EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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The Lithuanians moved eastward into the Novgorodok region of the upper Nieman River, currently Mongolian Russia Empire lands. They entered into association with the Mongolian Russians but retained loyalty to the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
It is believed that guns are being manufactured about this time in both China and in North Africa.
Mamiuk begins an extensive building program and most Muslim buildings in the Old City of Jerusalem are built between 1250-1450
It is believed the Polynesians reached New Zealand about this time.
Emperor Frederick died and Pope Innocent IV returned triumphantly to Italy. This pope significantly lowered the prestige of the papacy by scandalously using spiritual powers to raise money, buy friends and injure foes.
Mongke Khan ruled the Mongol Empire (1251-1259).
The Great Khan (Lord) again mobilized an army to secure his Western Empire. Huligo is the Commander who led his 150,000 man army into the Middle East. They destroyed Baghdad, Iraq because they did not submit and resisted the Mongol warnings. Pursia (Iran) and the balance of Iraq immediately submitted and sent tribute to Huligo. The Tartar army entered Dimasticas (Damascus), Syria without a fight. The Eastern Christians pressed for treaty with the Tartars. The Roman Christians (Western Christians) are sure that Jerusalem is next to fall. The Tartars however place no significant on Jerusalem and begin planning the conquest of Egypt that they consider as the last unconquered Empire of the West. It is noteworth to remember that Egypt is recently conquered by the Turkish slaves called the Manalooks in 1250. The Tartar (Mongol) sent notice to Egypt of their intent but plans of invasion are put on hold when the Great Khan (Lord) died. The bulk of the Tartar army is withdrawn to Iran leaving 10,000 men to hold Syria.
The Turkish-Egyptians began to mobilize against the Tartar. They entered into alliance with the Christians. The Christians would supply provisions but would not join into the fight against their common foe. The Christian would later regret this decision as it would cost them their Middle East holdings.
Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) established the Inquisition as a permanent institution in Italy and the papal bull sanctioned the use of torture to extract confessions.
Daniel Galicia a Russian Prince who has a Khan (Lord) patent to hold the position seeks Papal support for a rebellion against the Mongolian Russian Empire. Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) agrees provided the Mongolian Russian clergy recognizes his authority. Rome doesn't send troops because there is a delay in recognition of his authority by the Mongol Russian clergy. Daniel doesn't press the clergy because the Pope didn't sent troops.
Hulagu son of Tolui a son of Genghis Khan is ordered to capture Baghdad, Islam's greatest city. He assembled an army of 150,000 men that included Chinese, Armenians, Georgians, Persians and Turks. This is believed to be one of the largest Mongol armies ever put into the field.
July 23: Jews were expelled from Vienne, France, by order of Pope Innocent III
Alexander IV alias Rinaldo count of Segni (1254-1261) a nephew of Pope Gregory IX is elected pope at Naples because the mayor had bolted the gates to Rome. Rome is racked by power struggles and the pope mostly resided at Viterbo. He reversed many of the papal provisions imposed by pope Innocent IV that had divided the Roman populous. He sought to establish a crusade against the Mongols.
The Teutonic Order launched a full-scale crusade to rescue their beleaguered
brethren in Prussia. Rudolf of Habsburg and Ottokar II of Bohemia
led an army of 60,000 German and Czech soldiers. The Sambians, the
foremost Prussian tribe, is conquered and by 1260 had overcome all the
western tribes as well. The Teutonic Order believed he who fights
the Order fights Jesus Christ. They gave no quarter and tribes disappeared
without trace, their villages obliterated.
Hulagu the Mongol veered into the Elburz Mountains to destroy the Assins, a violent Islamic sect. The Assassins, dagger-wielding fanatics, had murdered many Islamic rulers who rejected their extremist tenets. They are said to strike while under the influence of hashish, hence the word assassin, from the Arabic hashshashin, or hashish eaters. The Assassins eagle nest fortress fell and the sect's Grand Master Rukn ad Din is taken prisoner. Later he is kicked to a pulp and then put to the sword.
China began manufacturing guns.
The Mongol Empire relocated their capital city from Karakorum, Mongolia to Shangtu, China until 1260. The Great Khan (Lord) Guyuk orders a general population census of the Mongol Empire. The Great Khan (Lord) Guyuk appoints Alexander Nevsky to the throne of Kiev. He put down a rebellion in Novgorod gaining independence for collection of taxes in the future and a promise that Mongolian officials would withdraw after the census.
Caliph Mustasim the ruler of Baghdad sent his troop
out to meet the Mongol Hulagu. The Mongols broke a dike behind them,
trapping them with floodwaters, and killed at least 12,000 of Calip army.
