, Egypt did urge Christians to “cleanse the church from every defilement” and to reject “the hidden books" the 130 Gnostic Gospels and writings. He decreed the only texts that should be considered sacred were 27 Jewish and Christian books specifically listed by him. The list now comprises the New Testament of today.
Much of Gortyn, the Roman capital of Crete, was destroyed be an earthquake. It was 1st inhabited around 3,000 BC and was destroyed by an Arab invasion in 824.
A Roman synod called by Damasus Papa of Rome to excommunicate Ursinus Papa of Rome resulted in the Italian Papa's turning down his request.
Germanic Christianity embraced the Arian Doctrine that Jesus is the Son and creature of God the Father, neither eternal nor equal in substance with his creator. This Doctrine raised by the Libyan theologian Arius (256-336) raged until being condemned and put down. The importance of this incident is not the doctrine but a shift in policy from freedom of debate and reason to one of monopolistic belief. The credo became 'I believe that I may understand.' This simple credo would led the church into the dark ages. Arianism also stressed local law, personal loyalty and war as the most highly prized occupation leading Europe into cultural decay. This 'contractual society' as compared to an 'agreement society' would dominate Europe into the 21st century.
Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus in his catalogue of New Testament includes the same books as modern times.
Ambrose (340-397) of Trier, a Roman Provincial Governor is elected Archbishop of Milan although he is not baptized. He maintained that in ecclesiastical matters a bishop is superior to an emperor. Most of the Greek Fathers and many of the Latin Fathers to this point in time believed that the Gospel of Protevangelion attributed to James the lesser, cousin and brother of Jesus the first bishop of the Christians in Jerusalem is an authentic book of the bible. Some in the Eastern Christian Churches contended it is canonical.
Roman Emperor Valentinian (321-375) ended the parental right to kill their infants. However he was classified as a violent brutal person among a barbarous group of people. He hated civilized people.
The Scandia Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) are living relatively peacefully north of the Black Sea for the past two hundred years having migrated from Scandia (Sweden) and having subjected the Mongol-Sarmatians. The Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) also settled this area for the past one hundred seventy five years.
Tribal migration changed this year from sporadic wanderings to a more general panic type movement that would last for the next hundred years changing cultural boundaries. The Mongol Huns from the East are drove deep into Europe driving and splitting the Goth into three factions. Some are driven south into Romania, another faction into southern Italy and a third group into southern France. The Langobards flee Germany and Poland south into northern Italy. The Germanic-Alglo flee Denmark and Germanic-Saxon flee the Netherlands for England. The Germanic-Franks flees the Rhine into France. The Vandals are driven from Hungary and Czechoslovakia to Spain and Northern Africa. The Mongol Huns make the Hungarian low lands their base of operation.
Gregory Nazianzen, bishop of Constantinople excludes the book of Revelations from his list of New Testament books.
The Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) crossed the Danube into Roman territory in flight from the Huns a Mongol-Turkish tribe. The Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) followed their kinsmen shortly thereafter. The successors to the Turkish Huns are the Mongol Avars and the Magyars. A Roman army, commanded by the Roman Emperor in person, is annihilated by the Visigoth (Western Goth) at Adrianople in Thrace. The Goths retreated and did not try to exploit their victory.
Damasus I Papa of Rome persuaded the Roman Government to recognize the Holy See as a court of first instance and also of appeal for the Western episcopate. The Roman Emperor Gratian supported this request as it supported the centralized Roman authority.
The Christians in Antioch first introduced Christ's Mass (Christmas) as a liturgical celebration on December 25. This date is used to align with Jewish and pagan festivals. The Jewish people celebrated Hanukkah and the Romans celebrated Saturnalia from December 17 to 24 when a slave and his master are regarded as equal. Sigillaria followed where parents gave dolls to children a tradition of gift giving. The Christians in Edessa accused the Roman Christians of idolatry and sun worship having aligned with the pagan sun worship festivals and rejected this tradition.
Theodosius I (379-395) and his two co-emperors declared Christianity
the state religion in that form that the Roman Empire had received from
St. Paul (and/or St. Peter) and Sait Damasus of Rome and Peter of Alexandria.
They declared the Papa of Rome as the guardian of the true faith and those
who espoused this doctrine are given the title Catholic Christians.
This primacy is not based on decisions of synod, as are the claims of Constantinople
but exclusively on his claim to being the direct successor of St. Peter
and so the rightful heir of the promise made to him by Christ. It
is noteworthy that only the intervention of the Roman Emperor in 371 saved
the Papa of Rome from claims of adultery, and that he secured his position
through murder not a valid election. He advanced the cult of the
martyrs to ensure a direct successor from St. Peter to the present reigning
Papa of Rome is maintained at all costs. Forgery and falsification
of records is consider acceptable. Papal reigns are expanded or contracted
to conveniently record an unbroken Papal rule.
