EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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French as a distinct language is firmly entrenched having begun about 842
The Sorbs, a Slavic people, settled in areas that later became Germany. They spoke a language similar to Czech.
Gary Macy suggests women for the past 1200 years preformed the function of Bishops and Priests in the Christian Churches.
Between 1200 and 1500 the Roman Catholic Papacy would do away with every thing Catholic and the Church would enter the dark ages where the Devil reigned supreme in the name of Christ. Belief and Values would reach the lowest levels of perversion in the history of man. Any Papal proclamation issued during this period or used as a basis for future Papal Bull's should be reviewed with the greatest of caution especially those that speak to matters of faith and morals. Some believe the Inquisition as an institution was originated by Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) in Rome.
The evil within the Roman Church fueled a massive revival of the Christian Gnostic movement called the Cathars. The French believed that the Rome Catholic Church is evil. In southern France the Christian Cathars outnumbered the Christian Romans. They called themselves the Friends of God and offered religion with small material demands by the church. The Roman Church offered little religion with maximum demand for material goods. Women are treated as equals and are ordained to the priesthood. They called their members the Goodman and Goodwomen. The Cathars live very peaceful lives rejecting material wealth.
The annual flooding of the Nile did not occur and as a result Egypt is visited by famine. Cannibalism soon became the main food source, an offense punishable by death. In 1201, the annual floods again did not occur and as a result Egypt is depopulated. An earthquake struck in May 1202 adding to the devastation visited upon the Egyptian people.
France under King Philip II Augustus (1180-1223) is composed of twelve peers of France, six secular lords, the dukes of Normandy, Aquitaine and Burgundy, and the counts of Flanders, Champagne and Toulouise; and six ecclesiastical lords, the archbishop of Reims, the bishop of Beauvais, Noyon, Laon, Chalons and Langres. The dukes of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony and count of Maine and Anjou is none other than King John (1199-1216) of England, who is also overlord to the duke of Brittany.
Polynesians settled the 14 Cook Islands that included Rarotonga.
In Tibet the Rakhor nunnery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities ordered the nuns to leave and everything except the main assembly hall was destroyed.
The Ainu culture was significant 1200 to 1500 in the Island of Zipangui aka Japan, they survived to modern time but in isolation in northern Japan
Muslim, Japanese and Chinese ships are trading and raiding the shores of the Philippine
The Austronesian speaking peoples out of Taiwan arrived New Zealand about this time.
The Knights of Templars and Hospitalliers began a war against each other that lasted for the next twenty years. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) reprimanded the Templars saying the Order is to fight Moslems not the Hospitallers.
July 5: An earthquake in Syria and upper Egypt killed some 1.1 million people.
The third Holy War (1202-1204) is conducted to Constantinople.
The French armies of the Fourth Crusade, urged on by the Venetians, who had supplied them with ships, diverted their attention to restore a deposed Byzantine Emperor in exchange for the riches of Constantinople. In July without resistance the army restored the deposed Emperor. When the people of Constantinople realized that their Emperor had agreed they would submit to the Roman Pope (they are Eastern Orthodoxy) and give the Crusaders their riches, they rebelled and re-imprisoned him. Resentment between the Orthodox Churches and the Roman Church remain into the twentieth century. The Fourth Crusade led by Boniface of Montferrat, had murdered 100,000 Orthodox Christians.
England lost Normandy to the French. The French knights of the Fourth Crusade under Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) in March again attacked Constantinople, this time with a vengeance, desecrated Christian Orthodox Churches and tombs, relics are stolen, women including catholic nuns are raped and murdered by people who thought schismatic had no rights in this world. The plunder and murder of fellow Christians continued for three days. Even the priests joined in the sacking of Constantinople. They desecrated Hagia Sophia, the Orthodox equivalent of St. Peters. They trampled underfoot the sacred vessels of the alter and seated a drunken prostitute on the patriarchal throne. The French Crusaders created their own government, the so-called Latin Empire of Constantinople, that they ruled. A horrified Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) cried out that Greeks could not be blamed for hating Latinís whom they knew only as treacherous dogs but refused to reinstate the rightful patriarch. The Greek Orthodox Church as a result would never again submit to Rome Church rule.
