EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1600 - 2000
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King Charles XII of Sweden invaded Narva, Russia and onward in 1709 to Poltava where he is finally stopped. As a result Russia annexed Livonia, Eastonia, Ingria and part of Karelia from Sweden. Sweden also ceded the bishoprics of Breman-Verden to Hanover, and Stettin and part of Swedish Pomerania to Prussia. Sweden ceased to be a leading power.
With the death of the last Spanish Hapsburg King Charles II (1665-1700), King Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France threatened virtually to annex Spain. If Spanish America and the Spanish Netherlands passed to France, the commercial position of England and Holland would be undermined. The Hapsburgs of Austria King Leopold I (1658-1705) joined a coalition with England and Holland against Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France. France however managed to place their Bourbon King Philip V (1700-1746) on the Spanish throne, but the Spanish Empire is divided. Gibraltar and Minorca went to Britain, Sicily to Savoy and Naples, Milan and the Spanish Netherlands to Austria, except the Upper Gelderland, a small part of the Spanish Netherlands, went to Prussia.
Clement XI alias Giovanni Francesco Albani (1700-1721) is elected pope.
China takes Formosa.
This is a period of gradual decline in the precipitation, involving a process in which many regions become uninhabitable, leading up to the climatic and demographic conditions of modern times in the Sahara Region
So deep runs the fear of the Catholic Church that the Parliament of England passed the 'Act of Settlement' to make sure only a Protestant could inherit the crown. Even today if a son or daughter of the monarch becomes a Catholic, he or she cannot inherit the throne. The English law of Settlement did not apply to Scotland. The British merchants in Canada would try to use this English law to prohibit the French from holding positions of power in the future. It is noteworthy that the King can marry into another faith just not Catholic. This law is still in effect by 2007 A.D.
The Spanish War of Succession (1701-1714) began between the Bourbon Philip of Anjou (Philip V) (1700-1746) and Habsburg duke Charles (Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740).
Religious persecution in France had driven an estimated ten thousand Huguenot hatters from France causing them to import hats from England. Most French hatters had fled to London taking with them the secret of their art. During the next forty years even the Roman cardinals are forced to obtain their hats in London. The term mad as a hatter began because the mercury fumes inhaled in the process of making hats drove the practitioners of the art into early senility.
Adam Isbister is the first known Orcadian to be hired by the Hudson Bay Company. The following season 12-14 new lusty young men from Orkney are recruited as servants under five year contracts. It is noteworthy that Orkney tradition allows for trial marriages called Telltown marriages that could be dissolved the following year if it failed. This may account for the abandonment of their Country wives when they departed Canada.
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) between Britain and France/Spain spreads to North America.
December 30: An earthquake kills 200,000 in Tokyo, Japan. Others suggest the death toll was closer to 37,000 people at Genroku, Japan.
King Leopold I (1658-1705) of Austria died being succeeded by King Joseph I (1705-1711). The Jesuit Order is not allowed to expand in China. The pope ruled that the Jesuits could not incorporate the cult of Confucius and ancestor worship based on the opposition of the Dominican order. This prohibition led to the persecution of Chinese Christians and the closure of missions. This ill-conceived doctrine would not be revoked until 1939 by Pope Pius XII.
William Bosman of London recorded that the English, French, Dutch and others follow the common practice of branding their black slaves like their cattle to ensure ownership.
Tunis throws off Turkish rule.
Scotland and England are united into the United Kingdom of Great Britain, but kept its own separate legal and judicial system and its separate Church.
October 28: Mount Fuji, Japan exploded, following a 8.4 earthquake, sending ash to Tokyo 70 miles away. Tokaido/Nankaido were hit with a tsunami. Fuji has erupted about 10 times since 781. This 12,388 foot mountain became a point of pilgrimage. The death toll was 30 thousand people.
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721) condemned a Jensen work as based on a corrupt text of the New Testament. Pasquier Quesnel (1634-1719) is the leader of the Jansen Church party.
Emperor Joseph I (1705-1711) invaded the papal states conquering Naples and threatened Rome.
January 5: Sudden extreme cold kill's 1,000's of Europeans and famine follows because of the bitter cold winter. The Thames was frozen over and ports were frozen in. Cattle, sheep and birds perished. The harvest was thin and starvation visited France.
