The French teach the Savages the art of bleeding to cure illness
Frenchmen who took country wives were officially listed as single.
- FRENCH HISTORY 1635-1636
FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
The Huron People very reluctantly allowed the Jesuits to live among them.
Frenchmen who did not produce baptized children are not considered settlers in New France.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) produced no children therefore he was not a settler.
One birth is recorded in Kebec, New France.
Barthelemi Bertaut aka Bertault, a gunsmith is listed as single but was involved in 44 court cases in Trois Rivieres
Pierre Bienvenu, savage; It is common practice for the French to give the savages French names. Savages at this time means wild, runners of the woods, free not under control of church or state.
Birth (II)-Jean Galeran Boucher Metis son (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry Metis; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet Metis (1606-1687); married September 1, 1650 Kebec, Jean Plante
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort is Governor of Trois Rivieres and would assume Governor New France upon the death of Champlain.
(I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681) returns to Kebec this year and is credited by some to be the official founder of Trois Riviers.
General du Plessis Bouchard, is at Tadoussac.
(I)-Samuel De Champlain (1567-1635) proclaimed in the name of King Louis XIII; our men will marry your daughters, and we will make one nation.
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) returned to Kebec this year or next.
(I)-Jean Bigot de Tourouvre, au Perche married 1633 Kebec, Thomine Chastel is in New France 1633 to 1636, however 1st child (II)-Francoise Bigot is born 1632 and 1st married 1647 Charles Guillebout and 2nd married May 8, 1659 Denis Briere, Kebec .
(I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651), an interpreter, who took refuge among the Savages when the English captured Kebec is given a land grant at Trois Rivieres, being the first to settle there, he married 1641 Marie Marguerie. This is not likely as Trois Rivieres has been in use since 1615, however mostly as a trading center for the free traders.. Some suggest, 7 to 15 Frenchmen remained in New France during the British occupation.
(I)-Madame Coullart gave birth to a boy child, in Kebec.
De La Tour (a judge of Champlain) married Louise de sauvagesse, according to Tanguay. Date/location not identified.
Pastedechouan, savage was sent to France by the Recollects and is returned to Emery de Caen at Kebec with the name Pierre and he is given to the Jesuits as an interpreter.
Father (I)-Gilbert du Thet, d-1633, a Jesuit is killed by the English at St-Sauveur-Des-Monts, Kebec
Captain Thomas Ker, David Ker, Louis Ker and Jacques Michel all Frenchmen and alleged Huguenots had gone over to the English.
Frenchmen who took country wives were officially listed as single as country marriages were not considered as binding. Many early country marriages were not recorded and their children were recorded as savages.
The Huron said that the Hiroquois had killed three Frenchman this year.
Those Frenchmen who did not produce baptized children are not considered settlers in New France. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) produced no children therefore he was not a settler.
Lawyers are not allowed to immigrate to New France or even visit, by Royal decree. This policy remained in effect until 1765.
The first French ship to return after the English occupation stopped at Basque Scaffold near Tadoussac a place so called because the Basque go there to catch whales.
The French teach the Savages the art of bleeding to cure illness. Some of the Savages are using the French practice of blood letting to allow evil spirits to escape the body.
The Montagnard say he who made everything is called Atahocan. Others say the Manitou is God. They say Messou restored the world after it was lost in the waters (deluge) that drowned the whole world.
The Jesuits are now in full control, having effectively replaced the Recollect-Franciscans. They have a pathological desire to create a religious monopoly, with the state being sub-servant to Rome. This year marks an end to a century long quest by the Huguenots to establish a colony in Canada. Huguenots had to convert to Roman Catholic to remain in New France.
The Jesuits claim humility is born of truth, vanity of errors and falsehood. The Savages (Montagnais) claim liberty is by 'right of Birth'. The Jesuits say they are real buffoons. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit in the future are expelled from most countries because of their intrigue and falsehoods.
Louis Amantacha, a Wendat (Huron), arrived at Fort Kebec and returned for his people
who came with some 500 Wendat, followed a little later with 140 canoe furs.
The Jesuit wished to return with the Wendat but are refused because they
say the Algonquin might kill them. They would be allowed to go the
The Huron (Wendat) are competitors with the Algonquin over the fur trade. Rumors abound that the Jesuits are more interested in beaver-skin than winning souls.
The Jesuit have two cows, two little heifers, and a little bull. They have two fat sows with 4 suckling little pigs. Monsieur (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) also has a cow.
It is estimated that 30,000 furs are being traded to the Dutch, exhausting the supply of furs in Iroquois territory. The Iroquois attacked the French on the St. Lawrence above Kebec, killing two French and wounding four others.
A party of French pirates plunder the English at Penobscott, Maine and said they were from the Isle of Rhe. It is believed (II)-Charles La Tour, (1595-1665) is believed behind this attack. They encountered an English sahallop commanded by Dixy Bull and robbed him of his goods. Dixy Bull as a result turned pirate and plundered Pemaquid, Maine. The English spent two months trying to find him without success.
More ships arrive La Have, Acadia with men and supplies but no women.
February 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Couillard, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); 1st married October 25, 1648, Kebec, Francois Bissot: 2nd marriage September 7, 1675, Jacques De Lalande. Marguerite Lesage, wife of (I)-Nicolas Pivert is godmother to Marie Couillard.
March 1: Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), commanded (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to take control of Fort Kebec with two hundred colonists including Fathers (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648), (I)-Ambroise Davost (1586-1643), Father (I)-Ememond Masse and Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649). Sieur (I)-Jean de Bourdon arrived, an engineer and surveyor in the service of the crown. The objective is two fold: to harvest furs and souls.
April: The Jesuits were amazed at the harmony among and between the savage families living in such close proximity. The French would be squabbling all the time. They noted that the savage women have an equal voice in important matters. A man may promise you something, and, if he does not keep his promise, he thinks he is sufficiently excused when he tells you that his wife did not wish to do it. I told him then that he was the master, and that in France women do not rule their husbands. The Jesuit would try to overturn the culture of the country.
April: The Frenchmen from Old France are astonished that the Jesuit say nothing about the conversion of the Savages during the many years that they have been in New France. The Jesuit list numerous feeble reasons for their lack of progress. The Savages say the French are worthless, they are wicked men, they do not tell us what you, Father Eschom (Brebeuf), tell them, and never the less it is of importance that we ought to talk of it at the Council of the whole land. The implications are if the French traders don't believe the Jesuit why should the Huron. It is noteworthy that the Savages listen to reason readily, not that they always follow it, but generally they urge nothing against a reason which carries convection in their mind. The Jesuit however often do not respond to reason especially if it contradicts pre-established beliefs about New France. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649).was given the name Eschom when he visited the Huron this year. He likely departed from the trading post at Trois Rivieres. The Huron planted corn but only two families had stored any corn.
