The first charter of the Virginia Company declared that all colonists and their descendents would enjoy all liberties. This contrasts with French rule that demands absolute obedience to King and Rome.
FRENCH HISTORY 1611-1614
FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
(I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is claimed by Kebec but his first venture to New France was at Port Royal, Acadia (Annapolis, Nova Scotia) from early 1603 to September 1607. It is believed he experimented with agriculture, the first known crops by Europeans, in Canada. This presumes the Viking never planted anything. It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is in Acadia (1603-1607), A conflict with birth of Guillemette of 1606? and his other children (see 1602)
John Knight, an Englishman hired by the Danes, in search of the
Northwest Passage, got stuck in ice off the coast of Labrador, north of Nain.
The coast of New England is officially called Northern Virginia, and King James I, in 1606, granted the entire region to the Northern Virginia Company. The first charter of the Virginia Company declared that all colonists and their descendents would enjoy all liberties. This contrasts with French rule that demands absolute obedience to King and God.
The English believe the French viewed the New World as a potential source of raw material.
The English, in contrast, is overpopulated, saying the land grows weary of its People. Emigration is therefore encouraged in order to form self-supporting agricultural communities. Agriculture is not a high French objective, but they are eventually forced into farming.
Word reaches Port Royal, Acadia that the Company of Merchants had broken up and therefore no new supplies would be sent to Port Royal. They were on their own.
Francisco Fernandez de Ecija led an expedition to find and remove the English settlers at Croatoan along the North Carolina coast. He search the Carolina coast from Santa Elena (Port Royal Sound) and Cape Fear. He found nothing and was unaware of the English at Jamestown.
March 16: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) set out on an abortive expedition, reaching only as far as Port aux Coquilles on the St. Croix River.
May 13: (I)-Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Pountrincourt (1557-1615), joins the de Monts Company. He arrived in Acadia with his son, (II)-Charles de Biencourt, Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623), and (I)-Jean Ralluau, (I)-Marc Lescarbot (1570-1642), (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727). (I)-Louis Herbert grew herbs to use as medicine to treat sick settlers and returned to France in 1616, but would return to New France in 1617 with his wife.
July 27: The de Monts Company ship reached Port Royal, Acadia and they planted apple trees from Normandy. They began to construct a road from Port Royal to Cape Digby.
September 5: De Poutrincourt and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) explored south as far as Martha's Vineyard before returning on November 14.
(I)-Louis Herbert was in Port Royal from the summer of 1606 through the winter of 1606/1607. Others who wintered were Poutrincourt (Lord of the Manor), Champlain, Biencourt, Marc L'Escarbot, (the lawyer), Pontgrave Champdoré, and Daniel Hay (surgeon)
Merchants ignored the trade monopoly, and free trade contributed to the collapse of the Monts Trading Company.
(I)-Marc Lescarbot (1570-1642) wrote: by all accounts everyone ate well at Port Royal: stone-ground whole wheat bread, sturgeon, lobster, crabmeat, mussels, vegetables including corn, squash, beans and cabbage. Of all their meats none is so tender as moose and none so delicate as beaver tail. A bottle of wine topped off the menu.
Six men die at Port Royal from the exertion of grinding grain by hand, so de Pountrincourt built a water driven mill on the Allains River.
(I)-John Popham and (I)-Ferdinando Gorges of the Northern Virginia Company, established a trading post on an island in the mouth of the Kennebec River. One hundred English settlers established Fort St. George (Popham Colony) (I)-Raleight Gilbert is appointed Governor. Confronted by numerous well armed Indians, the settlers abandoned this project within a month. Some suggest Thomas Dale was the Governor of the failed Virginia colony and that he quit upon hearing of the French settlement, that America was not big enough to contain both the French and English.
Others suggest The Plymouth Company under command of George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert established an English colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River, Maine. They report that the French were in the area. The cold winter of 1607/08 discouraged this venture. They all returned to England in 1608.