The Roman Christian Church became the Roman Empire Church in action and words. In the beginning the state trespassed on the Church's domain trying to mould the principles of faith to meet the law. Eventually the Roman Church would trespass on the State demanding the right to appoint or remove Kings and Emperors. The Gospel message became a means to power and glory. The later Puritan Church revolution movement would consider that about this time the Roman Catholic Church began to formally deviate from Christian ideals. The Puritans especially resented the heathenish Roman traditions that began to dominated this Roman Church. Some historians believe this is the beginning of the Roman Catholic doctrine of absolutism.
The Roman Church no longer had to fear persecution. It is now
the Jews and unbelievers who are under threat. They are the ones
who would be tortured, burned and crucified in the name of Jesus the Crucified
Philastrius, bishop of Brixis in Venice in his index of the books in the New Testament is the same as the modern version except he only includes thirteen of St. Paul’s Epistles, omitting most likely the Epistle to the Hebrews and also excludes Revelations.
The Ecumenical Council of Constantinople the first is conducted this year. The intent is to place the Christian Churches of Antioch and Alexandria as subordinate to Constantinople. Damasus I (366-384) Papa of Rome refused to attend or contribute as he is only interested in securing Roman primacy. He frequently referred to Rome as the Apostolic See. The Papa of Constantinople is ranked second to the Papa of Rome or so Damasus said because it is considered the new Rome. To secure the position of Roman control the theological 'thou art Peter' doctrine began to form but would not be established until the 7th century. The belief at this time is that the Holy Ghost proceeded from God alone not from Christ. The Orthodox Church contends the Roman Church falsified the records to include Christ in the creed.
Damasus I (366-384) Papa of Rome pronounced that the Roman Catholic Church owed its primacy not to the decrees of a synod, but to the powers committed to Peter by Christ. Damasus is likely not aware that Roman Church authority originated with Paul not Peter. Damasus claims that Rome was the first see of the apostle Peter. Authority from Peter is a Roman retrofit tradition not supported by historical facts. Damasus would also change Christian tradition by addressing fellow Papa's as 'sons' (of Rome) instead of 'brothers' in Christ. Neither St Ambrose nor St. Augustine agreed with the conclusions of Damasus. Saint Ambrose wrote that Saint Peter had a primacy of confession not of office, a primacy of faith not of rank. It is noteworthy that Saint Augustine followed the Manichaeism alias Kellis sect for nine years before becoming a Roman Catholic.
St. Jerome (340-420)is dubious of including the Epistle to the Hebrews although in other parts of his writings he considers then as Canonical. This appears to be the finalization of the New Testament as no new significant addition or deletion is recorded. It is noteworthy that at this point in time some 25 books of the Bible have been rejected as not Canonical to the New Testament. This naturally excludes the Dead Sea Scrolls as they are still being evaluated.
St. Siricius (384-399) a married Roman and deacon of Damasus I and Liberius with the support of Emperor Valentinian II (375-392) is unanimously elected Papa of Rome. He is the first Papa of Rome to issue Decretals, directives couched in the authoritative chancery style of Imperial edicts and, like them, carrying the force of Roman Law. February 11, 385 represents the earliest surviving Decretals. Siricus is the first Roman bishop to use the title 'pope'. This Papal reign represents the complete and final merging of Church and State.
Pope Siricius (384-399) left his wife to become pope and told priests to stop sleeping with their wives.
This is a Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties in China (386-589) and ends the period of six dynasties (220-589)
Some suggest the Northern Dynasty is (420-588) and the Southern Dynasty is (386-588)
The Northern Wei Dynasty is (386-533)
Siricius (384-399) Bishop of Rome issued a Decretal to the Church in Africa and others that no Papa shall be consecrated without the cognizance of Rome. In 385 he allowed Papa Thessalonia the privilege of authorizing all Episcopal appointments in the region southeast Balkan peninsula. This Decretal is to ensure Roman influence in this region. The other Federation of Christian Church Papa's largely ignored this Decretal as they considered themselves equal in authority.
St. Patrick (389-460/490) was born in southwest England and became the patron saint of Ireland. In 374 Irish raiders kidnapped Patrick and took him to Ireland. He escaped and returned to England and became a priest in 432 and returned to Ireland to combert the Irish to Christianity.
Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible is produced and in wide circulation. It includes all 80 books including the Apochrypha.
The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I, abolished all what he considered as pagan festivals and the Greek Olympics, that had been practiced for 1,169 years was considered as a celebration of the God Zenus, Lord of the Sky, God of Gods. They would not be revived until 1896.
Siricius (384-399) Bishop of Rome incurred the wrath of St. Jerome (340-420), who once fancied himself as Papa of Rome, because of his favorable attitude to John, Papa of Jerusalem (d-417) and to Rufinus of Aquileia (d-410), both at the time in Jerome's blackest books. St. Paulinus of Nola also is critical of this Papa of Rome.
St. Anastasius (399-401) a Roman is elected Bishop of Rome
and his son Innocent would succeed him as Bishop of Rome.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX 1 AD - 499 AD