1700 - 1749
The difference is not known even by the most educated until the late twentieth century.
The 13 billion dollar judgment against Texaco proves this point for those who are interested.
INDIAN HISTORY 1750 - 1779
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Land is no more owned by humans than the air or the oceans.
The French establish a bounty of 40 beaver for each English scalp.
The French can't understand the Indian use of General Council
and extensive debate on serious issues.
The Dakota Sioux replaced the Arikara (Balani, Aricaria or Arikarees) at Red Lake. The Ojibwa would follow the Dakota. The Lower Quarter People were located near Raleigh, North Carolina about this time.
The Lakota (Dakota Sioux) began arrived in Black Hills of Dakota during this century driving out the aboriginal people
A village of Ojibwa is located in Barron County, Wisconsin.
The Ojibwa effectively cleared the Iroquois from southern Ontario having destroyed ten towns killing some 1,500 warriors. The Iroquois especially the Mohawk are historical enemies of the French and by 1682 about one hundred and fifty Mohawk families had fled to a reserve at Auult Saint Louis (Caughnawaga) near Montreal and by 1700 nearly two thirds of all Mohawk had fled to Canada. The Grand Plan had failed and the League of Nations fragmented throwing themselves on the mercy of the French. Other accounts say Red Lake, Ontario is inhabited by both the Cree and the Dakota at this time. This would imply peaceful coexistence?
The Ojibwa of Michilimackinac Island are sharing island with the displaced Ottawa.
The Natchez an Algonquian people are believed to be the last of the Mound Builder culture presently being disbursed from their lands by the French. The Mound Building culture dates back to 300 B.C.
The Mandan Nation of the Dakotas numbered about 8,000 people and is trading into Canada and the Great Lakes and already possesses European trade goods. They maintained two cities, one for summer where they raised their crops and one for winter in the forests that are full of game and fuel for their fires. There is no fear that other people would occupy their city in their absence.
The Algonquian had slowly reoccupied the lands of Huron, Petun (Tobacco) and Neutral around Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron. The French began calling these new people Ojibwa. These people who are south of the lakes are in a mixture of all former tribes who are taken in by the Ojibwa during the great Iroquois purge. Some contend the Ojibwa Feast of the Dead is being replaced by the Midewiwin ceremony at this time. The origin of the Medicine Society began when disease, distress and death entered the land of the People. The Great Spirit spoke to his people saying, there is not a flower that buds, however small, that is not for some wise purpose, there is not a blade of grass, however insignificant, that the Ojibwa does not require. Learning this, and acting in accordance with these truths, will work out your own good, and will please your God. This medicine society would become involved in all future negotiations with the People and Europeans.
The Atsina who became the Gros Ventre of the Plains is believed to have separated from the Arapho about this time. The are believed to have migrated into the Milk River region of Montana and Alberta and east to southern Saskatchewan. The Hidatsa is leaving the Red River Valley, some say they are driven out by the Ojibwa but this appears to be unfounded speculation.
The Kutenai People also frequent the Milk River region of Southern Alberta about this time, it was a very fertile place teaming with wild life.
Tribal customs on the prairies at this time included that when a child is born the father must not sleep with the mother until the child is weaned. A child is usually nursed until it is 3-4 years old. When and why this custom originated is lost to antiquity.
The Beaver People migrated from north of the Peace River country to Strathcona country just south of the future Fort Edmonton, Alberta. The area became known as Beaver Hills.
The Pasquotank and Algonquian People lived along the north side of Albemarle Sound, North Carolina.
The glaciers in the Rocky Mountains, Banff, Alberta advanced in the early 1700's
Most of the Plains People are aware that the White Men are penetrating westward.
The English slave ship Henriette Marie sank 35 miles off Key West, Florida, on its way back to Europe. It had delivered 188 captured Africans to a slave broker in Jamaica in exchange for sugar and other goods bound for England.
The period of 1700 to 1750 is the last significant filling by the Colorado River of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of Southern California. The Valley is 227 feet below sea level.
1700 to 1735 saw the highest temperature rise in measured and recorded history of 2.2°C
The Kutenal (Kootenay) of Tobacco Plains, B.C. and Waterton, Alberta are virtually wiped out by smallpox.
This century it's estimated that wild bison numbered in the tens of millions and their range extended over one-third of the North American continent from Canada to Mexico.
January, a tsunami hit the west coast of Oregon, Washington and B.C. destroying towns and villages. Washington still has a 'Ghost Forest' destroyed by the tsunami. The earth quake that caused this tsunami was estimated as 9.0. They estimate that tsunami caused by earth quakes in this region occur every 480 years.
May 18, the Henriette Marie an English slaver ship returning to England foundered on New Ground Reef, 34 miles off Key West, Flordia. All aboard perished at sea. Africans were preferred as slaves as the American Indian slaves were more likely to flee.