Still others suggest Captains Popham & Gilbert established a colony on the River Sagadahock New England (Maine) and with 100 men built Fort George. The colony was abandoned in 1608 as their patron had died.
King James of England extended their right of occupation from 33rd degree of north latitude up to the 45th degree giving them power to attack all foreigners whom they might find within these limits of 50 miles out to sea. They thus claimed the southern half of Acadia (Nova Scotia) and the southern half of Maine. To the south they claimed the northern 2/3 of South Carolina. The actual Royal patents reads "we give them all the lands up to the 45 degree, which do not actually belong to any Christian Prince. This French king already claimed and possessed the said lands to the 39 degree and that included New York and New Jersey. The Jesuit claim in 1523 the French through discover had claimed to the 33 degree to include the Carolina's and North. The maps of this time issued by Spain, Italy, Holland, Germany, and England her self acknowledged New France down to the 38 degree or New Jersey North. The English Kings proclamation established the rules to ensure war would be inevitable between England and France.
From 1607 to 1613 no European remained in Acadia, the area however was visited by traders and fishermen during this period.
Bartholomew Gosnold (1572-1607) carried 52 of the original Jamestown colonists to the Virginia coast.
May: John Smith and Christopher Newport ventured up the James River as far as Richmond from Jamestown.
May 24: The forced collapse of the Monts Trading Company resulted in the employees being ordered back to France, including all colonists. Which they did in the fall of this year.
August 11: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed for Canso, Acadia ( Nova Scotia).
December: John Smith (1579-1631) led an expedition up the Chickahominy River from Jamestown and was captured by the Powhatan for three months. He wrote in 1616: "New England is that part of America in the South Sea, and here are no hard Landlords to racke us with high rents, or extorted fines to sonsume us, no tedious pleas in law to consume us, so freely hath God and his Majesty bestowed those blessings on them that will attempt to obtain them, as here every man may be master and owner of his own labour and land, or the greatest part in small time."
Population of Kebec 31 French, 28 being workmen building the trading post.
The Virginia Company on the Kennebec River is abandoned, as the Indians refused to trade.
(I)-Bonerme, the first surgeon in Canada accompanied (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) this year. He died Kebec the winter of 1608-1609.
(I)-Jean Duval arrived Kebec. Some suggest Nouvelle-France was started with 6 families totaling 28 people. Twenty would die the first winter. Duval conspired against Champlain and is executed in Kebec. His three companions are returned to France.
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage Marguerite Langlois, b-1611? not possible; married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 an Englishman..
(I)-Abraham Martin dit
L'Ecossais (meaning the Scotsman) (1589-1664) but his actual birth and birth
place is in question. He is believed to have been in Acadia and on the St.
Lawrence before he became known. He is believed to have had at least three
wives but I suspect he debauched more than one native girl: I also suspect
there could be more than one Abraham and or Marguerite Langlois?
A Scottish girl who gave him one son in Scotland:
(II)-Abraham Martin who d-1673 Scotland
A second marriage a Huron-Wendat girl who gave him four or more children, but I suspect this represents more than one girl?; some suggest Matchonon (Huron) Savage Marguerite Langlois, b-1611? not possible; married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 an Englishman. see 1610, 1613, 1724
(II)-Joseph Martin Metis b-1609
(II)-Marguerite Martin Metis b-1611
(II)-Anne Martin Metis b-1614 Kebec d-1683 Quebec some say her mother was Marguerite Couillard Metis married 1635 (I)-Jean Cote d-1661
(II)-Eustache Martin Metis b-1621, Kebec
A third marriage is claimed to be Marguerite Langlois b-1611 others say b-1595 bapt 1600, married 1621 France which I find a stretch. I suspect Marguerite Langlois b-1611 is a Metis or Indian girl.
(II)-Marguerite Martin Metis b-1624 Kebec d-1679 Chateau Richer, married 1638 Kebec Etienne Racine
(II)-Helene Martin Metis b-1627 Kebec 1st married 1640 Kebec Claude Etienne; 2nd married 1647 Kebec Medard Chouarts
The issue of was Abraham and family in Kebec during the occupation is not resolved. However I find it strange no children are born during this period in Kebec nor France of a man known for an excessive sex drive and rapist.
