EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
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Germanic-Saxons from northern Germany continue to invade and eventually by 477 settle Sussex and Hampshire. They are considered exceptionally cruel and practice genocide against the Celtic people. The Western Romans placed a price on Attilla's head and in retaliation Attilla marched westward.
St. Patrick (ca. 385-461 A.D.) was not Irish. He was British, likely from modern-day Wales, and never saw Ireland until kidnapped by Irish raiders and enslaved. After his escape, he became a priest and a bishop and returned to Ireland as a missionary. St. Patrick was the first prominent historical figure to speak out against the institution of slavery.
The Okhotsk culture of Japan existed 450 to 700 A.D.
Fifty thousand Huns pillage over seventy European cities and reach Gaul this year. Atilla demands Rome give them Gaul (France) as tribute. The Emperor of Rome refuses so Attilla invades and conquers France. Atilla spares Paris for unknown reasons. Descendents of the Hun can still be identified in the Champagne Region of France and throughout the Alps Switzerland. The Goth and Romans combine forces against the Huns. Thousands die on both sides including the West Goth King but Atilla escapes the encounter. Attila retreated to the center of his Empire, the Plains of the Tisza in Hungary. The Huns used a form of pony express to facilitate rapid communication in their far-flung empire. The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon is conducted this year under Leo I bishop of Rome(440-461). It reasserted the power of the Bishop of Rome only because it is recognized as the Imperial City not because of any scriptural basis.
Leo I Bishop of Rome called the council of Chalcedon to bring the Coptic Church into line with Roman thinking. A canon is passed confirming that Constantinople has the same status as Rome on the grounds that both are Imperial cities. Leo Bishop of Rome found this so unacceptable he refused to accept the recommendations. In 453 he accepted the recommendations except that concerning Constantinople. The Coptic Orthodox Church broke with the Roman Church over the nature of Christ. The Coptic believed Christ has one nature made up of two parts human and spiritual. Its priests are married but monks are required to be celibate. They accept abortion if the motherís life is endangered and see nothing wrong with birth control. Present membership in 1994 is 22 million people mostly in Africa. They claim their Papal lineage to St. Mark at 71 A.D. About this time the Armenian Byzantine Christian Church is condemned by the Council of Chalcedon for asserting that Christ has a divine nature but not also a human nature. The Armenian Church split from the Byzantine Church over this issue.
In retaliation for his near defeat in 451 Atilla the Mongolian Hun King invades Italy taking Aqualia driving the people to Venice. King Atilla begins driving deep into Italy and the Roman King sues for peace sending Leo I (440-461) bishop of Rome to negotiate for Rome. King Atilla meets with Leo I Bishop of Rome (440-461) but refuses to dismount from his horse to humiliate the Bishop. King Atilla demands extensive tribute to further humiliate the Bishop of Rome and the Romans citizens. Rome pays and the Hun withdrew to Hungary.
June 16: Leo I Bishop of Rome (440-461) met the Vandal Gaiseric outside
the walls of Rome but could not prevent the sacking of Rome. The
Vandals from Carthage sacked Rome. Gaiseric looted and burned Rome for 14
days. They took the looted treasure, which likely included the 70AD
plunder from Jerusalem, by ship to the temple of Carthage. The Mongols are known as Eastern
Juan and Western Hephthalites or White Huns. The White Huns dominated
the Touchueh (Turks). The White Huns are pressing into Northwest
India and Persia. Leo I bishop of Rome is an entirely loyal Roman,
believing in the universality of the Empire.
Hilary of Arles asserted the independence of the Christian Church of Gaul. Emperor Valentinian III issued a decree that if any bishop summoned to trial before the bishop of Rome shall neglect to come then the Emperor will compel him to attend.
Genseric then returned unmolested to Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo.
Five Buddhist priests or Pikiu (Sanskrit, Bhikshu) from the Country of Kipin (Kabul, China) traveled to America. This is during the Ts'i Dynasty that banished Buddhism.
St Hilarus (461-468) a Sardinian is elected Bishop of Rome. He would frequently intervene in Gaul and Spain to consolidate Roman authority.
St. Patrick (385-461) was not Irish. He was British and never saw Ireland until kidnapped by Irish raiders. He escaped became a priest and a bishop and then returned to Ireland as a missionary.
St. Simplicius (468-483) born at Tivoli is elected Bishop of Rome.
More Germanic-Franks moved into Gaul from Holland, Belgium and the Rhine valley. The Germanic-English pushed the Celt-Britons into Weallis or Wales, meaning the land of foreigners. The Germanic-Franks drove some Celts into Cornwall and some others to the lowlands of Scotland. Many more became slaves of the invading Germans. The Germanic-English cruelty and atrocities led the church to demand forty days penance for the sin of being Germanic-English before refuge is allowed. Some contend that the legendary King Arthur (Riothamus) died this year after his defeat at the hands of the Goth and is buried at Avallon near Vezelay in Burgundy.