The Sewee People of Siouan origin are living along the Santee River in South Carolina and would later join the Catawbas of South Carolina.
M. le Chevalier de Beaurain in Louisiana recorded based on Indian information that the Assiniboine (Sioux) People in Canada shortly after the arrival of the Hudson Bay Company (1670) that the Cree had obtained guns forcing the Cree to align with them thereby becoming enemies with the Sioux. This in itself is not that interesting but the fact that news had traveled from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico is significant. The Assiniboines were originally a branch of the Dacota Sioux confederacy, but they separated and lived by themselves, inhabiting the country along the Assiniboibe River. They also received the name Stony Indians from using heated stones to cook their food. The HBC called theem Semi-Poets in 1749. Verendrye gave the name of St. Charles to the Assiniboine River in 1738 but it didn't stick. Selkirk tried to push the name Ossiniboyne River and District of Ossiniboia but no one cared. Selkirk tried to convince folks that the Assiniboine were originally Scotchmen. Folks just though he was disillusioned.
Colonel Benjamin Church (1643-1717) called the 'Squaw Killer' was given instructions in Massachusetts to burn, plunder, destroy and get spoils where ever landed in Acadia. They were told to say their daily prayers and no foul language. (Squaw derived from iskwao is a very insulting English word.)
The Puritan elders of Massachusetts offered:
100£ bounty for each male Indian scalped over 12 years age
105£ bounty for each male Indian taken prisoner
50£ bounty for each female or child scalped
50£ bounty for each female or child taken prisoner
The King of France Louis XIV is concerned that the king's presents 'Presents du Roy' would be regarded as obligatory payment, a kind of tribute, a price of our friendship. In 1707 the order was given to reduce the presents little by little until such time as they can be cut off entirely. Instead the tribute continued until the British conquest.
Pachade is a village of Christianized Indians that lived Middleboro, Massachusetts.
Florida white settlers kill more than 200 Apalachee and sell more than 1,400 captives into slavery.
A number of Catholic Iroquois (Mohawks) settled in the village at Lake of the Two Mountains (Oka), Quebec (near Montreal) to live among the Algonquins who were established there since the 1670's. A short time later they were joined by a band of Nipissings. By 1821 the village included Mohawks, Nipissing, Ottawa, Algonquin, Abnakis and Metis.
The English destroyed the Apalachee village of Vasisa in Jefferson County, Flordia.
A census in South Carolina records the ownership of 1,400 Indian slaves by white plantation owners.
Pierre Francois Xavierr de Charlevoix (1682-1761) wrote: "Canadians are quick-witted and proud...the air breathed on this vast continent is a factor but the example and company of its native inhabitants, who put all their happiness in freedom and independence, are more than sufficient to build this character."
Jesuit Father Antoine Silvy observed of the Ojibwa, one became a leader (chief) only by the deeds he had done, by the friendships he struck when young and by the gifts he gives. Leaders are usually the worst clad of the tribe as they gave away everything. One confusing aspect of native life is that war leaders are not necessarily the leaders of the hunt or leaders of the council or the spokesperson for the tribe. The French could not comprehend a democratic method of governing. This reality would cause much confusion over the next two centuries. The French, and English would start a relentless campaign to indoctrination program to have one chief represent the People in all things. The Ojibwa however unlike the European's would not like brutes be whipped into duty by a chief single leader (Mingo or treacherous one). They would as men be persuaded to the right by consensus. The European concept of one King, one Pope and one Religion and therefore one Chief was as foreign to the People as the concept of democracy, and freedom was to the Europeans.
The Snake peoples on the prairies are using horses that dramatically began eliminating most of the prairie farming practices. The horse would change their way of life to focus more on the hunt.
Some early residence of La Pointe, Wisconsin suggests the first European to settle permanently at La Pointe occurred this year.
Meanwhile some of the fragmented Iroquois appealed to Queen Anne in London for assistance against the French in an attempt to resurrect their Grand Plan.
Thomas Nairne of the Carolinia's reported that slavery depredations had brought in and sold many hundreds of Indian slaves so that in some few years they will be reduced these barbarians to far less numbers.
Chattooka a village of Neuse People is displaced by a German colony this year. The Neuse are said to have moved to live among the Tuscarora.
Norway's glaciers are advancing at 328 feet (100 meters) per year from 1710 to 1735 as a result of the Little Ice Age (1550-1850). This confirms the global nature and the duration of the global cooling.
The British chartered the South Sea Company giving it dominion over the west coast of America to a distance of 300 leagues out to sea. British vessels until 1833 were required to acquire licenses from the company as well as the East India Company.
Manitou is the God of the Illinois it is he who is the Master of Life.
September 11: The Tuscarora War began with the massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment of their lands and the enslavement of their children. The Tuscarora, with the Machapunga, Pamlico, Coree and others attack the settlement at Pamlico River killing 130 colonists. The attack a town in Northern Carolina with the Coree Nation killing 70 settlers.