(II)-Marie Martin Metis b-1635 Kebec d-1699 married 1648 Kebec Jean Cloutier
(II)-Adrien Martin Metis b-1638 Kebec
(II)-Madeleine Martin Metis b-1640 Kebec 1st married 1653 Kebec Nicolas Froget; 2nd married 1681 Repentigny, Jean Baptiste Fonteneau
(II)-Barbe Martin Metis (1643-1660) Kebec married 1655 Kebec Pierre Biron
(II)-Anne Martin Metis b-1645 Kebec married 1658 Kebec Jacques Rate
(II)-Charles Amador Martin Metis b-1648 Kebec d-1711
We may never know the truth around this founding family of New France. Keep in mind surnoms or nick names of Martin are:
Barnabe, Beaulieu, Boisverd, Brindamour, Cote, DeBoiscorneau, DeLino, Henne, Jolicoeur, Lachapelle, Lacombe, Ladoucher, Lajoie, Langevin, Langoumois, Lariviere, Laterreur, L'Ecossais, LeFrancais, Mace, Masse, Montpellier, Ondoyer, Pellant, Sansoucy, St Andre, St. Jean, St. Martin, St Onage and Versailles to further complicate research, according to Tanguay. I just can't spare the time to spend more time on this family line.
A settlement ship to Jamestown included five Poles. Their numbers
would rise to forty-five. This clearly indicated that non-English was allowed in the colonies.
France, on the other hand, only wanted Roman Catholic French in their Colony.
Kebec Settlement (Kebec means Narrow Passage)
This drawing is based on a sketch by Champlain. The population of Quebec is some 25-28 persons. Others suggest Fort Quebec, at this time it, is no more than a minor trading post. This is likely, based on the fact that 16 men died of scurvy, leaving a crew of 9-10 men. The name Quebec is from the native word Kebec which means narrowing of the waters. The first task is to build a storehouse, three main buildings and then to plant a garden. This Stadacona location, where the waters narrow, is an excellent location, designed to restrict free trade and impose a French monopoly on the trade route. Stadacona, in 1535, was a well constructed town of 500 Iroquois. There is some evidence to suggest they were absorbed into the Huron culture.
(I)-Jean Duval, d-1608, a workman, and four others arrived Kebec 1608 and are plotting to kill (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). They hoped to become agent and intended to turn the trading post over to the Basque or Spanish to encourage free trade and, thereby, profit. Others suggest the Basque had bribed Duval and company. (I)-Jean Antoine Natel, d-1608, a sailor and locksmith also arrived Kebec 1608, one of the conspirators, told the French of the plan, resulting in the hanging of (I)-Jean Duval, d-1608. His severed head is impaled on a pike and placed in full view. Three other conspirators are sent home (to France) in chains. Unknown to the French, the St. Lawrence River valley is a disputed territorial zone. The Algonquian people, having recently recovered their lands from the Iroquois, easily enter into alliance with the French. This is probably the reason they did not challenge the (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) settlement at Stadacona (Kebec).
Champdore visited Port Royal saying it was in good order.
Mathieu da Costa, an African Blackman signed a contract in Amsterdam to provide service in Canada or Acadia to Pierre du gua de Monts for the years 1609 to 1612.
January 7: The de Mont Trading Company monopoly is extended for one year. Three ships are sent out; one to revive the colony at Port Royal, one to the lower St. Lawrence, and one to found a post at Quebec under the direction of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635).
April 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed France aboard the Don de Dieu.