May 14: (I)- Olivier Le Jeune (d-1654), a Negro slave, named Oliver Le Jeune d-1654 belonging to (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) is baptized at Fort Kebec. The Kirk brothers had abandoned him. Others suggest he was sold to Couillard.
May 14: Kebec, baptism, a Negro slave from Madagascar, who was sold by the English Captain Ker, a Frenchman, for fifty ecur to Le Bailly. Le Bailly eventually presented him to another family that is settled in Kebec.
May 19: News reached Kebec that an English ship had entered Tadoussac, (Quebec) a few days ago. They did not know if it was a trading vessel or if France and England was again at war. Everyone was upon his guard.
May 22: Kebec, three ships arrived, the Saint Piere at 150 tonnage, captain Pierre Gregoire, the Saint Jean at 160 tonnage, captain Pierre de Nesle and the Don-de-Dieu at 90 tonnage, captain Pierre Morieult.
May 22: Monsieur Emery de Caen gave the keys of Fort Kebec to Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard who delivered them next year to Monsieur Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635), to take command of the ships according to the decree of Monseigneur the Cardinal.
May 23: France reclaims Kebec.
May 30: An Algonquin killed a Frenchman and is put in chains at Fort Kebec.
May 31: La Nasse, a Savage, reported to the Jesuit that he had a vision (a dream) that some Frenchman would be killed
June 2: The Hiroquois (Agnieeronons) near Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) killed two Frenchmen and wounded four others, one of whom died shortly afterwards, just as the savage La Nasse had dreamed.
June 23: Sieur General du Plessis Bouchard sent word that 12-14 canoes of Sorcerers is at Sainte Croix, 15 leagues above Kebec. A few days earlier a dozen called Iroquet had passed this location with no fear. The French called the Hiroquois Sorcerers because they consulted Manitou (God) who the Jesuit considered as the Devil. It is noteworthy that all the nations had no Devil concept and all consulted the Great Manitou (God) and would eventually also be called Sorcerers by the Jesuit.
June 28: The English are still at Tadoussac (Quebec) trading in brandy.
July 2: A Frenchman is struck down while washing his cloths in a brook near Fort Kebec. He died two days later and a Savage of the Petite Nation who struck him down was captured and taken to the fort.
July 10: The Jesuit received news that a Savage (Algonquian) was sick, a half-league from the Jesuit Residence. They took a canoe to the Savage cabins. They encountered a unnamed Frenchman near the cabins, who said that the Savages did not want to show their child to the French. The Jesuit implied this Frenchman maybe trading in brandy secretly.
July 13: (I)-Emery de Caen b-1606, a Huguenot is appointed Provisional Governor of New France, and he took formal possession this date along with Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard. Some Frenchmen were still in the woods who do not appear before the others because they had surprised, massacred and eaten their companions. The survivors at Trois Rivieres are in pitiful shape.
August 16: The French ships departed Kebec for Old France.
November 5: The Huron showed the French a palisade village where French resided, the Hiroquois had burned it down and killed the occupants. It was noted that a field was cultivated and Indian corn was growing. This is likely Trois Rivieres?
Two marriages, one birth and one death are recorded
in Kebec, New France.
Filles a Marier or marriagable young girls. During the period 1634 to 1662 it is estimated that 262 girls called filles marier immigrated to New France. These girls preceded the more famous Fille du Roi or King's daughters that included about 800 girls. The former were not provided dowry by the king but some were provided a small dowry by the Company of 100 Associates. We need to keep in mind that 80% of the French settlers had no wives and many took savages as wives while others took Indian girls sent to France for education, baptism and French name assignment and returned under the two main programs or under religious sponsorship. Some claimed the young girls were prostitutes or criminals taken off the streets of Paris but Company associates, merchants and religious denied these claims but some likely were. It's likely some of the Metis and savage girls expelled from Kebec in 1629 likely returned as filles a marier.
(I)-Simon Baron arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Guillaume Benassis married Jeanne
Sauvaget epouse 1656 (I)-Elie Bourbaut b-1621 sieur de Bissonniere of Trois
(II)-Madeleine Benassis Metis born November 14, 1734 Trois Rivieres died December 3, 1716 Trois Rivieres, married 1647 Trois Rivieres, (I)-Etienne Seigneuret sieur de I'Isle (1620-1677) This likely represents the first marriage and birth in Trois Rivieres?
(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) one of the more famous Coureur Des Bois is believed to have reached the Mississippi River this year. He always wore a Chinese robe during his travels. The first European likely to have seen Mackinac Island is Jean Nicolet, a French-Canadian coureur de bois, during his 1634 explorations. Mackinac became a great Metis trading center and exploration center for the North American continent.
(I)-Nicolas Peltier et Pelletier
d-1675 married about 1635 likely Tadoussac, (Quebec) to Jeanne Du Roussy
b-1614/1622 d-1689 Sorel likely Indian or Metis
(II)-Francois Peltier et Pelletier Metis b-1635 Tadoussac d-1690, 1st married 1660 Tadoussac Dorthie La Sauvagesse d-1661 Quebec; 2nd married 1661 Quebec (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau
(II)-Marie Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1637 Kebec 1st married 1650 Quebec (I)-Nicolas Goupil; 2nd marriage 1655 Quebec (I)-Denis Jean dit St Onge
(II)-Louise Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1640 Kebec d-1713 Quebec married 1653 Quebec (II)-Jean Hayot
(II)-Francoise Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1642 Kebec d-1707 Ste Foye 1st married 1654 Quebec (I)-Jean Beriau b-1631; 2nd marriage 1655 Quebec (I)-Sebastien Lienard (1628-1701)
(II)-Jeanne Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1644 Kebec married 1659 Quebec (I)-Noel Jeremie de la Montagne b-1629
(II)-Genevieve Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1646 Kebec d-1717 Quebec 1st married 1663 Quebec (I)-Vincent Verdon (1642-1687); 2nd married 1669 (I)-Thomas Lefebvre
(II)-Jean Peltier Pelletier Metis (I suspect he was born Tadoussac) d-1692 Sorel married 1662 Quebec Marie Manevely de Rainville
(II)-Nicolas Peltier Pelletier Metis b-1649 Sillery 1st married 1673 Quebec Madeleine Tegoussi d-1661 Montagnaise Indian, veuve Augustin Savage; 2nd marriage (II)-Francoise Lamy
(I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne, b-1607, died August 12, 1697, Trois Rivieres is believed to be at Trois Rivieres this year. He was a syndic of Trois Rivieres, then judge of the seigniory of Champlain, Three Rivers was officially established this year. Some claim Guillaume was born 1620 and arrived Three Rivers 1633. However he was a syndin in 1633 age 13, not likely.