Norway's glaciers are advancing at 328 feet (100 meters) per year from 1710 to 1735 as a result of the Little Ice Age (1550-1850).
In Prague, Joseph I issues an edict that all adult Gypsy (Roma) men will be hanged without trial and that boys and women be mutilated. In Bohemia, the left ear is to be cut off. In Moravia the right ear is to be cut off. Lodging or otherwise aiding Gypsy (Roma) is punishable by up to six months forced labor.
Prince Adolf Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz issues orders that all Gypsy (Roma) can be flogged, branded, expelled, or executed if they return. Children under ten are to be removed and raised by Christian families.
The Black Plague struck the Holy Roman Empire killing five hundred thousand people.
Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony authorizes shooting of Gypsy (Roma) if they resist arrest.
France invades and captures Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Thomas Newcomen (1663–1729), using patents developed by Thomas Savery (1650?–1715), invented the first working steam engine and by 1778 more than seventy Newcomen engines were pumping away in the mines of Cornwall alone. John Calley (d. 1725), also known as John Cawley was in partnership with Newcomen in 1705 to build the first prototype.
Smallpox hit Iceland killing about 30% of the population.
By treaty of Utrecht France accepted limits on its expansion as well as a political settlement for Europe. It accepted Queen Anne (1702-1714) instead of James's II son as the true monarch of Britain. Britain had also won the rock of Gibraltar controlling the entrance to the Mediterranean. Pope Clement XI (1700-1721) is ignored and Sardinia, Sicily, Parma and Piacenzia are disposed. Sicily is assigned to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy (1675-1730) including control over the church. The pope issued a bull condemning the action but no one paid any attention.
Queen Anne (1702-1714), the last of the Stuarts died.
Some Tories wanted King James's II son to return to Britain as James III
however he would not renounce his Catholic religion.
The Austrian Hapsburg Empire included southern Italy, Sardinia, Hungary, Bohemia (Austria), eastern Milan, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia and northwestern Romania.
The Turks declared war on Venice and Peloponnese fell into their hands.
British merchants and planters apply to the Privy Council to ship Gypsies to the Caribbean, avowedly to be used as slaves.
In Mainz, all Gypsy (Roma) are to be executed without trial on the grounds that their way of life is outlawed.
The German King George I (1714-1727) of Hanover became King of England defeating the army of the son of King James II (1685-1688) that is called the Jacobites. This effectively ended the House of Stuart and began the House of Hanoverian or Windsor. Because of the Tory connection with the Jacobites King George I allowed the Whigs to form his government. King George only spoke German and didn't seem interested in his new kingdom.
Louis XV reigned (1715-1774) as King of France.
Ten Gypsies in Scotland are recorded deported to Virginia in the Americas.
November 15; The Thames River froze.
The Austro-Turkish War (1716-1718).
China bans Christian teachings.
The white slave trade is flourishing in Europe as 1,000 are captured and sold in Algiers, Tunis and Morocco.
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721) equipped a Spanish fleet to fight the Turks but Cardinal Giulio Alberoni used it to wrest Sardinia from the Holy Roman Empire.
In Spain Gypsies who resisted assimilation were assigned to galleys or to work in mercury mines. The army was instructed to hunt down Gypsy families living outside designated areas. They were "authorized to fire upon them and deprive them of life."
Austria reached its most southern limits by annexing most of Serbia and the western part of Wallachia, that it had to return to the Ottoman Empire in 1739.
In France, sentencing for being Gypsy (Roma) is altered from the galleys to deportation to French colonies.
A snowstorm in Sweden kills 7,000.
China takes Tibet.
June: The Black Death or Bubonic Plague (Bacillus Yersinia Pestis) arrive Marseilles, France via ships rats, from Syria killing 100,000 people (1720-1722). It killed 1/2 the city population in 3 months. An interesting side fact is people who associated with horses never caught the plague because the fleas were repelled by the smell of horse.
The Swedish Empire is diminished from the Baltic region, they are driven off the south shore of the Baltic Sea and are confined to Sweden proper and Finland. Innocent XIII (1721-1724) Jesuit educated is elected pope. He recognized James III as King of England and offered a bribe of 10,000 ducats if he re-established Roman Catholicism in Britain. Pope Innocent XIII suppressed the Jesuit order forbade them to receive novices for disobedience in the ban of Chinese rites.
