EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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The population at this time was about 200 million people in the world
Afghanistan at this time was Buddhism, Hinduism and Christian but began to slowly convert to Islam.
Scientists suspect that the sun was particularly bright for a period of time that is called the Medieval Optimum (800-1300) with global temperatures about 1 to 2 degrees higher than today. Some refer to it as a 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' as it doesn't fit their models.
The greatest ocean voyagers of all times were the Polynesians. By this time they had discovered the tiny Islands spread over 14 million square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean, from New Zealand, to Hawaii and Easter Island and colonized nearly all of them. Some suggest they also visited the Americas before this time.
Catholic and Christian people let their fields lie fallow, neglected their beasts, made no plans for the future. They believed that the world is coming to an end. It took at least two years for a semblance of normality to return to peopleís lives. The Church began preaching that an error had been made and all would be fulfilled in the next millennium 2000 A.D. This is likely a myth, as the people didn't have an accurate common calendar to determine the year 1000.
At this time the Church had no involvement in marriage.
The Roman Catholic Church under Canon Episcopal forbids anyone to believe that witches could fly through the air. Some believe this Roman Church belief in witches can be traced to a Council of Ancyra in the ninth century. They concluded it is an illusion produced by the Devil. Five hundred years later anyone who claimed it is an illusion is classified as being in league with the Devil. Others argue this belief didn't appear until the fourteenth century. Evidence suggests that the belief in witches is a creation of the Roman Church and did not exist at this time or in scriptures. The belief in witches that eventually became a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church is a diversion philosophy. Ancient people tended to blame their leaders during times of famine or natural disaster. The Church diverted this blame first to the Jews, then heretics then to witches.
The Gypsy people (Romany) migrated from Rajasthan, India, about this time to the Middle East. By the 21th Century they would number about 8-10 million in Europe.
The early Russian Orthodox Church had two groups of clergy, the Black Clergy (monks) and the White Clergy (priests and deacons). Only monks are ordained to bishops. Russian priests are usually chosen from among married men. Russia at this time maintained slaves and a slave trade. Slaves could buy their freedom. The balance of the citizens is a free society under a form of democracy.
In England the Vikings established a thriving economy in the town they called Jorvik. It had been founded by the Romans as a fortress and later came to be called York. A divided England, ruled by Ethelred the Unready, was in a state of intermittent warfare with the Vikings, who controlled much of the realm.
Aethelred ordered all Viking in England to be slaughtered on St. Brice's day. Among them is Sweyn Forkbeard's sister. The Viking at Dublin is constructing a wall to keep out the barbarian English and Irish. Dublin is a major Viking trading settlement and inter marriage with the Celt is common.
Christianity is adopted by legislation in Iceland. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to abolish the spring feast of Thorrablot to ensure fertility and abundance during the growing season. Its noteworthy that the Norsemen worshipped Thor, the god of thunder, oldest son of Odin, who was regarded as the "Supreme Being", who ruled over all things, and to whom all other gods were subservient. This feast has survived into the twenty-first century.
The Magyars of Hungary adopted Roman Catholic tradition. The Polanie people united with other Slavic tribes of the Warta River region to create the douche of Poland.
China is drilling 2,000 feet for salt and natural gas to fuel the distillation of the salt. China is the world center for cultural and scientific achievement. Scientific discoveries are freely spread throughout the land including new strains of rice imported from Vietnam. The Emperor ruled only so long as he ruled well. Natural disasters are attribute to astronomical events but it is taken as a sign that the heavens are not pleased with the conduct of some officials.
About 10% of England's population are slaves. (I don't know if this includes or excludes indentured folks?) The Greek and Roman principles of slavery are supported by the Roman Catholic Church throughout Europe almost like dogma.
Some Gypsy (Roma) reach the Byzantine Empire (Greece & Turkey) having originated as a culture 400 AD in India.
The bar tailed godwit migrates from Alaska to New Zealand a non stop flight of 12,392 km or 7,700 miles. The Maori people of Polynesia observed this migration and followed the birds to discover New Zealand.
In 2002 the remains of a longhouse from this time (1000-1100) were uncovered in northern Iceland. It was believed to be associated with Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Viking explorers and the 1st European born in the New World.
