METIS CULTURE 1685-1699




The Hudson Bay Company, for all practical purposes, is non-functional.
Eight hundred French, out of frustration, become Coureurs des Bois in a single year.
One thousand Metis and Coureurs des Bois traders are on Lake Winnipeg for one trading season.


  05/05/2013  

METIS HISTORY 1700-1714

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1600-1699 index

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index  



The French King abolished all trading privileges in the Canadian Indian Territories
thereby
causing a disastrous financial blow to those who followed the French policies.


 


1685  

The Dutch are reported to be trading at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).  At Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) the Dakotas said they saw horses and Europeans (Spaniards) to the west, where they get blue and green stones.  They also reported that the Dakota are trading to the north at the Bay of the North.  Some suggest Green Bay (Wisconsin) was established later.  It is noteworthy that the Metis and Coureurs des Bois were at Green Bay long before the French entered the area.

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) joined Henri Tonti in Illinois Country until 1702.

(II)-Jean Fafard (1657-1756) son (I)-Francois Fafard (1630-1711) and Marie Richard; married about 1785 (II)-Marguerite Couck b-1664
    (III)-Marguerite dit Cousseau Fafard b-1686 married 1710 Detroit (II)-Jean Baptiste Turpin b-1685
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Fafard married 1715 Detroit Margerite Queroti a Huronne

Mrs Maurice wintered at Charles Fort, Rupert River.

Michel Messier, sieur de Sainte Michel (1640-1725), was involved in the fur trade about the same time his son-in-law Pierre LeSueur was trading in the west.

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (Pere) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, is appointed Commandant of the West by Governor de La Barre.  He traveled Minnesota, Wisconsin, north of the Mississippi and  Prairie du Chien in the heart of the Dakota Country where he built Fort Saint Antoine (others suggest it was Fort St. Nicholas near Prairie du Chien), returning to Quebec in 1688.

(I)- Nicholas Perrot (1644-1718) with 20 men visited the Dakota Sioux to form an alliance.  They builr Fort Perrot at the outlet of Lake Pepin to the Mississippi.  They then returned to Mackinac their command post.

M. de la Durantaye built Fort Checagua (Chicagou), Wisconsin and became its commander.  The French built Fort de Francis near the forks of the Albany and Kenogami Rivers in Ontario.  The Metis are reported to be trading Minnesota this winter.  

It is estimated that the Ojibwa and Ottawa (Outouan or Outaouais) are supplying the French with 2/3 of their furs.  The French called the Ottawa People Outouan or Outaouais.  The Huron or Wendat called the Ottawa Oda-wa meaning bark-eaters a derogatory term because they were middle men to the trade.  It is unknown how much of the fur trade is being supplied to the Dutch and English.  There is little doubt that the Ojibwa are at the center of the fur trade at this time and would hold this position  many years into the future.

(I)-Daniel Greysolon Dulhut (Duluth or Du Lhut) (1639-1710) built this decade a fort at Ontario's Lake Nipigon and another along the western Lake Superior, he is also credited to have built Fort Saint Joseph (la Ville d'Etroit) (Village at the Straits) later re-named Fort Detroit.

The first fur trading post is built to service the Sac and Fox Peoples at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, just north of where the Wisconsin River joins the Mississippi River. It became a great Metis Settlement.

Fort Temiscamingue is established by HBC at the mouth of the Ottawa River.

January 19:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) and his colonists arrived at Matagorda Bay (Texas), claiming it to be an outlet of the Mississippi River.  They had likely landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas and built Fort St. Louis in honor of the King of France.  The Karankawas People were not happy with the fort or the attitude of the French.  Some Frenchmen stole a couple of native canoes and refused to give them back.  War began between the Karankawas and the French.  (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) led a party overland in an attempt to find the Mississippi.  Captain de Beaujeu traveled by water to find the river.

February 1:  In Quebec Frs Charron de La Barre, merchant of Montreal sells permit to Jean Baptiste d'Ailleboust des Muceaux and Pierre Cartier originally issued Sr. Gitton September 10, 1684.

February 7:  Sorak8a?, birth (II)-Jacques Cote Du Botte, Metis son (I)-Abraham Cote ou Botte dit Sorak8a de Dieppe and Marie A8endea, Onontaise sauvagesse.

February 20:   (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) ship, Amiable, is lost on a reef.

April 19:   (II)-Gillis Deniau (Deneau) (b-1666) listed voyager West.

May 20:   The King of France grants the Compagnie du Nord a twenty year permit to the exclusion of all others the trade, including forts and habitations of the Bourbon River and the lands along its shore.  The permit allows forts at Abitibi Lakes and Lake Nemiscou.

July:   Due to (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) incompetence and paranoia, most of the supplies are lost, the Indian (Karankawa) are alienated and the colony faces starvation.  This Fort called St. Louis is the first known European colony in the state of Texas, built on the Garcitas River near Lavaca Bay, Texas.  

October 31:   (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) and 50 men search for the Mississippi River until March 24, 1686.

 

1686  

(I)-Daniel Greysolon (Greysolon) Du Luth (Du Lhut, Dulhud) a Coureurs des Bois (1639-1710) built a fort at la Ville d'Etroit (Fort Detroit) near the outlet of Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea), on the Detroit Strait.

A Dutch trading party wintered near Oswego.  The Fleming and English of New York sent a trading expedition to Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).  Thomas Dongan of New York sent a trading expedition to Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) offering their goods at lower prices than the French.

(I)-Mathurin Cadote, alias Poitevin (1649-1729), signed on as a voyager to Outaouais (Ottawa) on June 14, 1686.

(III)-Marie Anne Denis de Fronsac, Metis, b-1686, daughter (II)-Richard Denis and Anne Parabego (savage); married October 16, 1709, Quebec, Quebec (II)-Jean Mercan (1685-1718).

Fort St. Joseph or Fort du Luth is established at the present site of Port Huron by (I)-Daniel Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Duluth) (1636-1710).   Fort Gratiot and Fort St. Clair are established later (1696) in the same vicinity, on the St. Clair River.  He is appointed commander Fort Frontenac  (Kingston, Ontario).

(I)-Charles Le Moyne de Loungueuil (1626-1685) for the Compagnie Francaise de La Baie d'Hudson sends his three sons (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), (II)-Jacques Le Moyne de Sainte Helene and (II)-Paul Le Moyne de Maricourt into James Bay against the English.  They capture control of Monsoni (Moose Factory), Rubert (Charles) and Quichichouuuane (Albany); all south of Bottom Bay (James Bay).  

Pierre de Trotes Chevalier de Troyes established a trading post at Abitibi Lake (halfway water) on the Quebec-Ontraio border, about 250 km south of James Bay.  He went on to capture Moose Fort (Ontario) from the HBC and renamed it Fort St. Louis.  The French held this fort until 1696..

