EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia History
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) is driven out of Rome and Emperor Frederick II (1211-1250) of Germany sent troops to restore the pope. The Emperor wanted to ensure the union of his Sicilian Kingdom and restore Imperial power to Italy. The pope and his curia are not pleased. The pope called upon Emperor Frederick in (1220) and Louis VIII (1223-1226) in (1226) to publish ordinances against the Christian Albigenses (Gnostic Cathars) of southern France to impose severe penalties on these heretics who speak out against the immorality of the Roman Catholic Church. This became a common basis for the inquisition.
Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) captured Samarkand (Samarqand) of Shah Muhammad of the Khwarizm Empire. Samarkand is defended by 110,000 troops but only held out for one day. The Mongol army killed some 100,000 people during and after their siege. The Mongol women would tend to the wounded and collect the arrows from the battleground and dispatch the enemy wounded.
The Knights of Santiago and the Knights of Calatrava agreed to help each other if either is attacked by Moslems regardless of any treaty made by the Christian Kings, swearing to act as one in both war and peace. Both Orders continued to cleanup the country returning with severed Moslem heads, women and children were not spared.
Genghis Khan is said to have killed 1,748,000 people at Nishapur aka Neyshabur, Persia (Iran) in just one hour.
The Mongol Generals Jebe and Subudey are sent to capture the Shah who had fled south to an island in the Caspian Sea where he died. The Mongol Generals unable to find the Shah are given permission to reconnoiter the Western Lands (Europe). The traveled northern Persia and Transcausia then turned north into Southern Russia. They defeated the Russians and Cumans at the Kalka River. The Prince of Kiev is crushed to death under planks. The Russians had no idea who the Mongrels are and called them the Tartars of the East. The Roman Church praised the Mongol conquest of the Islamic armies and said God sends these unknown people from the East.
Emperor Lizong of China reigned (1225-1264) of the Southern Song Dynasty
The Burzenland of Transylvania is pacified by the Teutonic Order and the Kumans are integrated and settled among the Magyars. King Andrew II of Hungary grew alarmed and descended on the Burzenland with a large army and evicted the Teutonic Knights.
King Fernando III of Castile, Spain sent an army to Morocco that gained Marrakesh for his ally, Mamoun.
French King Louis IX (1226-1270) led a massive new army into Southern France to wipe out the last vestiges of the heresy and the long crusade finally ended with almost total defeat of the Albigensians Christians. Hermann of Salza (1170-1239) with his Teutonic Knights are ordered to convert Prussia to Christianity.
After St. Francis's death in 1226, his followers who attempted to continue to embrace a life of poverty were burned at the stake as heretics. The Church has no desire to encourage poverty because it was committed to the financial power structure of Europe.
Gregory IX alias Ugo or Ugolino (1227-1241) a nephew of Pope Innocent III is elected pope.
The Mongol army conquered the Kara Khitai Kingdom in Turkestan. They also crushed the Persian sultanate of Khwarezam, the kingdoms of Azerbaijan and Georgia and Kievan Russia. Genghis Khan (1206-1227) began invading the Jin Dynasty (1127-1234) Karakorum is the capital of the Mongol Empire and the Chinese would destroy this city in 1388. Emperor Genghis Khan (Lord) (1206-1227) died this year after a fall from his horse and his successor Ogadai (Ogodei) (Ugedey) Khan (Lord) subjected Korea and Tebet. The Great Khan (Lord) had said that God has given the whole earth to the Mongols to rule. He would not be able to achieve this in his lifetime but commanded his sons to carry out God's plan. Legend says that his spirit will reappear in a boy. After Genghis Khan's death as is custom; the Mongol leaders returned to Mongolia for kuriltai (political and military council of ancients). The empire at this point covered nearly 26 million km˛, about four times the size of the Roman or Macedonian Empires.
August 18: Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, during his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan's ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan's death. In Khan's lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia's Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east. Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927.