Emperor Karl VI of the Austro-Hungarian empire orders the extermination of
Gypsy (Roma) throughout his domain.
Emperor Charles (VI) the so called Holy Roman Emperor (1625-1740) ordered the extermination of all adult Gypsy males, women and children were to have one ear cut off.
Mir Mohamed of Afghanistan takes Persia.
Jacob Roggeveen a Dutch explorer became the first European to visit Easter
Island. He arrived Easter Sunday so named it Easter Island which is 63.2
square miles. The locals now call it Rapa Hui. The moai heads are
erected on platforms called ahu. Most moai were unfinished and never
transported from the volcanic crater quarry on the eastern plain. The
largest standing moai is nearly 33 feet high and weighs 82 tons.
Some believe these early explorers caused the depopulation of Easter Island by the diseases they carried. By 1774 only a few Rapanui survived when James Cook arrived.
Shizong of China with a Reign Title of Yungzheng, Reigned (1723-1735) of the Qing Dynesty.
Austria was declared to be a single legal entity for the first time in history being composed of Czech, Slovaks, Slovenes and Magyars, the working language was German. Astride their frontier were the Germans, Poles, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Serbs, Croats and Italians.
Gypsy (Roma) are prohibited from residence in the Lorraine, gathering in the woods or main roads. Punishment is banishment. Communities are encouraged "to gather, march in formation and open fire on them."
Benedict XIII alias Pietro Francesco Orsini (1724-1730) a Dominican is elected pope by the French, Spanish and Habsburg factions.
All vagabonds and vagrants are prohibited by Louis XV of France from residence and nomadism and gathering of more than four adults in a house. Adult men are sentenced to the galleys for five years. All others are flogged and sent to the poor house.
Frederick William I condemns any Gypsy (Roma) over eighteen caught in his Prussian territory, man or woman, to be hanged without trial.
Charles VI passes a law that any Gypsy (Roma) found in the country are to be killed instantly. Gypsy (Romani) women and children are to have their ears cut off and whipped all the way to the border.
An earthquake at Tabriz, Iran resulted in the death of 77 thousand people.
The Swiss noted that British have a high opinion of themselves and think nothing is as well done elsewhere as in their own country.
The English protestant dominated Ireland passine laws to penalise catholicism by removing the rights of the Irish Natives to vote, hold office, own or lease property, educate their children, or to take up a profession. Using this law the English dominated landholdings, and would eventually force the Natives from the lands.
The Scottish land chiefs no longer reckoned their wealth in fighting men and began to demand rents from their tackmen (tenants) whose main obligation had been to maintain the military strength of the clan and to act as officers. Many tackmen emigrated or demanded rent from their sub-tenants making family holding even smaller and unable to support a family. This arrangement forced many tenants off the land. Isaac Watt in encouragement of charity schools insisted on useful employment, religious training, outplacement in country labors and domestic services.
The town council of Aachen passes an ordinance condemning Gypsy (Roma) to death. "Captured Gypsies, whether they resist or not, shall be put to death immediately. However, those seized who do not resort to counter-attack shall be granted no more than a half an hour to kneel, if they so wish, beg God almighty to forgive them their sins and to prepare themselves for death."
Clement XII alias Lorenzo Corsini (1730-1740) is elected pope.
The British are dominating the slave trade a position they would hold until abolition in 1807. Between 1690 to 1807 they transported an estimated 2.8 million slaves to the Americas.
Earthquake kills 137,000 in Hokkaido, Japan.
An earthquake kills 100,000 in Beijing, China.
Prussia under Frederick William I (1713-1740) succeeded in attracting most of the Protestants evicted by the Bishop of Salzburg.
France formed an alliance with Spain and England feared this would adversely affect future trade. Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740) asserted authority over Parma and Piacenza usually a feudal state of the Holy See.
The Russians issued a decree against the Ikonobors, whose beliefs are similar to those of the Raskolniki and later the Doukhbours who represent the traditionalist of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Frederick William I decrees that any Gypsy (Roma) caught in his territory, man or woman, will be hanged without trial. A reward is offered.