The Acadian Metis community of La Heve (Port Royal), Nova Scotia received an addition of 40 families from France, boosting the population to 800.

A chapel on the east bank of the Fox River, Wisconsin, built in 1671 by Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689) Jesuit and Father Louis Andre, is burnt by the Indians and abandoned in 1728.

 (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, ordered 105 men,  both regulars and Canadian militia, to take the English establishments at James Bay.  They did, seizing 50,000 beaver pelts.

It is believed the English first visited Lake Ontario this year.

This year the Compagnie du Nord received a royal charter giving it a 20‐year trade monopoly in Hudson Bay and then organized and financed a land expedition to drive out the English from Hudson Bay, using the roads of Témiscamingue to get there.  The expeditionary force was composed of 30 soldiers and close to 70 civilians and under the command of navy officer, Captain Pierre Chevalier de Troyes. The expedition left Montreal on March 30 and arrived at the Témiscamingue trading post on May 18. They located a house on the island which could accommodate 14 persons. This is the only information we have concerning the physical aspect of the Témiscamingue trading post. With D’Iberville in charge, the Lemoyne brothers and the coureur de bois, Saint‐Germain, conducted an inventory of the merchandise and furs at the trading post. The expeditionary force continued its way to Hudson Bay leaving behind employees of the Compagnie du Nord, such as Mathurin Guillet, whose mission was to transport the furs to Montreal. A report states that two years after the passage of Chevalier de Troyes, the French at that trading post had been killed by the Iroquois. This massacre put an end to the existence of the first trading post on Lake Témiscamingue.

(II)-Zacharie Robutel de la Noue (1665-1733) of Montreal accompanied Pierre de Trotes Chevalier de Troyes to the Bay of The North (Hudson Bay).

January 3:  Juan Enriquez Barroto (1660-1693) departed Havana to search for La Salle's French colony on the Gulf of Mexico.  He was told to search from Florida to Texas.  Antonio Romero was on this expedition.  They proceeded to Apalachee Bay, Florida then Pensacola Bay and they surveyed Mobile Bay.  They reached the Mississippi River Delta but didn't recognize it as the rivers mouth.  They named it Cabo de Lodo (cape of mud).  They found the wreckage of La Salle's ship at Matagorda Bay.

January 29:   Quebec, permit for voyage to 8ta8acs by M. de Dononville for Louis Leconte Dupre, merchant and ceded to the Pierre et Oger Le Maitre brothers, by contract June 25, 1686.

January 29:   Quebec, permit for voyage to 8ta8acs by M. de Dononville for Jacques Le Ber, merchant, ceded to Jacques Testard and Pascal Prevost, by contract July 10, 1686.

February 13:   (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi River but was unable to find (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) Fort as it was located in Texas by error.  (I)-Jean Couture a coureur de bois was on this expedition but left Tonty at the mouth of the Arkansas River where he established a trading post known as Arkansas Post..

April:   (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), the would be Jesuit, fur trader, explorer and intriguer, with 20 men, set out to seek help at Fort St Louis des Illinois.  Dissension, desertion and murder finally led to the assassination of La Salle on March 19, 1687.   

March 20:   Chevalier Pierre de Troyes d-1688 arrived in Quebec in August 1685 with a force of 30 French troops and 60 militia from Montreal, on the way to James Bay, created a Fort at Lake Abitibi (Abitah-nipi),  meaning halfway water;  halfway between James Bay and the Ottawa River.  It is located on the Quebec/Ontario border.  The French were aware of this Algonquin meeting place as early as 1640 and met them to trade.   Governor Jacques-René de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1642–1710) ordered them to expel the English and capture unauthorized traders, especially those working for (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710).   

April 20:   (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, departed Mississippi but left a note with the Indians for La Salle.  It was given to d'Iberville in 1698.

April 22:   (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) continued his search for the Mississippi River until October 17.

June 20:   Pierre de Troyes (b-1688), with his 90 man army including (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706)- the son of (I)-Charles Le Moyne (1626-1685), arrived at the Hudson Bay and captured Fort Monsipi (Moose Factory) (16 men) which they renamed Fort Saint Louis.  A humorous moment occurred when when the gate closed on twenty four year old (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), who was leading the attack against Moose Factory , leaving him with sword and musket in hand to hold the 16 English at bay while his friends forced the gate open.  They went on to capture Charles Fort (Fort Rupert) which they renamed Fort Saint Jacques.  They then captured Fort Albany which they renamed Fort Sainte Anne.  The three day siege of Albany resulted in 140 cannon shots on the Fort before surrender.  The English are found in the Fort's cellar.  De Troyes returned to Quebec while d'Ilberville remained in command at Hudson Bay.  There is a reward for the capture of the Coureurs des Bois, (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710), but he is not captured.    The English ship Craven is also easily captured.  

July 1:  Pierre de Trotes Chevalier de Troyes recorded that James Bay was littered with ice flows, large enough to hid a canoe.

August 10:   (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) commands the English posts which were just captured but also goes on to capture two English ships.

October 26:   Ruth Everett of Scituate was convicted "of having a bastard child Born of her Body which by the complexion appears to have been begotten by an Indian and she will not confess who the father of it is," and thus she was sentenced "to be whipped 30 stripes: 15 now at Plimouth and 15 at Sittuate . . . unless she in the meantime confess who the father of her child is."

The English now only held the Port Nelson (York) and New Severn River Posts.  Michael Grimington, in the sloop Hayes, reached the mouth of the Churchill River where he found two pieces of artillery that he supposed were the remains of expeditions by the Dutch or the Danes.

 

 

1687  

The mission Immaculate Conception in the village of Kaskaskia on the Illinois River not far from Utica is established this year.

The Dutch party that wintered near Oswego went to trade Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), but were not successful.  The Metis and Coureurs des Bois are likely, themselves, out trading.   Thomas Dongan of New York sent a trading expedition to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) but they were intercepted by the French and ended up in prison at Quebec.  The Canadians who helped them were executed as renegades.  Arnold Viele (Aernout Cornelissen Viele) (1640-1704) a Dutchman was in this group but he escaped from prison in Quebec.

Five survivors of the La Salle colony arrived Arkansas Post owned by (I)-Jean Couture, a coureur de bois.  Couture trekked overland to Fort Saint Louis to inform Tonty of the disaster.

The Quakers in Pennsylvania were the first settlers in America to publicly oppose slavery.  They contend that those who buy or purchase slaves are no different than those who steal or rob men. 

(I)-Father Claude Aveneau (1650-1711) arrived Quebec and is immediately dispatched to Detroit to serve the Illinois.

