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The Atlantic slave trade from 1701 to 1800 are as follows:
English slavers total 2,532,300
Portuguese slavers 1,796,300
French slavers total 1,180,300
Dutch slavers total 350,900
American slavers total 192,200
Danish slavers total 73,900
Swedish and others 5,000
It is noteworthy that slave export from Africa 1450 to 1700 totaled 2,235,000 people. Napoleon conquers Spain.
Professor Davis estimates that up to 1.25 million Europeans were enslaved by Muslim slave raiders between 1500 to 1800.
Napoleon I (1804-1814) defeated Austria on four occasion, 1799, 1801, 1805 and 1809.
Between 1800-1803 twenty-three ships, all save
one from Highland or Island ports of Scotland carried 5,391 passengers
Pius VII alias Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonte (1800-1823) a Benedictine is elected pope in Venice under Austrian protection. He immediately moves back to Rome.
Britain had more than two hundred capital offenses incorporated into their laws. This clearly represents the small regard for human life.
Godfrey's Cordinal contained opium, treacle and sassafras that was used by some poor families in England to kill their children for whom there was neither space nor food. The parents discovered an overdose of this medication brought a quick, painless death to unwanted children.
"Gypsy hunts" (Heidenjachten) are a common and popular sport in Germany. This also was a popular sport in Switzerland at this time. During WWII the Germans would hunt down and kill 500,000 Gypsies. This genocidal trait still survives in Germany, but in a different form, into the 21th century.
Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) a scientific explorer in botany, zoology and geology proposed 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics'. He was mostly ignored by the scientific community and ridiculed by others. The 'Solid State' theory would prevail until the 1960's.
Only 50 cities in the world had a population greater than 100,000 people.
Irish Parliament is closed and united with the English Parliament. The promise is that Catholics will get equal opportunity to vote but King George III (1760-1820) and the Tories refused to let this happen.
English Parliament passed the first Factory Act limiting child labor to twelve hours. Napoleon I (1804-1814) appended the French Vatican agreement with the Organic Articles that unilaterally tightened the states hold over the church and restricted papal intervention in France.
The prefect of the department of Basses Pyrenees in France issues an order "to purge the country of Gypsies."
Prior to this time meteors didn't exist, as they didn't fit the Roman Church doctrine of an ordered universe.
Napolean Bonaparte prohibits residence of Gypsy (Roma) in France. Children, women and the aged are sentenced to the poor house. Young men are given their choice of joining the navy or army. Adult men are sent to forced labor.
The French Academy of Sciences insisted that meteorites could not exist because no specimens had been produced.
Napolean Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1814) of France.
English Admiral Horatio destroyed the French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar and a British army landed in Portugal headed by Wellington.
Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1814) beats Austria, Russia, England and Sweden at Austerlitz.
The King of Spain called the Spaniards to arms. Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1814) considered this an act of war. The Holy Roman Empire (1648-1806) that is actually a loose collection of independent clans is abolished this year. Emperor Francis II (1792-1806) is the last King.
The British took control of South Africa from the Dutch. Boer farmers journeyed inland to escape British rule.
On 22 February 1807, twenty years after he first began his crusade, and in the middle of Britain's war with France, Wilberforce and his team's labours were rewarded with victory. By an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16 against, the motion to abolish the slave trade was carried in the House of Commons. The parliamentarians leapt to their feet with great cheers and gave Wilberforce the greatest ovation ever seen in British history. William bent forward in his seat, his head in his hands, tears of gratitude streaming down his face.
March 25: English law abolished the slave trade in all British colonies but it took until 1833 for slavery itself to be abolished in Britian and all British colonies.
December: Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1814) prohibited trade with England. The Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) and the King of Portugal refused to apply the embargo. The pope excommunicated Napoleon and he in retaliation annexed the Papal States, imprisoned the Pope and decided to invade Portugal.