A brother and sister savage are given to the Jesuits who name them Brehault.
During the winter of 1633/1634 the Basque had left a boy at Gaspe to learn the language but the savages had him killed and ate him.
(II)-Jean Bigot, (most likely Metis), b-1634, Kebec, died September 24, 1648, Kebec son (I)-Jean Bigot de Tourouvre, au Perche who married 1633 Kebec, Thomine Chastel is in New France 1633 to 1636, however 1st child (II)-Francoise Bigot (most likely Metis) is born 1632 and 1st married 1647 Charles Guillebout and 2nd married May 8, 1659 Denis Briere, Kebec, 2nd child Jean born this year.
(II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lamaine?, arrived this year Kebec with his family?, he married April 8, 1649 Kebec his first wife Marie Madeleine (Chretienne) Ouebaddinoukoue, a Huron Indian girl, they had a son (III)-Jacques Boucher b-1650; his second marriage July 9, 1652 Kebec is (II)-Jeannie Crevier, b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard b-1619. He settled Trois Rivieres, likely about 1645, but may have located his Metis family at Trois Rivieres in 1642/43 while working Kebec. It's noteworthy that sauvagesse married to Frenchmen were not welcome in Kebec unless they were baptized. Now Governor Pierre had the idea of creating a new people by the union of French men and Indian women. So it is likely his second wife was at least a Metis woman.
(I)-Martin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1634, married 1st. 1625 Julienne February 7, France Julienne Baril, d-1727; 2nd marriage 1628, (1632) France?, (I)-Pierrine Mallet (1604-1687). Three child arrive with family (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1618, married September 3, 1641, Kebec, Florence Gareman; (II)-Louis Martin Boucher, b-1630 and (II)-Jean Galleran Boucher, b-1633.
(I)-Jasper Bouchard arrived Kabec 1634
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort, commandant of the new trading post at Trois Riveres, whose commission, likely since 1632, had been in the hands of (I)-Paul Le Jeune, (1591-1664) Superior of the Jesuits in New France. It is noteworthy that some believed Chasteaufort received his commission in 1630 but didn't exercise it until 1634. Others suggest Monsieur de Maupertus was in charge of the trading post at Trois Rivieres (1635-1636). Could this be a reference to the old vs. new trading posts?
(I)-Jean Burbon arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Zacharie Cloutier (1590-1677) married July 18, 1616, France, (I)-Xainte
Dupont, (1586-1680) arrived
Kebec with a family of 7 this year.
(II)-Zacharie Cloutier (1616-1708) married 1640 Kebec Madeleine Aymard (1626-1708)
(II)-Jean Cloutier b-1631 d-1690 Chateau Richer married 1648 Kebec Marie Martin
(II)-Charles Cloutier b1624 d-1709 Chateau Richer married 1659 Quebec Louise Morin
(II)-Louise Cloutier b-1631 d-1699 Chateau Richer1st married 1645 Kebec Francois Marguerie ; 2nd marriage 1648 Kebec Jean Mignot; 3rd marriage 1684 Chateau Richer Jean Mataut
(II)-Anne Cloutier married 1637 Kebec Robert Drouin
(I)-Pierre Cluster arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Jean Coste arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon arrived Kebec
(I)-Jean Cote (1603-1661) arrived Kebec 1634, married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (II)-Anne Martin daughter (I)-Abraham Martin and savage and/or Marquerite Langlois, b-1611, see 1624
(I)-Pierre Drouet a carpenter, died March 6, 1635, arrived Trois Rivieres to work for (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660), some suggest Nicolas Goupil and Laviolette are two different persons. Tanguay suggest Laviolette is an alias for Goupil.
Louis Amantacha Sainte Foy, a savage baptized in France is returned to Kebec.
(I)-Jean Guton (Guyon) (Dion) dit DuBuisson (1592-1663) married June 2, 1615,
France (I)-Mathurine Madeleine Robin,d-1662, this family of 8 arrived Kebec this year.
Or is this the (I)-Jean Guyon who arrived Kebec 1619?? Very suspicious!
(I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married Madeleine Boule likely an Indian or Metis possible daughter ?? (I)-Eustache Boule b-1600 arrived Kebec 1618 and was here in 1629.
(II)-Noel Guyon b-1638 Kebec
(II)-Francoise Guyon b-1639 Kebec
(I)-Guillaume Guillemot, sieur Duplessis Bouchard aka Duplessis Quebodo a lieutenant of Emery de Caen transported (I)-Robert Giffard's de Moncel (1587-1668) colony to Beauport and helped in the foundation of Trois Rivieres.
(I)-Noel Juchereau des Chastelets, arrived Kebec 1634
Manitouchatche La Nasse, a Savage is baptized a relative of Pierre Antoine, Savage.
Monsieur de Lauson is at Trois Rivieres this year.
(I)-Robert Lecorg arrived Kebec 1634
Sasousmat Marsolet, b-1605/09, a Savage is baptized and given the surname Marsolet.
(I)-Jacques Michel, a French Huguenot who brought the English to Kebec, died this year in Kebec.
Sieur (I)-Oliver is at Kebec (an interpreter of the Algonquins?).
(I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is captured by the Hiroquois in the spring of this year. He managed to escape to the Huron Nation.
Father (I)-Nicolect, a Recolect is believed to have been drowned by the Huron. This must apply to pre 1629 as the Recollet are not allowed into New France after 1632. This would be Father Nicolas Viel d-1625. He produced the first dictionary of the Huron Language.
Under the orders of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur of Laviolette (1604-1660) travels to the mouth of the Saint-Maurice river to found a fur trading post and a fort. It will come to be known as Trois-Rivičres. For a long time, this site will be one of the most advantageous for the activities of fur traders. Tanguay suggests Laviolette is an alias for Goupil, others however suggest Nicolas Goupil & Laviolette are two different persons.
By this year, more than 50 seigneuries were assigned along the St. Lawrence River. The seigneur or lord had to declare himself a vassal of the King. The soil belonged to the seigneur, but the King held the title to all lands. The King retained the mineral or subsoil rights and all oak trees on the property. The peasant settlers could only rent the land and were servants of the lord.
Cap de la Madeleine near Trois Rivieres (established July 1, 1634) is established this year and becomes the home of many Metis People..
