Chinese Junk

Admiral Zheug He (1371-1435)  475 foot long X 193 feet wide flag ship
used to circumnavigate the world (1405-1433)
and in the discovery of Europe, and America, some contend.
Others suggest it  is a hypothesis rather than a theory.
If you follow the history of Chinese ship building there is a lot of credibility to these claims.
Keep in mind the Polynesian visited America in 700 and returned.





EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia History


The belief in slave trading had almost been eliminated when it came back with a vengeance.
Slave traders are considered as Christian Crusaders.

The Grand Council of the Roman Church is declared infallible.
The compulsory baptism of Jewish children is abolished.
Anti-Semitism however still flourishes in Europe.


Owain Glyndwer is proclaimed Prince of Wales and sustained a long guerrilla war with England and is never captured but is unable to remove the yoke of England off the Welsh neck.

The Swahili of Africa are trading with China, India and Persia.  China sent a fleet of ships with trade goods to Africa.  Most Europeans believe at this time that to the south is fire, to the north an endless sea of ice and to the west an endless ocean.

The Turks conquer Bulgaria and Serbia.  Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404) says he is ready to preach a crusade (war) against the Turks only on condition that the Greek church recognizes his authority.  Christian Hungary led a crusade against the Ottoman Empire (Turks) but is unsuccessful and Bulgaria and the mainland of Greece fell under Turkish Moslem rule.

The use of movable type in Korea, China and Tibet long predates it use in Europe.

During the period (1400-1425) Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some 200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called the "Forbidden City."

In Bulgaria, Gypsy (Roma) are reported "living in large numbers" along the Albanian coast.

Plague broke out again in Europe.


King Henry IV (1399-1413) introduced into England for the first time the idea of executing those guilty of heresy by burning, a Christian practice.


Juan de Bethencourt became the first European to settle in the Canary Islands and made slaves of several natives heralding the beginning of the black slave trade.  At this time slavery had been practically eliminated in Europe, thanks to the influence of the Church.  The Holy Roman Church later would not only condone and support slavery even of those baptized into the Roman Catholic Church but also would hold their own slaves.  Europe, led by Spain, would begin over four centuries of slave trading that included some twenty million Africans alone, of which half died in transit.  Jewish children deported from Portugal during the Inquisition settle Sao Tome e Principe, two islands 320 kilometers west of Gabon.  It then became a transit point for the slave trade.  Pope John Paul II (1978 - ) in 1992 deplored the Roman Catholic Church's condoning of that sad offense to human dignity.

Permanent colonization of the Canary Islands began a pattern for the exploitation of other Atlantic Islands using forced labor of Africans.

The Black Death or Bubonic Plague (Bacillus Yersinia Pestis) arrive Iceland killing 1/2 to 2/3 of the  people between 1402-1404.  



Chengzu of China with a Reign Title of Yongle, Reigned (1403-1424) of the Ming Dynesty.

Chinese Emperior Zhu Di ? issued orders to build a fleet of ships for ocean going expeditions.

Melakan Sultan Shah of Malay recorded a visit of Admiral Cheng Ho (1371-1433) and Chinese envoy Yin Ching.


Pope Benedict XIII (1394-1423) of the Clement Church proposed a council to resolve the schism but Pope Boniface IX of the Urban church refused any reconciliation and died shortly thereafter.  Innocent VII alias Cosimo Gentile de' Migliorati (1404-1406) a Roman is elected Pope by eight cardinals of the Urban Church in Rome.  The new pope had to vow, if elected, to do everything in his power to end the schism, if necessary abdicating.  Pope Innocent rejected a proposal by Pope Benedict to meet and end the schism.  Pope Benedict is under the same vow.

The Knights Teutonic with 15,000 troops attacked the Danes capturing 200 ships.