Famine hit Japan resulting in 3 million starving to death.
Turkish-Persian War (1734-1735).
Gaozong of China with a Reign Title of Qianlong, Reigned (1736-1795) of the Qing Dynesty.
Spain and Naples broke diplomatic relations with the Vatican.
June 2: Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World.
October 5: An earthquake kills 300,000 in Calcutta, India. This appears to be incorrect it was a cyclone and the number of killed appears to be inflated.
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) had prepared the first condemnation of Freemasonry as being naturalistic demand for secret oaths, religious indifferentism and as a possible threat to church and state.
John Wesley (1703-1791) founded the Methodist Church of London after his 1738 conversion to Christianity. They claimed 130,000 members by his death in 1791.
France introduced forced labour.
The North American potato is introduced to Scotland greatly improving the productivity of agriculture to accommodate the rapidly growing population.
Austria during the reign of Maria Theresa (1740-1780), Queen of Bohemia (Austria) and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, etc. comprised the following languages, German, Magyar, Polish, Italian, Czech, Slovakian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, Flemish and French. Pope Benedict XIV recognized both Maria Theresa and Charles Albert of Bavaria (1742-1745) as Emperor. The war of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) or as the Germans called it the Silesian War commenced this year following the death of Emperor Charles VI. Prussia acquired the province of Silestra.
Benedict XIV alias Lorenzo Lambertini (1740-1758) is elected pope.
Sometime during the `1740's physicians began practicing circumcision of males as a preventative measure for syphilitic sores often found on the foreskin.
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) denounced the trading activities of the Jesuit order especially in New France. Pombal minister in Portugal accused the Jesuit Order of attempted assassination of the King of Portugal and all Jesuits are deported in 1759.
December 20: The Pope ordered a more humane treatment of the Indians of South America. He ordered the Indians are not to be deprived of liberty or their possessions.
A skull of an European woman is found at Wellington, New Zealand and is carbon 14 dated to this date.
July 11: A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China. The Jesuits were known for the spare the rod, spoil the rod philosophy that they employed world wide, which was sadistic in nature.
August 29: Empress Elisabeth ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Russia.
England was at war with France until 1748 concerning control of the Austrian Empire.
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) extended the Chinese ritual ban to include Malabar rites in India.
King James II's (1685-1688) grandson Bonny Prince Charlie landed on the west coast of Scotland and raised a Highland army. The army took Edinburgh defeating the English they marched south on London. The assumption was that some English would join the attack and when they didn't the army turned back to Scotland.
Gypsy (Gitanos) in Spain must settle in assigned places within two weeks. The punishment for failure is execution. "It is legal to fire upon them to take their life." The Churches no longer provide asylum. Armed troops are ordered to comb the countryside.
The British army defeated Bonny Prince Charles army at Culloden, near Inverness. Many Highlanders were killed even those who had not joined in the uprising. Their homes were destroyed and the animals killed. Laws were passed forbidding Highlanders to use bagpipe or wear kilt. Some did not obey the law and are shot. Some are sent to work in Canada. In Edinburgh, Scotland the kilt and tartan are forbidden until 1782 and very few of the tartans is worn after this time except for fancy dress. Many historians date the beginning of Great Scottish Land Clearances from this time. What followed was an attempt to destroy a culture by driving the Highlanders off the land. It is ironic that many of these same peoples who were cleared from their lands would become agents of the British Empire and did the same thing to native peoples in other places.
Afghanistan becomes independent of Persia.
During 1748 to 1750 the Norwegian glaciers achieved their historic maximum for the Little Ice Age (1550-1850).
Pompeii is discovered.
The year of the "Great Gypsy Round-up" in Spain. Gitanos are separated from "the bad and the good" through inquiries and witnesses reports. For the "bad," punishment is forced public works. Escapees are hanged. Motherless girls are sent to poor houses or into service for "honest" people. Older girls and wives of sentenced men with children under seven are "educated in Christian doctrine and the holy fear of God" and sent to factories.
Castle Salzburg in Austria is occupied by 347 soldiers of which only 7 are baptized Catholics suggesting the Catholic Church had finally lost control after more than six hundred years of rule.