A seven year old girl is hanged at King's Lynn, Norfilk, Great Britain. It would take 100 years before the Childrenís Act of 1908 would abolish this uncivilized practice.
The Spanish Inquisition is claimed to be over with 17,659 heretics being burned and Portugal burned 1,800. Others suggest the numbers were 323,362. Others contend the Inquisition was not over until 1834 when King Bonaparte abolished it but others suggest it was not over until January 1968 when Rome closed its Office of the Inquisition.
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) excommunicated all robbers of Peter,s patrimony without mentioning Napoleon by name. As a result the Pope is arrested and interned at Savona near Genoa in virtual isolation. The Pope refused to investiture bishops nominated by the Emperor.
In 1809, the British government mobilised its Navy to search suspected slave ships, even foreign vessels on the high seas.
April 10: Austria declared war on France and her forces entered Bavaria.
In 1810, the British Parliament declared slave trading a felony, punishable by fourteen years hard labour
The Sutherland Land Clearance between 1811-1820 by the Marquis of Stafford who had married the Countess of Sutherland in 1785, saw the removal of his tenants from the land to the coast under the presumption they could sustain themselves by fishing. Many of the returning Orkneymen from Canada bring home all the vices without any of the virtues of the savages, indolence, and dissipation, irreligious and at the same time a broken constitution.
The French are driven out of Portugal. The Battle of Vittoria June 12 liberated most of Spain from the French as far as the Basque country and Navarre. Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) is forced to agree to the investiture of bishops by their metropolitans.
Napoleon transferred Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) to Fontainebleau were he is forced to sign a concordat surrendering the Papal States.
June 12: France invades Russia.
September 14: Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1814) entered Moscow to a burning city that burned for three days destroying all provisions. The troops burned 90% of the houses and 1,000 churches. Hunger and an early and severe winter wore out the retreating soldiers. Napoleon said had he not laid hands upon the Papal States and tried to subdue a spiritual power through force the rest of my misfortunes would not have occurred. He had lost the Catholic support in 1808. He brought the Sacred College of Cardinals under his power and moved it to France. The invasion of Russia cost France 332,000 soldiers, most died of starvation and were frozen to death.
Napoleon weakened by his disastrous invasion of Russia surrendered to Wellington. The Russian Tsar Alexander demanded Napoleon's abdication.
The Restoration of Europe, Held in Vienna, Austria during 1814-1815 is attended by the big five:
Russia - Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825)
Prussia - King Fredrick William III (1797-1840)
Great Britain - Lord Castlereagh representing King George III (1760-1820)
Austria - Emperor Francis II (1792-1835)
France - Talleyrand for Louis XVII (1814-1824) the Bourbon
Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Holland and most petty princes of Italy and Germany also attended to redraft the boundaries of Europe.
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) restored the Society of Jesus (Jesuit). He condemned the Protestant Bible Society in 1816, and the Enlightenment and Freemasonry in 1821.
In 1814, the British representative at the Congress of Vienna insisted on the abolition of the slave trade being included in the International Treaty. This Treaty was signed by all the European powers on 9 June 1815.
Napoleon escaped saying to the crowds "you have let yourself be led by the priests and nobles who want to re-establish titles and fiscal laws. I'll deal with them. I'll string them up." He is defeated at Waterloo in Belgium by Wellington and the Prussian army. On orders of the Bourbon's of France Count Charles Tristan de Montholon poisoned Napoleon at age 51 on the Island St. Helena. It is said he put arsenic in his wine.
The kingdom of Poland is established as a puppet Russian state, a small Duchy of Warsaw after being totally eliminated in 1795.
Prince Clemens Von Metternick, a German Nobleman, effectively directed the Austrian Empire for the next thirty years. This so-called Age of Metternich was a classic example of a Police State. He encouraged the cultural development of the Czechs and southern Slavs to counterbalance the Germans and Hungarians. Sixty-five percentage of Austria is Roman Catholic.
British policy was to control world traffic and world markets to Britain's advantage.