Emperor Chengzu with the title of Yongle  (1403-1424) 3rd emperor of the Ming Dynasty ordered Chinas fleet to explore the oceans of the world.  China engaged a large fleet of ships some 317 ships with 27,500 men, five times the size of anything in Europe to bring "all under heaven" to be civilized in Confucian harmony.  The Chinese had the technology to sail and circle the world.  China had a fleet of 6,500 ships that previously are not allowed to put out to sea.  China at this time is the richest, technically most advanced Empire on earth.  It is stable and at relative peace and did not want to change this tranquility for the barbaric influence of the Middle East and Europe.  It seems inconceivable that China didn't sail to America at this time.  Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) and (Ma Sanbao)  (1371-1435) a unuch, a Mongol and Muslim, was in command of the ocean going armada.  It is claimed he personally made seven voyages and was ordered each time to go further than the last both to the east and west.   He was to collect tribute from the barbarians from beyond the western seas.  The first voyage of discovery (1405-1407) is to the western sea with Wang Ching-Hung to find traces of the previous Emperor Jianwen Hue who had fled to the East.  They visited India and Ceylon now called Sri Lanko.  hThis fleet consisted of 200 to 300 ships with a crew of 28,000.  Some ships were diverted to trade and tribute while the others continued in exploration.  Some believe this or later expeditions reached America and established colonies likely as a result of ship wreck.  Sanbao created 24 maps of Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) explorations.  Those who did not offer homage or pay tribute were taken back to China in chains.  Others suggest Admiral Zheug He (1371-1435) only sailed as far west as Africa.

Zheng He rediscovered Taiwan and reported his discovery to the Emperor.   


Gregory XII alias Angelo Correr (1406-1417) is elected pope on the condition he would abdicate if Pope Benedict XIII also did or if he should die.  Pope Gregory would later state that abdication is heretical and would imprison those who held the belief and declared that he intended to die as pope.


Gypsies (Roma) arrived Germany about this time speaking a form of Sanskrit from India.

Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) did not go on the second expedition (1407-1409) to the Western Sea and it is likely he explored the Eastern Sea looking for the previous Emperor Jianwen Hue who it was believed had fled to the East.  This voyage visited Java, Siam, Cochin, Champa & Ceylon.


Admiral Pei Pei Hsein originally in the expeditionary fleet of Sam-Po Kong landed Jolo and was confined to Maubuh Beach due to the monsoons.  


Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) conducted the third expedition (1409-1411) to the Western Sea to address rebellious Ceylon that likely was reported from the second expedition.  He captured Ceylon and installed a new ruler.  The previous leader of Ceylon was executed in China.  They visited Malacca, Sumatra, Quilon and Calicut

A council of cardinals charged both popes with bad faith, collusion and both popes are deposed as schismatic, obdurate heretics and perjurers.  The holy see is declared vacant.  Cardinal Pietro Fhilarghi a Greek of Milan is unanimously elected Pope Alexander V (1409-1410) by the joint conclave cardinals of the Urban and Clement Churches.  The only theological problem is that Pope Gregory XII (1406-1417) of Rome and Pope Benedict XIII (1394-1423) of Avignon both still claimed to be Pope.  The citizens coined a new creed for the church, "I believe in three holy catholic churches."

King Wladyslaw and Grand Duke Vitautas had their fill of the Teutonic Order and assembled 150,000 troops together with a large contingent of Tartars, Cossacks, also Czech, Vlach and Hungarian mercenaries under command of Jan Zizka.  The Teutonic Order could field 80,000 knights, mercenaries and volunteers.


The Teutonic Order is destroyed at the battle of Tannenberg in Prussia by the Poles, Czechs, Lithuanian and Mongol armies.  The Order lost 18,000 in the field with another 14,000 taken prisoner, tortured and beheaded.  The bishops gave the Poles a triumphant welcome.  The Order lost Dobrzyn Land to Poland and Samaiten Land to Lithuania.  The Teutonic Order could no longer claim he who fights the Order fights Jesus Christ, no longer could the Knights count on a martyr's crown if they fell in battle, since their enemies are fellow Christians.  Thus ended the Teutonic Order of Knights crusades of the Baltic.

John XXIII alias Baldassare Cossa (1410-1419) is elected pope.  Tradition suggests he seduced more than two hundred women during his legation. It is claimed he poisoned Pope Alexander V (1409-1410) to gain the papacy.  This pope had military experience and commanded support from France, England and several Italian and German states.


Pope John XXIII with the help of Louis of Anjou defeated Ladislas at Roccasecca allowing the pope to establish himself at Rome.