July 15: Pope Innocent III decreed that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation due to crucifixion of Jesus.
The Mongols began their invasion of China and completed their conquest by 1279.
Certain Mongol tribes of Nomadic horsemen living south of
Lake Baikal united to begin the Mongol Empire that lasted until 1368.
They established the first draft of the New Imperial Law (Yasa).
The Mongol army is organized on the decimal principle of tens units, example;
ten, one hundred, one thousand and ten thousand soldier units. Leadership
is based upon the best men not appointed or hereditary as is the practice
in Europe. At its peak power in 1294 it is the largest in history
reaching from the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf to the Pacific Ocean.
They even defeated the combined armies of Germany and Poland in 1241.
The First Universal Emperor of the Mongol Empire is Jenghis (Genghis) Khan
(Lord) (1167-1227) alias Temuchin son of Yesugei the Khan (Lord).
Jenghis is elevated to the position of the Great Khan (Lord) taking the
name Jenghis Khan (Lord of Lords) also meaning King of Kings. His
first action is to replace all tribal commanders with his own loyal commanders.
Commanders and lesser military men are selected by ability only.
This contrasts sharply with the European system of heir apparent with little
or no regard for ability.
The Dominican order is established to combat heretics. The heretics are not because of doctrinal differences but as protest against a secularized church especially in its political organization. The heretics preached a primitive religion, akin to that of the apostles, based on spiritual values, poverty, preaching, and salvation as opposed to the rigid, secularized hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
Genghis Khan ruled the Mongol Empire (1206-1227). Upon the domination of Mongolia, TemŁjin from the Orkhon Valley received the title Genghis Khan, thought to mean Universal Ruler or, Oceanic Ruler or Firm, Resolute Ruler
Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) led his Mongol army against the Chinese province of Hsi-Hsia. China is divided into three territories, in the South Sung, to the East Hsi-Hsia and to the West Chin. The Mongol is unable to penetrate the walled cities.
The Mongols operations against the Western Xia, which comprised much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. This campaign lasted until 1210 with the Western Xia ruler submitting to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghur Turks also submitted peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire.
A Cathar (Gnostic) Christian sect that started in France about 1160 is spreading over Southern France in an attempt to prevent encroachment from the King of France. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) supported the Northern Christians against the Southern Christians and waged a religious crusade that resulted in bloodshed and devastation and cast a dark shadow over his reign.
King John (1199-1216) of England quarreled with Pope (Lothaire) Innocent III (1198-1216) over who should be Archbishop of Canterbury and the King also taxed the priests. It is a sin-rent, he rooted out the priestís mistress and charged two pounds per annum rent and remitted nothing to Rome. The Pope called on the King Philip II Augustus (1180-1223) of France to invade England and is promised the same indulgences as Crusaders. The Pope closed every church in the country for six years. If the king failed to comply it is believed he would go to hell. Pope Innocent III also called for a Holy Crusade against southern France to stomp out the heretical Christian Albigensians or Cathar (Gnostic) that aroused opposition from the Pope when they accused the Church of corruption. The Pope blamed the feudal lord Count Raymond VI for the death of the papal legate in Toulouse after he had excommunicated the Count. Count Raymond VI repented and joined the Holy Crusade and in June began slaughtering everyone in his path. A Crusader who asked how he should separate the heretics from the faithful is told, "kill them all; the Lord will know well who are his". They butchered everyone, women, babies, priests and even killed seven thousand people in one church alone. Twenty thousand people are massacred at Beziers in southern France. This unholy Crusade would last until 1229. The atrocities only got worse as the Crusaders ravaged town after town, ripping out the tongues and eyes of the defeated, dragged them with horses, or hacked them to pieces. The atrocities against these Christian martyrs put the early Roman atrocities to shame. These Babylonian, Roman, Catholic, and alleged Christians are following a Pagan religion. The evil within had not reached it peak.
The Catholic order of Franciscan is established. The Crusaders into southern France being led by a Papal Commander under Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) noted that when he led 140 Christian Cathars (Gnostic) to be burned, so strong is their faith, they flung themselves into the fire and didn't have to be pushed.
Most of the Knights of the Teutonic Order under the third Hochmeister, Hermann Bart on an obscure Cilician campaign. Hermann von Salza (1170-1239) became his successor and is considered the real founder of the Order's greatness.