Between 1634 and August 1663, while the colony was governed by the Compagnie des Cent Associes, about 262 filles a marier (marriageable girls) were recruited by individuals or by private religious groups who paid their travel expenses and provided for their lodging until they were married. It is noteworthy that savage girls sent to France for an education could return to Quebec under the Fille a Marier program or the Fille du Roi program. An interesting observation in the 1663-1665 lists of girls, was that no documentation followed the girls. They could in effect select their name and place of birth, which some did. It is also interesting that dit names often represents the given name taken at one time, that conflicts with a previous name given. If there is no conflict then dit is not used but there is no assurance the name given is correct. It is noteworthy that the good sisters prided themselves in the educated of a savage girl in reading and writing French, dressed as the French, learned the manners and home skills like sewing, cooking then you couldn't tell them from the French girls. It stands to reason they would instruct them in selecting suitable names and birth places so as to attract the highest caliber Frenchmen in New France.
The brothers (I)-Noel Juchereau and (I)-Jean Juchereau de Meur are the first to hold the title seigneur. Some are given seigneurs, while others must buy them. Others suggest that (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) was the first to become a seigneur by obtaining the fief of Beauport a few miles below Kebec. Others to follow are Pierre Legardeau de Repentigny, Charles Legardeaur de Tilly, (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606 and brother (I)-Michel Le Neuf du Herisson (1601-1642). It is noteworthy that the Jesuits also brought workmen, laborers and settlers to bring their seigneur lands into production.
The Huron People very reluctantly allowed the Jesuits to live among them. The people believed that maintaining harmony with nature and between other peoples was the highest order of existence. They believed the Jesuits offered disharmony, universal guilt, a vengeful God, sexual self-denial (which was one of the principle causes of illness), the fundamental inadequacy of man and the eternal fires of damnation. These were all very strange concepts and were alien to the People's very ancient traditions that predated Christianity. As a Huron Chief said to Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649): "You are talking of overthrowing the Country". In short, freedom and democracy for slavery.
The Jesuit believe there is a divinity that made earth and men, but the People noticed they are more concerned with temples, priests, ceremonies and religious feasts. The Huron have only one wife, they don't marry relatives, they believe in the immortality of the soul, they believe animals are immortal and have souls.
The Jesuit Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) attempted to ridicule a Montagnis Shaman, but only brought ridicule upon himself and his Church. The Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) is amazed that the unhappy Savages do not know what the fires of Hell mean. (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668), master surgeon, received a Seigniory at Beauport from the Company of New France. He is employing seven men to clear the land. A fur trader named (I)-La Violette and others occupy Trois Riviers (Quebec). These woodsmen, whom the Jesuits considered as having gone native, had fallen into the habit of making Trois Rivieres their winter quarters. The custom of wearing white scarves had already developed, whereas Fort Kebec woodsmen used red. Flamboyant dress, to these voyager traders, is a symbol of their freedom: a badge of honor. It is also noteworthy that home-brewed beer and wine made from domestic fruits are already commonly consumed.
The officials finally recognize Trois Rivieres, (Quebec), a trading center, upstream from Fort Kebec at the mouth of the Saint Maurice River, by building a fort in this location. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), to confirm this recognition, built a fort forty miles upriver at Trois Riviers, he says, to check the Free-trading English seamen who had established trade during the French absence. The Fort is intended to ensure French Free-traders deal with Fort Kebec and not the English. Trois Rivieres remains the most popular starting point for exploration. The Company of one Hundred associates, created and controlled by Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), granted six arpents of land to the Jesuit.
THE KNOWN INHABITANTS OF TROIS RIVIERES
Trois Rivieres existed as fur trading post since 1615 but the period of 1629 to 1632 only included
Jack Hertel (1603-1651) who stayed during the English occupation and therefore was given a land grant in 1634 at Trois Rivieres, he is considered as the first settler and founder of Trois Rivieres. He is recorded at Trois Rivieres in 1633
Guillaume Isabel, was awarded 24 arpents of land at Trois Rivieres so it is likely he was here during the English occupation
Two unnamed Frenchmen are killed near Trois Rivieres, in 1633
There likely are up to 7 Frenchmen at Trois Rivieres during the English occupation but their names were not recorded because some practiced cannibalism.
Those who were at Trois Rivieres in 1633 are:
Marc Antoine de Brasdefer de Chateaufort, who was assumed
to be governor of Trois Rivieres but his tenure was (1636-1639)
Barthelemi Birtaut aka Bertault
Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681)
New folks who were at Trois Rivieres in 1634 are:
General du Plessis Bouchard some contend he was Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660)
(I)-Nicolas Goupil?, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) was governor Trois Rivieres (1634-1636), He arrived Trois Rivers July 1, 1634 to build a fort and returned to France April 17, 1636. It is noteworthy that Laviolette is a dit nickname used by many folks at the time.
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer Commandant Trois Rivieres, commisiond in 1630 but arrived 1634, Governor (1636-1639)
Maupertus Commandant Trois Rivieres (1635-1636)
Pierre Droulet, d-1635
The Jesuits were assigned 6 arpents of land at Trois Rivieres but didn't occupy it until 1637. However Trois Rivieres was used as a staging point to the interior missions.
New folks who were at Trois Rivieres in the fort proper. (1635-1649) first listed dates are from my records and may not be arrival date. You can go to that date and see my first entry. Keep in mind those who had no children were not considered as settlers, those who never married might not be listed, Coureur de Bois were usually not listed and Metis were excluded from most records.
Aubuchon, d-1681, first listed 1647
Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626, first recorded 1650
(II?)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) arrived 1634, went to Huron country, 1642 in Quebec, at Trois Rivieres 1645 Indian wife and family 1642?
Emery Cailleteau, (1606-1653), first listed 1647
Chapelle de Jesuits, listed 1637
Martin Chauvin, b-1619, first recorded 1649
(I)-Claude David (1621-1681), first listed 1649
Antoine Desrosiers, first listed 1636
Sebastien Dodier Sr.?, first listed 1645
Sebastien Dodier Jr.?, first listed 1645
Bertrand Fafard dit Laframboise (1620-1660), first listed 1645
Thomas Godfroy de Normandville, d-1652, first recorded 1641
Pierre Guillet, b-1626 and brother Mathurin Guillet, both first recorded 1649
Elie Grimard, first recorded 1638
Jean Houdan dit Gaillarbois, no record
Claude Houssaya, no record
Guillaume Isabel, listed 1636 awarded 24 arpents of land
Pierre Michel Lefebvre (1616-1697), first listed 1645
Le fiel Pachirini, no record
Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697), first listed 1634
Martin de Repentigny, b-1619, first listed 1647
Jean Sauvaget, d-1716 no record, first noted 1636 1st married about 1634 (I)-Guillaume Benassis, 2nd married 1656 (I)-Elie (Etienne Bourbaut sieur de L'Isle of Trois Rivieres d-1677
(I)-Etienne Seigneuret (1620-1677), first listed 1647 married daughter Jean Sauvaget above
Gilles Trottier, (1691-1655), first listed 1646
Jean Veron dit Grandmesnil, first listed 1646
Etienne Vien, (1613-1653), first listed 1653
The Island of Miskou, in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence is visited by fishermen from France, Portugal, Italy and many other regions.