The use of Welsh names had almost disappeared. Many Welsh people accepted wrong English ways of pronouncing their names. Others took their fathers first name and 'ap' meaning son of; 'ap' Richard (Pritchard) 'ap' Robert (Probert) 'ap' Hywel (Powell) and 'ap' Hugh (Pugh). Others who had not used 'ap' were known as Williams, Thomas, Davies, Hughes and so on.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (b-1712) wrote essentially that man is born innately good and had been corrupted by the advances of European culture. This is contrary to Roman Catholic teachings and would eventually lead him into censure by the Church. De Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) (1694-1778) wrote more forcefully saying work hard, criticize nonsense, tolerate your brothers, hate persecutors, unmask the tellers of religious lies.
Khurasan was renamed Afaghanistan.
Lisbon, Portugal is destroyed by earthquake and tidal wave. Some suggest it was 1755. The ministers in Boston proclaimed it was punishment for the sacrilege of using lightning rods invented in 1753 to avert the wrath of God.
An earthquake at Lisbon, Portugal and the resulting tsunami killed 100 thousand people in Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Ireland and Cornwall, United Kingdom..
The Eastern Orthodox Church denies the Western Roman Churches sacraments.
A directory of brothels and prostitutes is published for Edinburgh, Scotland aka Eiden's Fort sub city which is below the surface city.
War again broke out between England and France (Seven Years War 1756-1763). England let Prussia do most of the fighting in Europe. England directed their efforts at destroying French trade by stopping ships reaching or leaving French ports. The war against French trade was conducted worldwide, truly the first world war, in Canada, Spain, France, and India. English had little respect for the American Indian People even those who supported them against the French.
Theodor Lilienthal advocated 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' this year.
The various religious groups have been fighting over the ownership of the Church of the Holy Sepulchral in Jerusalem for centuries. To resolve this dispute an inventory was taken, and documented for every chapel, lamp and flagstone and assigned to each faction. This did not stop the fighting as it continues into the 22nd century. You will known they are Christian by their actions.
The Church ban on the works of Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1513) is lifted this year officially recognizing that the 2,700 year belief that the Earth is the center of the universe is in error. Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) ordered Cardinal Saldanha, patriarch of Portugal to investigate the Jesuit Order on charges of neglect of its own rules and that they are engaging in trade.
Clement XIII alias Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (1758-1769) a Jesuit student is elected pope. The Jesuit party wanted a pope who is not anti-Jesuit. The pope’s secretary of state is the pro-Jesuit Lauigi Torrigiano. Portugal violently reacted to the Vatican election by charging the Jesuits of illegal trading, inciting revolts in Paraguay and complicity in a plot to murder the king. The minister Pombal sequestered all Jesuit assets in Portugal and her colonies and deported its members to the Papal States in 1759.
Pope Clement XIII protested in vain the expulsion of the Jesuit and his nuncio is expelled and diplomatic relations ruptured for a decade. France also held a deep-seated hostility to the Jesuits and also seized their assets.
The Jesuits are also expelled from Portugal this year. Never has a religious order been so hated in the history of the Church.
The Jesuits began their campaign in Hungary to persecute the Hetterite Colonies.
Gypsy (Roma) are banned from Saint Petersburg, Russia
England blockades the French seaports preventing France from reinforcing its troops in America. Bristol England Ladies Charity School rules required children at age five years be set to spinning and other such proper and beneficial works.
In England, Catholics and Jews are not allowed into Parliament and women are considered only children of larger growth. A man of sense only plays with them, he neither tells them about, nor trusts them, with serious matters. King George III (1760-1820) came to the throne. De Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) (1694-1778) would write 'when I see Christians cursing Jews, I see children beating their fathers.'
Ten million East Indians parish as a result of the Great Bengal famine.
A formal proclamation from the British throne confirmed the principle that no governor of any colony shall presume to alienate Indian Lands or give them to settlers.
Great sheep farms are introduced to the Highlands of Scotland creating much unemployment driving the people to towns or across the Atlantic. Immigration is also from the Lowlands at this time. The Highland Chiefs, no longer recording their wealth in fighting men, began to demand rents from their principle tenants, the tackmen. Many tackmen emigrated, those who remained demanded rent from their sub-tenants.