When Baghdad fell some historians said that the Christian Georgians and
Armenians in Hulagu's army vented their hatred of Islam by slaughtering
the civilians. The Abbassid Dynasty (750-1258) is ended when Baghdad
and Iraq fell to the Mongol Empire this year. Some historians put
the death toll of the Hulagu campaign as high as two million people.
A Chinese envoy in 1260 said of Baghdad that many tens of thousands were
killed. Caliph Mustasim the ruler of Baghdad and his sons were sewn
in carpets and trampled to death by horses. Hulagu's Empire included
Iraq, Iran and Syria. Hulagu learned that Khagan Mongke is dead and
anticipated a succession struggle, he withdrew, leaving only 10,000 troops
to hold the region.
1260 Daniel Galicia a Russian Prince starts a rebellion against the Mongolian Russia Empire that is quickly put down. He fled to Poland and then to Hungary and died in 1264 thoroughly disillusioned. The Mongol army devastates Galicia and Volynia.
A civil war broke out between two of the Mongol brothers and Kubli (Kubilay (1260-1294) won the war. The Mongol Empire capital city moved for the third and final time to Khanbaligh (Tatu), (Peking), and China. The Turkish-Egyptian army defeated the 10,000 man Tarter army in Syria. The 110,000 man Tarter (Mongol) army in Iran is never driven out or conquered they are simply absorbed into the local culture.
Emperor Shizu of China reigned (1260-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty
February 10: Huegu (Hulega Khan), a Mongol leader and grandson of Genghis Khan, seized Baghdad following a 4-day assault. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire. They included Uzbeks, Kazaks, Georgians and other groups. Some 200,000 to 800,000 people were killed and looting lasted 17 days.
Mongol Khan led a campaign against the Southern Son Dynasty (1127-1279).
Kublia Khan ruled the Mongol Empire (1260-1294).
Carbon-14 dating techniques in 1988 determined that the cloth of the Shroud of Turin dated to this period 1260-1390. E.T. Hall (d.2001 at 77) of Oxford Univ. led the testing, which was later held in question. In 1978 Walter C. McCrone (d.2002), chemical analyst, determined that the image was painted on the cloth some 1300 years after the crucifixion of Christ.
Urban IV alias Jacques Pantaleon (1261-1264) a Frenchman and patriarch of Jerusalem is elected pope by eight cardinals at Viterbo after three months of debate. He named 14 new cardinals 6 being Frenchmen. He never resided in Rome due to political instability.
After a long and bloody conflict between the various families and clans, the Icelanders accepted the rule of the Norwegian kingdom.
Kubli (Kubilay (1260-1294) the Mongolian is the fifth Great Khan (Lord) to rule the largest Empire in the history of the world. All major appointments in Europe must be approved by the Great Khan (Lord) until the Ming dynasty begins in 1368. Kubli Khan (Lord) (1260-1294) began to march on the Sung Empire that is the last hold out to the Mongolian Empire.
According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large body of troops to attack Japan, then known as the island of Zipangu. The two officers in charge, named Abbacatan and Vonsancin, failed to cooperate and the adventure failed.
August 5: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Arnstadt, Germany.
Emperor Duzong of China reigned (1265-1274) of the Southern Song Dynasty
Clement IV alias Guy Foulques (1265-1268) a Frenchmen is elected at Perugia after four months of debate by the cardinals. He had two daughters and took orders after his wife’s death. He also resided at Perugia and Viterbo due to instability in Rome.
Charles of Anjou, brother of the King Louis IX (1226-1270) of France, seized the crown of Sicily and subjected the Sicilian people to cruel and tyrannical treatment at the hands of the French bureaucrats and soldiers. Berke the Mongol died being replaced by Mangu Temir who exempted the Mongol Russian church from both taxes and conscription. He also guaranteed the constitutional autonomy of Novgord and its rights to free trade. These actions made the Russian princes quite loyal to the Tsar as the Mongol Russians called the Khan (Lord).
Scotland and Norway entered into an honorable treaty that formally ended the Viking occupation of Scotland. Norse inhabitants of Northern territories are given the option to stay or depart with all their goods.
Kublai Khan during the Yuan dynasty meaning origin or primal, founded Beijing, China as his new capital city naming it Daidu meaning great capital. A wall encloses the city 18 miles around.
May 10: Vienna's Catholic church ordered all Jews to wear distinctive garb.
July 26, The Inquisition formed in Rome under the infamous Pope Clement IV (1265-1268).
September 1: Rabbi ben Nachman aka RaMBaN (Nachmanides) (1195-1270) arrived in Jerusalem to educate the Palestinian Jewish community. He had been banished from Spain for blasphemy.
The Papacy remains vacant until 1271 because of disagreements.