Champlain arrived and fears the Savages are continuing trading with the English.
the interpreter, is in Kebec.
Meanwhile, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sends (I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1742) to live among the tribes boarding the Great Lakes. Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), the first superior of the Jesuit order in New France, suggested the making of beer and the building of a brewery. He also wintered with a hunting band of Montagnis. He found the experience extremely trying and concluded that the natives needed to be settled for conversion. He failed to learn their language. The Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and two companions traveled to the Huron Country.
Four French vessels arrived with workmen and included (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1858) and his family. Eight families, in total, arrived this year. (I)-Gaspard Boucher arrived with his son (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) who settled 1643 or 1645 at Trois Rivieres. Pierre would spend 1637-1641 living at Huronia, assisting the missionaries. The Jesuit sent three recruits: Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1599-1652) and (I)-Jean Liegeois (1600-1655)- a lay brother. A missionary is sent to Trois Rivieres (Quebec). Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) departed for Trois Rivieres. Commander (I)-du Plessis-Bouchard, (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) Sieur de L'Espinay son in law (I)-Louis Hebert, (1575-1627) and Father (I)-Ambrose Davost (1586-1643) later departed for Trois Rivieres to meet the Wendat (Huron) coming down for trade. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) attempted to secure passage with the Wendat into their country but The Partridge an Algonquian forbid them to take the Jesuits. After much discussion and threats, three Frenchmen, Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), (I)-Fathers Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) and a Frenchman called (I)-Le Baronare, are allowed to enter the west to take over the Recollets mission to the Hurons. Father (I)-Ambrose Davost (1586-1643) managed to secure passage with a later fur trading party of Wendat. (I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) also departed west about this time and would reach Wisconsin. (I)-Robert Le Coq ,a lay person, also traveled to Huronia and eventually became the Jesuit businessman of the Mission.
The Huron are decimated by disease and their numbers have been reduced by 12,000 to 15,000 persons since the arrival of the Black Robes. In every hut the Black Robes visit death follows. Where they don't visit there is no sickness. The Jesuits do not see the trend or the cause and effect relationships as the Indians do. They are blinded by what they believe is an opportunity to save souls. The Huron begin to drive out the Jesuit with sticks and stones. The elders cry for their death, as they are accused of practicing sorcery.
Sillery, (Quebec) became the first Indian reservation in Canada funded by (I)-Noel Brulart de Sillary (1577-1640), but it failed by 1680 due to alcoholism, epidemic and difficulties adapting to a sedentary existence. The French are hoping the savages will give up their culture, religion and way of life to become 'civilized' farmers. It is noteworthy that these savages have been farming for over 5,000 years and have developed over 55% of all known food crops in the world. They also showed the French how to farm in Canada.
Father (I)-Jean de Quen (1603-1659) is erroneously credited with being the first to discover the Great Lake Pickouagham (Lake St. Jean) above Tadoussac, (Quebec) but a map produced in 1544 by Jean Alfonse shows this lake.
The engages of Kebec do not know where the Country of the Huron is, but these potential Coureurs des Bois would rather go to the Country of the Huron than to any other earthly paradise.
Three new families also arrived from France. The Huron (Wendat) arrived for trade, and the Jesuit party soon departed for the interior. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) told the Huron (Wendat) that as soon as they embraced the faith, the French would marry their daughters. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit refused to perform such marriages for fear the French would sink into the barbarism of the Savages. This is likely the beginning of the country marriage tradition in Canada. The Huron (Wendat) country, for a second year, experienced a drought, as though the Great Spirit was unhappy with the Jesuits being in that region. The Huron (Wendat) believed that the Jesuits were trying to destroy their people and ordered the cross be taken down. Seven years earlier, a cross had been raised in the same land and famine had followed.
The Jesuit College opened at Kebec, giving instruction in French, Huron, Latin and Montagnais. The Jesuits, Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Ememond Masse, arrival greatly affected the daily lives of the colonies and the Natives.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) commented on the men of his village who returned from a contest with another tribe. They are marching in bare feet in the snow, having lost their footwear, yet they are all in high spirits. Brebeuf visited 20 villages and estimates it represents 30,000 souls.
(II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) disposed a company at Machias, (Maine) who had a trading house, killing two men and plundering their goods. (II)-Charles is Governor of Acadia, but a feud has developed with Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier d'Aulnay d-1650 which culminates in 1645 when, Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier d'Aulnay d-1650 burns down his property, kills his men and is responsible for his second wife's death.
The parish Trois Rivieresr aka L'Immaculee Conception des Trois Rivieres is established this year.
January 1: The ship Mary & Jane is stranded on Sable Island.
January 15: (I)-Robert Giffard de Beauport (1587-1658) obtained a concession to Beauport, Kebec.
January 19: Louys Saincte Foy is at the Nutural Nation.
February: The Jesuits report a Frenchman had wintered with the savages last year.
February 15: Six arpents of land at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) including seigniorial rights is given to the Jesuit but did not take possession until 1637. The merchants contend the Jesuit is only interested in land, furs and power.
March: (I)-Robert Giffard de Beauport (1587-1658), his wife and his children and about thirty colonists depart France for New France. Among them:
(I)-Jean Guyon du Boisson married 1634 Madeleine Boule
(I)-Zacharie Cloutier, (1590-1677) married Xainte Dupont (1596-1677), established Chateau Richer
(I)-Noel Langlois, (1606-1634) married 1634 Francoise Grenier (Garnieu), d-1665
(I)-Jean Juchereau de Maure (1592-1672)
(I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) married 1625 Julienne Barry
March 31: Some of the Savages are fearful of being poisoned by the French. When asked why, they said the English or French said the French would try to poison them.
April 5: The Montaignais savages reported the Huron had taken some Frenchmen prisoner to kill them for spreading diseases among the people.
March 13: Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to be known as the "immortals".
April 30: (I)-Jean Perrault and (I)-Andre (Antoine) Richard b-1600 arrived Kebec.
May 19: A French ship is reported at Tadoussac and three English ships are also there.
May 21: The Champlain party arrived at Fort Kebec, landing first at Tadoussac (Quebec). A few original settlers are claimed to still be at the Fort (Kebec) upon their arrival. (I)-Francois Marguerie, an interpreter, had been living with the Savages during the occupation and would receive a large grant of land in Trois Rivieres (Quebec) for his loyalty. The first Trois Rivieres (Quebec) settler is recorded as (I)-Jacques Hertel this year. Keep in mind a settler is one who has had a child baptized. Singles don't qualify. Country marriages and Metis offspring also don't qualify as settlers.