King George III (1760-1820) made peace with France without informing King Frederick II (1740-1786) of Prussia leaving them to fight France alone. The Treaty of Paris clearly established the principle that the French had no right to give away Indian property, by treaty or otherwise. A mandate from the crown of England made it clear that possession of Indian Lands is to be acquired by fair purchase and then by governments and not individuals.
The Jesuits began their campaign in Transylvania to persecute the Hetterite Colonies.
France under King Louis XV (1715-1774) accused the Society of Jesus (Jesuit) with subversion and by decree all Jesuit foundations and schools in France are closed and its members exiled from the kingdom.
All vagabonds and vagrants are denied residence in France with renewed legislation. Adult men are sentenced to the galleys for three years. All others are confined to the poor house for three years, and are then given a choice of domicile and a trade. Repeated offences by men result in the galleys for nine years, and in several repeat offences, in perpetuity.
Pope Clement XIII issued a bull reaffirming Roman support for the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) applauding its achievements but it had no effect. The attack on the corrupt Jesuit Order only expanded.
Sweden forbids book censorship in defiance of the Roman Catholic Church..
The Jesuits began continued their campaign to persecute the Hetterite Colonies until the last community of 67 souls from Creutz escaped over the Carpathian Mountains to Wallachia, Rumania, this year. The Jesuits were preparing plans to take the Hutterite children into orphanages to receive Catholic education.
Spain under King Charles II (1665-1700) expelled the Jesuit from all his realms, asking the Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769) to suppress the order entirely. Naples and Sicily also expelled the Jesuit seizing their property.
Parma expelled the Jesuit Order from their territory this year. France occupied the papal enclaves of Avignon and Venaisson, Naples those of Benevento and Pontecorvo. The underlay problem is that the Pope and the Jesuit Order should keep to purely spiritual matters. Pope Clement XIII refused to back down on what he considered Catholic dogma of church over state and suffered a stroke and died. Some believed that God struck him down for his and the Jesuit arrogance.
British Slaves did not expect to live long, and twenty per cent died
on the voyage to the New World. Between 1712 and
1768 two hundred thousand slaves were sent to Barbados but during this period the population only increased by twenty six thousand.
Captain James Cook (1728-1779) is sent to the Pacific to verify the reported French discovery of many Islands. In the ship Endeavour of 105 feet with a breath of 29 feet began to re-charted New Zealand and Eastern Australia. Cook used the Dauphin map of 1536 showing Australia as being owned by the First Lord of the British Admiralty. Dr. Joseph Banks brought this map. Cook also had the Jean Rotz chart also showing Australia. The Chinese from 1405 to 1433 made many trips to the Pacific Islands including New Zealand and Australia with 63 flag ships of 500 foot length and 200 foot width. They charted the whole region and some of these charts made their way to Europe. A skull of an European woman is found at Wellington, New Zealand and carbon dated to 1742 confirming earlier visits by Europeans. It is noteworthy that when Cook encountered the Polynesia sailors (wayfinding explorers), he remarked that their vessels could travel faster than his ship.
The Bengal famine including Bihar & Orissa, India resulted in 15 million deaths between 1769-1771.
Clement XIV alias Giovanni Vincenzo (1769-1774) a Franciscan is elected pope. He was regarded as a friend of the Jesuit but now distanced himself from the order stating that suppression of the order is canonically possible. The stormy conclave is dominated by political maneuvering. The Bourbon party demanded a pope who would suppress the (Jesuit) Society of Jesus and threatened to veto a pro-Jesuit candidate. The Catholic powers made it very clear they expected nothing less than the abolition of the Jesuit Order. The pope appointed Cardinal Pallavicini and advised both Louis XV of France and Charles III of Spain a speedy liquidation of the Jesuit question.
Napoleon I (1769-1821) is born Corsica having been bought by King Louis XV (1715-1774) two years previously from Italy. Some suggest he symbolize the first major antichrist, Hitler being the second as foretold by prophecy. He would mobilize the Grand Army of 700,000 men from every nation to do butchery to Europe. Others contend the papacy itself represents the anti-Christ.
Clement XIV (1769-1774) is elected pope.