November 1: King John of England began imprisoning Jews.
In Lavaur, France the Crusaders tried to hang eighty heretic knights from one rope that broke so they slit their throats instead. The Crusaders tried to force the heretics to recant their beliefs and pledge allegiance to the church of Rome, those who refused are burned to death in massive bonfires, and the Christian martyrs cried to heaven for vengeance against the Roman Church.
Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) led his Mongol army against the Chinese province of Chin. The Chin army of 70,000 men is destroyed and 100,000 of the citizens are executed. The Mongol's extracted tribute and a promise to provide future military support.
King Andrew II of Hungary to prevent raiding by the Kumans or Comans (Cumani) gave the mountainous Barcasag district of Transylvania to the Teutonic Order of Knights under Hermann von Salza (1170-1239). Salza River is located Styria, Austria. The Teutonic Knights are headquartered at Acre, Palestine (1191-1291), and Venice and after 1309 Marienburg.
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) proclaimed a crusade against the Moors while Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada, Archbishop of Toledo, preached a Holy War.
The North Sea storm surge flooded the Netherlands killing 60,000 people.
King John Lackland (1199-1216) of England hanged twenty eight boys, sons of Welsh chieftains, in Nottingham Castle as a result of an uprising. He is also known to sleep at whim with any mans wife. The people began to turn against King John and King Philip II Augustus (1180-1223) of France is assembling his forces at the mouth of the Seine forcing John to make peace with the Pope. The fire of London killed some three thousand people, having started in the church of Saint Mary Southwark.
Seized with religious fervor, born of the Crusades, thousands of children in Germany and France set out to conquer the Holy Land and retrieve the Sepulcher of Christ. The Children's Crusade included children age's six to eighteen, are of two groups and both ended in disaster. A ten-year-old German boy named Nicholas, assembled over twenty thousand children, crossing the Alps, losing many to starvation. Many however reached Lombardy, Italy, where they split up into several groups. Seven thousand reached Genoa but no ships are willing to take them to the Holy Land. Some made their way to Rome to ask Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) to release them from their crusading oaths, but the rest of the group simply scattered across Italy, exhausted, humiliated and penniless.
Stephen, a French shepherd boy from Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, France, had a vision of Jesus and set out to deliver a letter to the King of France. He gathered 30,000 children who went to Marseilles with plans to ship to the Holy Land and conquer the Muslims with love instead of arms. The Merchants Hugh Ferreus and William Porcus sold the children into Muslim slave markets in Algeria, and Egypt. Two shiploads of children are reported lost at sea.
A great army is assembled under the command of King Alfonso VIII of Castile, Northern Spain that included the King Pere II of Aragon and King Sancho of Navarre. The Kingdom of Leon did not attend. A large number of French and Italian crusaders joined the crusade as did all the Orders of Knights. The Hospitallers are led by the Prior of Castile Fey Gutierre de Armildez, the Templars by their Castilian Master, Frey Gomez Ruiz and the Order of Calatrava by Frey Ruy Diaz, and the Santiago Order by Master, Frey Pedro Arias. They quickly recaptured Fort Calatrava for the Order of Knights. The Moorish army is believed to number 460,000 men under Caliph Muhammad III Ibn-Yakub called Miramamolin by the Spaniards. The battle is decisive and the Moor army is destroyed. The Christian crusaders swept on taking commanderie towns rather than isolated strongholds. Moslem women and children are butchered.
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) forced King John Lackland (1199-1216) of England to grant the lands of England to the Holy See of Rome and receive them back as the Pope's vassal. The pope made an appeal for a fresh war against Islam.
King John (1199-1216) of England gave in to Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) and accepted his choice of Archbishop, the king died in 1216. King Henry III (1216-1272) age nine years is made king of England.
The Chin Dynasty capital city is moved from Huining, north of Korea, south to K'aifeng on the Huang River. Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) led his Mongol army again against the Chinese province of Hsi-Hsia. This time he returned with siege machines and the capital fell in 1251 and many citizens are put to the sword.