Marquis de Seignelay complains that the French deserters (Couriers des Bois) are bringing the far Indians to trade with the English, thereby destroying the French trade.  

Alphonse Tonti Baron of Paludy (born 1759) passed through the Detroit River to join Duluth de Greyzelon who built a stockade called Fort St. Joseph at the mouth of Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea), later called Fort Gratiot.

Jean Colin, soldier, died 1687 Boucherville, Quebec a possible relation (III)-Oliver Garneau alias Coline, Perrin.  (I)-Mathurin Cadote alias Poitevin (1649-1729) signed on as a voyager September 7, 1687 to Outaouais (Ottawa).

Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), with a new frigate, is appointed Commander in Chief of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).  While gathering furs, being anchored off Charlton Island, he is challenged by two English ships; the 18 gun Churchill with a crew of 85 and a smaller frigate, Younge.  The newly appointed Chief Factor, Captain John March, and veteran Admiral William Bond arrived to recapture Fort Albany.  England and France were not officially at war and there was no immediate hostility.  Iberville cut loose the river channel markers and the H.B.C. ships promptly ran aground, allowing time for the French to secure their land defenses.  The H.B.C. had no idea they outnumbered the French four to one.  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) maintained the illusion of superiority by assigning snipers to prey on the British camp, not allowing them to hunt for fresh game.  The new Chief Factor is the first to die of scurvy due to lack of fresh meat.  Admiral Bond and his mate are captured on a partridge hunt, as was a search part sent after them.  A delegation of 17 men, dispatched to plead for Admiral Bonds release, is also captured.  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706)  pounded the remaining English with canon fire until they surrendered.

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) returned to Quebec via the sea with a captured ship loaded with English furs and merchandise.

 Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut's trading post at Lake Nipigon traded with 1,500 Indians, mainly because it was a historic trading route. 

Hannah Tubbs, wife of William Tubbs, Jr. of Duxbury was sentenced to a £5 fine or thirty stripes for agreeing with James Brown, an Indian, to commit adultery with him.

Some suggest a mission called Immaculate Conception was established not far from Utica on the Illinois River this year.

February:  The (I)- Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) colony was reduced to 36 persons.   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) colony at Fort Louis, Texas was running shot of supplies so he took most of the able-bodied men north to Canada to obtain gunpowder, medicines and other commodities.   This was a strange move given the Fort St. Louis was under constant attack by the Karankawas.  La Salle was considered bad-tempered, haughty and harsh, having alienated even his strongest supporters.  La Salle was finally shot at point blank range after three of his allies were killed before him.  The remaining men turned on each other.  The Karankawas attacked and destroyed the fort killing men, women and children, only sparing 6 children who were adopted into the tribe.  Jean Baptiste and Pierre Talon two of the prisoners were returned to France in 1698.  

March 19:   It is reported that (I)- Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) is murdered by his men near Trinity River, (Texas) Louisiana Territory after being ship wrecked in the Bay of Matagorda.  One of his ships had been previously captured by pirates.  A second ran aground with most of their supplies and is lost.  The fourth ship sailed back to France, leaving only 180 settlers from an original 300 men and women.  Joutel, Douay and three others made their way to New France then home to France to seek help for the remaining colonists, but King Louis XIV (1643–1715) refused to send help.

June:   A French force of 1,500 men invaded Iroquois Country and burned and pillaged the Seneca towns. 

June 14:   Pierre de Troyes (b-1688) and Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville (1637-1710) departed Quebec on a campaign against the Iroquois.  Denonville captured 200 Iroquois, ravaged Seneca villages on the south shore of Lake Ontario, and rebuilt La Salle's Fort at the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake Ontario.  He left 100 men but after winter only 12 survived, most died of starvation, scurvy or were eaten by wolves while outside the fort cutting wood in the snow.  Some suggest Denonville (1637-1710) built a fort at Ganniatarontagouay Bay or Irondequoit Bay near Lake Ontario.

(I)-Henry de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, ruled the kingdom about St. Louis and Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River.  Oliver Morel de la Durantaye (1640-1716) is commanding at Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), (some suggest the Fort is not built until 1790), and Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut held la Ville d'Etroit (Fort Detroit), New France (Michigan) area.  Charles Greysolon de la Tourette is trading Lake Nipigon, (Ontario).  These men encouraged the assembly of three thousand men to deal with the Iroquois.  The Seneca (Iroquois) slipped away into the forest, not prepared to engage in all out fighting. The force destroyed their town.  The Voyager force failed to press on despite the warnings of the Natives who said that if you upset a wasp nest you must crush the wasps or they will sting you.  Retaliation would come at Lachine on the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, in 1689.  A fire destroyed the Jesuit trading post of De Pere, wiping out a large supply of furs.

August,  (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, returned to Montreal, Quebec leaving Troyes in command at Niagara.

September 14:   Henri Joutel and the remaining La Salle party arrived at Tonty's fort at Starved Rock on the Illinois River.  The men concealed the death of La Salle.  Others suggest that Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) is murdered.  Some believe it is by the Jesuit, as they had previously made an attempt on his life.  La Salle's exploration party attempted to keep the murder from (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716), suggesting they may have been party to the murder.

 

 

1688  

Simon Cardinal, son of Simon Jacques Cardinel (Cardinault), born 1667 Lachine, Quebec and Michelle Garnier (Grenier), is hired by Francois de Boisguillot for le voyage des 8ta8ats along with Cardin, Michel Charbonneau, Gabriel Cardinal, brother of Simon, Nicolas Jette, Francois Rivard and (II)-Louis Couc Sr. du Montour, b-1659, Metis.

The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Prince of Wales at the mouth of the Churchill River (Manitoba).

Ignace Hubert dit Lacroix de Bellair b-1656?, a voyager, and his brother Louis Joseph Hubert (1663-1730) are in the west, employed by Nicolas Perrot.(1644-1718)

Jean Baptiste L. Franquelin's map, published this year from reports of Coureurs des Bois and Metis, clearly indicates they had penetrated into northwestern plains prior to this date.  Lac de Baude (Lake of the Woods), Lac des Assinibouels and Lac des Christinaux represent Lakes Winnipeg and Winnipegosis, (Manitoba),   Madeline Island, La Pointe (Wisconsin) and Isle de Tour (it later became known as St. Michel Island).  The map also lists Fort St. Antoine west of Lake Superior on the Mississippi River system.  I believe we grossly underestimate the mobility of these early explorers because they were driven by wonder-lust and not greed or glory.

Jacques de Noyen (1668-1745), voyager and coureur de bois, traveled Quebec to Rainy Lake this season where he wintered with the Assiniboine People.