June 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived Tadoussac, Quebec. Some suggest (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is on this ship but others suggest he didn't arrive until 1610. Basque traders are working Tadoussac, Quebec at the mouth of the Saguenay River when the de Monts Trading Company arrived. Some suggest (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) and (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1633) were on this ship with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and became the best of friends. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) reported to the King of France and was not subject to Champlain. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) remained at Tadoussac from 1608 to 1635 remaining even during the English occupation. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) lived in a building constructed in 1600 by (I)-Pierre Chauvin, d-1602 and lived among the Montagnais and Saguenay peoples as interpreter/trader. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) was called the Little King of Tadoussac and he fathered a number of Metis children among the Montagnais.
April 13: Tadoussac, A Basque fur-trader is told to stop trading by (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) and the Basque set upon Pontgrave with musket and cannon, killing one man and severely wounding two others, including Pontgrave. However upon (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrive the Basques were greatly outnumbered and agreed to a truce, not to molest Pontgrave or De Monts. It is noteworthy that Pontegrave was in command and Champlain was a geographer.
April 13: (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint-Aignan (1587-1677) is appointed by King Henry IV as drogman (interpreter) to La Nouvelle France. He arrived with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) who disliked Nicolas because he reported directly to the King. To ensure he didn't interfere with his domain he assigned him to Tadoussac where he stayed from 1608 to 1635. He took a country wife and fathered Metis children. It is noteworthy that Tanguay was well aware of Nicolas Metis children but made no mention. His second marriage 1636, Kebec to Marie Lebarbier age 16 was well noted with their 10 children.
HABITATION AT KEBEC
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returning from an exploration up the St. Lawrence River. This Hanitation at Kebec was built by 30 men in only three months.
July 3: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629), and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, established the first permanent official French settlement and some claim it to be the oldest city in Canada- Quebec City. The first French settlement in Canada, however, is Port Royal (1605-1613).
July 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) lands at Acadia with 30 carpenters, stonemasons and artisans and builds a permanent fur-trading post at Place-Royale, thinking the spot allows him to control the St. Lawrence R. Not everyone wants him to succeed. Some of his men are bribed by Basques to kill him and steal his provisions. One of them, (I)-Antoine Natel informs and they are captured and tried. Their leader (I)-Jean Duval is hung and his head is piked.
July 4: Kebec: Sieur Jean Duval and four others conspire to kill Champlain and turn Kebec over to the Basque and Spanish for great profit. Sieur Natel told sieur Testu who told Champlain of the plot. Jean Duval was piked and the remaining three conspirators sent back to France. The piking was deemed necessary as an example to the Basque and Spaniards who were about in large numbers in New France.
September: (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) returned to France, leaving (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) as his agent. Over the winter, out of twenty-two (others suggest 27 or 28) men, all but eight of the colony died of scurvy and dysentery. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1633), a sixteen year-old lad, is among the survivors. They had brought cows, but no one knew how to assist in their calving and they died. It would appear that women in France did the calving. Champlain worked on his maps this winter.
November: Kebec, death (I)-Antoine Natel, a sailor.
Population of Kebec 25 French
(I)-Claude De Saint Etienne De La Tour and his son (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) arrived Acadia and built a fort at Penobscot River, Acadia, later he would move to Port Royal, Acadia. His friend (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623) settled near Port Royal, Acadia.
Joseph Martin, b-1609, a Matchonon (Huron) Savage, possible Metis son (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664). (I)-Abraham and Marguerite Langlois, likely a savage, had a daughter (II)-Anne b-1614, no birth location given and a son (II)-Eustache b-1621 Kebec, and daughter (II)-Marguerite b-1624, Kebec, and (II)-Helene, b-1627, Kebec.
CHAMPLAIN'S WAR AGAINST THE IROQUOIS
A French engraving from 1613, made from a drawing supplied by Champlain with his arquebus (harquebus). Some suggest his placement of himself between the apposing forces is highly unlikely. Some suggest Champlain entered into war because the Algonquian people said there would be no trade without a military partnership. This is highly unlikely as the French have been trading with the Algonquian people since at least 1599 and this is not consistent with their trading culture. The Iroquois and Algonquian people have been trading for centuries. It is more likely that Champlain wanted to demonstrate a superior power for his own glorification. However Champlain was accompanied, in his expedition against the Iroquois, by bands of Huron, Algonquins, Iroquets, and Montagnais. As a result the Algonquins were attracted to the St. Lawrence, and settle chiefly at Three Rivers.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) entered into a trading partnership with the Herons hopefully to stimulate the fur trade.
