EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1600 - 2000
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February 19: Huaynaputina in Southern Peru erupted (exploded) as one of
the largest eruptions affecting world wide climate for the next 4 years.
It produced 13 cubic km of pyroclastics flows and mud flows to the Pacific Ocean
some 120 km away. It continued to erupt into March. Ashfall was
reported 250–500 km away. It ejected 16 million to 32 million metric tons
into the atmosphere, notably sulfur dioxide.
It caused the coldest years in six centuries, in Russia (1601-1603) resulting in famine where over an estimated 2 million died.
127,000 bodies are buried in mass graves in Moscow alone.
Eatonia, Switzerland and Latvia reported bitter cold winters of (1600-1602)
France reported in 1601 the wine harvest was late.
Germany wine industry collapsed.
Japan reported Lake Suwa had its earliest freezing in 500 years.
China reported peach trees bloomed late.
Greenland core studies confirmed the sulfuric acid spike was larger than that from the Krakatau eruption of 1883.
It is estimated that the economy of China equals the total economy of Europe at this time. Southern Africa has been trading with China and the Kalahari Bushmen with Mongolian eye folds and flat broad noses are in South Africa about this time. Their beliefs center on trust, peace and cooperation. Some tribes speak different languages unintelligible to the other tribes suggesting different migrations.
The Han Chinese began to migrate from China to Formosa (Taiwan) during the 1600's.
This century more than 1,000 children were kidnapped in Europe and shipped to America as indentured servants (slaves).
Plague and famine in Russia killed an estimated 500,000 people.
Spain is importing grain and its industry stagnated, the country in a state of bankruptcy both economically and morally. Ironically this is the year of maximum silver flow into the country. The money went for advancement in the Church, at court or the army thereby leaving the country rather than development of industry and thereby the development of an economic class of merchants.
Probably the most fragmented political unit in Europe is the Holy Roman Empire composed of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Italy. Denmark held the Duchy of Holstein and Sweden held Pomerania. The lands are split between Roman Catholic Church and Protestant Churches. The largest Jewish communities in Western Europe at this time are Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Venice.
To raise money Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) of England sold trading monopolies despite objections from parliament. Unknown to parliament the Queen and Lord Burghley also sold official positions in the English Government on the same basis as the Vatican.
Many people of the world say the English did not love their children. The origin of this opinion is traced to this period. When children arrived at age seven or nine years at the most, they put them out, boys and girls, to hard service in the houses of other people, holding them to seven or eight years' hard service. They say it is in order to learn better manners but they do it because they are better served by strangers, than they would by their own children. This custom continues to this day under various forms including residential schools. This basic belief is probably the foundation of the psychopathic brutality of the English peoples, during the next four centuries, to other peoples of the world. The English are great lovers of themselves; things belonging to them, they think there are no other men than themselves and no other world but England. If they see a handsome foreigner they say that he looks like an Englishman. In Scotland the torching or burning of a witch is considered an ideal procedure to save souls.
The past twenty years of religious wars had claimed some eight hundred thousand lives, the razing of nine cities and two hundred villages. King Henry IV (1589-1610) of Navarre now king of France married Marie de Medici a remote cousin to Catherine on October 5. Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) sent more than thirty heretics to the stake. The Dominican philosopher Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) is one of his victims. It is noteworthy the pope acceptance of the Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowed the Huguenots religious freedom, civil equality and other rights previously considered heresy. Future Popes would consider this compromise a great evil. Eighty thousand pilgrims are in Rome to celebrate the centennial.
The glacier of Chamonix, France, advanced, because of the Little Ice Age (1550-1850), causing massive floods, destroying 3 villages and severely damaged a fourth. One of these villages had stood since 1200.
Spanish legislation becomes harsher, forbidding Gypsy (Gitanos) from dealing in horses. The local populace is given permission to form armed groups to pursue Gypsy (Gitanos).