The English reestablished Fort Albany with instructions to fire on the French only in self defense.  Despite the uncertainty and hazards of the fur trade, the Hudson Bay Company declared a dividend of fifty percent this year.

Jacques de Noyon (1668-1745) of Trois Rivers, Quebec is reported wintering on the Ouchichiq River (Rainy Lake, Wisconsin).  He journeyed up the Kaministiouia (meansering River) River to Lac Le Pluie (Rainy Lake) along the Great Dog Portage and returned via the Pigeon River.  He is believed to be the first person recorded to use the Fort William portage at the mouth of the Kaministiquia (Kaministikwa) River (Ontario).  He met the Cree and Assiniboine People.  He reported that Lake of the Woods (Ontario) is called Lac des Assiniboils and Rainy Lake is called Lac des Chistinaux (Ontario).  It is noteworthy that Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba), was known at this time.  He met with the Assiniboine Indian who advised him of Lake Winnipeg and the river (Mackenzie) that flows into the Western Sea (Arctic Ocean).  They tried to encourage him to travel with them into that region.  His discoveries were not followed up for almost twenty years. 

Louis Dupuis (1658-1724), Jacques Ethier, Joseph Goulet and Rene Brisson are wintering near  Michilimakinac, New France (Michigan).

In the spring of 1688 (II)-Mathieu Garaut, also Garaho, Gavahau and Perrin (1664-1742), engage of La Roy to the West, while conducting goods to Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario), is captured by the Iroquois.  He is held prisoner at the Iroquois village of Anoyottes.  Shortly thereafter the Iroquois also capture (I)-Jeanne Therese Pilet (1671-1750) at L’Anne.  She is taken to the Iroquois village of Anoyottes.  They contracted marriage at Anoyottes in the presence of Father Pere Millet, the Jesuit, who is also held as prisoner. 

Pierre de Liette is at an Illinois village with Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714).

(I)-Mathurin Cadote, alias Poitevin (1649-1729), signed on as a voyager on August 4, 1688 to Outaouais (Ottawa).  

Fort St. Nicholas is built at the mouth of the Wisconsin River.
Parrot established a trading post at Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.
Fort St. Antoine is built at the mouth of the Chippewa River, Wisconsin.
Fort Beauharnois is built on the north side of Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.

January 7:   St. Francois du Lac, marriage (III)-Francois Couc, Metis, son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, Metis, born 1659 and 1st married Madeleine Sacokie; 2nd married Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, born 1656.

February 10:  Sorak8a?, birth, (II)-Jeanne Cote Du Botte, Metis, daughter (I)-Abraham Cote ou Botte dit Sorak8a de Dieppe and Marie A8endea, Onontaise sauvagesse.

March 21:   Henri Joutel and the remaining La Salle party departed Tonty's Fort at Starved Rock on the Illinois River and arrived in Montreal, Quebec, on July 14. 

April 1:   (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) journeys from Fort Niagara via Sault Ste Marie to arrive at Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan) when (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) and Father Anastase arrive, having come by way of Texas and Fort St. Louis, Illinois.  This is interesting because Baron La Hontan says he encountered the survivors of Cavelier de la Salle who hid the fact that La Salle had been murdered on March 19, 1687.  Some 180 colonists built Fort St. Louis near Victoria County, Texas some 400 miles west of their destination, mouth of the Mississippi.  The Fort no longer existed after 1688.  The actual location of this fort has yet to be determined but artifacts have been uncovered in the area.

May:   Alonso de Leon in Kenny County, Texas among the Coahuiltecan he found  Frenchman named Jean Jarry, Jean Gery or Juan Jarri.

May 13:   (II)-Rene Deniau (Deneau) (b-1665) listed voyager West.

May 26:   Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan (1666-1713) reported that the Coureurs des Bois have a little settlement at Missilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

June:   Thomas Wild of Marshfield was charged with getting Hannah, the Indian servant of Joseph Waterman, with child. He was ordered to pay Waterman twenty shillings "toward the charge occasioned thereby.”

June 15:   A Declaration of Neutrality is signed by the Onondaga, Oneida, and Cayagu.

June 27:   (III)-Rene LeGardeur, Sieur de Beauvais (1660-1742) listed Voyager West.

July 31:   Joseph Goulet listed Voyager West.

July 31:  Quebec, marriage, Mathurin Cadau to (II)-Marie Durand, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Annennontank, Huronne b-1649.      

August 1:   (II)-Louis Gauthier (1675-1694) voyager West.

August 1:   (II)-Louis Gauthier, alias Landreville, (b-1675) listed Voyager West.  Also same date (II)-Jean Goguet (b-1668) listed Voyager West.

August 3:   (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) sails into the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) with 20 men and captures two English ships and 80 Englishmen.  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), although heavily outnumbered, overcame Captain Bond and recaptured the English Fort Albany and three ships. 

August 8:  Louis Cous de Montour, Metis, (1659-1709) was hired by Francois de Boisguillet to go to Bay of Puants (Green Bay, Wisconsin), he married 1681 Madeleine Sokakis (Saco) an Indian girl..

August 10:   Governor (1685-1689) (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) wrote to the Marquis de Seignelay; son and heir of Jean Baptiste Colbert:  I have noticed that, faced with the strain of crossing rapids, it is common for out tired Canadian men to drink up a pint of alcohol directly from the barrel, in order to regain some strength.  Afterwards, feeling strong, they cross the rapids and then fall asleep, without a thought for food, having no appetite until evening.  In the drinking establishments, Monseigneur, all the drinkers, of whom there are many, especially among the Coureurs des Bois, usually drink a pint or quart of alcohol each after drinking wine.  Many women drink as a matter of habit and several get inebriated. 

August 24:   (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) returns to Fort Niagara to discover its commander Chevalier Pierre de Troyes has died of fever.  He razed the fort and all head to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan) as supplies are in short supply.

September 12:   (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) again sails for Quebec with English furs and merchandise.

September 15:   At the demand of the Iroquois  (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, abandoned and demolished Fort Niagara.

September 24:   (I)-Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan (1666-1713) departed Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) to explore the west.  He has a party of six canoes with some fifty good Ottawa (Outouan or Outaouais) hunters.  He first travels to Baie des Puants (Green Bay, Wisconsin) then down the Fox River and portages to the Wisconsin River.  Traveling the Wisconsin River, he reached the Mississippi River and claims to have traveled the Long River for hundreds of miles, meeting the Dakotas.   Some suggest his claims may have been false.  He returned to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), on May 22, 1689.

November 2:   (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) and company reach the Mississippi and return by the Ohio and Illinois Rivers.  They went via the Chicagou, New France (Chicago, Illinois) portage and lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois) then returned to Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan) by July 9, 1689.

