This aboriginal Canadian History is a by-product of my quest to understand my Indian heritage.
The People (Indians) appear to have two types of genealogy,
a male one for good deeds performed and
a cultural one that follows the female totems.


  INDIAN HISTORY Pre-History to 1000 B.C.




In the beginning 
the Great Spirit created man from the sky and woman from the earth. 

 One did not possess superiority over the other.

The Inca creation story recorded 1556. 

Pilgrim and Indian

"You look at history - - 
The aboriginal People welcomed the first settlers here with open arms, fed us and took care of us - - 
that continues today, we welcome people from all nations to come and share" 
Peter Stoffer

The oldest human blood type in the world is type 'O' and some say it may appear to have originated in South America which was 100% type 'O' before Spanish occupation.  North and South America was basically void of blood types 'A', 'B' and 'AB', and was predominately blood type 'O' before European encounters.  It is noteworthy that the Basques of Spain and the aboriginals of Australia are also predominately blood type 'O'.   By 2000 blood type 'O' accounts for 40% to 45% of blood types.  Blood type 'A' accounts for 35% to 40% of blood types and is believed to have originated 20,000 B.C. in the Indo-European-Blackfoot cultures commonly referred to as the Caucasians of central Europe.  Blood type 'B'  accounts for 4% to 11% of blood types and is believed to have originated about 10,000 B.C. some say in Africa, southern India, Pakistan and Asia.  Blood type 'AB' is a recent mutation believed originated 900 A.D. to 1,000 A.D. (some say 1500's)     It is noteworthy that the Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead tribes (a Dene People) who passed through four different worlds including Northwest Canada, before arriving about 1,000 A.D. among the Pueblo People are genetically linked to Japan by a unique type of retrovirus gene JCV only found in China and Japan.  Some suggest they bypassed Canada by boat or were visited by China or Japan by boat.  However some suggest blood type O did not originate from a mutational event and it had to occur when the human population was small and spread over the entire earth.

In the beginning there are great waters above all the land, above the waters is thick clouds, and there is Kechemunedo (The Great Spirit), the creator. All life began on the first world on a sea of mist; man came on the boat of the sun to the blue world.

The Great Spirit created this world, and it took him two thousand years maybe four thousand, maybe more and he didn't get it right the first time. Too much ice and water so the 'Great Spirit' tried again, a second time, but still had too much water and ice. The 'Great Spirit' on the third try; the earth looked pretty good but still so much water but not so much ice. The 'Great Spirit' tried the fourth time and every thing is beautiful. The footsteps of the great otter recorded this creation, as he ran the first step is through ice, the second step swamp, the third through water and flowers, the fourth as we see it today. The People work for the Great Spirit having been made by Him. The place of Manitou is a place of spirits or more accurately the door or portal to the spirit or dream world. This is where each person received their mission and inspiration to see them through future ordeals. The women also entered the dream world at time of first menstruation. She fasted for days to induce the dream visitor or spirits who would guide her in making important decisions. After her quest she is ready for marriage.

Manito, Manitou, Orenda, Wakanda, Master of Life is also sometimes used as a reference for the one Great Spirit.

This 'First Age' of the Sun, the first 'People' are eager to dominate over his brothers and all disappeared, all are swept away by the water, and 'The People' became fish.

The 'Second Age' of the Sun brought giants also eager to dominate and who said fall not, for he who falls, falls forever. The crumbling of the heavens and the earth destroyed everything.

The 'Third Age' of the Sun also built on domination is consumed by a rain of fire.

The 'Fourth Age' of the Sun being built on domination of others is devastated by the wind that destroyed all that had been on the earth.

The 'Fifth Age' is called the 'Sun of Motion' that is the current age.

There is once a time when this world is filled with happy people, when all Nations are as one and the crimson tide of war had not begun to roll. None are in want, sickness is unknown, 'The People' are the lone inhabitants of the Land (American wilderness), they numbered in the millions and lived as nature designed them to live, enjoying its many blessings. They watched the stars; they loved to gaze at them, for they believed them to be the home of the good that had been taken home by the 'Great Spirit'. All 'The People' held this belief.

The People loved to debate and incorporate elements of value from other cultures. Iroquoian, in the seventeenth century, as an example, is as grammatically exacting and formal as Greek. The Ojibwa modified their creation tradition about 1800 to incorporate the European religious history but from their own perspective.

The origin of the Ojibwa Medicine Society began when disease, distress and death entered the land of 'The People'. The 'Great Spirit' spoke to his People saying, there is not a flower that buds, however small, that is not for some wise purpose, there is not a blade of grass, however insignificant, that 'The People' (Ojibwa) does not require. Learn this, and act according to these truths and you will work out your own good, and you will please your 'Great Spirit'. The Ojibwa people also noted that before the European came the Ojibwa is stronger in faith, more pious in religion. They are healthier and lived longer and became very old. They could fast longer, ten days or more and had stronger and more accurate dreams. The Wemitigoshis (French) came and their gifts are good, wholesome food, fresh pork, stout knives, lasting guns and good cloths. They married our daughters and become our brothers. Then the Englishmen brought much firewater, more than the French did, their guns and cloths would not last a season and then good times ended (about 1821). The Ojibwa at this time maintained a written genealogy of up to nine generations of ancestors that he could recite along with their good deeds.

Canada is the meeting place of two fundamentally different concepts of civilization. Our understanding of civilization is based on differing sets of beliefs and values. A Civilizations beliefs and values are represented by the activities of the people. Measurement of actions is the true test of a civilization or a culture.