April 5: Mount Tambora on Subawa (Sumbawa) Island, Indonesia, in the Java Sea erupted. One-third of the 13,000 foot mountain was blasted into the air. About 92,000 to 117,000 people were killed. The whole planet was shrouded in its debris. A town of 10,000 known as the kingdom of Tambora was destroyed only 4 people survived. The year 1816 as a result became known as the 'year without a summer'. The Tambora eruption is believed to be the largest in the last 10,000 years. New England and Europe were hit exceptionally hard. Snowfalls and frost occurred in June, July, and August and all but the hardiest grains were destroyed. Destruction of the corn crops forced farmers to slaughter their animals. Soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungary. Sea ice migrated across Atlantic sea lanes, and alpine glaciers advanced down mountain slopes to exceptionally low elevations.
The Religious Institute of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate is founded by French theologian Eugene de Mazenod in 1816 for the purpose of evangelizing the poor. They would have a profound impact on the aboriginal people in Western Canada. This is the year of no summer caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora, Java. Starvation swept Europe and 50,000 people died in Ireland from typhus.
This summer was cold and wet, crops failed and famine forced many to emigrate to Canada. Scotland was land clearing as sheep were more profitable than people. Some Scots who had occupied the same land for forty generations were driven away. This was caused by the eruption of Mt Tambora, Indonesia last year that sent a blanket of debris that covered the sky around the world.
John Hoyland, a Quaker, writes the first serious book calling for better treatment for Gypsies in England. Several charitable projects follow; but many Gypsies are transported as criminals to Australia.
The first great cholera pandemic of this century, 1817-1823, originated in India, spreading to Japan, China, Russia and the Middle East. A cold winter stopped its spread into Europe.
Russia Czar Alexander I (1777-1825) petitioned for a Jewish State in Palestine.
Captain Lyon of the Royal Navy reported that the Al-Mukani in Tripoli "waged war on all its defenseless neighbors and annually carried off 4,000 to 5,000 slaves a piteous spectacle! These poor oppressed beings were, many of them, so exhausted as to be scarcely able to walk, their legs and feet were much swelled, and by their enormous size formed a striking contrast with their emaciated bodies. They were all borne down with loads of firewood, and even poor little children, worn to skeletons by fatigue and hardships, were obliged to bear their burden, while many of their inhuman masters with dreadful whip suspended from their waist.all the traders speak of slaves as farmers do of cattle
A new English law forbade the employment of children under
age nine. The penalty for thieves is death as is hunting with gun
or knife. A group of working people and their families in Manchester
protesting their poor conditions are attacked by soldiers and eleven are
killed and hundreds wounded.
The Rock (Sydney, Australia) was described by J.T. Bigge as a place of debauchery and villainy. He turned the freedom of the Rock into a Hyde Park Barracks (1819-1821), created road gangs and more distant penal stations like Van Diemen's land aka Tasmania. Between (1803-1853) 75,000 men and women were sent to the penal stations. These places were pledged with floggings, madness and death. Among the 75,000 people sent to Van Diemenus were 12,000 women and sexual exploration was a thriving activity.
An earthquake in Italy killed 20,000 people in the cities of Genoa and Palermo.
The Emperor of Austria Francis II (1792-1935) is concerned with the growing discontentment of the middle class of people who have taken to the press to promote impiety. They promote disobedience to the laws of Religion and State and go as far as to preach murder as a duty.
The first missionaries arrive Hawaii.
Xuanzong of China with a Reign Title of Daoguang, Reigned (1821-1850) of the Qing Dynesty.
Mexico becomes independent from Spain.
Egypt conquers the Sudan.
Leo XII alias Annibale Sermatteri (1823-1829) is elected pope.
Workers in England were allowed to form unions.
Russia orders forced assimilation, including military conscription of all pacifists including the Doukhobor Sect of the Russian Orthodox Church.
In 1825, Britain passed a bill making slave trading punishable by death.