A mass migration of nearly one million people led to the decline of this small nation called Holland. The Netherlands has been occupied since 8,000 B.C. as any earlier occupation would be destroyed by the ice age. The 'Eighty Year's War (1568-1648) to gain independence from Spain resulted in the exodus. The first recapture by Spain resulted in 10,000 Dutch being killed. It is noteworthy that Holland was a leading slave trader being responsible for shipping 550,000 Africans to America. This does not include slaves from other areas.
April The Dutch ship Liefde, piloted by Will Adams, reached Japan with a crew of 24 men. 6 of the crew soon died. 4 other ships in the expedition were lost.
April 19: The Dutch ship de Liefde shipwrecked on Japan. One of the survivors was William Adams aka Anshin Miura (1564-1620) an Englishman and pilot of the Liefde. He stayed and became an advisor to the Shogunate. The Jesuits attempted to denounce the Liefde survivors calling them thieves and robbers. William Adams soon learned that the Jesuits had been filing false reports to Europe to discourage trade. Adams had a wife and two children in England but took another wife in Japan and had another two children. He also had a consort and one child.
Two million Russians died of famine between 1601 and 1604 when a shortage of rye sent the price of bread skyrocketing. See 1600 for the cause.
On September 21, Queen Marie de Medici of France is delivered a boy the future King Louis XIII.
An agricultural failure in Russia (1602-1603) resulted in 2 million deaths, about 1/3 of the population.
imposed a strict trade monopoly and cut off Iceland's products from lucrative
At the death of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), James VI of Scotland became King James I, of England. King James I is largely free from anti-Spanish feelings. Within the past seventy-five years the population of England and Wales doubled placing great demand on food production and living conditions become worse. The Presbyterian Kirk (church) in Scotland had no Bishops and is therefore a democratic institution difficult to control by the King. England's Anglican Church had Bishops that supported the Monarch. King James I, naturally liked the English system. Those who wanted a more democratic church are called Puritans.
King Henry IV lifted the French ban against the Jesuit Order imposed by Catherine de Medicis but imposed limitations on the number of colleges, imposed special licenses on activities outside their own buildings and imposed an oath of allegiance to the king. The Jesuit Order is know to be subversive and focused on the upper classes to gain positions of power and political influence.
Samuel de Champlain reported departing Honfleur in March 15, 1603 and March 21 met seven Flemish ships apparently on their way home from the New World.
October 20: A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 people are killed.
James I assumed the title of King of Great Britain on October 24, 1604 uniting England and Scotland. England and Spain concluded a peace treaty and relations became almost cordial. War however continued between the Dutch and the Spanish. Jamestown, Virginia is established in May of this year.
November 4: The English were imprisoning and killing Catholics who showed any allegiances to Rome and the Pope. Guy Fawkes (1570-1606) and others tried to overthrow the government by blowing up the House of Parliament. Four hundred years later the British on November 5, light bonfires, burn effigies of Guy Fawkes and the Pope, and light fireworks. Some suggest this perpetuates religious intolerance between Protestants and Catholics..
Paul V alias Camillo Borghese (1605-1621) an Inquisitor is elected pope. The church of Venice refused to accept the supremacy of the pope and forbid the erection on new churches, the acquisition of land by the church without permission and brought two clerics to trial in a secular court. Pope Paul V excommunicated the senate and placed the city under an interdict. Most of the clergy flouted it and those who observed it, notably the Jesuit are expelled from Venice. The pope eventually had to back down. This is to prevent Venice going Protestant or possibly a European war. The clergy imprisoned in Venice are freed but the Jesuits are not allowed back into the city.
Foreign visitors to Spain noted that the fields lay idle, the vineyards are covered with nettles and thistles for lack of cultivators. It is estimated that 150,000 vagabonds (unemployed) are in Spain. The Spanish culture had created disdain for menial work (agriculture), even considered dishonorable and thousands fled to the city to beg. Many of the necessities of life had to be imported causing an unfavorable balance of trade. American treasure that is almost all exported the moment it arrives.
George Waymouth on a trading voyage to the Maine coast returned to Dartmouth with trade furs and five captured Indian girls. The slave girls were trained in English and European dress to act as public relations agents to extol America as a veritable paradise to encourage investment and migration.