May 22: Kebec, four ships arrived led by captain du Plessart, captain Bontemps, captain Pierre de Neslf, and captain Deville. Lormel is captain of an English ship taken by the French. A bark lands independently. They contained 43 colonists of which 8 are the (I)-Jean Guyon (1592-1663) family and Champlain is among them..
May 23: Champlain arrived in Kebec with three ships loaded with supplies, workmen, a few soldiers, and even some women and children. Three Jesuits had returned the previous year.
May 24: Eighteen canoes of Savages descended to Kebec, but, sieur Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635), suspecting that they might go on to the English, who have three vessels at Tadoussac (Quebec) and a bark far up the Saint Lawrence River. Sieur Oliver, the interpreter, is sent to the cabins of the Savages to convince them not to trade to the French enemy, the English. The Savages did visit Kebec.
May 25: Sieur de Champlain (1570-1635) fearing the loss of trade made his famous speech; "when that great house (fort with an enclosed village) shall be built, (among the People), then our young men will marry your daughters, and we will be one people." The Savages said if that should happen, we would be vary happy. The expectation was that the French would convert to their culture as Coureurs des Bois as that is the way of the Country. The expectations of the French was that the Savages would settle down in compounds near the French and become French converts.
May 26: Three days after (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived in Kebec, the Canadians (Metis, and Algonquin) from Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) led by Kepitant, came in crowds for the usual bartering. There were eighteen canoes. Kepitant had been trading with the English for guns to defend themselves from the Iroquois who had guns. Some of the Canadians suggested they are on their way to trade with the English. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) feared they might proceed to Tadoussac (Quebec) to trade with the English. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) promised the Canadians that when the great house is built, our young men will marry your daughters and we shall be one people. Kepitant did not believe the words of Champlain.
May 31: A shallop from Tadoussac arrived Kebec bringing news that three vessels of the Associates had arrived. A 4th ship with General du Plessis Bouchard, General of the fleet also arrived. Captain Bontemps had captured an English ship. It is noteworthy that General Bouchard was fully aware of the trading center (or town as the Jesuits called it) of Trois Rivieres and its name before Champlain decided to build a fort in that location.
May 31: Kebec, arrival (I)-Louis Henry Pinguet (1590-1671) and wife
(I)-Louise Lousche Boucher b-1589 and family:
(II)-Francoise Bouchier ?(1625-1661), married November 7, 1645, Pierre Launay (1645-1654), 2nd marriage 1655 Vincent Poirier
(II)-Pierre Boucher ?(1629-1704), married Anne Chevalier
(II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) married Marie Madeliene Du Point
May 31: Kebec, arrived (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658) others suggested d-1668 ( a cousin of (I)-Louis Henry Pinguet (1590-1671) above) and wife Marie Regnouard (1610-1665) This is the second trip to Kebec for Robert, first time he tried to marry an Indian girl but was refused in 1628.
June 4: Kebec, Captain de Nesle arrived Kebec with monsieur (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668), seigneur de Beauport, arrived Kabec June 4, 1634, married to (I)-Marie Renouard b-1659, who was pregnant and gave birth to one daughter (II)-Francoise is born June 12, 1634, Kebec (II)-Marie Giffard also born 1634. BUT in one place he says Marie Francoise Giffard is born 1628 in France and another place born 1634 Kebec? (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, d-1677, a carpenter and wife Xainte Dupont (1596-1677) arrived Kebec same date as (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668).
June 12: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Giffard (1634-1657/65) daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658/1668), seigneur de Beauport, and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659 Birth is also listed 1628 France.
June 12: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Francoise Giffard, died August 11, 1665, Quebec daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658/1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659: married November 21, 1645, Jean Junchereau. However Tanguay says she was born 1628 Kebec which sounds more likely.
June 24: Kebec Noel Langlois (1603/06-1684) arrived Kebec and married July 1634 Francoise Garnier (Grenier), Algonquin Metis d-1665.
June 24: Captain Morieult arrived Kebec.
June 24: The English ship, commanded by de Lormel arrived Kabec.
July: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would established a fort at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) to protect the fur trade as the Huron and Algonquin frequent this location. There was great concern that some of the trade was going to the English from Trois Rivieres.
July: A young French Huguenot boy drowned right in front of Fort Kebec. A young man Bengalese who was baptized in France but originally from East Indies is laying sick in Kebec.
July 1: (I)- Nicolas Goupil?, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) arrived Trois Rivieres and was governor Trois Rivieres (1634-1636). He immediately commenced building a fort starting with a stockade. He departed New France April 17, 1636 to France. It is noteworthy that Laviolette is a dit nickname used by many folks at the time, his real name is unknown. Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) was appointed and commissioned as de la Violette by Samuel de Champlain.
July 1: Father Breboeuf and Father Daniel left in a bark for Trois Rivieres to meet the Huron. They were to make a mission at Trois Rivieres. Father Davost from Tadoussac accompanied General du Plessis Bouchard who wanted to see the settlement and trading post at Trois Rivieres.
July 1: (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) departed Kebec with two fleets of canoes bound for Trois Rivieres, he was in the second fleet which was to explore the Upper Country. Both canoe fleets were involved in building a fort at Trois Rivieres. (I)-Jean went on to Lake Huron, Sault St. Marie, Lake Superior, the Straits of Mackinaw, Lake Michigan and Green Bay. He wore Chinese robes among the Winnebago (Winnipegou), the People of the Sea expecting to meet Chinese Mandarins. He only met the Dakota and Sioux but learned of the Missisepe (Mississippi) Great River. Some suggest he discovered the Mississippi but it was likely the Wiconsia River.
July 2: A Frenchman was struck down by a savage of the Petite Nation who says he was drunk when he struck the blow.
July 4: Some contend (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660) was governor Trois Rivieres from 1634 to 1636 but (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort was recorded as Governor Trois Rivieres 1630-1635 and Governor New France for 1/2 year in 1636 then back as commandant for Trois Rivieres. In fact its hard to find and reference to (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660) or any man named Goupil or sieur Laviolette in this time period. The Jesuit Relations does say that (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort was Governor of Trois Rivieres for some time before assuming the Governorship of New France.
July 4: Louts Amantacha, a Huron savage is baptized in France and returned to Kebec.
July 4: Father Brebeauf records that when he arrived Trois Rivieres a trading post already existed in this location. Only eleven Huron canoes are at Trois Rivieres, at this time, when he arrived, due to threats from the Hiroquois. Brebeauf records that General du Plessis Bouchard arrived July 5, 1634. It is noteworthy that General du Plessis Bouchard upon arriving May 31, 1634 at Tadoussac, his first order of business was to visit the settlement of Trois Rivieres. It would appear that France was well aware of Trois Rivieres before and during the English occupation. Champlain likely complained in 1629 of those free traders, out of Trois Riviers, who trade with the English.