A tsunamis hit Japan killing 30 thousand people.
Greece becomes independent from Turkey.
The Russo-Turkish War (1827-1829) begins.
April 14: Robert Chambers a magistrate in London England observed that London was too full of children in poverty who are sleeping in the gutters and begging for food. He recommended the the British surplus children be sent to Canada as farm labor. This became known as the most Draconian movement in the history of emigration.
Between 1828-1851 some Scottish proprietors shipped surplus tenants overseas at their own expense. England was still practicing regular beating of children at home and in residential boarding schools that developed the children and they soon became almost strangers to their parents and it was wondered what effect this would have on the country.
Pius VIII alias Francesco Saverio Castiglione (1829-1830) is elected pope. Catholic and nonconformists could enter government service or Parliament, however, it remained difficult for them to do so even though they represented fifty percent of the population.
Catholics in Britain are finally given equality.
Frederick Parrot reports Noah's Ark relics in a church at Mt Ararat's base, later destroyed in an 1840 earthquake.
The Swan River Colony aka Perth, Australia was considered the first free settlement but it stagnated with 5,000 settlers.
Austria lost the Netherlands and Belgium is created but she gained Venice and Lombardy, two rich provinces of Italy. Pope Pius VIII (1829-1830) issued an encyclical condemning the influence of Freemasonry in education, attacking secret societies and attacks against church dogma. Mixed marriages are only allowed if guarantees of the education in the Catholic faith are provided. This conflicted with ancient German law that stated the fatherís wishes should prevail. National emancipation broke out in Belgium, Ireland and Poland this year being condemned by the Vatican curia. The Vatican also stigmatized the alliance of Catholics and liberals in Belgium against King William I (1815-1840) as monstrous. The French King Charles X is forced to flee France and abdicate as the Church and the people revolted against his government. Pope Pius VIII (1829-1830) against the advice of the curia accepted the French Revolution in Paris that deposed King Charles X (1824-1830) in favor of King Louis Philippe (1830-1848) whom he called the Most Christian King. When some legitimate bishops and priests fled France he showed his disappointment by refusing them admission to the Papal States.
In Tahiti, Polynesia the British initially expelled the French missionaries, only to have them return later with French gunboats. This eventually led to France taking over all of what is now French Polynesia.
First wooden horse-drawn covered wagons for Gypsies are developed in England.
A cholera pandemic spread worldwide in 1830-1837.
During the 1830's circumcision, genital mutilation, is introduced in France as a treatment for masturbation among young boys, the practice quickly spread to Britain and the USA.
July: France is in revolution.
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) founded the Young Italy Society for ethnic cleansing of Italy. The objective of the society is to drive all Austrians from the peninsula and to establish an Italian Republic. He believed nationality is the role assigned by God to a people in the work of humanity. He conducted guerrilla warfare.
Gregory XVI alias Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari (1831-1846) is elected
pope. He is extremely hostile to modern trends even banning railways
in his domain. The populous revolted and Austria support is required
to crush the uprising.
The great powers intervene demanding radical administrative, judicial and constitutional reforms in the Papal States. Pope Gregory XVI is prepared to make minor changes but not to grant elected assemblies or council of state composed of laymen. The uprising broke out afresh and Austria troops had to be recalled. France is forced to seize Ancona and for several years the papal states are held under military occupation. Continuous simmering revolution contained by a repressive regime of hired soldiers drained the papal treasury. Dictator Pope Gregory lost most public support during his police state regime.
Cholera swept Europe killing 900,000 peoples this year and millions would die before the end of the century.
An outbreak of cholera in London spread by dirty water killed thirty two thousand people, at this time one in four baby died within one year of birth.
