EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA 1 AD - 499
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The Polynesian people reached Easter Island off the coast of South America and surely landed and established colonies in the Americas.
The remains in England of Gloucester Goth with a silver buckles and an inlaid knife that originated to central Europe or eastern Europe. Isotope analysis positions him somewhere east of Poland, likely a mercenary.
Christianity came to Caledonia the land of the Picts (Scotland). Vandal Stilicho under orders of Emperor Theodosius I led the troops that prevented the Visigoth (Western Goth) invasion of the Diocese of Italy but would not prevent the sacking of Rome ten years later. The Germanic tribes had adopted an Arianism religion that the Romans considered as a heinous heresy.
Rome accepts the redistribution of European nations at the hands of the Mongol Hun. Rome sues for peace with the Hun and must pay tribute to avoid being conquered. The Diocese of Gaul (France) is created this year by the Christian Romans. They established the Rhine River as their northern boundary beginning the political and cultural differentiation of the west Germanic Celt Franks from the Germanic Anglo and Saxon Franks. This differentiation is the result of the great migration caused by the Mongol Hun penetration to the Rhine River last century. The Diocese of Spain including Portugal and Morocco is also established this year by the Christian Romans. The Diocese of Britain excludes Scotia (Ireland) and Pict (Scotland). The Prefecture of Italy is divided into the northern Diocese of Italy (the Langobards), the southern Diocese of Rowe (Goth-Italy) including Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and the Diocese of Africa. Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia southwest of the Danube River is the Prefecture of Illyricum. Turkey to Egypt is the Prefecture of the East. Each Diocese is ruled by a Vicar and each Prefecture by a Praetorian Perfect. An example is that one Praetorian Perfect ruled the Prefecture of Gaul that included the Diocese of Spain, Gaul and Britain. Each Diocese is divided into Provinces that are ruled by a Governor. At the top of these structures are to be two senior emperors called Augusti and two junior emperors called Caesar who are to succeed the Augusti. This year Augusti Honorius ruled the West and Augusti Arcadius ruled the East.
The Sassanid peoples occupied Mesopotamia and Armenia and are not under Roman control. Evidence of Lapp culture extends across Arctic Sweden, Norway, Findland and Russia.
Augustine (354-430) Bishop of Hippo had a mistress for eleven years producing one child Adeodatus who died young. He is absorbed with guilt and misery of his illicit sex. He became the assistant to Bishop Valerius and considered women as a venerial disease. He couldn't understand why God created women. He said he prefered the company of men. His distorted evil philosophy would dominate the Roman Church into the twentieth century causing much suffering. He considered Astrologers as without scruples because they used no sacriface nor pray to spirits for their divination. Augustine popularized the concept of original sin, predestination, and salvation through divine grace.
St. Innocent I (401-417) son of Anastasius I (399-401) Bishop of Rome become Bishop of Rome. His primary objective is to make Roman Custom the norm for Christian Custom. Decretals, letters of Roman Law, became the means to the end. He claimed in effect that Roman had universal jurisdiction and theresfore the Roman Church had universal jurisdiction. This Decretal firmly established the great bishop of Rome heresy declaring that papal decisions have the force of Roman Law. It is noteworth that the Papa of Constantinople at this time also claimed to be supreme in the Christian Church. The Catholic and Christian Churches are still considered a loosely organized Federation of Christian Churches. This Bishop is attributed with establishing the Roman Catholic doctrine of universal authority for the bishop of Rome.
John Chrysostom (347-407) Papa of Constantinople is exiled and Innocent I Bishop of Rome (401-417) refused to recognize his replacement.
Melania a Roman Lady renounced her worldly wealth for Christian poverty. She freed 8,000 of her slaves leaving many thousands unwilling to accept freedom and they are sold. It is estimated that there are some two million slaves in Italy.
The Celtic-Mongolian-Germanic peoples (Gauls) now called the Vandals, Alans, Alemanni, Burgundians, Suevians and other tribes invade Gaul. They settle there followed shortly by the Franks from the Rhine land.