December 27, death John Davis (1543-1605) who married September 29, 1582, England to Faith Fulford, was killed by a Japanese sailor off the coast of Malaysia just after capturing his ship.
Captain William Keeling sighted the Coco (Keeling) coral Islands, now a territory of Australia in the Indian Ocean.
Within the manor of Writte in Essex, every reputed father of a bastard gotten there, must pay to the Lord for a fine three shillings four pence, and is called childwit. Childwit also applies to bondwomen (servants) gotten with child without the Lords consent.
January 30: A sudden flood around the Bristol Channel in southwest Britain killed at least 2,000 people. It was the worst natural disaster ever recorded in Britain. This was likely linked to the 1606-1612 drought that hit America the worst in 770 years.
The Royal Council of Spain is requested to suggest means for securing the safety of Spain other than the slaughter of the whole Spanish-African (Moors) population. Deportation to Newfoundland is suggested without increasing the dangerous population of Africa. Others suggested enslavement, mutilation and wholesale massacre. King Philip III of Spain directed by the Duke of Lerma ordered all Muslim's expelled and by 1614 this ethnic cleansing is reported completed. Some devout Catholic Moors fled to the mountains and elected their own King. A series of fierce fights followed in which thousands of Moors are slaughtered. Many other Christian Moors fled to France. Many Christian Moors expelled to Africa died as Christian martyrs. Estimates of Moors killed and expelled from Spain range from 150,000 to 500,000 people. Much money is made from the confiscated Spanish-Moor property. It is noteworthy that the Moorish Kingdom was conquered by Spain in 1492 and are now expelled from their own lands.
Spain finally concluded a peace treaty with the Dutch establishing peace for the first time in Northern Europe. France however continued to put obstacles in the way by supporting plot after plot. Only the assassination of the French King Henry in 1610 avoided open war.
Japan sent an expedition to Formosa (Taiwan)
Jean Francois Ravaillac May 14 in the Rue Saint-Honore stabbed King Henry IV (1589-1610) twice the second time being fatal. He said he feared the King would lead the Huguenots in a mass slaughter of Roman Catholics. Ravaillac is in the pay of the Jesuits so believed the Arnauld family. His widow Mary de Medici and ardent supporter of Spain now ruled France for her infant son King Louis XIII. Spain how only had to contend with minor wars in Italy and the Mediterranean.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) expressed his disgust with those who close
their eyes to the light of truth and search for authority in books.
The church authority at this time is based upon tradition and has no room
for conflicting facts. Some church officials admitted Galileo's finds
are correct but claimed you can't change 2,500 years of tradition. Galileo said the bible shows us the way to go to heaven but not the way the heavens go. Threatened by the pope with being burned as a heretic, he recanted his findings.
It is interesting to note that this year the word witch is first added to the Bible, 1Samuel 28 the word spirit became witch.
December 11, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632) is elected King of Sweden and hereditary Prince of the Goths and Vandals.
King James I of England had a desperate need for money that
he called this eating canker of want. He sold land, monopoly privileges,
and Hereditary titles.
Inquisitor Salazar Frias in Spain examined 1,800 cases of witchcraft compiled masses of evidence and reported they are all subjects of delusions and that many confessions had been extracted under torture. As a result mass witch burning that ravaged Germany and France never visited Spain.
John Smyth in London established the Baptist Church believing the religion is a personal relationship between man and God.
The end of what some called the Time of Troubles in Russian history (1604-1613) and from this time the rise of Russia as an effective power in western politics began. Labor was considered a premium and Russia counted her wealth in terms of the number of souls they controlled and not in terms of the acres they controlled. The French establishes a Mission on the Island of Mount Desert, Maine. Samuel Argall an Englishman destroyed the mission and attacked Port Royal.
The Jesuits are expelled from Japan and Christian activity is outlawed. Some suggest it was because of the Jesuits telling lies about Japan to discourage trade. They had been in Japan since 1549 and wanted to maintain their monopoly as information brokers. They blamed William Adams aka Anshin Miura (1564-1620) the first Englishman to Japan in 1600.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) attempted to convince the Roman Church that God reveals truth in both the Bible and physical nature. The truth of the physical nature did not contradict the Bible if the Bible is properly understood. Galileo writings are heresy as the Churches position is that the Holy Bible can never speak untruth and it clearly states the sun moves about the earth.