The fifth Holy War (1228-1229) led by Frederick II is conducted to the Holy Land. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) excommunicated Emperor Frederick (1220-1250) for his failure to promptly join the crusades. The Emperor had fallen seriously ill but the pope didn't believe him. Hermann of Salza (1170-1239) head of the Teutonic Knights remained faithful to Emperor Frederick against the pope. Emperor Frederick (1220-1250) inherited Sicily from his Hauteville mother is also a Norman, baptized sultan with Arab soldiers and a harem.
Emperor Frederick recovered and despite obstacles imposed by the pope successfully negotiated the surrender of Jerusalem. He married its heiress Yolande, John de Brenne's daughter who he relegated to the harem. Frederick crowned himself King of Jerusalem. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) is outraged that an excommunicate should lead a crusade and attempted to establish an anti-king in Germany. The Pope released the Sicilian subjects from their allegiance to the Emperor. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) raised an army to attack the Imperial Italy forces and to invade Sicily.
To seal a military alliance, the Muslims cede Jerusalem to the Crusaders, with the Muslim access to the Temple Mount guaranteed. After ten years the city will revert back to the Muslims. The Teutonic Order of Knights established a second headquarters at Montfort, northeast of Acre, Palestine.
Ogedei Khan ruled the Mongol Empire (1229-1241).
The Norwegian Viking took Dunstaffnage castle (Connel) the strong hold of clan MacDougall. Dugall Scray the Gaelic-Viking is taken prisoner leaving his brother Duncan (MacDougal) as the only remaining family member in power.
From about 1230 to 1257 Karakorum on the Onon River, Mongolia is the capital city that controlled the largest Empire in the history of man. Ogodei the Mongol Lord of Lords re-conquered Central Asia then swept on to Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Turkey. The rulers became vassals paying tribute and supplying troops. While these campaigns are underway the Great Khan led his cavalry against the Jin Dynasty of Northern China.
Emperor Frederick returned from the Middle East and quickly subdued Pope Grergory's army and forced the removal of the excommunication order.
Conrad gave the Teutonic Knights under Hermann Von of Salza (1170-1239), Kulmerland and promised them all lands conquered from Prussia.
Ogadai who (died 1241) became Khan (Lord of Lords) the son of Jenghis (Genghis) Khan (Lord) (1167-1227) began to build the Mongol capital city Karaquarm. Karaquarm, Mongolia has total religious freedom and all religions are represented in the city. This belief contrasts very sharply with the Middle East belief of Religious monopoly.
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) recognized Emperor Frederick and his son Conrad as King of Jerusalem.
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) established the death penalty of burning for heretics and entrusted the Inquisition to the Dominican Order. The burning of the Christian Cathar (Gnostic) in southern France continued under Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) reign.
Hermann von Salza (1170-1239) sent his Teutonic Order Knights on a crusade across the Vistula River (Poland) and stormed a fortress-temple hanging the Prussian chief from his own sacred oak tree. The Knights systematically secured the territory between the Vistila and Niemen Rivers as Teutonic Lands. Colonists including noblemen as well as peasants are brought in and given land.
After the defeat of Ibn Hud, King of Murcia, at Jerez, Spain the Order of Knights began to conquer southwestern Spain in earnest.
Episcopal Inquisition, the Papal Inquisition is created by Gregory IX (1227-1241) through a Bull and by 1231 the death penalty for heretics is simultaneously introduced in Germany and France and it is the responsibility of every Catholic to prosecute heretics who had no rights. They must be tortured without scruples, they must be put to death. Any prince who did not burn heretics, as charged by the inquisition, would be excommunicated himself and go before the same tribunal for heresy. Peter Seila and William Arnald are appointed full time inquisitors. It is noteworthy that Christians who did not bow to Roman demands have been burnt in southern France for over twenty years. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) is driven from Rome by the Roman citizens only to be reinstated by Emperor Frederick.