The Mongol conquest of Northern China added unlimited resources to the Khan's (Lord's) Empire. The Chinese also provided efficient administration especially in the personage of Ye-liu Chu-tsai, a statesman, astrologer, poet and scholar. The Mongols also acquired the world best engineers and technicians who developed the Mongolian siege machines. England is practicing trial by ordeal that is to put a hot iron on the tongue of the person accused, if after three days a burn mark remained they are found to have guilt.
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) forbade the church to have anything to do with trial by ordeal for he knew it could be applied equally to the clergy. This tyrannical self proclaimed Ruler of the World said those who take literally Jesus' word and limit their speech to a simple yes and no are heretics and worthy of death. He ordered that Jews and Muslims should wear distinctive dress. He requested that all Christian rulers should observe a four-year truce so that the crusade could be launched.
Honorius III alias Cencio Savelli (1216-1227) is elected pope. To achieve political union for the crusades the pope arbitrated between Philip II (1179-1223) of France and James I (1213-1276) of Aragon to put pressure on France to abandon its invasion of England. Frederick II King then Emperor (1220-1250) of Germany failed to support the crusades (1217-1221) and they failed. Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) continued to martyr the Cathar (Gnostic) Christians of southern France.
The Syrian Franks are horrified as King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold of Austria landed at Acre, Palestine later joined by King Hugh of Cyorus on Crusade. King John summoned his barons, including the Masters, Templar Guillaume de Chartes, the Hospitaller Garin de Montaigu and the German Hermann von Salza (1170-1239).
The Spanish St. Louis became King Fernando III of Castile and he had a great hatred of infidels. He saw the Holy crusade against the Moors as more important than the Syrian crusade. The various Orders of Knights co-operated in the siege of the Moslem city of Alcacer do Sal in southern Portugal and it is given to the Knights of Santiago.
Khorezm-shah Emperor of Central Asia and Persia executed the Mongol envoys that accompanied a Mongol trade caravan. This insult to the Mongolian Emperor Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) resulted in an immediate violent reprisal. Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) alias Temuchin son of Yesugei, the Mongol with an army of 150,000 men conquered Bokhara and Samarquand and 160,000 of Shah Mohammed's troops are killed. The Great Khan (Lord) is reported to have said that he is the punishment of God. This is more likely a statement issued by the Christians. The Great Khan (Lord) worshiped Tengri the ruler of heaven. It is noteworthy that he practiced tolerance for other religions and some of his own clans are Buddhist, Muslim and Christian. Mongolian policy did not punish people for their faith. Jenghis stripped the cities of their wealth and shipped the women and children back to Mongolia. The Great Khan (Lord) then marched on Afghanistan and India as far as the Indus River. It is reported that Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) suppressed a rebellion in Hert, Afghanistan, by killing a reported 1.6 million people. The Mongol encouraged exaggeration as a form of psychological warfare and many enemies submitted without a fight. It is reported that 100,000 slavesí mostly highly skilled tradeís people are shipped back to Mongolia.
The French of Acre, Palestine under the shroud of the Holy War sailed on Damietta, Egypt.
Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) conducted a crusade against the Moors in Spain and intensified the crusade against the Christian Albigenses (Gnostic Cathars) in southern France.
Genghis Khan invaded Afghanistan 1219 to1221 . Destruction of irrigation systems by Genghis Khan turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.
St. Sava, fearful of Roman Catholic influence, induced the Greek patriarch Nicaea to recognize him as Archbishop of all Slav-Serbia to re-establish an Eastern orientation. The Sultan of Cairo ordered the city walls of Jerusalem to be destroyed.
During the siege of Damietta, Egypt they offered the Franks all Moslem Palestine if they would abandon the siege. King John and the Teutonic Orders wished to accept but other brethren refused. Damiette fell and the Franks ruled for two years. Egypt again offered peace and all three Masters agreed with the King but the greedy, overbearing cardinal refused. The cardinal wanted Cairo. The march on Cairo failed and four years of crusade are wasted because of the arrogant folly of the cardinal.
King Jean de Brienne awarded the Hochmeister, Hermann von Salza (1170-1239)
of the Teutonic Order of Knights the Gold Cross of Jerusalem to commemorate
the knights bravery at the siege of Damietta, Egypt. Pope Honorius
III (1216-1227) awarded Hermann von Salza (1170-1239) a magnificent ring.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499