1412  Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) embarked on an unknown voyage (1412-1413) this would likely be to the East.


King Henry IV (1399-1413) of England died and his son Henry V (1413-1422) became king.  Ladislas drove Pope John XXIII from Rome.

Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) on his 4th voyage of discovery (1413-1415) with 30,000 men sailed to Arabia and the Red Sea to extract tribute, which he did.  He also brought back African animals as tribute.


The Grand Council of the Roman Catholic Church, forced by Sigismund German King and later Emperor (1433-1437) on Pope John XXIII to resolve the schism.  They proclaimed that the General Council has authority immediately from Christ and all men including the Pope himself is bound to obey it in matters of faith.  This declaration of faith is authored to deal with the current fragmentation of the church.  This Council had three Popes to contend with one charged with piracy, murder, rape, sodomy and incest.  German, French and English cardinals argued for the abdication of all three papal claimants.  Pope John XXII yielded to pressure but haggled for a week over the terms and conditions of his abdication.  He then fled the city hoping to disrupt the Grand Council.  He is captured, placed on trial and convicted of simony, perjury and grossest misconduct and deposed.  Pope John recanted and declared the Grand Council infallible and renounced any right to the papacy.

Many Polish serfs at this time had fled to Ordensland where lords are not allowed to flog them.


The English defeated a French army three times its size at Agincourt, France.   John Huss, rector of the University at Prague, is excommunicated from the Church and burned by Pope John XXIII (1410-1415) in Rome for heresy.  John Huss spoke openly of the greed and ambition of monks, Cardinals and even the Pope, describing their covetousness, their luxury, and their sloth.  He refused to recant insisting that no teaching of his had been contrary to God's holy word.  He never did recant and is martyred by the Church.  A Grand Council of the Church deposed and imprisoned Pope John XXIII (1410-1415) and Pope Gregory XII (1406-1415) are forced to resign.

The city of Angkor Wat (Cambodia) went into rapid decline as a period of severe drought extended over South East Asia from (1415-1439).


Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) did not record his fifty expedition (1416-1419) but it is highly likely he or his crew explored somewhere.

Roma are expelled from the Meissen region of Germany.


Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) on his 5th expedition (1417-1419) sailed the east coast of Africa collecting tribute and trading.  It is most likely he rounded the Cape of Good Hope as he was ordered each voyage to go further than the last.  It is hard to comprehend that he explored to Africa, Middle East, Indonesia, Australia, Korea etc. and not pressed on toward the Americas. 

The Armagnacs and Burgundians, two factions of French noblemen, had been fighting for control of France since 1411.  A popular uprising in Paris resulted in the imprisonment of all the Armagnacs who are later slaughtered.

A comparatively united church consisting of 22 cardinals and 30 representatives of five nations hoping to arrest the century decline of the papacy elects Cardinal Otto Colonna Pope Martin V (1417-1431).  It is noteworthy that Pope Martin V had remained loyal to Pope John XXIII until his flight from the Grand Council.  Popes Benedict XIII and Clement VIII held out as popes until 1429 but had only minute followings.  Ruler after ruler deprived Rome of the right to appoint bishops, tax the clergy or take appeals from local courts.


Roma (Gypsy) are recorded in Colmar, France likely coming from Germany.  The speak a form of Sanskrit from Northern India..

In China a book was published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft.” It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.

A Chinese sailing map claimed to be dated 1763, which was stated to be a copy of another map purportedly made in 1418 . The map has detailed descriptions of both Native Americans and Native Australians.  The map has been tested to verify the age of its paper, but not the ink. Even though the map has been shown to date from a period that could cover 1763, the question remains as to whether it is an accurate copy of an earlier 1418 map, or simply a copy of a contemporary 18th-century European map?  (In 2006 Liu Gang, a Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418.) 


Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) did not record a voyage for this year.  Phoenician records however suggest the Chinese rounded the Cape of Good Hope this year.

The Venetian (Italian) monk and cartographer Fra Mauro describes in his 1459 Fra Mauro map the travels of a huge junk from India 2,000 miles into the Atlantic Ocean in 1420.  The De Virga world map made by Albertinus de Virga between 1411 and 1415 is a likely source of the Fra Nauro Map.