Germanic-Gauls (Scandia Vandal) begin a drive for independence and invaded the Diocese of Spain this year. Rome pulled its soldiers out of the Diocese of England. The Roman-Celts had to fight the Picts (Scot), Scotia (Irish) and invading Scandia Germanic-Saxon from Denmark.
Innocent I (401-417) Bishop of Rome is forced by the Mongol Hun to exchange a royal prince of Rome in exchange for Atila the Hun who is sent to Northern Italy to ensure peace. The Visigoth (Western Goth), originally from Scandia, led by King Alaric on August 14 and for six days they sacked Rome. They had been ordered not to disturb the Christian churches, which they heeded. Later they settled in the southern Diocese of Gaul in 412 and infiltrated Spain by 415. This action however motivated Agustine (354-430) a Roman North African to write dogma against heretics and about church organization of 'city of God' vs 'City-State'. The 'city State' (Rome) is worldly, corrupt and lost. The 'city of God' (the Church) is divine, pure and saved. This is likely provoked by the sacking of Rome by Alaric this year. The Roman Empire would begin its decline into the Roman Church City State. The Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) settled in Hungary. Innocent Bishop of Rome after saving the church assets conveniently fled the city to escape the famine and despair of the people and did not return until 412.
Wales, Ireland and Scotland retained their Celtic Laws and Traditions. The Celts believed in individual freedom and like the Americanm People believed that all-living things had a spirit self. England at this time had lost most of their Celtic tradition being replaced by a Roman Culture.
Groups of Angle, Saxons, and Jutes began crossing the North Sea from Germany and southern Scandinavia to claim land in Britian that had been abandoned by the Roman Army. Thus began the Anglo-Saxon age that was to last for the next 600 years
The Slav-Russian Visigoth fleeing from the Mongol Huns invaded and settled in the Diocese of Spain having settled southern Gaul (France) two years earlier.
Innocent (401-417) Bishop of Rome issued a Decretal entrusting Bishop Rufus with control 'in our stead' of the church in the region of southeast Balkan peninsula so it doesn't fall under the ecclesiastical sway of Constantinople.
Christian monks kidnapped and tortured to death the female philosopher and mathematicin Hypayia, long considered the last of the great pagan intellects.
Jerome's monasteries at Bethlehem (Ephrath) are destroyed and Innocent I (401-417) Bishop of Rome sharply rebuked John Papa of Jerusalem (d-417) for allowing such atrocities in his diocese. It is noteworthy that Jerome (340-420) is highly critical of Bishop John. Jerome had retired from Rome to Bethlehem to translate the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate).
The Javanese book of Kings records that Krakatao erupted this year. The whole world was greatly shaken and violent thundering, accompanied by heavy rain and storms took place. The noise was fearful, at last the mountain Krakatao with a tremendous roar burst into pieces and sank into the deepest of the earth. The water of the sea rose and inundated the land.,
St. Zosimus (417-418) a Greek possibly of Jewish descent is elected Bishop of Rome.
Eulalius anti-Bishop of Rome (418-423) a Greek is elected and is consecrated by the Papa of Ostia who customarily ordained the Bishop of Rome. Emperor Honorius (393-423) at Ravenna accepted him as Bishop of Rome. Then St. Boniface I (418-422) a Roman and son of a priest is also elected Bishop of Rome. A synod at Ravenna in session at the time refused to make a choice between the two Bishop's of Rome. The Emperor then ordered a larger synod in 419 to include Papa s from Gaul and Africa to resolve the dilemma. The Emperor ordered both Bishop's of Rome to withdraw from Rome and the Papa of Spoleto Achilleus to take charge until a decision is reached.
March 10: Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire
Eulalius determined to establish his position as Bishop of Rome returned to Rome and occupied the Lateran by force. This proved his undoing as it sparked off civil disorder and he is expelled and excluding him from the papacy making Boniface the Bishop of Rome by default. The proposed council is cancelled. At the request of Boniface I (418-422) Bishop of Rome, Emperor Honorius (393-423) issued a Decretal that banned election intrigues and decreed that, if two candidates should be elected, both should be disqualified and the government would only recognize a Bishop chosen unanimously.