Nicolas du Vignau was sent to live among the Algonquins on the Ottawa River.
Étienne Brűlé (1592-1633) was sent by Champlain to live among the Hurons
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, solidified his alliance with the Algonquian by participating in a battle at Lake Champlain against the Iroquois. Others suggest that (I)-Samuel de Champlain supported the Huron (a Wendat-Iroquois speaking people) to attack the Iroquois Nation at Richelieu River, thereby starting a hundred year war. Still others suggest that 9 French and 300 Huron marched south to attack the Iroquois. Many returned to Kebec, and Champlain says, with 6 men and 60 Huron, they faced 200 Iroquois (likely a highly exaggerated number). (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) claimed to have killed three Iroquois at 27 meters, but this is an obvious lie as his gun is incapable of the feat. arquebus (harquebus) were slow and cumbersome in their action, taking several minutes to prime, load and fire. It was said an expert could shoot his weight in shot before killing anyone. The kick was so heavy, sometimes it dislocated the shoulder or collar-bone of the shooter. It wasn't until 1670 that the gun became superior to the bow and arrow. Champlain likely fired from an ambush position, and the sound frightened the Iroquois, but this would only work once. Native historic conflicts usually did not result in death to either side. It was a time to demonstrate superior strength and skills. The French word Huron for the Wendat people is a contemptuous term, also used to describe peasants in France.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) claimed to have defeated the Iroquois, but it is more likely the Iroquois withdrew to debate in council why the French did not follow the century old rules of conduct between rival cultures. Hundreds of French would pay with their lives, but the Huron would be annulated for the stupidity of this man.
What ever the real truth is, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sealed his alliance with the Huron in blood and, for almost a century the, Kebec settlers would pay the price of making the Iroquois their mortal enemy.
Unable to renew his trading monopoly, (I)-Gua de Monts is forced to form a partnership with Rouen merchants.
Hendrik Hudson discovered the South River aka. Delaware to become the Southern limits of New Holland and northern limits of New Sweden.
Samuel Argall, an Englishman (1572-1626) sailed to Jamestown basically as a pirate.
Francisco Fernandez de Ecija again sailed the Atlantic coast looking for English settlements. He spotted smoke signals along the Carolina Outer Banks but no Europeans.
February: Ten men are dead and 18 are sick at Kebec. Only 8 men out of 28 would survive the winter. 14 died of scurvy and 18 from dysentery.
April: Only eight men of the Kebec colony remain alive. Kebec received supplies from France after a disastrous winter marked by severe scurvy. Twenty of twenty-eight traders died. Two thirds died from scurvy and one third as a result of dysentery.
April 6: (I)-Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company up the Hudson River as far as Albany, New York. He traded liquor with the Mohawks.
June 28: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) set out to explore the Iroquois country with 11 Frenchmen and 60 Natives. He made a strategic decision to support the Algonquin and Huron Peoples against the Iroquois in the hope of furthering his trading and exploration activities. It is amazing that Champlain, so far, has survived on a series of failures: first, by selecting St. Croix, resulting in serious loss; second, in failing to find a colony site; and now creating an enemy when in a vulnerable condition, having nearly lost the infant Colony last winter.
(I)-Samuel Argall (1580-1626) an English/Scotishman first arrived in America July 23, 1609 and the Virginia Colony in June 1610, just after the “Starving Time” (1609-1610) when the surviving 65 colonists were ready to quit for Newfoundland. He would go on to attack the Indians in America, the settlers in Acadia and the Dutch Colony in Manhattan. He is believed to be under orders from London but this is highly unlikely in all cases.
July 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) recruited 20 men from Tadoussac but only 4 guns (arguebus).
July 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) traveled up the Richelieu River with two Frenchmen and their Indian allies, reaching Lake Champlain and Lake George.