Basque (Portugal) whalers are reported working the Labrador sea.  Henry V (1413-1422) captured most of Normandy and by treaty of Troyes is recognized as heir to the mad king of France King Charles VI (1380-1422) and he married Katherine of Valois, the Kings daughter.  Pope Martin V (1417-1431) entered Rome and secured the removal of Neapolitan troops through concessions with Queen Joanna II of Naples (1414-1435).

1420-1480    The Portuguese explored from (1420-1480) the west coast of Africa along the Gold Coast, so named because here could be found plenty of gold to buy pepper.

Wolf packs are roaming the streets of Paris, France.

Roma are recorded in Deventer, Holland.


The dikes near the city of Dort (Holland) burst without warning and swept away seventy two villages claiming more than 10,000 lives.  This caused the city of Dordrecht to be permanently separated from the mainland.

Jews are driven out of Linz and Vienna, Austria.  

Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) on his 6th voyage (1421-1422) sailed up the west coast of Africa.  He is believed to have discovered Europe (Portugal, France & Holland).  He described the Hollanders as mostly tall people, some with red hair and beard, long noses, deep eye sockets and long feet.  Some suggest he continued on to America.  Most mainstream scholars reject this claim.  At this time the Chinese fleet was split up into a number of smaller groups to sail to the countries beyond the horizon, all the way to the end of the earth.   The fleet contained 62 flag ships that were 475 feet long by 193 feet wide and could hold a crew of 1,100 and some claim some of the ships were 600 feet in length.  Excluding the flag ships another 250 ships or more were involved in the fleet.  Others suggest he only sailed the East coast of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.  The records were ordered destroyed by one of the Ming Dynasty Emperors. 

Chinese records claim they circumnavigated the world in March 1421 to October 1423.  Xeheng He (Zheng) and a 100 man crew accomplished the feat.  The Chinese Ocean fleet is believed to be composed of 317 vessels and 28,000 men.  Many ships are engaged in other exploration and maintaining trading routes.  Most folks dispute this claim.

May 23;  Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled


Both Kings died this year King Henry V (1413-1422) of England and King Charles VI (1380-1422) of France.  Nine months old Henry VI (1422-1461) became King of England and France.  He grew up to be called the simple-minded and book loving king who gave way to periods of mental illness.  England found it is easier to conquer France than to keep it.  John Duke of Bedford, Henry V's brother expanded English control but the French twice defeated the English army.  Pope Martin V (1417-1431) denounced violent anti-Jewish preaching and forbid compulsory baptism of Jewish children under twelve.

Gypsies (Roma) arrived Italy about this time speaking a form of Sanskrit from India.  This is interesting as they arrived Germany 1407 so likely back migrated?



Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) has not recorded an expedition (1423-1430) but if he circumnavigated the world this would account for this silence.  The exploration of western Americas could also be conducted during this time frame. 

Clement VIII alias Gil Sanchez Munoz (1423-1446) is elected pope by three cardinals as successor to Pope Benedict XIII.  Cardinal Jean Carrier a supporter of Pope Benedict felt the Clement election is not valid and elected his own pope Bernard Garnier who took the name Pope Benedict XIV about who little is known.


The Chinese Emperor Renzong with the reign title of Yongle (1403-1424) died this year.

Jews are driven out of Cologne, Germany.

A Portuguese navigation chart showed a land called Antilia in the vicinity of the West Indies.


Renzong of China with a Reign Title of Hongxi, Reigned 1425 of the Ming Dynesty.  He stopped exploration.

Zhu Zhanji ? (1425-1435) became Emperor of China.  Some suggest he stopped further exploration but it was he who ordered the 7th expedition of (1431-1433).  If this is true there must have been very interesting findings from expedition #6 that sparked his interest.

Some believe that voyages from Bristol, England to Iceland predates this time.

Roma (Gypsy) are recorded in Zaragoza, Spain likely arriving from France.  Theyspeak a form of Sanskrit from India.


Xuanzong of China with a Reign Title of Xuande, Reigned (1426-1435) of the Ming Dynesty.  He allowed one more exploration voyage.

Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.


Hundreds of Gypsy (Roma) arrive at the gates of Paris. The city sends them on to the town of Pontoise in less than a month.

May 10, Jews were expelled from Berne, Switzerland.


The King of Portugal's eldest son obtained copies of Chinese maps of the world and incorporated them into his maps.

Pope Maretin V (1417-1431) dug up and burned the remains of the English Oxford professor John Wycliffe who died 1384 because he had attacked the corruption and wealth of the Popes and had denied papal infallibility.  Maretin was elected to end the Great Schism (1378-1417) and to end Papal abuses over papal taxation and provisions which he failed to do.  It is noteworthy that at this time the Pope although adverse was subject to councils and therefore had no papal infallibility, he himself obeyed the decree Frequens (October 5, 1417)


Pope Martin V (1417-1431) crushed the opposing forces of Northern Italy.  His cardinals considered him a hard and harsh man.


The Teutonic Order attempted to break the Polish-Lithuanian alliance by starting a divide and conquer tactic.

Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) is ordered by Emperor Zhu Zhanji (Xuanzong) with a reigning name of Xuande (1425-1435) to conduct the 7th expedition and he again went to the west, some called this a dignified tour of the world just to collect tribute.  His flag ship was 400 feet long, whereas European ships were no more than 100 feet long.  He commanded a fleet of 317 ocean going ships that included hundreds of sailors per ship including women and children.  They carried homing pigeons in case of shipwreck.  Marco Polo reported the Chinese had four masted ocean going craft with 60 cabins and 300 men crews.  It is noteworthy the ships carried gardens and all provisions required so as not to depend on barbarian suppliers.  It is not know where the balance of the Chinese fleet voyaged this year.  The first written account of Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1433) titled 'Adventure to the Western Ocean' was written in 1597.  All records of this voyage were destroyed by one of the Ming Dynasty Emperors.  Also note worthy is that Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) died and was berried at sea in 1435.  It's possible the voyage #7 was from 1430 to 1435 or longer?  To complicate matters further all the nautical charts that were carefully prepared were ordered destroyed and the mighty Chinese fleet was allowed to rot in the harbors.

May 5, Jews were expelled from Speyer, Germany

Oct 3, Jews were expelled from Eger, Bohemia


Eugene IV alias Gabriele Condulmaro (1431-1447) a relative of Pope Gregory XII is elected pope.  Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians and given to the English.  The English gave her to the Roman Church and the Inquisition condemns Joan of Arc as a heretic.  She is burned at the stake in Rouen as a witch, being possessed by the devil and for heresy.

The Chinese on orders of Zgu Di's circumnavigated the whole world over the past 10 years.  Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) claimed his 300 fleet of ships and 28,000 man navy visited 1,000 countries including North & South America, both the east and west coasts.   Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1433) personally visited 37 countries in 7 trips from 1405 to 1433.  It is not know where his 317 ships and 37,000 men over the period 1405 to 1431 explored nor how many were lost in shipwrecks.

Nujum (History of Egypt) reported that the Chinese fleet reached the Red Sea and Jeddah by IBN Tagri Birdi was published this year.

Some contend Admiral Zheug He (1371-1435) in the 1431-1433 voyage only visited Swahili of east Africa and Mecca and is presumed to have died en route home and was buried it sea.  The adventures of Admiral Zheug He (1371-1435) and his many separate expeditions are the subject of intense scholarly debate.  Of the several million Ming documents once held in Beijing and Nanjing, all but 10,000 were destroyed.


Some historians concluded the Chinese stopped exploration because the barbarians had nothing to offer the enlightened Chinese culture.  Others suggest it was because Admiral Zheng died this year.  This is highly unlikely as the tribute and trade was quite lucrative.  The 62 other flag ships likely had adequately trained Admirals, and the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) did not end for another ten years.  It is likely the fleet continued to sail until at least the end of the Dynasty.

The Livonian Teutonic Landmeister attacked Poland but are destroyed by plague.


Pope Eugene IV alias Gabriele Condulmaro (1431-1447) fled Rome being driven out by people who pelted his person.  The Colonna family had agitated the people against the pope because he confiscated some of their lands and failed to call a council.