The Elephant Birds of Madagascar vanished about this time. They stood 10 feet tall and laid eggs that were 3 feet around. Their egg shells are still found indicating they ate plants that grew in swampy environments. Man arrived Madagascar about this time and are believed to have caused or contributed to their extinction. Loss of habitat might have been the primary cause.
Dissatisfied with foreign rule the Romans revolted and the Emperor Otto III (996-1002) the German and Silvester II alias Gerbert (999-1003) a Frenchman and bishop (duchy) of Rome fled the city. John II Crescentius (d-1012) who now ruled Rome allowed the bishop (duchy) of Rome to return to the city. Legend suggests this bishop of Rome is a magician who made a pact with the devil.
Henry II of Germany made himself Emperor by seizing the Spear of Destiny (Celtic spear of Longinus) that some believed its mere possession carried the right to any Roman throne including the bishop (duchy) of Rome.
King Brian Boru (941-1014) became High King of all Ireland. About this time direct hereditary rights became familiar and with it a tendency for a ruling king to keep the succession in his own line by exterminating claimants of the other house. The evolving new law of succession is not universally accepted throughout Scotland during this century.
John XVII Sicco (1003-1003) is listed as bishop (duchy) of Rome by the House of Crescentian. John II Crescentius (d-1012) prevented the bishop of Rome from taking any significant actions. John XVIII alias John Fasanus (Cock) (1003-1009) a Roman is appointed by John II Crescentius (1003-1012) as bishop (duchy) of Rome.
May 1: A supernova was observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
The statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu (1007Ė1072) of China called religion a "curse" that could only be remedied by uprooting it from Chinese culture and replacing it with Confucian discourse. Buddhism would not see a true revival in Chinese society until the Mongol rule of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
Sweyn Forkbeard (d-1014) in retaliation for the murder of his sister by Aethelred took York and advanced toward London. He eventually took Canterbury and London by 1014 and his son took Wessex by 1015.
Bands of Norman Viking mercenaries are in Italy. Sergius IV (1009-1012) a Roman became bishop (duchy) of Rome by the House of Crescentian. An encyclical asking the faithful to prepare an armed expedition to avenge the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is reported issued.
Caliph Hakim orders destruction of Christian churches and Jewish synagogues.
Muslim forces desecrated and destroyed the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem this year. Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom A rumor developed in Europe that a "Prince of Babylon" had ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre at the instigation of the Jews. Some believe this planted the seeds for the Holy wars that started in 1095.
The Nile River in Africa has frozen over this year for the second known time.
Benedict VIII (Tusculan) (1012-1024) is appointed bishop (duchy) of Rome by the Roman House of Tusculan while the house of Crescentian elected Gregory alias Theophylact (1012-1012) as bishop (duchy) of Rome. The house of Crescentian had appointed the last three bishops (duchy) of Rome. The Tusculan army crushed the Crescentian army in their mountain stronghold. Benedit's brother Romanus (later John XIX bishop (duchy) of Rome) took over the civil government of Rome. Gregory bishop (duchy) of Rome fled to Germany to plead his cause before Henry II (1002-10024) who eventually recognized Benedict for certain concessions. Gregory pleaded with King Pohlde in Saxony without success.
The Viking Empire (Danes, Swedes and Norwegians) had conquered all of England by this date also ruling Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Poland and the coast of the Baltic States. They also controlled access to Iceland, Greenland and North America.
High King Brian Boru (941-1014) of Munster, Ireland lost his life in a war with the Anglo-Viking (Celt?) at Clontarf. The Anglo-Viking army is destroyed. Contrary to popular legend King Beru (Boru) united Ireland with the assistance of the Viking who are at least two generations Irish by this time. About this time the Viking Princes not finding sufficient territory to govern are exploring, raiding and settling throughout Europe.
The last Grand Master of Knights Templar is burned at the stake in March of this year.
The principle of no married clergy is first raised about this time.
October 6: The Byzantine Emperor Basil II (958-1025) earned the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he ordered the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarian troops. Basil II was godfather to Russiaís Prince Vladimir.
After converting to Christianity in France, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway and promptly conquered land held by Denmark, Sweden and Norwegian lords.
The Danish (Viking) and the Celt, Anglo and Saxon peoples are joined as a people by the reign of Emperor Canute (Knot) the Great, a Viking (1016-1035). England became part of the Viking Northern Empire that also included Denmark and Norway. Ireland however remained relatively free at this time.