November 16:   Mary Glover was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. 

 

 

1689  

Port Royal:  birth (II)-Bernard Anselme d'Abbadie de Saint Castin, Metis, (1689-1720) son a (I)-French officer at Acadia d-1707 and Matilda Penobscot (Abenaki) d-1734, Pau, France daughter Madockawando (Matakando) d-1698;  married Marie Charlotte Damour daughter Louis Damour.  Castin was a pirate by trade, preyed on the English and used Port Royal as his home base where he was well regarded.

(I)- Nicholas Perrot (1644-1718) took 40 men to Fort Perrot at the outlet of Lake Pepin to the Mississippi.

Father Zenobe, a Recollect is killed by the Indians at Fort St. Louis, on St. Bernard's (Matagorda) Bay, Texas.

(I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710), Governor General New France 1685-1689, noted that the Canadians prefer to spend their lives in the bush, like savages, trading with the Indians, rather than laboring on the land where their parents, (cures) priests and officials could govern them.  I cannot emphasize enough the attraction that this Indian way of life has for all these youths.  These Canadians, however, are all big, well built, and firmly planted on their legs, accustomed when necessary to live on little, rubust and vigorous, very self willed and inclined to dissoluteness; but they are witty and vivacious.   Brisay was reliably informed that some six hundred Coureurs des Bois were in the interior, away from the colony.  This likely did not include the Metis.

Jacques de Noyen having wintered Rainy Lake is in the Lake of the Woods this year.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) is with (I)-Nicolas Perrot (1641-1718) at Fort Antoine (lower Lake Pepin on the Mississippi).   (I)- Nicolas Perrot (1641-1718) built Fort Saint Nicolas at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers.

I originally had a note that this year the Jesuit Mission at Sault Ste Marie had moved to Michilimackinac but deleted it because I could find no supporting evidence.  Bernie Arbic said Milo Quaife suggests it moved some time between 1694 and 1700.  Some contend Fort de Baude was built this year on Mackinac Island

April 22:  Alonso de Leon, Jean Jarry, a French guide, Franciscan Damian Mazanet (Massenet) entered Texas, reaching La Salle's deserted settlement of Fort Saint-Louis on Garcitas Creek.  The Indians had killed most of the French three months earlier.  He discovered four Frenchmen living among the Tejas on the Colorado River in the Smithville-La Grange area.  Two of the Frenchmen decided to remain with the Indians.  

August 4:  About 1,500 Iroquois attacked Lachine, Quebec in retaliation for Governor Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville's (1637-1710) attacks on the Iroquois Nation.  It is said the Iroquois took ninety prisoners when they departed.  The Sault Ste Marie mission, New France (Michigan) established in 1668, moved to Mackinac, New France (Michigan).  Governor Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville (1637-1710)  of New France is recalled to France, ending a tyrannical reign.  Some contend the general amnesty for Coureurs des Bois saw them all return to Montreal, Quebec and Quebec, Quebec.  This claim is interesting, given that 55 known canoes of fur arrived Montreal, Quebec, in 1690.

August 27:  Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) died at the Ottawa Missions, among the Miamis of St. Joseph River (near Niles, Michigan).

(II)-Zacharie Jolet, a younger brother of (II)-Louis Joliet (1645-1700), a trader, is at Mackinac and married November 1678 Marie Niel epouse November 1692.

November 26:  Sorak8a?, birth, (II)-Jean Baptiste Cote Du Botte, Metis, son (I)-Abraham Cote ou Botte dit Sorak8a de Dieppe and Marie A8endea, Onontaise sauvagesse.

 

 

 

1690  

This is the last year that the Hudson Bay Company paid a dividend.  Dividends are not paid for the next 28 years and, for all practical purposes, the company is non functional.

Illinois, marriage (I)-Michel Accault  aka Ako, Acau, Dacanand d'Acau, d-1702, a French trader, married 1st Aramepinchone aka Marie Rouensa born 1677 Kaskaskia, (Illinois) died June 25, 1725 daughter Illinois chief Rouensa; 2nd marriage 1693/94 Mary Pinchieoua daughter Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 3rd marriage 1701 at Kaskaskia, (Illinois), Marie Suzanna. (see 1694).

(II)-Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, b-1664 possibly a Metis? an interpreter at Michillimakinac. married early 1690's but could be earlier (III)-Madeleine Couc dit Lefebvre Metis b-1669 daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (1631-1699)
    (III)-Margaret Menard Metis married 1706 Boucherville (II)-Pierre Boileau b-1676 
    (III)-Antoine Menard Metis b-1695 Michillimakinac, married 1723 Boucherville (II)-Marie Huet b-1698
    (III)-Marie Madeleine Menard Metis married 1714 Chambly, (I)-Carle Pavy dit Lafleur
    (III)-Louis Menard dit Lafontaine et Montour Metis b-1697 married 1725, Longueuil, (III)-Francoise Robidou b-1707
    (III)-Francois Menard Metis a voyageur and interpreter married 1736 Laprairie, (III)-Marie Charlotte Sauve b-1714

Sir Stephen Evance, knighted 1690, acquired HBC stock in 1684, was Governor of HBC (1692-1696) & (1700-1712), and shot himself to death as he had "failed in the world".  Never married.

Detroit marriage (II)-Jean Fafart (1657-1756) to (III)-Marguerite Couc (Couk & Couck) dit Lafleur Metis b-1664, Trois Rivieres, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, an Algonquine sauvagesse b-1631, d-1699 Trois Rivieres; veuve 1702 (II)-Michel Masse (1671-1730).  
      (III)-Francoise Masse Metis b-1705 married 1731 Montreal (III)-Pierre Leduc b-1699
[I have two similar but different versions of the same event.  I choose to record them both and let others sort this out.]  
(II)-Joseph Fafard married 1690 Pays d'en Haut [in the French upper country], Marguerite Couc (Couk Kouque) aka Lafleur Metis b-1664 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e b-1631 died 1699.
veuve 1702 (II)-Michel Francois Masse (1671-1730);
    (III)-Francois Masse Metis b-1705 married 1731 Pierre Leduc
possibly (II)-Jean Fafard Metis (1657-1756)? I think Joseph and Jean same person
    (III)-Marguerite Fafard Metis married 1710 Detroit Jean Baptiste Turpin
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Fafard Metis married 1715 Detroit Marguerite Joseph Queroti a Huronne

(I)- Louis Jolliet (Joliet), a Coureurs des Bois  (1645-1700), trading post at Mingan, Quebec, was raided by the English who carried off his wife, mother-in-law and goods worth some 10,000 francs.