July 24: Francisco Fernandez de Ecija tried to enter Chesapeake Bay but is blocked by an English ship. He returned to Saint Augustine by September 24.
July 29: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and his war party met a large party of Iroquois near Ticonderoga, New York, and both parties accepted a challenge to do battle. Champlain had no ideal of the nature of engagement in America, nor of the diplomatic process to avoid serious conflict. Again Champlain shows his ignorance and commits France and New France to a century long war. Some suggest it wasn't his fault, and the clash is, or would be, inevitable, as an ongoing European clash exported to the New World. This European religious and cultural pathology could have been avoided by a more astute authority. Champlain greatly embellished his role in the encounter and the number of Mohawks (Iroquois).
September 5: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed from Tadoussac, arriving France on October 13. His gifts to the King included a Mohawk scalp.
September 24: Francisco Fernandez de Ecija reported finding the English Jamestown and also reported the strategic importance of Chesapeake Bay as an English base from which to takeover Spanish lands in North America.
Population of Kebec 18 French + 1 Huron
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664) and (I)-Pierre Desportes, had given birth to the first living children in New France. Arrived here in the 1610's, these two families are counted among the first who lived on Kebec soil. (I)-Abraham is listed as married to Marguerite Langlois but birth date and location of birth not recorded.
It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is back in Acadia this year until 1613..
Pierre Desportes and Francoise Langlois, b-1600 is the parents of (II)-Helene Desportes, born July 7, 1620, married October 1, 1634 Kebec (II)-Guillaume Hebert, d-1639 and married, 1640 Kebec, (I)-Noel Morin (1616-1680). Francois Langlois, b-1600 is believed the sister of Marguerite Langlois, b-1611, died January 15, 1661, Quebec, 1st married Kebec to (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664), 2nd married February 17, 1665, Kebec, Rene Brance: ALSO the sister of Marie Langlois, d-1661, Quebec, married 1625, Jean Juchereau. It is highly unlikely that three sisters would arrive Kebec unrecorded therefore they must be Metis or Savauge? It's interesting that folks claim a child is 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc. born in Kebec of Whitmen but no mention is made of the color of the wife?
(I)-Jean de Lery (1536-1613) in 1610 Brazil said he was talking to a Brazilian who said his grandfather had heard from a bearded man (Brazilians don't have beards) of the miracles of God. So records the Jesuit Relations.
This year Tadoussac, Quebec had too many ships and too few furs due to the great number of European vessels engaged in the fur trade. Furs were becoming more profitable than fish.
Peter Easton, a privateer in Queen Elizabeth 1st's navy, lost his commission and turned to piracy from 1602 to 1615. This year he built a fort at Harbor Grace, Newfoundland to conduct his pirate business. He recruited Newfoundland sailors for his private navy. He destroyed a Basque fleet, intent on capturing his fort. He practiced his trade down into the Caribbean, raiding Puerto Rico and capturing the Spanish plate fleet in 1614. He was pardoned by King James to become the Marquis of Savoy, and lived the balance of his life in luxury. Barbarism is rewarded by the English.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt de St. Just (1591/92-1623/24) son (I)-Jean de
Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just,
(1557-1615) and Claude Pajot is at Port Royal
with Champlain. (II)-Charles is said to have lived among the
savages. (I)- Jean de Biencourt is said to have two sons and six
Some suggest (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) arrived at New France and immediately went to live among the Algoumequins (Algonquinus). Others suggest he arrived in Kebec 1608. Brule took a country wife and is therefore the first family man in Kebec. It is believed Algonquian guides led him into the interior of New France (Canada). It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) says (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) was living among the Algonquian since 1608.