As early as 384 a synod in Rome under Pope Siricius (384-399) denounced the use of torture and Pope Gregory I (590-604), the Great had ordered in the six century that judges ignore testimony given under duress. Pope Nicholas I (858-867) condemned torture as a violation of divine right. This systematic persecution of Christians by Christians has no precedence in history or scripture and can only be the work of the devil within the Holy Roman Empire. All those things the early church preached against are now incorporated within the Roman Church.
King Fernando III of Castile, Spain attacked Ibn Hud, Emir of Murcia at Jerez de la Frontera in southern Spain. Only ten Christians died but the Moors are slain by the thousands.
Ogadai (d-1241) Khan (Lord of Lords) captured the Jin dynasty capital city, Kaifeng. Some Mongols wanted to slaughter all the people and turn their lands into pasture for horses. Ogodei heeded a Chinese scholar who argued that if the people lived, and prospered, they could be taxed. The going rate of tax on newly conquered people is about ten percent of possessions.
Pope Gregory IX established the Inquisition to combat the heresy of the Abilgenses, a religious sect in France.
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) is again driven from Rome by irate Roman citizens only to again to be restored by Emperor Frederick.
King Fernando III of Castile, Spain drove the infidels out of Ubeda, Spain. The Knights of Alcantara Order had contributed 600 horses and 2,000 footmen.
The Jin Dynasty (1127-1234) of the Yellow River Valley, the birth place of the Chinese Empire finally fell to Mongol army's.
The Mongol roads between Asia, Europe and the Middle East are considered the safest in known history due to the Mongol maintenance and control. A Mongolian kuriltay at Karakorum resolved to start the conquest of the Southern Song Empire and the Western Lands. The undefined western territory had been granted to Batu's father, Jochi, Genghis's Khan eldest son. The Mongol Batu son Junchi eldest son Chingis Khan (Lord) with chief advisor Subudey and a 120,000 man army is commissioned to the conquest of Europe. His army included newly recruited central Asian Turks.
The Universal Emperor Jenghis Khan (Lord) is succeeded by Ogadai (died 1241) the Lord of Lords who had subjugated Koryo (Korea), the remaining Chin territory in north China. Sixty thousand cavalrymen, along with their support facilities marched west to the Volga River near Kazan, Russia. Novgorod wrote that the godless invaders slew all, both wives and children. News that the Mongol army is heading west reached King Bela IV of Hungary. Soon thousands of refugees poured into his kingdom.
The Mongol Empire primary goal is to establish a world empire for international peace. A principle objective is to maintain their great commercial trade routes from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. As a culture they practiced religious tolerance. The Mongol Khan Batu (1205-1255) the Splendid son Juji (Jochi) Khan and grandson of Genghis Khan (Lord) is elected to assembled an army to subject and colonize Europe. The Mongol army included all necessary trade’s people, their houses, wives, children, sheep and cattle. The Bulgar on the Volga River is the first to be subjected. Georgia (Russia), Azerbaijan (east Turkey and West Iran) fell to the Mongol Empire virtually placing Persia (Iran), and Afghanistan under Mongol control and is now called IL Khan (Lord) Empire of Hulagu.
The Mongol reduced the capital city of the Bulgar Kingdom into rubble. The Mongol next marched on Ryazan some 400 miles west. They demanded a tenth of everything as tribute including a tenth of the women and children. The nobles answered only when none of us remains and the Mongols made it so. Moscow is abandoned as the Tartars (Mongol) advance and they burn the city. The Tartars then take Kiyev and because of their defiance the city is destroyed. The Grand Duke George II and his army are destroyed. The Grand Duke is killed. About 40,000 Cumans flee to Hungary rather than submit to General Batu. The Tartar (Mongol) retained control of West Russia for a century and East Russia for two centuries. Russian slaves are employed in the Mongol army as far east as China. The Mongols are known to have sold European slaves to China and Egypt.