July 4: Trois Rivieres is claimed to officially established by (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660). some suggest Nicolas Goupil & Laviolette are two different people. HOWEVER (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) is the first official land owner and first settler, so he qualifies as the person who officially established Trois Rivieres and not Laviolette. Others claim Champlain officially established Trois Rivieres because he ordered construction of the fort.. The first records at Trois Rivieres commenced from this date with the arrival of the Jesuits. Activity from 1615 to 1634 birth, marriage and death goes mostly unreported, however at least 7 Frenchmen resided at Trois Rivieres during the English occupation 1629-1632 until the return in 1634 of Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). It is also noteworthy that the Jesuits claim a town already exists at Trois Rivieres, therefore Laviolette cannot be claimed to have founded the town. The Jesuits also recorded the name of this town was Trois Rivieres. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit Relations makes no reference to a Nicolas Goupil or a sieur Laviolette, which they would surly have done, if he was a person of importance.
July 4: An Algonquain Captain, called The Partridge, who lives in the town of Trois Rivieres advised the Huron not to take the Frenchmen into the country. He expressed concern that if a Frenchman died among the Huron, the good will between the Huron and French would be lost. Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard, arrived Trois Rivieres during these discussions. General du Plessis Bouchard assured them that the good will would not be lost and the Algonquain were satisfied. But the Huron being smaller in numbers were not willing. General du Plessis Bouchard and Monsieur de I'Espimay traded porcelain and tobacco for a place for 6 Frenchmen. However when the Huron were about to depart they said they would only take 3 Frenchmen. One Long Robe and two young men (Petit Pre & la Baron). La Baron had already spent a year among the Huron. Petit Pre gave up his place to allow Father Daniel to take his place. The Fathers agreed to paddle and take limited luggage. Father Davost and five Frenchmen remained behind at Trois Rivieres. Howevewr General du Plessis Bouchard placed Father Davost and the five Frenchmen with the next arriving Huron. Father Daniel would die this month from starvation. (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) is with Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) in Huron country. Brebeuf is told by the Heron that Le Borge of the Island told the Huron that on account of the death of Brule, Champlain demanded four heads..
July 5: At Trois Rivieres only 11 Huron canoes are available to embark 10 additional French and their goods to Huron Country. The Bissiriniens however arrived and reluctantly agreed to deliver some of the Jesuit party to Huron Country. Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard, Monsieur Oliver, Monsieur Coullart and (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) assisted at Trois Rivieres.
July 12: Kebec, marriage (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) to (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec
July 12: Monsieur the Chevalier La Roche Jacquelin commanded the ship Sainct Jacques and cast anchor before Kebec.
July 14: Kebec, Marguerite Memichtigouchiouiscourou meaning 'wife of a Eurpean', b-1633 an Algonqauin.
July 25: Kebec, marriage, (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684),
arrived Kebec 1634,
1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis, born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse but with a French name likely Metis or adopted?)
(II)-Robert Langlois, Metis born July, 1635, Kebec d-1654 Quebec
(II)-Marie Langlois, Metis b-1636, Kebec d-1687 Quebec, married 1660 Quebec (II)-Francois Miville
(II)-Anne Langlois, Metis b-1737, Kebec married age 12 years in 1649 Kebec (II)-Jean Pelletier d-1698
(II)-Marguerite Langlois Metis, b-1639 Kebec d-1697 Beauport married 1653 Quebec (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703)
(II)-Jean Langlois Metis, (1641-1687/98) Kebec/Quebec married 1665 Chateau Richer (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger
(II)-Jeanne Langlois Metis, b-1643 Kebec married 1656/58 Quebec (I)-Rene Chevalier (1626-1679)
(II)-Elizabeth Langlois Metis, b-1645 Kebec 1st married 1662 Quebec (II)-Louis Cote d-1669, 2nd married 1669 Quebec (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648
(II)-Marie Langlois Metis, b-1646 Kebec
(II)-Jean Langlois Metis, b-1648 Kebec married 1675 Quebec (II)-Marie Cadieu
(II)-Noel Langlois Metis, b-1651 Quebec, d-1693 Beauport, 1st married 1672 Quebec (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685, 2nd married 1686 Beauport (II)-Genevieve Parent
2nd marriage July 27, 1666 Chateau Richer, Quebec Marie Crevet, veuve de Robert Caron and one child,
(II)-Marie Anne Langlois married 1694 Beauport Jean Cote
I have received a number of requests concerning the logic I applied to the above posting:
"First I need to make it very clear the intent of my work is not to be a definitive piece of work, as its scope and depth is just too wide and long. I originally, over 60 years ago, tried to maintain source records but found that just too onerous. The intent of my web site is to provide information so that others could conduct their own research. My research is not source records it’s 2nd , 3rd or 4th level records. Tanguay as an example is 2nd level records. I also found that primary records by two source people often conflicted as to facts, at the same time, at the same trading post.
Now as to (I)-Noel Langlois (1603 or 1606 to 1684) some say he arrived 1633, but other records suggest he departed France March 1634 arrived Kebec June 1634. I excluded the 1633 claim as untenable.
Keep in mind that in 1629 the French, Metis and Indian wife’s and companions were deported to France. Some Indian women had already been sent to France for education, baptism and name assignment. They were returned to New France starting about 1633-34 under the Fille a Marier program and later the Fille du Roi program.
Now my record of the marriage to Francois Grenier et Garnier is a concatenated set of records. That is some information is from Tanguay, also likely from the Jesuit Relations records, private diaries of some in New France at the time, and other sources.
The fact that “No marriage contract was found” is interesting, keep in mind a number of French and Metis fled to the interior to live among the natives, and drifted back to Kebec in 1633-1634. Also remember some French Metis families and their Indian guests/or adopted were allowed to stay in Kebec during the English occupation.
“(Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse but with a French name likely Metis or adopted?)” Now when I use a ‘?’ mark it means, ‘I am not sure’. The problem is the Indian/Metis girls under the Fille a Marier program came with no papers. The fact that “No marriage contract was found” her parents couldn’t be identified by Tanguay making and claim difficult. A search of Grenier et Garnier didn’t turn-up any definitive information.
I don’t recall were I got the Algonquin, from Hochelaga (Montreal Area) unless it was part of my research into the folks who fled into the interior during the English occupation.
Sorry I can’t be more helpful."