This year Nicolo da Conti claimed to have sailed with Admiral Zheng He (1371-1434) from China to Australia.  He also describes the Chinese fleet in the Indian Ocean.  His writings were published this year.  It is believed he brought some of the Chinese maps back to Europe.

January 13:  Eugene IV alias Gabriele Condulmaro (1431-1447) issued Sicut Dudum condemned the enslavement of Black natives in the Canary Islands, off the coast of Africa.  The Portuguese stole the peoples homes and goods, committed various illicit and evil deeds and enslaved the People.  If these injustices is not corrected within 15 days those guilty parties are excommunicated ipso facto.

Nov 24, The Thames River froze.


Ying Yai Shenlan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores', by Ma Huan covering the period 1416 to 1431 is published this year.


Yingzong of China with a Reign Title of Zhengtong, Reigned (1436-1449) of the Ming Dynesty.


Emperor Albert II (d-1439) the King of Bohemia (Austria) and Hungary is elected Emperor beginning some say the hereditary monarchy of the Hapsburgs.  Albert II had acquired Hungary by marrying the daughter of the king.  Others suggest Frederick III began the dynasty in 1440.

Wolf packs are reported roaming the streets of Paris, France.


An ecumenical council in Florence, Italy with the Byzantines to discuss the union of the Roman and Greek churches ended with only one dissenting vote among the prelates of the Greek church.  In Constantinople a considerable group of clergy and the majority of the people refused to accept the union.  Isidor, a Greek or Hellenized Slav strongly supported the union for Russia.  His support resulted in a promotion to cardinal.  The Moscow clergy refused to accept the union and Grand Duke Basil II ordered Isidor's temporary arrest.  Cardinal Isidor returned to Rome is assigned to Constantinople and eventually taken prisoner by the Turks.  A schism developed and Felix V (1439-1451) is elected pope after the council of Basle (1431-1449) deposes Pope Eugene IV.  Pope Eugene IV had effectively eliminated democracy into the government of the Roman Church and on his deathbed he bitterly regretted ever having left his monastery.

The Council of Florence is believed to be the first time marriage was considered a sacrament and a priest was not required to make it a sacrament. 

Jews are driven from the town of Augsburg, Germany.

July 16, English parliament prohibits kissing as a means to control the plague.


The Hapsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire (1440-1806) began with Frederick III (1440-1493).

Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about this time. It was called the "Vinland Map" 


The Portuguese pirates returned this year with the first recorded cargo of African slaves or Moors as they called them.  Henry of Portugal a devout Roman Catholic considered his pirates and slave traders as Christian crusaders bringing the word of god to these African heathens.  He even sought and received the support of Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447in these activities.


Prince Henry of Portugal commanded his mariners to keep and collect accurate logbooks and charts brought to Sagres so that cartography could become a cumulative science, a fundamental breakthrough in thinking.  Their ship builders designed the best explorer ship that sailed the sea's, the caravels, designed for a sure and speedy return, making possible modern exploration.


In support of Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447) commitment to union of the Roman and Greek Churches the Vatican started a second war against the Moslems.  Christian Hungary attempted a second unsuccessful crusade against the Moslem Ottoman Empire at Varna, Bulgaria and is defeated.

Slaves from Africa were first carried to Portugal


Prince Vlad Dracul of Wallachia transports some 12,000 persons "who looked like Egyptians" from Bulgaria for slave labour.



Nicholas V alias Tommaso Parentucelli (1447-1455) is elected pope.


The Russian Orthodox bishops elected a new metropolitan Bishop Iona, a wise old prelate.  This did not represent a split with the Constantinople Greek Church but the Russians did not want to be subordinated to a patriarch in the camp of the infidels.  It is noteworth to remember that the Russian people are taught that the Mongol yoke is God's visitation for the sins of the Russian people and that only true Christianity could lead the people out of their plight.  It is not clear which sect Roman, Greek or a Russian version of Christianity?  The Mongols still controlled a large portion of Russia.

The Portuguese established the first European trading post in Africa

In China hyperinflation hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned paper money. 


Gypsy (Roma) are driven out of the city of Frankfurt-am-Main.

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