The Song Dynasty (420-478) is included in the Northern and Southern Dynasty Period.
The earliest representation of Christ on the cross is a carving on a panel of a casket. The Christian symbol to this time is the fish. Early Christians would be loath to use the cross because Romans considered it an ignominious form of execution reserved for the lowest criminals.
Celestine I (422-432) from Campagna is elected Bishop of Rome without opposition. It is noteworthy in his quest for power he adopted the old Roman heathen title of 'Pontifex Maximus' that the Roman Emperors had abandoned. He effectively positioned himself as equal to or greater than the Emperor, in effect a monarchy. He could get away with this behavior because of the decline of the Roman Empire. He crushed the Novatianist sect confiscating their churches driving them into home worship. He abandoned a four hundred-year tradition of equal Papa's claiming the Papa of Rome as having the power of the keys. This start of the great schism of the Roman Paulist Church would split the Eastern and Western Churches forever after. The Bishop of Rome is attempting to align the Federation of Christian Churches along a Pagan Roman tradition. Celestine I (422-432) bishop of Rome attempted to interfere in the Christian Churches of Africa and a Council of African Papa's at Carthage vigorously rejected his authority.
The Visigith and Vandals controlled Spain and Northern Africa and many of the Papa's turned to Rome for support thereby bowing to papal authority.
The Mongolian Hun being forced out of China due to climatic changes drive westward and this year an advance force sacked Rome. They consisted of free warriors with equal rights. Their universe rotated around the Polar Star, and their goal is subjugation then pacification of the peoples, of the four corners of the world. All conquered peoples became their friends once they identified with the interests of the Hun. The Mongol Hun had common ownership and interest rather than clans or blood-ties and that are similar to the north American Indian beliefs.
Until this time 'Pope' as in 'Bishop of Rome' head of the Church, in the modern sense, did not exist. All Bishopís are equal and all are called Papa. The Modern definition did not fully evolve until the 7th century. The Church is a Federation of Christian Churches with no single church having more authority than another church.
The Roman withdrawal from the Diocese of England because of the Hun threat in the East resulted in civil war between the Celts, Picts, Scots, Franks and the Saxon. Some say the Germanic-Saxon from the southeast had been invited to England to assist in the revolutionary war. Vortigern of Canti (Kent, England) the alleged defender of Eastern Britain being hard pressed by the Picts is claimed to have invited foreign mercenaries. The Angles and Jutes from Denmark and Germany also penetrated England at this time. It is further claimed he allowed them to settle in Britain. It is more likely these Germanic tribes are fleeing for their lives out of fear of the advancing Mongolian Huns.
Being driven out of Spain the Germanic Vandals migrated to Northern Africa.
Roman Africa was invaded by the Vandals, barbarians who had fought and conquered their way across barbarous Europe including Germany, France, Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar.
The three Germanic tribes, the Saxon, Angles and Jutes continue to settle in the Diocese of England. They are forces from their ancestral homes by their fear of the Hun. The region they settle in England is henceforth called England, meaning land of Angles. The four Kingdoms of Scotia (Ireland) are, in the north Ulster, Connaught to the west, Leinster to the east and Munster to the south.
Many of the Huns in Hungary are living in houses and depending on agriculture to support them. Prince Attila the Hun entered into an alliance with many of the peoples who occupy Germany.
The Plague of Athens arrived from Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya to Greece. It killed 1/3 of the population of Athens. Some suggest it was typhoid but others don't agree.
The Ecumenical Council of Ephesus is conducted this year
during the reign of Celestine I Bishop of Rome (422-432). Celestine
hoped to impose himself as the Pope of Christianity but the Council refused
to endorse his claim. Mary the mother of Jesus was given the title
Theotokos (God Bearer).
The followers of a Persian prelate, the Nestorians split from the Byzantine church in a fight over dogma and became early proselytizers in east Asia. Many Mongols would follow the teachings of this sect.