The Tuscarora Nation again declares war against North Carolina in retaliation for the kidnapping and selling of their people into slavery. North Caroline retaliates by attacking Tuscarora killing 950 Tuscarora.
Colonel John Barnwell, the commander of South Carolina forces offered for sale the captured Tuscarora. The Tuscarora war (1711-1718) drives the People into the the Iroquois Confederacy.
The original Iroquois league aka the Five Nations (the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations) now became the League of Six Nations as the Tuscarora nation joined.
The Mogollon People are Apache who lived in the mountains of Mogollon, New Mexico and Arizona. The name of the mountains is named after the Spanish governor of New Mexico Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollon.
The distribution of 'Presents du Roy' to the Indians that normally took place at Montreal is now located at Port Toulouse in Cape Breton for the Maritime Nations.
The Tuscarora from South Carolina having lost their war moved north and joined the Iroquois.
The Abenaki People occupied Antigonish, Nova Scotia at this time.
British officers tried to get the L'nu'k ( Micmac) to swear allegiance to King George I. The L'nu'k ( Micmac) held council and concluded they did not want any king to say that he had taken possession of their lands. The L'nu'k ( Micmac) had never ceded rights to the French as they are allies and brothers and the L'nu'k ( Micmac) are still independent. They believed that land is no more owned by human beings than is the air or the sea. The L'nu'k ( Micmac) had guardianship rights to protect the land and animals. Great care and tribute are required when crossing the natural guardianships of other peoples. The English did not care to understand this New World philosophy, it is a well-known European Law that might is right when it comes to ownership.
Intendant Francois Bigot said that the Catholic Religion is the most powerful motive to hold the savages for France. The English also advised to instruct the Indians in the true Protestant Religion and to confirm their duty to her majesty.
The Mountain Indians came to York Factory to trade having been there in trade in 1699. They said it takes them 39 days to make the trip downstream and three months (moons) to return upstream. The Mountain Traders (Maitainaithinish Mandan or Hidatsa?) say the Country is very Mountainious and of a Prodigious height that they can not see the cap without it be Clear Weather. They tell me (Knight) their is abundance of People and several Nations of them. They grow a great deal of corn, plumbs, hazle nuts and they have no much beaver but abundance of Moose, bison (buffalo), Wascashus (Red Deer) and small furs. All of the Mountain People garnish themselves with white mettle and also yellow mettle amongst them.
The Winyaw People living along the lower Pedee in South Carolina fought the invading English and became extinct.
Saltketchers is a village of the Yuchi People of South Carolina.
The Algonquian requested and again received assurances that the People could continue to govern themselves and that the French would not settle and clear lands above the Montreal Seigneurs.
At York Factory one thousand People are waiting the arrival of the ship with trade supplies, some are Assiniboine, others are Cree but no indication the Ojibwa had changed their alliance with the French. A French Metis traveled to Fort Albany to report that there are thirty more canoes coming to destroy us being encouraged by the French with a promise of forty beavers for every scalp of you English they bring to them.
Chief Nescamboiuit aka "Prince of the Abenakis." this year traveled the "Coureaur de bois" fur trading route from Maine to the St. Lawrence River to the Ottowa portaging down thru Lake Nippissing to Lake Huron and then to Green Bay, Wisconsin where he lived with the Fox Indians for several years. He died in New Hampshire in 1727 having returned with a Huron Indian woman.
The French who built a post on the Kaministiquia River are claimed to be inciting the Dakota Sious against the English Indians (Assiniboine and Cree). The Cree also informed Fort Albany manager Thomas MacLish, that a Nation of People called Poats has destroyed a great number of their Countrymen that frequents this place. One suspects the Cree is using this scare tactic as a ploy to drive up the price of their furs. The French are encouraging the Dakota to attack the Assiniboine and Cree to disrupt trade to Hudson Bay. The Dakota at this time are in the Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods area.
The Mountain, Ashkee, Blood and Sinepoett People arrive York Factory to trade but the ships from England had not arrived and upon their return many starved to death due to lack of provisions. As a result the Blood boycotted the H.B.C. Some suggest the Ashkee are the Gros Ventre from the head waters of the Red Deer River who are trading to York Factory. It is noteworthy that the Gros Ventre, Assiniboine and Blackfoot are in peaceful relationships often camping and traveling together. This is usually the norm before the arrival of the Europeans among them.
Biauswah the son of Biauswah and many Ojibwa from Sault Ste Marie, Grand Portage and La Pointe marched against the Dakotas to secure Sandy Lake (Kahmetahwungaguma or lake of the sandy waters). It is from Sandy Lake the Ojibwa secured Leech, Winnipeg, Cass, Red, Gull and Crow Wing Lakes for their fur trade. The Ojibwa believe the Gros Ventres or Giauethininewug (men of olden times) occupied this region before the Dakota. The Gros Ventres tradition suggests they once lived on the mouth of the Savannah River near Sandy Lake. The Gros Ventre are noted to be culturally aligned with the Mandans.