Europe experimented with juvenile deportation (indenture or the slave trade) as a remedy for pauperism. The Irish Protestant Orphan Society and the Benevolent Society for the Establishment of Poor Colonies in 1828 are joined by the British Children's Friend Society Report of 1830. This referenced the system of Fostering in France, Germany and Switzerland and to the Agricultural Workhouses and Colonization of orphan children in Holland. They rationalized this practice as child rescue to give them a fair chance. The fundamental supporting belief is a form of ethnic cleansing guised as social cleansing. By 1837 it is well known that in New Brunswick and the African colonies the indentured children are replacing the free coloreds and emancipated slaves.
Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846) issued his encyclical denouncing the notion of freedom of conscience and freedom of the press. He denounced the idea of separation of church and state. He is convinced the liberalism had its roots in indifferentism. His encyclical condemned the revolutionary movements when the Poles revolted against the Tsar in 1830-31 but protested in 1845 against the persecution of revolutionary Catholics in Russia.
Expeditions from Russia, Turkey and England during the period 1832-1850, fail to find any trace of Noah's Ark.
June 5: Prior to this time Britain had a form of dictator ship where parliament was dominated by nobility and wealthy land owners. Only 440,000 voters out of a population on 17 million were allowed to vote. On June 5 the British Reform Act is passed improving things but most poor people are still not allowed to vote.
Britain finally by Act of Parliament abolishes slavery, they banned transatlantic slave trade in 1807 but not slavery - setting all 700,000 slaves in British overseas territories free.
King Bonaparte abolished the Inquisition.
The Governour of Wallachia, Alexander Ghica, frees all state slaves.
The Spanish Civil War (1834-1839) begins.
The Communist League is formed in Paris, France.
An archbishop is imprisoned in Russia for violating ancient law that the children of mixed marriage should follow their fatherís religion. The pope condemned this belief and subsequent action.
France takes Algeria.
Drought in India (1837-1838) kills 800,000.
In 1838, it was estimated that 10,000 to 12,000 slaves were arriving in Cairo each year." Just in the Arabic plantations off the East Coast of Africa, on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, there were 769,000 black slaves. In the 19th Century, the East African black slave trade included 347,000 slaves shipped to Arabia, Persia and India; 95,000 slaves were shipped to the Arab plantations in the Mascareme Islands.
December: Blood River, South Africa, 500 Boers defeated 10,000 Zulus. Victory was taken as divine approbation and racial attitudes increased.. The Boers had turned their back on British rule and migrated inland during the 1830's.
England was at war in Afghanistan, Sindh, Pakistan and against the Sikhs in the Punjab, India until 1842.
The Chinese Emperor wrote to Queen Victoria (1837-1901) in England asking where is her conscience, how can you bare selling products injurious to others in order to fill your insatiable desire. So begun the firsts of the English barbarian opium wars (1839-1842) against China.
Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846) denounced slavery and the slave trade as unworthy of Christians. The Holy office would reverse this decision in 1866. It is noteworthy that the Pope condemned only the slave trade, but not so explicitly that the condemnation covered occasional sales by owners of surplus stock.
November 25: The Indian cyclone killed 300 thousand people.
The British invade Formosa (Taiwan).
Austria established its first railway this year.
The population of Ireland was 8 million people. This level would never be seen again as the potato famine between 1845-1849 reduced the population by 1/4 to 1/2. The Irish famine was called 'The Great Hunger" killing 1.5 million deaths and 2.0 million who emigrated. It was caused by Phytophthora infestans a potato blight.
The hospodar of Moldavia, Mihail Sturdza, emancipates all state slaves; however, in Wallachia and Moldavia private ownership of Romani slaves is still legally permitted.
British paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term dinosaur.
Budapest, established by law, that Magyar is henceforth to be the official language throughout the Kingdom of Hungary and the Croatian objected. Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846) instructed the Irish clergy be discouraged from political action.
Potato blight came to Ireland from South America. American aboriginal farming practice was to plant diverse crops and different varieties of any one crop. As an example they planted for hot years, cold year, drought and wet years all in the same year. This prevented a total crop failure in any give year. The Irish planted only one variety called lumper and this error caused the death of millions. Do we learn from this error, NO in the 21 century MacDonald's demands the use of the Russet Burbank exclusively, setting an industry standard.