July 27: Louys de Saincte Foy, surnamed by the Savage Amantacha is sent by Sieur de Champlain (1570-1635) to ensure the Huron come to trade. The Algonquian are trying to discourage the Huron from coming down to Kebec, saying the French will kill them because they killed (I)-Etienne Brusle (Brule) (1592-1632/33). Louys says (I)-Etienne Brusle (Brule) (1592-1632/33), who had been murdered, he was not looked upon as a Frenchman, because he had left his nation and gone over to the English. The Algonquian intended to get the merchandise from the Huron at a very low price, in order afterwards to come themselves and trade it either to the French or English. As a result 500-700 Huron arrived Kabec to trade. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) assured the Savages that, "having given them their word, they would keep it."
July 27: Six French are reported living with the Huron in the extreme northern part of present Simcoe County (Ontario).
August: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) rebuilt Kebec, enlarging the fortifications, and built a fort at the mouth of the St. Maurice River and started another at Trois Rivers (Quebec).
August 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returned to Kebec from Trois Rivieres. He arrived Trois Rivieres after the Jesuits had departed and when the second Huron party arrived with news from the Jesuits saying the Huron number nearly 30,000 and many were sick with measles and stomach ailments.
August 4: General du Plessis Bouchard returned from Trois Rivieres to Kebec and reported they are working with might and main to build the fort. He presented a savage boy named Akhikouch age 12-14 to Champlain. He turned him over to the Jesuits who named him Dieudonne and he died shortly there after. Fathers Buteux and Duteux are to relocate to Trois Rivieres.
August 4: The French have three settlements on the Saint Lawrence River, namely, Fort Kebec, Fort Richelieu on the Island of Sainte Croix 15 leagues above Kebec and Trois Rivieres, 30 leagues above Fort Kebec.
August 8: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Jean Bourdon, sieur de St. Francois, (1601-1668), Attorney General and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, Quebec, he arrived with his friend Abbe Jean LeSueur of St. Sauveur
8: Kebec arrival (I)-Zachere Clouter, b-1589, arrived Kebec 1619 and returned
with wife Xaintes Du Pont (1596-1680) widow Michel Lermusier and children:
(II)-Zachere Clouter Jr. born August 16, 1617; married Madeleine-Barbe Emard on April 4, 1648 at Saint-Barthelemi in La Rochelle, France. They had 8 children, 5 boys and 3 girls, all of whom married neighbors. Zacharie died February 3, 1708 and Barbe May 28, 1708. They are buried at Chateau-Richer.
(II)- Jean Clouter born May 13, 1620, died on October 16, 1690, married January 21, 1648 at Kebec, Marie Martin, died April 26, 1699, daughter of Abraham Martin and Marguerite Langlois. Jean and Marie had 14 children, 10 of whom were girls. . His descendants kept the ancestral home for nearly three centuries.
(II)-Anne Clouter, born January 19, 1626, died February 4, 1648; When she was just ten, her father promised her in marriage to Robert Drouin, an employee of Robert Giffard, and the contract was signed on July 27, 1636; married July 12, 1637, Robert Drouin d-1685. The marriage contract stated that there were to be no conjugal visits between the bride and groom for two years They had six children, two of which died in infancy. Robert remarried in 1649 to widow Marie Chapelier who was not accepted by the Cloutiers and as a result, Zacharie and Xainte raised their grand daughters, Genevieve Drouin and Jeanne Drouin, as their own.
(II)-Marie-Louise Cloutier born March 18, 1632 in Perche, died January 22, 1699, married October 26, 1645, Francois Marguerie, Sieur de La Hayeb-1611, drowned May 23, 1648 at Trois-Rivieres. The couple had no children. Louise married the tailor Jean Mignault dit Chatillon d-1681, with whom she had fourteen children. Louise was married for a third time to Jean-Pierre Mataux . They had no children.
August 8: Kebec arrival (II)-Francois Belanger, b-1612, arrive Kebec 1619, 2nd arrival 1634
August 8: Kebec arrival (I)-Jean Bourdon, Sieur de St Francois died January 12, 1668, married 1635 and 1655
August 12: The French fleet under command of General du Plessis Bouchard weighed anchor at Kebec for Tadoussac (Quebec) and thence to Old France in Europe.
August 26: The Savages brought some plums gathered not far from Kebec.
September 3: Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1599-1652) took up residence at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) which is still under construction. A Basque student is reported killed at Gaspe Peninsula, (Quebec) over the winter. Famine walked the St. Lawrence River valley due to poor weather.
September 8: The Savages at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) called Metaberoutin are catching sturgeon fish as long as the height of man (5-6 feet).
September 19: The last of the Jesuit party finally arrived Huron Country, complaining of hardship, abandonment, and theft of their belongings by the Bissiriniens. The Algonquin taunted the Jesuit saying the Huron would kill them like they did to (I)-Estienne Brule (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633).
October 1: Kebec, marriage, (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) son
(I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1727) and (I)-Marie Rollet Metis or Indian d-1649; married October 1,
1634, Kebec, Helene Desportes epouse 1640 Kebec Noel Morin (see 1602)
(III)-Joseph Hebert Metis b-1636 Kebec married 1660 Quebec Marie Charlotte DePoitiers epouse 1667 Simon Lefebvre
(III)-Francoise Hebert Metis b-1638 Kebec married 1651 Quebec (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699)
(III)-Angelique Herbert Metis b-1639 Kebec
October 23: About 15-20 Savages return to Trois Rivieres (Quebec) from war with a young prisoner, a Hiroquois. They intend to kill him in remembrance of relatives previously killed including the three Frenchmen last year. They planned torture, roasting and eating him. The Jesuit said, cruelties displeases us, and that we are not cannibals. The Hiroquois is freed in the spirit of peace.
November 3: Kebec, baptism, (I)-Joseph Martin b-1609, a Matchonon Savage is baptized and given the Surname Martin. Possible Metis son of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, (1589-1664), it also possible he has a Metis daughter (II)-Anne Martin died December 4, 1683 Quebec, married November 17, 1635, Kebec, Jean Cote
November 8: The French family Giffart refers to the Savage (Metis?) children as 'it'. More commonly they are called Savage, Barbarian, or infidel.
December 13: Near Gaspe Peninsula, (Quebec) the Savages killed and ate a young Basque boy left with them to learn the language. Those of Tadoussac, (Quebec) with whom I passed the winter a year ago, have eaten each other in some locations. The famine was witnessed at Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) they came in bands, greatly disfigured and fleshless as skeletons. There was no warehouse at Trois Rivieres at this time so food was also scarce among the French. No one died of starvation as what was available was shared among the people. Lack of snow was the cause of this great famine, because they could not catch the larger animals and this condition lasted most of the winter.
FRENCH HISTORY 1635-1636
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