(I)-Henry Kellsey aka Boy Kelsey (1667-1724) of HBC traveled with a band of Cree 1690-1691 into the interior.  He is believed to be the first Englishman to see bison (buffalo), grizzy bears and many Indians of the Prairies.  Some say he reached Alberta.

Alonso de Leon, and Franciscan Damian Mazanet (Massenet) discovered two French youths beyond the Colorado River, survivors of the La Salle colony.  

(II)-Jean Francois Lienard b-1657, died March 29, 1731 Pte Aux Trembles, Quebec; married Marie Madeleine Arpot (sauvagesse) also called Richard died July 16, 1758. 

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (Pere) (1644-1718) discovered lead mines in south-west Wisconsin and the route from Green Bay by the Fox and Wisconsin rivers became the most traveled route.

Alphonse de Tonty (Tonti) de Paludy (1650-1727) is hiring men for the Illinois Country.  He hired Pierre Le Boeuf for the voyage.

Laprairie, birth Francois Roy (LeRoy) (1690/91-1747) son Pierre Roy and Catherine Ducharme; married 1735 d'Etroit area, New France (Michigan), Barbara Elizabeth Dudevoir dit Lachine.

Fort St. Louis, Quebec is built this year.

So great is the potential profit of the fur trade and so repressive the French regime, that Intendant  Jacques Duchesneau de La Doussinière et d'Ambault, chevalier Intendent 1675-82 (d at Ambrant, France, 1696) reported eight hundred French had become Coureurs des Bois this year alone.  (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, reported that on Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson River this year, there is a French (Metis & Coureurs des Bois) party of six hundred canoes with one thousand men and a few women who are engaged in the fur trade.  This could be second hand inflated information supplied by the Indians, trying to get higher prices for their furs.  Others suggest there is 600 in all of the North West, not just one party.  This is a gross underestimate if the report of 800 just this year is accurate.  The Reference to the French or Canadians covers all traders not authorized by the Hudson Bay Company.  Many of these people observed are probably Metis.  The Hudson Bay Company built York Factory and Fort Severn.  Fort York is defended by a 36 gun man of war, so Commander (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres  (1661-1706) of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) captured Fort Severn and its rich store of pelts.  Indians from the Saskatchewan River system are trading the Bay of the North.  The French intend to cut this trade.

Intendant Duchesneau of New France wrote that there is practically a state of general disobedience, as an estimated 600 Coureurs des Bois, not counting those who go off every day, occupy the West.  The Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan, (1666-1713) a French officer, recorded that he observed these Pedlers, called Coureurs des Bois, numbering some thirty canoes with two to three men  who have have been out a year and eighteen months gathering furs in trade.  When they return, they lavish, eat, drink and play like pirates.

(II)-Jean Gauthier, alias Saguinguira (Sakingoara) (b-1669), a Coureurs des Bois, is listed Voyager West.

The Governor of the Hudson Bay sent (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, and Thomas Savage to the Churchill River to build a trading post. While Thomas Savage was building the fort, (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) and an Indian companion went out to publicize the post among the Indians. They penetrated the back country some 140 miles. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, at age 23, in August of 1690, deserted the Hudson Bay Company because he could not stand the Company's indifference towards the interior of the country.  He likely believed that the Hudson Bay Company was doomed due to its poor performance.  He took a Native wife, and the English assumed him to be the first Englishman to see the broad Canadian prairies.  He reported an abundance of wildlife and huge species of bear and bison (buffalo) on desert and barren ground; a wrong perception that would prevail in the English mind for a hundred and fifty years.  (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) traveled with the Stone and the Naywatamee (probably the Atsina, often referred to as the Fall or Gros Ventre); both members of the Blackfoot confederation.  He traveled The Pas, across the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers and possibly as far as Touchwood Hills.  Some contend he made it to central Alberta and built a log cabin on the Red Deer River. However, his guide Alphonse Bouch (through Henry Stelfox and Bessie Swan) claims the (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) party did not reach central Alberta.  It is likely that Red Deer River, Saskatchewan is being confused with Red Deer River, Alberta in the story telling.  He would return to the H.B.C. by about 1692 and be accepted back into its employ.  Its questionable if this can be claimed as an exploration of the H.B.C., as Kelsey was essentially a free trader.

Oral tradition among the Northern Slave Metis suggests their culture originated about this time with an unnamed French-Canadian (Coureurs de Bois) and a Cree woman.  

The Cree, at this time, had fire-arms through trade with the English on the Northern Bay.  The Hudson Bay Company disapproved of cohabitation with the Natives and is reluctant to allow (I)-Henry Kelsey's Cree wife in the Fort when he returned.  The English still would not authorize inland exploration but are quick to claim credit for (I)-Henry Kelsey's (1667-1724) unauthorized exploration.  This is a strange policy, considering that they would claim to own all these North West Territory lands.  

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut retired this year at Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario) and returned to Montreal.

Late summer, Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725) arrived at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) as its commander until 1694 when he resigned.  He replaced LaDurantaye.  

The major trading and wintering location of Chequamegon Bay, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) is first officially called La Pointe this year.

Monsieur Colin (possible relative of (III)-Oliver Garneau, alias Coline de Carillon, and Perrin de Louargat), interpreter, is burnt with LaBossiere by the Iroquois in 1690.

Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) refers to three distinct forts on the Straits of Mackinac.  The first French fort is established in 1690 (St. Agnace, New France (Michigan)).  About 1715, a second fort was constructed on the south shore (Mickinaw City, New France (Michigan)).  About 1764, the Fort was moved to Mackinac Island (Michigan).   The name changed from Mishinimaukinong, Michilimackinac, Mitchi-makinak, Mackinac and Mackinaw and numerous different spellings appear on documents.

Louis Dupuis and Guillaume Herbert voyage to the Ottawa Country; which means to the west or north west. 

The Illini of Illinois had no beaver to trade but discovered the French and the Jesuits wanted slaves.  They raided the Pawnee for women and children slaves.  They raided the Pawnee so often that Pani, the French word for Pawnee, became synonymous in New France for any Native American slave.

April 5:   St. Thomas Pierreville, died, (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, born 1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, born 1631, died January 8, 1699, Trois Rivers, Quebec, a Algonquine.

May 18:  Montreal, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline son (I)-Urbain Baudrau dit Graveline d-1723 and (II)-Marthurine Marguerite Juillet; married 1st. 1716, Montreal (II)-Francoise Bazinet b-1692, 2nd marriage Mobile, Louisiana Marie a sauvagesse.

May 18:  St. Francois Du Lac, (I)-Jacques Vacher is killed by the Iroquois.   