St. Sixtus alias Xystus III (432-440) a Roman is elected Bishop of Rome.
The Huns, a Mongolian peoples from Slavs (Russia), began to sweep into the Roman Empire (Europe). Attila the Hun is educated in Italy in Roman Christian traditions and its not surprising the Huns should again subjugate Europe. Atilla the Hun (406-453) ruled the Hunnic Empire (434-453) from Germany to the Ural River and from River Danude to the Baltic Sea. He invaded the Balkins twice and France to the Orleans. Some consider he was a psychopathic killer, others see him as a heroic figure. They say his Empire only existed 30 years following his death.
Carthage in Northern Africa fell to the Germanic Vandal and with their pirate ships forced Rome to acknowledge their independence. Prince Blada brother of Prince Atilla the Hun negotiates with Rome. The Romans are forced to align with the Hun against the Germanic Burgundi armies. A battle near the Rhine river sees the Burgundi King Gunther killed. King Ruha the Hun dies and Blada and Atilla are pitted against each other for the Hun Kingship.
The Javanese book of Kings records that Krakatao erupted this year. It is believed responsible for the global climate changes of 535-536. These years were one of the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of global cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2,000 years. A failure of bread from the years 536-539 AD. A dense, dry fog" in the Mideast, China, and Europe. Drought in Peru, which affected the Moche culture
Leo the Great (440-461) a Roman of Tuscan is elected Bishop of Rome when absent in Gaul on a diplomatic mission.
The Germanic-Saxon mercenaries rebelled and began seizing land in Kent, Sussex and southern Hampshire, spread into Essex, East Anglia, Lindsey and East Riding of Yorkshire. They penetrated inland along the upper Thames including the future sites of Oxford and Cambridge.
The Roman Emperor Valentinian III ordered the Roman Catholic doctrine that whatsoever the authority of the 'apostolic see' has sanctioned, or shall sanction, shall be law for all. This directly opposed the Christian Council of 440 that decreed that the Patriarch of Constantinople is supreme in Christ's Church. The Roman Emperor also suggested there should be judges who preside over the priesthood everywhere to enforce the law.
Atilla the Hun eventually kills his brother Blada. Atilla the Mongolian Hun a Roman educated man becomes King of the Mongolian Western Empire. The Roman Kingdoms of Rome and Constantinople must pay heavy tribute to the Hun Empire to secure peace. The Hun Empire effectively extends to the Rhine River with only Gaul (France) not paying tribute to King Atilla.
The Arian Visigoths dominated Spain. Attilla the Hun marched on Roman Constantinople. Emperor Theodosis of the East lost his army and begged for peace. All Roman captives are sold into slavery and the Roman Emperor is forced to pay 2,000 lbs. gold per year in tribute,
A British chief named Vortigern invited Hengest and Horsa two chiefs of Jutes from Denmark and they landed in Kent and establish permanent settlements to fight the Picts. After driving the Picts north the turned their armies against the Britons. Eric the Jute son of Hengest established the kingdoms of East and West Kent.
Leo the Great (440-461) a Roman of Tuscan Bishop of Rome is the first
bishop of Rome to create the doctrine of the mystical unity of Peter and
his successors, and to attribute all their doings and sayings to Peter.
This represents a final shift from the Paulist tradition to a Peter Tradition
but in name only. On orders of the Roman Emperor Valentian III the
Bishop nullified the Christian Church decrees of the Robber Council of
Ephesus (449) without any discussion using Imperial Roman support.
The Christian Council had decreed that the Patriarch of Constantinople
is supreme in Christís Church. It is during the Council of Chalcedon
that the church adopted the dogma that Jesus and God are one and the same.
The Oriental Orthodox churches of Ethiopia, Egypt and Armenia walked out
of the Council in protest and are subsequently branded as heretics.
They believe that Jesus was never a man except in an abstract sense he
is only God. It is noteworthy that Ethiopia aka Aksum was a major center
of Christianity, in fact it is the oldest Christian Empire in the world.