Marco Polo reports seeing Noah's Ark after a three day climb in the snowy reaches of Mt Ararat, at the bottom of its summit, not its peak.
June 19: King Louis IX of France decreed all Jews must wear a badge of shame.
The seventh and final Holy War (1270) is led by King Louis IX of France is conducted to the Holy Land. Henry of Susa, cardinal of Ostia (d-1271) preached that infidel nations are not legitimate, their rulers lacked recognized jurisdiction and lands of such nations could be appropriated without composition. He argued in favor of universal papal domination over pagans, whom he alleged had lost their sovereignty to Christ. Sovereignty is an invention by Kings and Popes to justify conquests of other people using divine law that evolved out of classical Roman, Medieval Christianity and Feudal concepts.
King Louis IX (1226-1270) of France is canonized as St. Louis in 1297. Louis was noted for his insistence of the most barbarous treatment of Jews and Heretics.
Mongol hordes sacked Babylon and ended 1,500 years of rule over Eastern Jewry by the high Mesopotamian priest known as the Exxilarch.
Marco Polo encouraged by reports from Turkey traders who traded with the Mongols decided to eliminate the Persian (Mongol) middlemen and establish direct trading along the ancient trade route to China. Kubla the Great Khan (Lord) had established 1,000 way stations along his great road between China and Europe.
China during the period of (1271-1368) had over 17,900 navy warships. There were thousands of civil trading ships scattered over the South China Sea, Indian Ocean and known world. There were 5 masted ships War Ships; 6 masted Guest Ships; 7 masted Grain Ships; 8 masted horse ships and 9 masted Valuable Cargo Ships. Their square sail system allowed sailing into the wind, much superior to European design. They had the magnetic needle compass, boat technology to travel anywhere in the world and safely return. We need to keep in mind the Polynesians in out rigger Canoes were traveling to America and returning since before 700 A.D.
Gregory X alias Tedaldo Visconti (1271-1276) a war monger is elected by a committee of six after being locked in the papal palace with the roof removed and a threatened starvation diet at Viterbo.
August: Jacob d’Ancona, an Italian-Jewish trader, arrived at the harbor of Zaitun in southeast China, 4-years before Marco Polo arrived. He wrote a manuscript that surfaced in 1997, translated by David Selbourne, a British scholar. Jacob described printing with movable wooden type, paper money, free daily newspapers, mass-circulation booklets, use of gunpowder, the practice of foot-binding, and tea-drinking. He also noted a lot of pornography and a liberated female sexuality. He described a foreign community with some 2,000 Jews and a great number of Muslims as well as Africans and Europeans and the oncoming threat of a Mongol invasion. The book was titled “The City of Light” and covered Jacob’s travels from 1270-1273 through China, Syria, the Persian Gulf and India.
King Henry III banned the use of the new fuel, coal in Newcastle because of environmental complaints and the population were forced to burn the diminishing supply of wood.
King Edward I (1272-1307) became King of England with a burning desire to bring the rest of Britain under his control. He allowed his lords to extend their control up the Welsh River Valley. As a result a new class of people developed, a mixture of Norman, Welsh and French, but not English. Edward ordered all those who made twenty pounds a year or greater must be made knights and many esquires are made into knights.
The Rudolf (1273-1291) of the Hapsburg family began their long rule of the Archduchy of Austria (1273-1806). The Hapsburg is from a Swiss-Alsatian tribe. Other dynasties occurred during the fourteenth century.
The Mongols ordered another general census of the Mongolian Russia Empire. One army recruit is required out of every ten males. The standing army is therefore composed of about 5 percent of the total population.
An Ecumenical Council established that cardinals must assemble within ten days of a pope’s death at the place where he died. They must stay together without contact to the outside world and be subjected to progressive austere conditions the longer the election process took. Various abuses of unduly long vacancies of benefices, pluralism and absenteeism are condemned. Severe restrictions are imposed on religious orders except the Franciscans and Dominicans.
The Kublai Khan attempted to conquer the Island of Zipangui aka Japan from South Korea but the attempt failed when a storm forced his fleet to retreat.
The writings of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) came under severe censure at the University of Paris by Roman Catholics. Theologians made attempts to prune Aristotle’s writings to more suit their purposes. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) the Italian Dominican believed women are defective by nature and not created in God's image. He believed women had to be punished for bringing sin into the world. Thomas Aquinas theology only became acceptable in 1879. He also attempted to resolve the theological differences between the Eastern and Western Churches.
Emperor Gongti of China reigned (1275-1276) of the Southern Song Dynasty
Yakub arrived in Spain with his Moroccan army and swept up to Jerez
killing and burning. He retired only to return in 1279 to again terrify
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