Canadian history is largely based on a dominant perspective of a European patriarchal God/King view. To understand the early history of Canada one must nurture a maternal autonomous view.

The founding Mothers of Canada are believed by many to be Asiatic Peoples (pre-Chinese). Others strongly believe the Indians (The People) originated in the Americas. It is noteworthy that there are no pre-Columbian American Indians with type B blood.  Type B blood is predominately displayed as a migration out of Africa, the alleged origin of humans.  Indians are type A or type O and exclusively O all the way from the southern edge of the last glacier to the Horn at the southern tip of South America.  It is noteworthy that blood type O is considered the oldest of the blood types.  This speaks loudly of a possible migration from America to Asia over the land bridge.  The Basques of Spain and the aboriginal of Australia are type O blood.  In short, the base founding cultures of the America's are 'The People' (Indian) and later the Eskimo and Dene. Most will agree that the first people in America are of the Indian culture that populated both North and South America at an early age (likely pre 50,000 B.C.). The later arrival of the Eskimo people from Asia value-added by linking our Canada Arctic with Asia and European Arctic cultures. The Dene or Athapascan arrived much later in the Alaska, Yukon, Northern B.C. and N.W.T. areas. The aboriginal culture although primarily west Indian in nature also contains indications of a direct linkage with East Indian culture. Evidence suggests that before the arrival of Europeans, aboriginal cultures of British Columbia absorbed some Chinese and Jewish tradition. We also need to recognize the addition of the Viking culture on the East Coast during our early formation. Cultural drift has been continuous both east and west as well as north and south.  It is noteworthy that the horse and camel originated in America and migrated to Asia, why not people also?  The Ojibwa of Canada has a genetic marker that predates European arrival and is definitely European in nature.

The Metis culture holds a special position as being a cultural and genetic bridge between the people of Canada and Europe during its early formation after the ice age until present times. A Metis, from a European perspective, is having one or more drops of Aboriginal blood surging through their veins. A Metis, from an Aboriginal perspective, is as one of their own children either by marriage or adoption.

Early Aboriginal people of Canada believe there are sufficient resources to share the fruits of the land and seas with all people. They believe all creatures can live as sisters and brothers providing they respect 'Mother Earth'. All people do not share in this fundamental principle.


During the eighteen century a Garneau married an Ojibwa girl. Family tradition suggests he married a Dakota Sioux who was a captive of the Ojibwa. His son however did marry an Ojibwa girl. Cadotte, a Wendat (Huron) Metis, also married a Garneau in the nineteenth century. The Thomas clan who married a Garneau has a Swampy Cree heritage. The Cree believed they originated from their cousins the Ojibwa. The Ojibwa believes the Odahwaug (Ottawa or trading people) is their cousins and that they both originated near the Eastern Salt Sea.

Some contend the Aboriginal Culture had little impact on modern Canada. Where then did we get the unique Canadian patience, our desire to compromise, our deep concern for equality and peace, and our tenacity? This type of thinking led them to a different set of beliefs and values than their European brothers. It is noteworthy that many Aboriginal beliefs and values have become the basis for the United Nations! Free trade is also an aboriginal principle.


It is currently believed that the Aboriginal People first arrived in Canada within the past 50,000 to 100,000 years. Some suggest these people died off before the more recent Peoples arrived. The earliest date is likely 50,000 B.C. only because dating becomes very questionable before this date. Many conservatives suggest 12,000 B.C. is the earliest arrival date and this is near the maximum glaciating period, when sea levels are four hundred and twenty-five feet below present levels. There is no reason Homo Sapiens could not have arrived 118,000 B.C. to 50,000 B.C. during the previous maximum glaciating period, if we believe the land bridge theory is essential. More current thinking suggest the migration is down the British Columbia coast. More logically appealing is the period of 35,000 B.C. to 25,000 B.C. when the world is warmer than today. During the interglacial period sea levels are twenty feet above present levels, that seems a more probable period for our ancestral arrival. The facts suggest that there has been a continual migration to and from the America's during its' known occupancy. It is noteworthy that 50 scientists working on the Greenland Ice Core Project (1990-1992) believe the Ice Age transition to warmer weather took only a few decades and this would dramatically affect old assumptions of time estimates relative to the volatility of the environment. Rates of erosion as an example may be measured in years rather than decades or centuries.  One of the Peoples legends supports the land bridge hypothesis but the majority suggest the People were always here in the Americas.

The first American peoples are classified as Caucasoid in nature being stocky rather than gracile in build. Their skin pigmentation is less than seen in the Old World but their ability to tan is exceptionally high. The eyes are dark and the hair is coarse and straight and body hair is scant in both sexes. It is noteworthy that the sickle cell anomaly is not found in native blood or is blood group 'B'. These generalities that are applied to the Americas are as valid as the generalities applied to the peoples of Asia, Europe or Africa.

We may even discover that Aboriginal Canadians are decedents of Home Sapiens, Neanderthal who is much more adapted to harsh climates, due to his strength and superior intelligence. Many aboriginal people believe they originated in the America's and discount the land bridge theory and the water migration theory.

The People learned much of their culture from the animals of the earth.  They noticed that the wolf is a very social creature, they run in pacts, are very shy by nature, and most important, they always care for the old, letting them eat first.   A great warrior always eats last.

Back to Top

  INDIAN HISTORY  Pre-History to 1000 B.C.