The Inuit of Labrador told the French that many Europeans had settled among their tribes over the years, the latest being a shipwrecked sailor called Good-Old-Nicholas.
Fort Sasquesahanok is an Iroquois Village Fort south of the Great Lakes.
This sketch is made in 1720 but the artist embellished it by adding a cow, sheep and goat along with more southern vegetation. This is an important point to remember about early European authors, artists and explorers that they tended to exaggerate things and some times resorted to outright lying to enhance their position. The people considered lying one of the most serious offences but loved an embellished story to clarify a point. In their mind the embellished Iroquois fort represents the advanced agricultural status of the people.
There is indications that the Cree of the Canadian Shield is shifting westward which is the reverse of the original migration. Several bands had moved from Fort Albany to Port Nelson to trade. The Cree said the Echeepoes or Ojibwa are threatening to kill any Cree who traded at Fort Albany according to a report from Joseph Mayatt.
Hans P. Egede, a Lutheran minister, was responsible for the re-colonization of Greenland was determined to find the old Norse settlers and convert them to the Lutheran faith. He settled in south-western Greenland and found no survivors of the Norse colony that had numbered up to 5,000 people at one time. He then labored to convert the Eskimo to Christianity. He is attributed in dispelling the myth that Eskimos worship the sun and practice cannibalism. He considered them rude, unclean but flawless and nearly a noble people.
The Eskimo or Inuit as they call themselves lived in iglu (igloo) made out of ice or sod and means home or dwelling. The Labrador sod houses were called Igluksoatulligarsuk.
The Eno of North Carolina were a very peaceful tribe and who had great farms disappeared this year. They were believed to have joined the Catawba of South Carolina.
Pontiac an Ottawa is born in Ohio, killed in 1769. He organized all the People north west of the Ohio River to drive the British from their lands because of raw treatment that he received from the English. All the forts of the Great Lakes fell to his army save Detroit and Fort Pitt. He made peace with the English August 17, 1765.
The Jesuits arrive Baja California Peninsula 1697 established a mission and moved south in 1720 to establish a mission into Pericu Indian territory and were driven out by the Pericu People in 1734. The Pericu were one of the few people of the California coast to use boats, nets and harpoons with included 50% of their diet. The Spanish had tried to settle the land but their crops were unsuccessful and they had to move on. The Pericu people had known how to harvest and process the lethal plant life but obviously didn't share this technology.
June 16: Pedro de Villasur with 45 soldiers and 60 Pueblo Indians ventured from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Nebraska to deal with the French trader who are among the Pawnee People up the Missouri River. The Spanish army is attacked at Columbus, Nebraska by the Pawnees. The Pueblo People being forewarned deserted the Spanish before the war began. Pedro was killed and only 13 Spaniards made it back to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Spain blamed the French for their defeat but this was unproven. The Metis however had told the People to just shoot their horses and they can then be easily killed in their cumbersome armor.
Nissowaquet (Nissaouakouad) an Ottawa of Michilimackinac, Michigan is made head spokesperson. His sister Domitilde married Charles de Langlade of Wisconsin.
Hans P. Egede, a Lutheran minister, determined to find and convert the Viking Colony settled in south-western Greenland. He found no Viking but tried to convert the Eskimo to Christianity. He considered the Eskimo (Inuit or Yuit) to be rude and physically unclean but a strangely flawless and nearly noble people. He finally dispelled the 100 year belief (fable) in Europe that they were cannibals and worshiped the sun.
Colonel Westbrook attacked and burned the Abnaki village of Mogg in Maine.
The Kounaouons People of Maine were allies of the French. The English attacked and killed many Abnaki in Maine. The English attacked the Abnaki village of Norridgewock, Maine driving the people into other tribes. Norridgewock means the people who live near the still water, between the rapids.
The Yazoo People who lived along the lower Yazoo River in Mississippi attacked the French Fort on the river and destroyed it.
The Algonquian is struggling with the foreign European idea of a few acting for a whole people. In the aboriginal cultures every person is expected to speak for themselves and important matters affecting the whole tribe required extensive debate in General Council. The English are insisting on written treaties that they considered are to be honored in perpetuity. The People consider treaties as covenants between groups of individuals that did not have to be written and far from being permanent are rituals requiring renewal from time to time with appropriate gift exchanges playing an essential part. The People tradition is a dynamic evergreen rebirth and renewal process of collaboration. The seasonal or annual renewal ritual is more important than the treaty itself.
In this they are encouraged by the French who signed no written treaties with their Algonquian allies. The English in-law spoke of perpetuity for their own rights but acted in accord with their covetous desires where others' rights are concerned. The L'nu'k ( Micmac) are the first to record this strange logic.