Muhammad Ibn-Yusuf Ibn-Ahmed Ibn-Nasr, called al-Ahmar (d-1273) realized that since Sierra Morena and the Guadalquivir had been lost, Spanish Islam must find new frontiers. He entrenched himself in Granada, Spain. The Christians had an urgent problem of administration and resettlement of southern Spain. Large estates are granted to the nobles and the religious Orders. Jewish stewards ran many of the estates very profitably indeed. The Orders spent much time in estate management.
Dominican Robert le Bougre at Champagne, France sent 180 people, including the Bishop, to the stake for heresy. The Mongol (Tartar) army is settled into the Ukraine to plan their next actions.
Kiev, Russia fell to the Mongol Batu Khan (Lord) the Splendid
virtually placing all of Russia under Mongol control, later referred to
as the Batu (Kipchak) Empire or Golden Horde meaning Imperial power and
wealth. Russia would remain under Mongol domination until Ivan III
repels them in 1480. Poland and Hungary send urgent messages to the
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241), the German Emperor and the King of France for help. The Swedes see an opportunity and attack the Mongolian Russia Empire on the Neva River but are repulsed by Prince Alexander Yaroslavovitch (Nevsky) of Novgorod a nephew of George II. There is little love between Orthodox Christians of Russ and the Catholic Teutons.
Pope Gregory renewed his excommunication of Emperor Frederick calling him a blasphemer and the forerunner of the Anti-Christ. The Emperor had no choice but to march on Rome demanding a General Council to judge the pope.
Eastern Europe considered this year a year of misery. To escape the Mongol army, 40,000 refugees from the steppe of the Mongolian Russia Empire straggled into Hungary. A division of the Mongol army under Baibars Khan (Lord) destroyed a combined army of Polish, French and Germans at Liegnitz in Silesia. The Mongol army annihilates the Hungarian Army of 40,000 men including the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights. The Europeans are devastated as the European knights are no match for the superior Mongol army. About 30,000 well-armed knights are destroyed almost to a man. Those who survived believed they had been defeated by witchcraft. Near the town of Muhi, Hungary 60,000 are killed this spring.
The Mongol (Tartars) advanced on Vienna, Austria and Europe for all intent has no remaining army to resist the Mongol Empire. Krakow, Poland fell to the Mongol on Palm Sunday. The Great Mongol Empire is the largest land empire history has known. Only the death of Emperor Ogadai (Ugedey) in December this year saved Europe from total conquest. General Batu and other Mongolian leaders wanted to take part in the elections on the next great khan (Lord). This election process would take four years. The Mongol objective however is to advance West to the furthest known territory and this short-term objective is attained. Bulgaria and Moldavia became a permanent part of the Mongolian Empire for the next century. Remnants of the Hungarian army reported that the Tartars are using gunpowder in the war. This led the Church to the conclusion that the Tartars are using fire-breathing dragons against the Christians. They are considered the horde from hell itself. Tartars from Tartarus, that part of Hades where the wicked were punished. They had the heads of dogs, and they devoured the bodies of their victims.
Celestine IV alias Goffredo da Castiglione (1241-1241) a nephew of Pope Urban III is elected pope. The ten cardinals had been shut up for sixty days in cruel and squalid conditions to force a 2/3-consensus vote. Brutal threats are employed and one cardinal died during the process.
The Mongol withdrew from Poland and Hungary settling in southern Mongolian Russia Empire. The Russian is in total submission and forced to pay tribute. The Russian Princes literally had to kiss the feet of the Mongol Commanders during the collection of tribute. The Mongol in the Russian Ukrainian (Little Russia) area settles in by building forts and planting crops.
Prior to this time the Roman Catholic Inquisition focused on Christian heretics but this year they changed their focus to target Jews.
Innocent IV alias Sinibaldo Fieschi (1243-1254) is elected pope after an 18-month squabble. The pope would flee Rome in 1244 to Genoa then to Lyons.
The Christian Knights captured Nablus last year and Jerusalem this year massacring its inhabitants including Christian Arabs. In July 10,000 tribesman stormed Jerusalem that is lost to the Franks forever.