The Natives had told the French that the Great Lakes of the Interior takes 30 days to cross. They also speak of a great sea with no end on the West Coast. Some contend that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633), who arrived New France in 1610, went about this year to live among the Natives as, essentially, a Coureurs des Bois. These same people suggested he traveled as far as Lakes Michigan and Superior this year. Others suggest it was more like 1615, maybe later, before he reached Sault Ste Marie. Others suggest Champlain ordered (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) to encourage the Huron to trade with Kebec. Others suggest Brule is one of the eight survivors of the 1609 illness at Kebec. This opinion is rather strange if Champlain went to war with the Huron against the Iroquois to form an alliance last year. Why would he need to send an emissary into the Huron territory to establish a trading relationship? It is more probable that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) went native to escape being indentured to Champlain. This would be more consistent with future events. It is noteworthy that Champlain profited by Brule's activities and likely tolerated his actions.
(I)-Jean de Godet du Parc (d-1627) is in charge of Quebec.
The Jesuits wanted to send missionaries to New France and approached Poutrincourt; a devout Roman Catholic. (I)-Jean Biencourt de Poutrincourt (1557-1615) and son (II)-Charles sailed on February 10 for Port Royal, Acadia without the Jesuits using the pretext that he had to build suitable lodging for the Jesuits. It was no secret that the Poutrincourts hated the Jesuits. He is very suspicious of the motives of the ambitious Jesuits and took his own priest, Father (I)-Jesse Fleche- a secular priest, from Langres, France. Upon arriving, they were greatly surprised that the alleged savages had not molested the deserted Fort in anyway, nor its contents. They considered the savages as being very amiable and having the most humane qualities of gentleness and courtesy.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623) arrived in Port Royal
with his father, (I)-Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt (1557-1615) and another
priest called Josse Fleseline (Jesse Fleche) to convert the savages. (II)-Charles
would effectively be given the Commander status of Port Royal this year. A Captain of the savages complained to Sieur De Poutrincourt, near Port Royal, that a ship
from St. Milo has stolen his wife and was abusing her. The guilty party, (II)-Robert the son
of (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629), escaped punishment by fleeing into the forest among the savages to become a
Coureurs des Bois. Later, he is accused of prejudicing the savages against the French.
It is noteworthy that the term 'Captain of the Savages' usually referred to a
mixed blood or Metis.
(II)-Jesse Fleche baptized Louis Memberton (Membertoucoichis) b-1550 or earlier and his nineteen member Native family in 1610. Some baptized are noted below plus some cousins of Henry
Louis Membertou eldest son Membertoucoichis; married Mme de Sigigne & Madame de Dampierre
Christine Membertou b-1597
Elizabeth Membertou b-1599
John Membertou b-1605
Henry Membertou son Henry Embertou; married Marre
Paul Membertou married Renee
A MicMac or Mi'-Kmaq questioned the French for blowing their noses on linen handkerchiefs, asking: "For what purpose do you preserve such a vile thing"?
Thomas de la Wark (1577-1618) arrived Jamestown with 150 settlers and with Samuel Argall (1572-1626) help built two forts on the James River. Thomas would return to England leaving the tyrannical, autocratic Argall in charge of Virginia. He was cruel not only to the French and savages but to his own people. This also demonstrates that Thomas was a poor judge of character which he acknowledged too late.
The French settlement of 1610 Port Royal failed.
January 26: Queen Marie would only support (I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Poutrincourt's (1557-1615) voyage back to Port Royal, Acadia from Dieppe, France, and he took the Jesuits: (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622), (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646), (I)-Madame de Poutrincourt and her son (II)-Charles Biencourt de Saint Just (1591-1623). The Huguenots who owned the vessel refused to outfit it if the Jesuits were included. Marquise de Guercheville, wife of the Governor of Paris and a strong Jesuit superior, paid the Huguenots for any inconvenience the Jesuit would impose. This settlement failed because Samuel Argall, a Virginia pirate from his base in Jamestown, destroyed Port Royal, Acadie (Acadia) in 1613.
February 26: (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615) arrived Port Royal with (II)-Charles La Tour (1596-1665) his father (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne La Tour, (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623) and his father.
April 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed France for Kebec.
April 17: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Hudson Strait.