Antoine Gaulin the first Canadian born Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians is ordered by the French to ferment the war of these savages with the English.
February 20: The New Hampshire militiamen killed and scalped 10 sleeping Indians for their scalp bounty.
Ochagah the Cree, aided by the Assiniboine lived among the Mandan (meaning those who live along the bank of the river) and fought the Dakota Sioux. They were with Pierre Gaultier de Vareness, Sieur de la Verendrye and his sons' one of which is killed in a Dakota fight and they returned to Quebec 1743.
Novenber 15: The Cree Indians lost all their property in the US.
The Lake of the Woods Cree carried gifts to the Ojibwa of La Pointe to effect a peace treaty and request an alliance against the Dakota who are also in this area..
The York Factory journal for this year stated: June 12, the Home Indians (Cree) report the Senipoetts (Assiniboine) are gone to Churchill this summer to trade, which we are glad to hear of, the same we being informed September 1st this summer that the Poetts (Sioux) had destroyed most of our Senipoetts (Assiniboine) by the instigation of the French. It is much to be wished for that our masters could prevent the Frenches constant encouraging the poetts (Sioux) going to war with most of our Indians that resort to this place. Likewise with those that goes to Albany Fort. We have been informed by most of the upland Indians this summer that the French and eight French wood runners (Coureurs de Bois) went to war last summer with the Poetts (Sioux) against our Sinepoetts (Assiniboine) with a design to destroy them or force them to trade with them.
The French constructed Fort Rosalie on the bluffs of the Mississipi overlooking the Natchez Great City. Sieur Chepart ordered that the Great City 'White Apple' be evacuated for his new plantation site. The remnants of the once great Natchez Nation decided to resist. The attacked the forts throughout the Mississippi Valley killing 250 French and taking 300 prisoners. Sieur Chepart is captured and executed.
November 28: The Natchez Indians killed most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana. The French retaliate by destroying the Natchez villages, capturing 450 Natchez who are sold into slavery on the Island of Santo Domingo.
The Assiniboine are driven from their homelands along the Rainy River east of the Lake of the Woods by the Dakota Sioux being encouraged by the French.
(I)-William Johnson, an Irishman, a trader settled among the Mohawks and was called Warraghiyagey or Man of Business. He took as wife 1st Catherine Weisenberg, a German girl who gave him two small daughters and a son before she died; 2nd marriage Caroline the daughter of Abraham a Mohawk chief who had a Dutch second wife. He built Fort Johnson on the Mohawk River but his second wife also died after giving him two Metis girls and one Metis son who was named William Johnson b-1740-45; 3rd marriage (1750's) to Molly b-1737 sister Joseph Brant b-1742, both Mohawk.
The Ojibwa tradition recorded a major battle with the Dakota (Sioux) at the mouth of the Crow Wing River, Minnesota. Sixty Ojibwa led by Biauswah II engaged three hundred Dakota who they said had destroyed their village at Sandy Lake. The fighting is reported to have lasted for three days. The Ojibwa re-established their village at Sandy Lake and ventured to Red Lake and Pembina. Other accounts suggest the Cree aided the Ojibwa against the Dekota. Sandy Lake is located in Cass County in Minnesota. The name means 'the lake of the sandy waters'. It is noteworthy that the Sandy Lake Band takes its name from this location.
Biauswah II, of a village at Sandy Lake and opposite the mouth of the east Savanna River (Minnesota). He was captured as a youth by the Fox and his father traded his life for his son's, according to William Warren.
When the Dakota first observed the horse they called it the 'sacred dog.' The Snake People in southern Saskatchewan are in possession of the horse that they called Misstutim meaning big dog. The Blackfoot are also in possession of the horse that they also call the big dog.
The Hudson Bay Company reported the first Ojibwa traders at their forts on the Hudson Bay. The Ojibwa had joined the Kenisteno and Assineboins on their northern trade journey to Hudson Bay. The Assineboins had been trading many years with the English.
John Wesley noted that the Indians had exceedingly few diseases and their medicines are quick and generally infallible. Cotton Mather wrote Indian healers produce many cures that are truly stupendous.
Shannopin's town is an early trading center located at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and was mainly occupied by the Delaware People.
The French out of New Orleans assembled an army and marched on the Natchez destroying their nation and selling all survivors into slavery in Santo Domingo. A few small bands fought on for another year before being dispersed. These Natchez people of the lower Missippi unlike their northern brothers practiced a form of inherited kingship. The oldest son of the kings sisters became the next king. When questioned why, they said because the womb can not lie. It is also noteworthy that the Natchez plucked their beards whereas the northern People are naturally beardless. Another note on interest is the Natchez language is not related to any other language. Their tribal origin is not known.
As late as this year the 'Lake of the Woods' was called 'Lake of the Assiniboine', yet few Assiniboine resided in the area being driven out by the Dakota having been encouraged by the French.