Between September 1845 and 1847 the potato crop because of blight failed in Ireland and the Protestant grain farmers of Ireland shipped their crops to England. In many cities at least one-third of the inhabitants are destitute, one and a half million starved to death, and one million are forced to emigrate. Shipping peasants to Canada and the United States is regarded as the cheapest alternative to the problem. In ten years the Irish population dropped from eight million to just over three million. By 1920 the numbers reached five million to the United States. The English Parliament did not appreciate the seriousness of the problem or didn't care. The English considered the Irish a lazy, inferior people bringing the problems upon themselves. The potato blight also affected Europe and much of their grain crop also failed forcing an exodus to America. Many landlords reused to lower rents during this time. The Irish were then locked out of their homes for failure to pay rent and driven from the land.
The Jesuit is expelled for the second time from France with the acceptance of Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846). The pope also encouraged a native clergy in the Americas.
The Great Irish Famine (1846-1849) resulted in 1 to 1.5 million deaths.
Austria established a telegraph network this year. One estimate suggests that from 1846 to 1932 fifty million Europeans left their homeland for the Americas and Australia and New Zealand. Thousands of Europeans died as a result of the great cholera epidemics that plagued the region during the 1830's and 1840's. Doctors suggested the filth and foul smelling air in European cities cause it. Many citizens in European cities use their basements as slaughterhouses.
Pius IX (1846-1878) is elected pope. He immediately declared a political amnesty setting up city and state councils and made gestures of support to Italian Nationalism. This is a complete reversal of Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846) policy. The people rejoiced but this is short lived when he announced the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See indispensable to its spiritual independence, he had no intention of establishing a constitutional state. He is considered dangerously authoritarian and a great anti-modernist. He declared the Pope should not reconcile himself to, or agree with, progress, liberalism and modern civilization. This is a distinct shift from Droit & Fait of 1651-1653 where it was debated the Church's (Council) has infallibility in matters of doctrine and its duty of silence before matters of fact. He presided at the First Vatican Council of 1870 that defined the dogma of papal infallibility. Infallibility is the Divine Right to proclaim wrong. Italy considered him a traitor for not joining the war of 1848 to expel Austria from Italy.
English Government soup kitchens in Ireland are feeding three million people daily. This year the support stopped and responsibility is handed over to local landlords. This action accelerated the deportation of Irish peasants. At Grosse Ile, Quebec a dumping ground for Irish deportees saw the death of 5,500 Irish passengers of typhus while waiting to disembark. The dead had to be dragged out of the ships with boat hooks as the relatives refused to touch them. This massive deportation instilled in the Irish a pathological desire for land ownership and a drive to secure positions of authority such as the police or civil services positions.
(I)-Paul Saltz born 1821-1823 Illmitz, Austria-Hungary died June 24, 1903 Mornville, North West Territories (Alberta) married 1847 Wallern, Austria an (I)-Maria Weinzetl born 1818 Germany died Mornville daughter Paul Weinzetl born Wallern, Austria and Dorothern Wulhersdorfer born Wallern, Austria. Death source Alberta Birth, Marriage & Death Index 1870-1905.
Four children were recorded:
(II)-Johaunes Salzl born 1847, Wallern, Austria died Edmonton, Alberta married 1873 Maria Leurer (Leier) born 1852 Wallern, Austria died May 9, 1932 Edmonton, Alberta
(II)-Mathias Salze born 1850 married 1877 Maria Weinhandl died 1891
(II)-Maria Salze born 1852
(II)-Karl Salze born 1857 homesteaded Zell, South Dakota SW 1/4 35 117N
66W in 1880's
Salze, also Salzl, Salz, Saltz, Salzmann being associated with the salt trade and having a German and/or Jewish ancestry.