April 28: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived Tadoussac with 11 tradesmen. When he reached Kebec it was reported to be a mild winter and non had died. However he learned that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) had left the settlement to live among the Huron.. Prairies (Des) de St. Malo a young man filled with courage went to help Champlain this year.
May 2: The Company of Adventurers and Planters of London and Bristol (1610-1628) is established to the colonization of Newfoundland.
June: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Ungava Bay thinking he had reached the west side of America.
June 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) met (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) beyond the Lachine Rapids; he records:
"I had with me a youth who had already spent two winters at Kebec and wanted to go among the Algoumequines (Algonquins) to master their language ... learn about their country, see the great lake, take note of the rivers and the peoples living along them; and discover any mines, along with the most curious things about those places and people, so that we might, upon his return, be informed truthfully about them"
Transulated: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) without permission abandoned Kebec to live among the Huron but I must make the best of the situation and again embellish the truth.
(I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is the first Coureur de Boise out of Kebec, the first European Canadian and many more would follow his lead..
When (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) was brutally tortured and killed by the Huron in 1633 (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) said that it was the fitting death for a traitor. He assumed Etienne led the British to Kebec but this was incorrect. He assumed the Huron killed him because he refused to accept French rule but he was executed for impropriety with women.
June 14: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) led a second expedition against the Iroquois Nation.
June 19: Near the mouth of the Richelieu River, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) again claimed a successful battle against the Iroquois.
June 24: (I)-Jesse Fleche, who died 1611, is the first recorded Roman Catholic Missionary in Canada working among the MicMac or Mi'-Kmaq. It is noteworthy that La mic-mac is a racist term in Quebec. It means tricky, a small intrigue, a mess. These indigenous Maritime Peoples prefer the term Mi-Kmaq or MiKmaq likely derived from ni'-kmaq meaning kinfolk.
June 28: In Port Royal, the French consider it a delight to engage in trade and make such
a handsome profit. Beaver and other skins should total 8,000 livres this year.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts, (1558-1628) is financially ruined, and sold his proprietary rights to the Jesuits.
The savages at Port Royal can canoe to Kebec in 10-12 days, much faster than by the French in their boats.
July 5: (I)-John Guy (d-1629) is appointed Governor of Newfoundland, and his brother (I)-Phillip Guy founded an English trading post at Cupers (Cupids) Cove near St. John's, Newfoundland, known as the Sea Forest Plantation, in August. It originally started with 39 members, peaked at 60 and then declined. The colony, however, lasted until the1630's.
August 3: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Hudson Bay and sailed into James Bay where he decided to winter.
August 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed Kebec for France, leaving 16 men under command of (I)-Jean de Godet du Parc (d-1627).
Anti-coton, a sarcastic pamphlet is published attacking the Jesuit especially Father Coton, the confessor to King Henry IV, who is executed by the Jesuit or so it is claimed. This and other attacks on the Jesuit is circulating also in Canada.
September: (I)-Samuel Argall (1580-1626) an
English/Scotishman, leads a force of Virginia colonists in attacking and burning
a Warraskoyack village.
December 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of
the Monts Trading Company, who is well over forty years old, married Helene
Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645) age eleven (some say 12) died December 20, 1654 France, a Protestant
and later conversion to Catholic and entered the convent, and daughter
Boulle and Margueritte Alix of St. Germain I'Auxerrois, France.
This child bride would visit New France from 1619 to 1623Helene
Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645), but basically deserted him. Some suggest (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)
was a homosexual and that suited Helene
Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645). She had run away just before her marriage
not wanting to marry that old man.
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December 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Monts Trading Company, who is well over forty years old, married Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645) age eleven (some say 12) died December 20, 1654 France, a Protestant and later conversion to Catholic and entered the convent, and daughter of Nicholas Boulle and Margueritte Alix of St. Germain I'Auxerrois, France. This child bride would visit New France from 1619 to 1623Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645), but basically deserted him. Some suggest (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was a homosexual and that suited Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645). She had run away just before her marriage not wanting to marry that old man.
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