Benedict VIII (1012-1024) bishop (duchy) of Rome by force of arms restored papal authority in the Campagna and Roman Tuscany. He formed an alliance with Pisa and Genoa and defeated Arab invaders in northern Italy in a sea battle he himself too part and liberated Sardinia. He supported a rebellion against Byzantine rule putting Norman knights at the disposal of the rebel leaders.
The Byzantine crushed the rebels at Canne and advanced north. Benedict VIII (1012-1024) fled to Germany to seek the German Emperor Henry's help.
Machmud of Ghazni, a kingdom in central Asia, invaded India and took so many captives that the prices of slaves plummeted for several years. He invade India annually for 25 years.
During the period of (1020-1101), Shen Kuo of the Northern Song Dynasty was the first to discern Magnetic declination, climate gradual shift over time (Global cooling. warming), the theory of land formation (continental drift or Plate tectonics and hydraulic principles to name a few.
Emperor Henry marched with Benedict VIII (1012-1024) and a large army to southern Italy. They didn't achieve a decisive victory but stopped the northern advance of the Byzantine. The Constantinople excommunicated Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome. The synod of Pavia prohibited marriage or concubine for all clergy reducing the children of such unions to serfdom. The main concern is to protect church property.
Emperor Renzong of China reigned (1023-1063) in The Northern Song.
Abbad ibn-Muhammad abu-Amr a Muslim War Lord (1023-1042) d-1042 conducted endemic border warfare in central Spain.
John XIX alias Romanus (Tusculan) (1024-1032) a layman and brother of Benedict VIII (1012-1024) is elected bishop (duchy) of Rome by lavish bribery and by the Roman Tusculan family who now considered the papacy as their private property.
The Norse trader Gudleif discovers the Icelander Bjorn Asbrandson somewhere on the coast of North America, both men having been driven there by adverse weather.
Gascon Sancho William and Aquitanian William V under Christian banner attacked Moslem Spain currently controlled by King Sancho III of Navarre (994-1035).
The Norman Viking are garrisoned in a fortress at Aversa, Italy near Naples.
In China a landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 21 years
Emperor Konrad II forbade the inheritance of fiefs by women.
During the period of (1031-1095) Shen Kuo was the first scientist to describe the magnetic needle compass. It is not know who or when it was discovered.
The Holy Roman Empire is in a state of anarchy when Count Alberic II paid a fortune to elected his son bishop (duchy) of Rome, Theophylact is Benedict IX (1032-1048) of the Roman House of Tusculan, he died 1055-56. The bishop (duchy) of Rome is a layman and some say only eleven years old. Others contend he is in his twenties but admit his reign is scandalously violent and dissolute. St. Peter Damian said that bishop (duchy) of Rome from the beginning of his reign to the end of his life, feasted on immorality. Another wrote, a demon from hell in the disguise of a priest has occupied the Chair of Peter. Sylvestor III (1045) is elected bishop (duchy) of Rome but stepped aside when an attempt to kill Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome failed. Gregory VI (1045-1046) bishop (duchy) of Rome is also elected but the army of Emperor Conrad II (1024-1039 of the Holy Roman Empire put Benedict back in power. Other bishops (duchy) of Rome elected during his reign are Clement II (1046-1047) and Damasus II (1048). Benedict resigned 1045, devoted to pleasure, taking the whole of Peter's Pence received from England. Benedict (1032-1048) claimed he had not been bought off, he had simply recovered his fatherís original investment. Henry of Germany called a Synod, Sylvester III (1045) bishop (duchy) of Rome is judged an impostor, Benedict IX (1032-1044) as bishop (duchy) of Rome had resigned, Gregory VI (1045-1046) also as bishop (duchy) of Rome is forced to resign and he declare that the devil had forced him into the election. Henry II chose Clement II (1046-1047) as bishop (duchy) of Rome who would crown Henry as Emperor of Rome. Henry II took Clement (1046-1047) and the papacy to Germany there he died and Benedict (1047-1048) bishop (duchy) of Rome reclaimed the throne. Damasus II (1048) is elected bishop (duchy) of Rome but is poisoned by Benedict IX (1032-1048), so it is rumored.
Duncan, grandson of Malcolm II, already ruler in Strathclyde, becomes King of a United Scotland.