(I)-Paul Salze and his wife (I)-Mary Weinzetl would become part
of the exodus from Austria about 1873. (IV)-Marion Salzl said "Mary
Huber, my cousin, says both Illmitz and Wallern are still both in present
day Austria. The records of
(III)-Mathias Salzl, my father's people, say they are born in Wallie, Hungary but since the war (1945) is called Wallern, Hungary. She said she was over there and saw the house they used to live in" as related by (IV)-Marion Elizabeth Salzl born 1910. (III)-Mathias Salzl would admit to being born in Austria to one person and Hungary to another and a number of fights resulted when the two people met over a bet at the local barber in Edmonton, Alberta. It would appear he considered himself Austro-Hungarian. Wallern was and is in Austria about forty miles south east of Vienna (Wien) and Illmitz is five miles north west of Wallern near the shores of the Neusiedler Sea.
The period of 1846 to 1848 marked a severe food shortage throughout Europe. The harvest of grain and potatoes is very poor. Many believe this contributed to the general political instability throughout Europe this year. Ancient tradition suggests times of great natural disaster is Gods way of telling the people that the rulers are not doing Gods will.
A revolution in France starts a wave of revolutions in Europe.
Peasant insurrections and artisan uprisings occurred throughout Europe. The new united Germany is debating the inclusion or exclusion of Austria in Germany. The question became what to include, only German speaking Austrian or the Hungarians, Rumanians, Croats and many other alien ethnic groups. Many were urging war against Russia. In Austria revolution had broken out in Vienna, the Imperial Palace was stormed and Metternich resigned and fled into exile. The Hungarians demanded a separate state, with their own army and government at Budapest linked to Austria only through a common monarch. Street fights also took place in Milan, Austria March 18-23. By the end of March the rebels are successful in Vienna, Budapest, Prague and Northern Italy. Not all the violence of the day is directed at the troops and government, unruly mobs burned and looted in the industrial suburbs. Food stores, butcher shops, bakeries, and tobacco shops were sacked. Artisans stormed the factories, destroyed the machines, and set fire to the buildings. Tax-offices, parsonages, and houses are plundered and demolished. A Civil Guard is created arresting hundreds of suspected rioters, plunderers and arsonists that are thrown into crowded jails. Sharp antagonism between Czech and Germans broke out in Bohemia (Austria) over control of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia that also contained large numbers of Germans. The students took Prague and Prince Windisch-Graetz laid siege to the city that surrendered October 31 after fierce bombardment.
March 13: Rebellion in Vienna echoed with a cry of Hungary for the Magyars, Bohemia (Northern Austria) for the Slavs, Italy for the Italians and Austria for the Germans. Students also demonstrated in Budapest and Prague for a free press, trial by jury, and a representative assembly, freedom for teaching. A Magyar state is demanded including Croats of Zabreb, Serbs of the Voivoduna, Saxon and Wallach of Transylvania and the Slovaks on the northern hills all to submit to Hungarian Budapest. Austria, part of the Habsburg Empire is said to support a standing army of soldiers, a kneeling army of priests and a crawling army of informers. Pope Pius X (1846-1878) is forced to concede a bicameral assembly but refused to join the war to expel Austria from Italy. The people considered this betrayal and when the Italian Prime Minister Count Rossi is murdered the pope in disguise fled Rome for Gaeta north of Naples.
A cholera pandemic spread worldwide in 1849.
February 9: Italy is proclaimed a Roman Republic against the wishes of Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) that is in exile.
May: The Hungarian forces had driven the Austria forces across the frontier and Hungary is declared independent. Vienna asked for outside help and Russia promised 140,000 men without any conditions. By August with the advancing Russian and Austrian armies the Hungarian independence is crushed. General Windisch-Graetz occupies Budapest. Those who did not flee are hanged, imprisoned or demoted while more than one hundred civilians are hung and hundred others imprisoned; women who interceded for their husbands are stripped and publicly flogged. The Austrian defeated Piedmount this year.