The Western Empire of the Roman people perished with the deposed Romulus Augustulus in 476 when a Hun king possessed Rome and Italy. The Roman Church maintain an independent Imperial system with its own laws, courts and taxes being a 10 percent levy on the produce of all lands. The clergy claimed exemption from paying taxes to Kings or Emperors and being tried by secular courts. Clergy could punish the disobedient, fine a man for absence from church, whip a woman for doing her washing on a Sunday. Emperor Zeno (471-491) formally recognized the Vandal conquest of North Africa, the Visigoths having firm control of Spain. The Burgundians and Franks are busy overrunning Gaul and Italy is ruled by Odoacer (476-493) when his is ousted by the Goths under Theodoric.
The Qi Dynasty (479-501) is included in the Northern and Southern Dynasty Period.
King Clovis I (Chlodovech I) (481-511) son of Childeric is ruler of the Franks on both sides of the Rhine River. He converted to the Roman Ideology and formed a strong alliance with Rome against the Germanic peoples. He technically brought the Franks into the Roman Empire to secure his own political power base.
The Germanic-Franks drove out the Visigoth (Western Goths) into Spain and the Burgudians held the Rhone river, Germanic-Saxon held England, the Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) held eastern Europe. The Ostrogoth invaded Italy.
St. Felix III (483-492) a Roman aristocrat widower and son of a priest is elected Bishop of Rome. It is noteworthy that the patriarch of Constantinople is decreed to be the prince of the whole Christian church including Rome.
Brendan an Irish monk (484-577) journeyed to Sheep Island (Faeroe Island) and possibly the Azores, Madeiras, Iceland and Greenland. Some suggest he even reached the Caribbean. He believed Paradise is somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. Legend suggests he searched for seven years for the land of promise across the Atlantic Ocean. The Canadian MicMac (Porte-Croix) tradition of using the cross as a totem lends credibility to this legend. This legend remained plainly marked on maps for more than one thousand years.
Felix III Bishop of Rome (483-492) called a synod and excommunicated his legates to Constantinople and Acacius. This caused the Acacian schism that divided the east and west church for the next thirty-five years.
The Germanic Celt Franks (French) are well established in northern Gaul (Netherlands) on the mouth of the Rhine River. Some have migrated south to the Seine River, central Gaul (France) by this time. The Celt Franks on the west bank of the Rhine River had been historically hired by Rome to defend Gaul from the Germanic Franks living on the east bank of the Rhine River. The Germanic Franks are considered barbarians by the Romans. These barbaric invasions lasted about two centuries starting about 375.
Gelasius I Bishop of Rome (492-496) a Roman of African descent established the Doctrine of the 'Two Swords' stating the God had given man two swords, the secular and the religious, each to the proper personage. The sword wielded by the religious powers had higher authority. He is the first Bishop of Rome to proclaim the independence of the papacy from both Emperor of Rome and Church Councils in matters of faith. The Papacy is the only authority to represent the Italian culture as the barbarian invasions had destroyed any other authority.
Italy is ruled by Emperor Odoacer (476-493) when his is ousted by the Goths under Theodoric. Spain, North Africa and Italy are under Arian rulers that did not recognize the papal authority of Rome. Even the heathen Franks although some are converted to Christianity resisted any papal interference in organization and discipline. Papal authority is limited to central and southern Italy.
A second wave of Germanic-Saxon settled Southampton and Wessex driving out the Celts or Welsh, Scottish and Cornish. Clovis, the Frank, began the conquest of Gaul that is inhabited by the Burgundians (Visigoth), Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) and the Gallo-Roman peoples. Franks begin to differentiate between Gallia and Germania. Clovis, King of the Franks began escalation of this cultural transition from Arianism toward Romanism (Catholicism). The German speaking and French speaking citizens are pressured by King Cloves to join the Church.
Anastasius II (496-498) a Roman and son of a priest is elected Bishop of Rome. He immediately attempted to reconcile the east and west churches but his efforts at compromise only brought charges of betrayal in Rome. A number of clergy withdrew from communion and a schism is underway. The Bishop of Rome suddenly died.
St Symmachus (498-514) a Sardinian is elected Bishop of Rome by the majority of Roman clergy who wanted to hold a hard line policy with the Eastern church. On the same day the moderates supported by the bulk of the aristocracy elected anti-Bishop of Rome Lawrence (498-499 & 501-506). Bribery is employed by both camps. Theodoric, Arian King of Italy (493-526) resolved the conflict on the principle that the man ordained first or with the larger backing should occupy the apostolic see, he assigned the position to Symmachus.
It is reported by Yu Kie near the end of the Ts'i Dynasty that Hwui Shan a Mendicant Buddhist priest returned from Fu Sang (America) to China this year. It is not know if he is part of the five man Pikiu expedition to Fu Sang in 485. The Pikiu party taught the Buddhist religion to the people. Mayan tradition called these people Kukulcan who had neither wife nor child and came from the West. The Liany Dynasty under Emperor Wu Ti emerged and reinstated Buddhism in China. Yu Kie's account of the Pikiu expedition to Fu Sang suggests they explored most of the Americas. It is likely this account covers the total exploration accounts of the last fifty years rather than a single expedition. His account of the Kingdom of Women leaves some folks skeptical.
Symmachus Bishop of Rome (498-514) held a synod in St. Peters banning
all discussion of a Bishop's successor during his lifetime while allowing
him to designate the man he wished, the clergy should choose if he died
before doing so, but participation by the laity is excluded. Anti-bishop
signed the statute and is appointed the Papa of Nuceria in Campania for
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX 1 AD - 499 AD