The Holy Office on March 3, 1616 placed the works of Copernicus on the Index of Condemned books.
Japan sends an invasion for into Formosa (Taiwan) but is repulsed by the aboriginal people the Pinyan (Pinwan)
Ferdinard of Styria (Habsburg Family) is elected King of
Bohemia (Northern Austria), 1618 King of Hungary and
1619 King of Austria, effectively all the Eastern heritage. Ferdinard is considered by many to be just a tool of the Jesuits.
1618 - 1648
Beginning of the thirty-year war that began as a European religious struggle ended as a political power struggle. Mercenaries had no loyalty and would changed sides if not paid and who are allowed to pillage and suppress the population with terrible devastation. The English Parliament wished to go to war against the Catholics but King James I, the Scot would not agree.
The Turks annexed Armenia and Georgia.
During the period of the Thirty Year War (1618-1648) about 60 million people died in Europe from smallpox.
The Jesuit, Father Florencio and Father Luis de Aliaga organized a rebellion to expel the Duke of Lerma effective ruler of the Spanish Empire. To avoid persecution the Duke convinced Pope Paul V (1605-1621) to make him a cardinal. The King allowed him to retire uninjured in person or in ill-gotten gains. The Duke of Uceda a Jesuit supporter succeed the Duke of Lerma as chief confidant to the King.
Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) is executed (beheaded) after spending his last decade in the Toer of London. His lucrative discovery of tobacco in the New World inspired Queen Elizabeth to declare that she has heard of many who have turned gold into smoke, but Raleigh is the first to turn smoke into gold. He also introduced potatoes to the British Isles. His efforts to plant a colony in America all failed as did his exploration for gold.
The French banned the pommes de terre (potato) in Burgundy, France and burned the crop to protect citizens from leprosy and its base addiction and craving. The Vatican had banned the root in the 15th century as the root of man's licentious and depraved moral behavior. The fear is that the roots would make the pheasants self sufficient and would have too much time on their hands..
Frederick V and Elizabeth daughter James I of England and VI of Scotland became monarchs of Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). Their son prince Ruprecht von Wittelsbach is born the first prince born in Bohemia for more than a century. The Jesuits called Frederick The Winter King who would vanish as surely as the snow. The Jesuits are secretly in league with the Habsburg emperor in Vienna who is plotting to bind the Bohemian subjects closer to his crown. The Austrian army overwhelmed the Bohemian army this autumn along the White Mountains as predicted by the Jesuit. The royal family fled Bohemia.
Philip III declares all Gypsy (Gitanos) are to be banished from the kingdom of Spain within six months, or to settle in a locality with over 1,000 inhabitants. The dress, name and language of the Gypsy (Gitanos) is banned. The punishment is death.
Guangzong of China with a Reign Title of Taichang, Reigned 1620 of the Ming Dynesty.
Pope Paul V (1605-1621) initially did not want to take sides in the thirty-year war but this year the Vatican gave substantial subsidies to Emperor Ferdinand II (1619-1637) and the Holy Catholic League to exploit their victory over the Protestants in Prague.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was one of the first to recognize 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' when he said 'eppur si mouove' - bit it does move. He was not alone as Francois Bacon also proposed the theory of Continental Drift.
Coalbrokdale, England, a steel furnace was uncovered, believed to be the oldest in the world. Some suggest this marks the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in England.
Hsizong of China with a Reign Title of Dianqi, Reigned (1621-1627) of the Ming Dynesty.
Gregory XV alias Alessandro Ludovisi (1621-1623) is elected pope, the first Jesuit trained pope. He believed the objective of the papacy is to promote and maintain unity among the Catholic powers. The populace had little faith in the papacy because the pope is elected by political powers. He introduced the secret written ballot to the election of popes. He also created the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith to regulate missionaries likely proposed by the Jesuit. It wanted to replace the Catholic sovereign control of missionaries in heathen lands and to cover Protestant sovereigns who through their heresy lost this right. This congregation of 13 cardinals became the Counter-Reformation headquarters. The Pope pressed King Philip II of Spain to break the twelve-year truce in the Netherlands to attack the Calvinists.