The extermination of the Christian Cathars (Gnostics) of southern France is completed this year after a year siege of their stronghold, 225 people are burned to death.
The nobles of Scotland in the treaty of Ponteland signed a letter and oath to Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254). Duncan de Ergalita (MacDougal) signed the treaty for the MacDougal clan.
At La Forbie near Gaza the allied army attacked the Egyptian forces. The Kwarismians carrying lances cut the allied forces to ribbons. The Kwarismian and Egyptian Turks surrounded the Franks and cut them to pieces. Five thousand Christians fell this battle. Only 26 Hospitallers, 33 Templars and three Teutonic Knights escaped.
Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) no longer believes the Mongols
are sent by God and says they are from the Devil.
The Pope wants to discover who these people are and to convert them into Christians. He selects John Karpini (born 1180) a Franciscan Fryer to lead an expedition to the East. Francis of Assisi created the Franciscan Order in 1209. The Pope is well aware that the armies of Europe are no match to the superior forces of the Tartars (Mongols) and wants to establish an alliance. Pope Innocent IV (1243-1247) as a result of this inferiority position proclaimed that non-Christians enjoy the same rights and authority as Christian States. This year the Mongols conducted a census of the Mongolian Russia Empire. The council of Lyons condemned Emperor Frederick with perjury, breach of peace, sacrilege and heresy. The pope conspired to murder the Emperor and ordered a crusade against the Germans.
Guyuk Khan ruled the Mongol Empire (1246-1248).
Guyuk is elected the new Great Khan (Lord) of the Mongolian Empire. He claimed that all empires from sunrise to sunset have been given to us, and we own them. General Batu retained command of Kazakhstan, Khorezm, Western Siberia and his recent conquests of the Volga basin, north Caucasus, the Cuman steppes and Russia. This vast territory is called Juchi's Ulus region. The Franciscan Priest John Karpini (b-1180) wrote the Tartars share their food. This Christian belief is no longer being practiced in the Roman Church. The men hardly ever grow beards. It is noteworthy that the American Indians also do not grow beards. They always carry their dwellings with them even into war. They have more horses than all the rest of the world. They consider it a great sin to waste food in any way. The Tartars practice Shamanism and they believe in heaven. The Tartars however encourage the practice of other religions. Religious tolerance is considered a heresy in the Middle East and Europe. John Karpini (b-1180) upon reaching the city of Karaquarm, Mongolia is shocked to discover Eastern Christians among the Mongol peoples. He is astonished to find Islam and Buddhism being practiced in the city. The Great Khan (Lord) says he controls the lands from the rising sun to the setting sun and says what right has the Pope to say he speaks for God. He says the Great Khan (Lord) speaks for God and the Pope is ordered to come before the Khan (Lord) and pay tribute. The Franciscan Priest John Karpini (b-1180) refused to allow a delegation on Tartars to return to Rome because he feared the Mongol would discover that Europe is in disarray and could be easily conquered.
During the siege of Jaen, Spain by the Christians Muhammad ibn-Yusuf ibn-Ahmed ibn-Nasr, called al-Ahmar (d-1273) of Granada, Spain rode into camp to pay homage, securing his position.
The sixth Holy War (1248-1254) is to the Holy Land.
Ewen MacDougall the Viking retained the clan’s allegiance to his motherland and the King of Norway dispute threats from the King of Ireland. The MacDougall strong holds included the castles Dunstaffnage and Dunollie on the Firth of Lorne.
To escape Feudalism, towns developed monopoly trade Gilds for protection and training. In Paris alone there are 101 gilds in operation this year.
The Christian Knights Templer Order stipulated that a postulant must prove himself a knight's son or a descendant of knights and priest-brethren are restricted to fewer offices. The oath of celibacy obviously had been abandoned. The Hospitalliers followed a similar set of rules.
A Holy war led by King Louis IX of France (1249-1252) is conducted.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499