The Kiowa People were originally located around the head of the Missouri River in Montana. Lewis and Clark reported that they lived along the North Platte River but they carried their war with the whites as far south as the Durango River in Texas. The Spanish first recorded the existence of this People this year.
The Algonquian is still struggling with the European notion of the Roman French Church given right for the French to buy and sell People as well as the black African people. On May 29 Intendant Gilles Hocquart of New France had upheld the century old rule. It is true, the Natives take slaves and gave them to families in need but when adopted into the family they could aspire to be leaders. Father L.F. Nau noted the Jesuit encouraged the Iroquois under their care to war against their peaceful neighbors the Sac and Fox. The Jesuit encourages the Iroquois to take slaves for the Jesuit to convert and baptize. The Jesuit says it is thus that the Devil himself unwillingly becomes the occasion of the salvation of these wretched fugitives by making it less difficult for them to embrace Christianity. Even under these evil conditions the Church Slaves do not abandon their one true Great Spirit for the Jesuit form of Christianity.
The French including the Black Robes kept their slaves until death, even when baptized into the family of Christ. This rather savage, evil, and uncultured practice are contrary to historical tradition that states when adopting a slave into your family they become a full member with all rights.
The Cheyenne People noted that many of their people have died from disease unknown to them.
The Jesuit reports the Savages sing because they are incapable of prolonged mental application. They also say all tribes of People except the Dakota Sioux are raising horses, pigs, poultry and other domestic animals. A major trade item (of the Jesuit) in the field is the sale of masses. The cost of one mass is one franc and masses are traded between the priests as some people buy twenty to thirty masses at a time. Business is so good that mass ledgers must be maintained along with the beaver skins and other trade items.
The Jesuits arrive Baja California Peninsula 1697 and moved south in 1720 which irritated the Pericu people who revolted and killed two missionaries one being Father Nicolas Tamaral. The missionaries had been trying to change their culture, including century old tradition of polygamous practices. Their numbers had fallen from 50-60,000 to about 4,000 by this date. This is likely another reason for the revolution.
The Lake of the Woods is filled with Ojibwa, Cree and Dakota Sioux all living in relative peace. The woods are on fire being set by the People as part of their slash and burn farming technique. The Black Robe Father Auleau begs his God to enlighten the Cree of the horror of Hell and for the savages to abandon their Holy Spirit God. The Cree acknowledge the immortality of the soul but say they would never think of renouncing their faith for fear of being stricken with death. Father Auleau intends to travel 400 leagues to the North West where three French people died of hunger last year.
Father L.F. Nau, Jesuit, being recently arrived from Paris notes the savages (Iroquois) at Sault Saint Louis 3 1/2 leagues from Montreal are of better build than the French being nearer six feet tall and looking much like the Portuguese.
The Ouachipouennes (Mandan) also called Kouatheattes of the Missouri River have beards, use draw-bridges, have seven forts and paint ox on the four corners of their house. They claim to be of the same stock as the French who are at the mouth of the River towards the west; a very long journey passing seven other tribes. Some believe they are of Spanish origin while others think they are of Metis stock.
The command center of the Ojibwa is Madeleine Island, Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior and accommodated 150 Chippewa warriors indicating a population of 1,000 people. The Cree and Assiniboine who are west of Lake Superior clashed with the Dakota of Minnesota.
Father Aulneau a Jesuit noted that the Cree and Assiniboine controlled Lake Winnipeg Region. They travel to the Mandans to trade for corn.
Jean Baptiste du Halde a French geographer describes part of Alaska. He had a copy of Vitus Bering first report.
After the Dakota attacked and killed the French on the Lake of the Woods the Ojibwa used their alliance with the French as an excuse to move west and drive the Dakota Sioux from the land west of Lake Superior that they occupied. The Ojibwa from their command center at Fort La Pointe established a trading post at Vermilion River, St. Long County, Minnesota. These Ojibwa (Chippewa) also expanded into the upper Mississippi to expand their trading empire and are in conflict with the Dakota Sioux from Minnesota. This territorial dispute would last approximately until 1780. As a result the Dakota Sioux drives the Cree and Assiniboine to the northwest. This migration of the Ojibwa resulted in the beginning of the plains Ojibwa who adapted to bison (buffalo) hunting and the sun dance. Their southern relatives the Chippewa is more inclined toward farming and the manufacturing of maple sugar as would many of the Saulteaux who followed. Some Cree contends the Ojibwa from Chequamegon had allied themselves with the Dakota against the Cree before the Dakota attack and killing of the twenty-one French at Lake of the Woods. The Ojibwa had settled at Vermilion River near Rainy Lake. Sixty Ojibwa Auwause warriors are at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, at Lake Nipigon are forty Oskemanettigons (Ojibwa) and two hundred Monsonis (Ojibwa) along the Nipigon River. Near Lake Nipigon are sixty Christinaux and one hundred and fifty Assiniboine.