Alonso de Leon, and Franciscan Damian Mazanet (Massenet) marched on to the Hasinai along the Neches River (near the Louisiana border) and founded the San Francisco de los Tejas, Texas.  On the way back they went to Matagorda Bay and ransomed three French Metis children siblings of Pierre Talon, one of the La Salle colony youths he found earlier.

 

 

1691  

The General amnesty had little effect as it is reported that at Mackinac, New France (Michigan) or in the wilderness thereabouts, lived 200 French (Canadian) Coureurs des Bois.  Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan)  recorded their population as 143.  A nearby village of Metis, French and Ojibwa treated both establishments as one.  The Metis village and fort would have assimilated if it had not been for the presence of the Jesuit and French officers in command.  About 200 canoes of fur are known to have arrived at Montreal, Quebec this year.  Paul Le Gardeur Sieur de St. Pierre is reported at Mackinac, New France (Michigan).

The French report that the Coureurs des Boise are spending 2-3 years in the woods, traveling everywhere.

Some suggest the Governor of Manath (New York) is called Kinshon or 'The Fish'.  The word Kinshon however really refers to New England.

Fort St. Louis was moved this year by Henri Tonti.

Forts St. Louis and Grand Kaskaskia (Illinois) are abandoned for the new Fort Pimitoui at Lake Peoria (Fat Lake).  

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (1657-1724) winters at Mackinac, New France (Michigan) on his way to the Illinois.

(II)-Ignace Durand, Metis b-1669, died November 30, 1670?, Cap St. Ignace, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne b-1649; married February 24, 1691 Catherine Miville.

Virginia imposed penalties for whites who married blacks, even before the two groups were defined under the law. It prescribed banishment. 

May 16:  Rebellion leader Jacob Leisler and his son-in-law Jacob Milborne were executed in New York City. Before being hanged and beheaded, Leisler declared his only objective was to protect the colony against popery. 

August 31:   (II)-Nicolas Gatineau, alias Gastineau dit Duplessis (b-1664), listed Voyager West.  Also (II)-Jean Baptiste Gamelin alias Launiere (1670-1703) listed Voyager West.

September 1:   (II)-Louis Durand, Metis, (b-1670) Sillery, Quebec son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649; became a voyager to the Outaouais Country, replacing Joseph Guillet de Bellefeuille who became sick.  He was permitted to trade his gun, a blanket, six shirts and one coat for his own profit and to transport the furs belonging to himself in the returning canoe which he manned.  He made a number of trips until 1696.

September 31:   Mathurin Rivard Feuilleverte engage west, source Lyle Trottier.

December 27:   (II)-Andre Geoffrion also Joffrion (b-1670) listed Voyager West.

 

 

1692  

The English razed (I)- Louis Jolliet's (Joliet), a Coureurs des Bois  (1645-1700), trading posts at Mingan and Seven Islands.

St. Ignace, Michillimakinac, marriage (II)- Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, an interpreter at Michillimakinac, born June 7, 1664, Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine b-1629 and Catherine Fortier, b-1737: married (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis,  born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699);  see 1690 above

Pierre Le Sueur (Pierre Levasseur L'Esperance alias LaFleche?) (1692-1704)  is trading Lake Superior, Ojibwa Country and exploring the region for possible fort locations.  

(I)-Henry Kellsey aka Boy Kelsey (1667-1724) of HBC was at Lake Winnipeg to try to entice the Indians to trade Hudson Bay.

Eusebio Francisco Kino, an Italian, Jesuit, entered Arizona traveling as far north as Tumucacori, a Pima town on the Santa Cruz River.

(I)-Henri Perrin de Louargat (born 1623) of Montreal, Quebec is a bowman Voyager to the West, departing August 21, 1692.  He is recorded as the son Francois Perrin and Marguerite Chefvoye.  Some contend he may be the son of Monsieur Collin, interpreter who in the summer of 1690 is burnt with LaBoessiere by the Iroquois.  Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) built a fort on the south end of Magalen Island La Pointe, Chequamegon Bay.  (II)-Maurice Menard alias LaFontaine (born 1664), son Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine (1628-1707) and Catherine Fortier; interpreter married Mackinac, New France (Michigan) a Madeleine Couc La Fleur (LeFebvre), Metis, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, b-1624, and Marie Miteouamigoukoue (Mite8ameg8k8e), (1631-1699) . "The parents of Marie are Barthelimi and Carole Pachirini both born around 1600 of the Nation of Outiataronons." Source Mary Powers.  Norm Leveillee; suggests Carole (Carolus) is a translation error and s/b Charles and that Mite8ameg8k8e's parents are unknown.  Linda Bristol also suggests Carolus, Caroli, Car = Charles.  see 1690 above

(II)-Pierre Roy (Leroy) (1676-1743) is employed by the Jesuits to go to the 8ta8ois People.

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) arrived at the new Fort St. Louis with a force of voyagers and soldiers.

A female Negro Metis slave of Salem is accused by a group of young girls of being a witch.  Her master flogged her into confession and into implicating others.  Over 150 people are eventually forced to confess to broomstick rides, Witches Sabbath, sexual relations with the devil and other acts according to the book of witches.  The religious frenzy did not halt until prominent people like the Boston clergy, wealthy merchants and Lady Phips are classified as witches.  Twenty people are executed for witchcraft.  In 1712 the courts annulled the convictions and indemnified relatives of the victims, but it couldn't bring those murdered back to life.  One of the Judges, Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), in 1697, said the convictions were a mistake.  He accepted the blame and shame for the false convictions until his death in 1730.  This Massachusetts Superior Court judge spent a day each year in repentance, fasting and praying.  It is noteworthy that the European churches, as a matter of faith, had to accept witches as a reality. 

Jean Couture, a French Coureurs des Bois, is trading from the Mississippi River to Allegheny Mountains from 1692 to 1700.

Martin Chartier, a Frenchman, is on the Ohio and Susquehanna Rivers, traveling with the Shawnees and he settled among them. 

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (Rasles) (1657-1724), a Jesuit,  arrived Missilimakinak (Mackinac, Michigan) to winter.

Arnold Viele (Aernout Cornelissen Viele) (1640-1704) a Dutchman led a group of Albany traders on a two year expedition to the Shawnee of the lower Ohio River Valley.

A Jesuit missions was built at Fort Pimitoui, then at Chicago, Cahokia, (Illinois) and then Kaskaskia (Illinois).  Cahoka and Kaskaskia (Illinois) are located on the Mississippi River in what was called Illinois Territory or Upper Louisiana.  The reason for the missions is that the Jesuits wanted to ban the French from the Illinois.   The Jesuits, at this time, refused to marry Canadians who married the savages, or baptize their Metis children.   They considered this a sinful relationship.  In time they would be forced to accept these mixed marriages and marry them within the church.  It is noteworthy that Cahokia, S.W. Illinois on the Mississippi River was an ancient Indian city of some 50,000 people. 