England’s King James I aware that there is a New England, a New Spain and a New France proclaimed a New Scotland (Nova Scotia). Sir William Alexander is given the Maritime Provinces and the Gaspe Peninsula. The land grant in Latin called New Scotland as Nova Scotia. The King gave little regard the land is already occupied by the MicMac Nation and the French. This simple act of stupidity would create the most fought over place in America.
The idea of witches being associated with their familiars is first noted about this time.
War resumes between Spain and the Netherlands.
The Papacy adopts January 1, as the beginning of the New Year rather than March 25.
The Dutch established Formosa (Taiwan) as a base for trading with China and Japan.
Pope Gregory XVI decreed that anyone making a pact with Satan to produce impotence in animals or to harm the fruits of the earth are to be imprisoned for life by the inquisition. Urban VIII alias Maffeo Barberini (1623-1644) Jesuit educated is elected pope. A reckless nepotism making and placing his brother and nephews into cardinals and then enriching them.
This is the year of the English plague where one quarter of England's population died. The Catholic League (Inquisition) perfected the principle of self-sustained war by creating armies that paid for themselves by consistent plunder and requisition. One would strip the countryside completely so that little is left for its inhabitants but to join the army and loot somewhere else.
King Charles I (1600-1649) king (1625-1649) of England, Scotland and Ireland waged war throughout most of his reign. 1625-1628 war with France and Spain; 1639 first Bishops war; 1640 second Bishop's war; 1642-1646 First English Civil War. He lost his head January 30, 1649 because of misuse of royal authority..
Hugo Grotius applied the Roman legal concept of lands previously unclaimed to nations as to things without a master, they belong to him who discovers and occupies them. In simple terms might is right.
The Dutch built Fort San Salvador on Formosa (Taiwan).
The census of 1626-1627 in Russia attempted to fix the habitation of each peasant family and henceforward no peasant was allowed to leave the domain of the landlord on whose property he was found. This was a form of slavery but actual slavery was officially abolished.
July 30: An earthquake hit Naples, Italy and some 10,000 died. Italy has been hit by over 5,000 earthquakes between 1,450B.C. and 1881 AD. Naples was hit 1456 with 40K dead, some say 1626 Naples was 70K dead, 1693 Naples 93k dead.
November 7: Peter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship "The Arms of Amsterdam" had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders. The legend or myth is created.
Jahangir, (1569–1627), fourth Mughal Emperor of India (1605–27), was a man of excesses, he had 12,000 elephants, 10,000 oxen, 10,000 carrier pigeons, 5,000 women, 4,000 dogs, 3,000 deer, 2,000 camels, 1,000 young men for alternate pleasures, 500 buffalo, 300 royal wives and 100 tamed lions.
The Dutch built Fort Tamsui on Formosa (Taiwan).
(Ssuzong) of China with a Reign Title of Chongzheng, Reigned (1628-1644) ending the reign of the Ming Dynesty.
In late October: Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) destroyed the starving Huguenot stronghold at La Rochelle, France. This is where Etienne Mazoue and Marie Merand lived, the parents of Marie who would marry (I)-Louis Garnaud, July 23, 1663 Quebec, New France. They retained their right to practice the so-called 'Reformed Religion'. Dukes De Soubise and Rohn had led the rebellion.
The Black Death or Bubonic Plague (Bacillus Yersinia Pestis) arrive Milan, Italy killing 280,000 people between 1629-1631.
The Batavia, a Dutch East India ship, struck a reef off the western coast of Australia. Some 300 survivors made it to a tiny island in the Houtman Abrolhos archipelago, where Jeronimus Cornelisz, a junior officer, took power after a vicious struggle. He ran a regime of murder, rape and torture for 3 months when helped arrived from the Dutch colony on Java. 70 of the 300 initial survivors were still alive. Cornelisz was quickly tried and executed.