June: A Dakota war party at Lake of the Woods kills 21 of La Verendrye's trading party. Father Auleau is included in the party. There is no evidence of torture. Some suggest it is a roving band of both Dakota and Ojibwa youth. As a result the Ojibwa aligned with their brothers the Cree, Assiniboine and the French against the Dakota. Some say this incident started a thirty-year war.
Two hundred lodges of warriors are gathered at Fort Pointe des Bois (Red Lake). La Colle, La Mikouenne and LeChenaiil are in council.
The Governor of Pennsylvania demonstrated the deceit and decadents of the European cultures towards treaties. The Delaware People in treaty granted the Europeans all the lands from Neshaming creek to as far as a man could walk in a day and a half. The governor ordered a road built inland and then hired a trained runner to go the distance. The Delaware were not pleased.
The Assiniboine of Lake Winnipeg and Red River journeyed to the Kouatheattes (Mandan) People to trade for corn and beans. The round trip would take 2-3 months and was an annual undertaking. The trip was slow because it included the women, children, the old and disabled.
The Cree and Assiniboine encouraged the French to build a trading post at the confluence of the Assiniboine and Red River to secure this southern limits of their territories. It would also limit the northward expansion of the Dakota Sioux and destroy the French/Dakota alliance.
The Assiniboine had established one hundred lodges on Turtle Mountain, North Dakota. Louis Denis, Sieur de La Ronde, of Chequamegon Post reports the Ojibwa who venture 15 leagues (75 miles) into the interior are attacked by the Dakota. These isolated attacks would result in a major offensive in 1741. La Verendrye gave the Mandan people a French flag and a led tablet in memory of having taken possession of their lands in the name of the King. Later when questioned how the savages took this proclamation, he admitted he had said I made them to understand that it is a token in memory of the French visit to their country. The Mandan of North Dakota lived in round huts made of logs and clay.
This year Fort Mose is established near St. Augustine by the former slaves, becoming the first black settlement in North America. Two years later the British from Carolina invaded and attacked Fort Moses seeking to force the settler’s back into slavery. One hundred blacks defended the fort but are forced to flee to St. Augustine.
The Cherokee in Georgia contracted smallpox brought by white slave traders in Charlestown, South Carolina. This epidemic kills 11,000 people, nearly half the Cherokee.
The Blackfoot of the prairies is using horses in their bison (buffalo) hunts and the practice of stealing horses is considered a especially honorable practice. As a result of the horse, the plains People modified their custom in that the bravest deed a warrior could perform is to ride close enough in battle to touch his opponent with a coup stick without harming him thereby taking his honor. The dishonored person is required to steal a horse to regain his honor. The Blackfoot had acquired the Sarcee as allies claiming them as a more northerly tribe, driven south to the plains by internal feuds. The Gros Ventre (Big Belly) are being forced northwest (across the International boundary) by the Plains Cree and Assiniboine (people who cook with hot stones). The Blackfoot formed an alliance against the Cree (pleasant speaking people). The Prairie people noted that when the sun goes down the Hairy Mouths cannot find the trail and they get lost. Then they beat their horses but they are also lost.
Joseph La France, a French Canadian Indian, claimed to have journeyed inland through Canada from Hudson Bay to the Pacific Ocean from 1739 to 1742.
During 1739 to 1752 the French sent between eight and twenty-seven canoes loaded with trade goods each year up river north of Lake Superior.
The Mandan of North Dakota advised La Verendrye that the People south west of them had the horse.
After 1740 very few Cree traveled to Fort Albany indicating that the Ojibwa had completely replaced them in the Canadian Shield.
Shecomeco was the site of the Moravian mission at the Mahican village located two miles south of Pine Plains, Dutchess County, New York.
Joseph La France informed Arthur Dobbs that the Sturegon Cree living around the Lake of the Woods are still in this location.
The Shoshone of Idaho obtained the horse.
A camp at Blackfoot Crossing. (Alberta) had a fortified palisade wall, moat-like trench and dwellings made of logs and earth. The builders are believed to be from the Missouri.
September: Russian traders overwhelm the Aleut after the arrival of Milkhail Nerodchikov. The original population of 25,000 declined to 2,200 because of war and disease brought by the Russians.
The Ojibwa from La Pointe are reported attacking the Dakota Sioux deep into their own country in large numbers.
Thayendanegea a Mohawk is born near Canajoharie, New York, died November 24, 1807 near Brantford, Ontario. His mother re-married and he secured the name Brant and became known as Joseph Brant. He claimed to be born in the spring of this year on the Muskingum River, Ohio. His family would return to the Mohawk Valley in 1751. The Mohawk Valley was being invaded by Europeans. The Dutch and English were taking young Mohawk women as wives and this did not please the People.
The Ottawa have a village called Waganakisi at Harbour Springs, Michigan.