The Jin Dynasty (1127-1234) of the Yellow River Valley was defeated by the Mongols this year.
The death of the Viking Emperor Canute (Knot) (1016-1035) of England divided the kingdom by splitting Norway to King Harlald the grandson of Olaf the Saint. Denmark went to King Sweyn Estrithson and the Scandinavian countries reverted back to Europe. Boleslav the Great took over parts of Poland. King Harold I (1035-1040) an Anglo-Saxon became King of England.
Frisian merchants conduct trading voyage to Greenland 1035 to 1040.
Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome alias Theophtlact IX (1032-1056) centralized the curia hopefully to eliminate German control.
King Edward Ethelred (1040-1066) an Anglo-Saxon also known as the confessor, as he spent most of the time attending to the church building, a church in every village. He brought many Viking Normanís to England and that did not sit well with the Saxon.
As a result of an earthquake, fifty thousand die in the Persian city of Tabriz (Iran).
The Viking took Sicily this year.
The Norman Viking occupied Gaeta, Italy this year.
The King of Glamorgan died of old age, an unusual event as within a period of one hundred years thirty five Welsh rulers had died violently by the hand of their own countrymen.
Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome alias Theophtlact IX (1032-1056) fled Rome due to a bloody insurrection partly because of his loose life. The Stephanian branch of the Crescentian family elected John of Sabina as Silvester III (1044-1045) bishop (duchy) of Rome who died 1063.
Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome alias Theophtlact IX (1032-1056) excommunicated Silvester III another bishop (duchy) of Rome and expelled him from Rome. Benedict IX bishop (duchy) of Rome wanting to marry abdicated in favor of his godfather John Graten who paid a hugh sum of money is elected and takes the name Gregory VI (1045-1047) bishop (duchy) of Rome. A synod later formally deposed Benedict IX. The bishop (duchy) of Rome is a political position rather than a moral or religious position and has been such for over a century. Some suggest this is the reason for Murder, heresy, schism and simony in the Roman Catholic Church.
King Henry II (1039-1056) of Germany is crowned Emperor of Rome by his German man Clement II alias Suidger (1046-1047) who he appointed bishop of Rome having deposed three other bishops Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Damasus II. Some believe King Henry is trying to bring order back to the papacy by appointing the next three bishop of Rome. Benedict IX (1032-1044) (1045) bishop of Rome would again reign in absence (1047-1048) and is described as a demon from hell in the disguise of a priest. King Henry established himself as the one to take the lead in appointing future bishops of Rome.
A synod controlled by King Henry II sharply condemned simony and decreed a forty-day penance for any that had knowingly been ordained by a simoniacal bishop.
Damasus II alias Poppo (1048-1048) a Bavarian is nominated by Emperor Henry II (1039-1056) as bishop (duchy) of Rome. Many wanted Gregory VI bishop (duchy) of Rome now in exile restored to political power. Benedict IX bishop (duchy) of Rome reemerged and seized the Roman papal throne. Emperor Henry II threatened to return to Rome and install the new bishop (duchy) of Rome. Benedict bishop (duchy) of Rome is expelled from Rome and Damasus II is installed as bishop (duchy) of Rome.
A synod at Lateran excommunicated Benedict IX as bishop (duchy) of Rome because he continued to consider himself as the rightful bishop (duchy) of Rome. Emperor Henry III (1039-1056) appoints Leo IX (1049-1054) as bishop (duchy) of Rome. Leo IX, an Alsatian nobleman and a near relative of the Emperor was bishop of Toul. Some suggest Emperor Henry said the appointment is subject to ratification of the Roman clergy and people but this is highly unlikely. The new bishop (duchy) of Rome confirmed the Emperors stand against simony and clerical being unchaste. Two bishops are deposed for simony. He wanted to degrade these simony and unchaste clergy but they are too numerous for this to be practicable. He refused to be bogged down with Roman politics. He spent less than six months in Rome during his five-year reign. Hildebrand of Moyenmoutier, a Roman clerk, is placed in charge of the papal estates to safeguard them from aristocratic depredation and to restore the material resources of the papacy. The papacy up to this point in time had little notion of the papacy as a universal power. The bishops (duchy) of Rome had no concept of themselves as leaders of Western Catholics let alone Eastern Christians.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499