30: The Verendrye brothers (III)-Francois Gautier de Verendrye
and (III)-Louis Joseph Gautier of Verendaye
claimed the Dakota’s for the king of
The Iroquois suggested to the English they form a democratic confederacy like their own. This is the basis of the United States confederacy. It is noteworthy that the Algonquian nations also operated under a confederacy form of government. The rest of the world is under Kingships or Emperors a form of divine dictatorships.
A Cree band were living south of James Bay and was called by early French missionaties as Les Cris, a short form of the Ojibwa word Kiristino, meaning Christian.
The Mille Lac Band of Ojibwa are establishing themselves around Mille Lacs (Lake), Minnesota during the period 1745-1750.
Some suggest a 3 day decisive battle between the Ojibwa and Dakota too place on the southwest shore of Mille Lac, Minnesota with the Dakota being driven from this region. The Dakota had a village here called Izatys that was reputed to be the Santee Dakota tribal center. About the same time another battle took place at the mouth of the St. Croix River (Prescott, Wisconsin) also resulting in a loss to the Dakota. The Ojibwa established permanent villages at Lac Court Oreilles and Lac Du Flambeau, Wisconsin.
Duc D'Anville's expedition survivors who reached Chebusto, Acadia suffered from scurvy and typhus and 1,135 French had died. In one of the most unprovoked diabolic actions taken by the Europeans they took their clothing and personal items and gave them to the L'nu'k ( Micmac) who also contacted typhus and spread it to other L'nu'k ( Micmac) also (Mi-kmaq or Mi'Kaq) communities. Up to three-quarters of the Micmac (Mi'kmaq or Mi'Kmaq) of Nova Scotia perished from typhus. It is inconceivable that this is an accident.
An English slave trader and pirate named Sam Bellamy lost his ship Whydah being sunk near Boston.
August 4: Quebec, death, Mathias an ancient Huron chief from Detroit b-1697.
Dakota war parties were sent out from Leech Lake to the Big Falls on the Big Fork River northeast of Red Lake after being strengthened by other tribes from the west. The battle ended with great losses on both sides. The Sioux withdrew to Leech Lake.
Demoiselle (killed June 21, 1752) of the Piankeshaw Miami People established a major trading post and village called Pickawillany at the confines of the Loramie Creek and Great Miami River, in Ohio. He employed 50 British traders and his village contained 400 families by 1750.
Nanticote is a peaceful Algonquian tribe living on the Nanticoke River in Maryland. The had been living in this area since before 1608 at peace with their neighbors the Delaware's and Coney. After years of difficulties with the European settlers they relocated north up along the Susquehanna River and joined the Iroquois in New York State.
Indian John a slave of Richard Randolph of Virginia, is willed to his son Ryland Randolph.
During 1748 to 1750 the Norwegian glaciers achieved their historic maximum for the Little Ice Age (1550-1850).
The Hudson Bay Company reported only a few packets of Cree remained east of Lake Winnipeg. Most of the Cree who had lived in the James Bay and Hudson Bay region is Swampy Cree (Muscagoe) who would end up in the Red River region.
Fort Saint Pierre at the outlet of Rainy Lake lives the Gens de La Graisse d'Ours (Ojibwa) and the Monsoni. Monsoni and Cree occupy Saint Charles on Lake of the Woods. Cree of the Bois Fort occupies Fort Maurepas at Lake Winnipeg. The French abandons Fort La Reine on the Assiniboine River and the one at the mouth but the Assiniboine is at La Reine. Fort Dauphin at Mossy River and Dauphin Lake serves the Cree and Assiniboine. Fort Bourbon (Cedar Lake) serves the Cree. Fort Paskoyac on the Saskatchewan is abandoned due to lack of provisions to serve the Cree.
Governor Cornwallis of Acadia issued a proclamation to annoy, distress, take or destroy savages commonly called Micmac (Mi'kmaq or Mi'Kmaq), wherever they are found. He also encouraged soldiers to stay in Nova Scotia and homestead the savage’s land. It is noteworthy that marriage with the savage women is still officially encouraged for the next few years.
Celoron de Blainville buried six lead plates in the Ohio Valley asserting French claims to the region. The People wondered about the significance, asked the English. Upon learning the truth they immediately removed the plates.
The Wewenoc a band of Abnaki who lived along the coast of Maine signed a treaty and are removed to Canada.
The Presido (fort) Santa Maria del Coreto de La Bahia is built near the
mission Espititu Santo, Goliad, Texas, alias La Bahia, alias Santa Dorotea.
September 13: Pickawillany, Ohio a strategic Miami village and trading center is visited by Celeron De Bienville of New France and his 250 man army to intimidate the Miami. They spent a week trying to convince La Demoiselle (killed June 21, 1752) the village and trading post commander to trade with the French. Bienville wrote that the tribes of this area are very badly disposed towards the French and entirely devoted to the English.
INDIAN HISTORY 1750 - 1779