Salem:   Four-year-old Dorcas Goode was convicted of witchcraft and sent to prison. She was the daughter of Sarah Goode, who was one of the first three people accused of witchcraft. Dorcas was taken to prison with her mother, and at one point she confessed to practicing witchcraft. Its pretty certain that her mother told her to do that in an effort to save her life. As it turned out, Sarah Goode was hanged on July 19, and her little daughter stayed in prison for several more months. When she was finally released she had lost her mind. Later her father petitioned the authorities for help in taking care of her, because she could not take care of herself.

When Joseph Ballard's wife, Elizabeth, came down with a fever that baffled doctors, witchcraft was thought to be the cause. Soon, the search for the responsible witch began. Two of the afflicted girls of Salem village, Ann Putnam and Mary Walcott, were taken to Andover to seek out the witch. At the sight of Ann Foster, the girls fell into fits, and Ann, 72, was subsequently arrested and taken to Salem prison.
Ann was examined on July 15, 16, 18 and 21. Under pressure from her examiners, she not only confessed that the devil had appeared to her in the shape of a bird, but also implicated Martha Carrier and Rev. George Burroughs, who had previously been arrested.
Because she confessed, her life was spared and she stayed in prison. Ann died in Salem prison on December 3, 1692. Her son Abraham was forced to pay the jail keeper for expenses before he was given the body for burial.

Sarah Good’s baby died while she was in prison for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. 

Mary Clements of Haverhill, Massachusetts was accused of witchcraft in the delusion of 1692, though she saved her life by confessing of impossible guilt. Her indictment read in part that she "a covenant with the devil did make, and signed the devil's book, and took the devil to be her God, and consented to serve and worship him, and was baptized by the devil, and renounced her former Christian baptism and promised to be the devil's, both body and soul forever, and to serve him." On October 19, before Increase Mather, she acknowledged the falsehood of her confession.

Rebecca Chamberlain died while in prison for witchcraft in Billerica, Massachusetts.

John Durrant died while in prison for witchcraft in Billerica, Massachusetts. 

June 10:   Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.

June 16:   Roger Toothaker died while in prison for witchcraft in Billerica, Massachusetts.

July 19:   Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good and Sarah Wildes were hanged as witches in Salem. Also in July, Elizabeth Scargen’s baby died while she was in prison. 

August 8:   Quebec, marriage, Joseph Langevin and (II)-Madeleine Galarneay Metis died July 16, 1716, Montreal, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal, Quebec,  Jean Picard; 1st. married August 8, 1691, Quebec, Joseph Langevin, 2nd marriage October 24, 1701 Montreal, Quebec,  Jean Deslandes, 3rd marriage November 3, Montreal, Quebec, 1715 Jean Baptiste Joly.

August 19:   Louis Couc, alias Montour, listed Voyager West.

August 19:   George Jacobs, Sr., Martha Carrier, George Burroughs, John Proctor and John Willard were hanged on Gallows Hill, Salem. 

August 19:  John and Elizabeth Proctor were found guilty of witchcraft and were scheduled for execution on August 19. Since Elizabeth was pregnant at the time, she was given a reprieve until she gave birth to the baby; thereafter, she would be executed, John was executed on schedule.

August 21:   (II)-Jean Gauthier, alias Saguinguira (Sakingoara) (b-1669), listed Voyager West.

September 19, Giles Corey of Salem was pressed to death for refusing a trial on witchcraft..

September 22:   Martha Cory, Margaret Scott, Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmot Reed, Samuel Wardwell and Mary Parker were hanged for witchcraft at Salem. 

George Geyer is Chief Factor at York Factory, Hudson Bay, having received 440 gallons of brandy for use in trading ceremony with the Indians.

Louis Dupuis winters in the Ottawa Country, which means to the west or north west of Quebec.

 

 

1693  

The Reverend Thomas Anderson helped draw up the surrender terms, in Latin, of York Factory to the French. He represents one of the few resident chaplains in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

(I)-Michel Accault, d-1702, a Coureur des Boise, married 1693 daughter of Kaskaskias, Illinois.  He had a number of children in several tribes before his marriage.  He had a price on his head by the French.

Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) took command of Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) (1694 to 1698).  

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714), in partnership with Henri Tonti and (I)-Michel Accault, buys merchandise from Charles Juchereau de St Denis.

Kaskaskia (Illinois), marriage, (I)-Michel Accault,  aka Ako, Acau, Dacanand d'Acau, d-1702, a French trader, married 1st Aramepinchone, a.k.a. Marie Rouensa, born 1677, Kaskaskia (Illinois), died, June 25, 1725, daughter, Illinois chief Rouensa; 2nd marriage 1693/94, Mary Pinchieoua, daughter, Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 3rd marriage 1701, at Kaskaskia Illinois), Marie Suzanna.  (see 1680, 1690, 1694, 1701)

A powerful expedition of 213 marines and 82 cannons, commanded by (I)-James Knight- a shipwright and a Chief Factor of Fort Albany, retook Forts Albany, Moose Factory and Charles on James Bay from the French.  Fort Albany, defended by five French, held the English at bay but they eventually fled back to Quebec.

Antoine Laumet Cadillac dit de Lamothe (1658-1730), as commandant at Michilimackinac (1693-1697), New France (Michigan), successfully engaged in the fur trade.

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (Rasles) (1657-1724) wrote that the Illinois on the Mississippi live in great abundance of everything, they take 2,000 oxen ( buffalo) (or more correctly bison) every season.  He said I have seen 4,000 to 5,000 oxen grazing on the prairies.  He also observed a flock of 200 turkeys and they were larger than those in France.  Much cruelty however is inflicted by the Illinois on their enemy.  Scalping is practiced.  When prisoners are taken some are selected as 'resuscitated' to replace a killed warrior.  He is to assume the dead persons position and family.  It is the women who decides who is to live and who is to die.  Those not chosen are burned.  It is noteworthy that the brandy trade had not reached the Illinois in any big way.

March 10:   Lydia Dustin, eighty years old and "a most unsavoury old woman, far gone in age and malice," died in a Reading, Massachusetts prison even though she was found not guilty of witchcraft.

May:   Pierre d'Ailleboust, sieur d'Argenteuil (1669-1711) is hiring men in partnership with (II)-Simon Reaume b-1669 at Montreal, Quebec for le voyage des 8ta8ois. (II)-Simon Reaume is son (I)-Rene Reaume (1643-1722) and Marie Chevreau b-1652

May 4:  Father (I)-Antoine Dalmas (1636-1693) is killed at Fort Ste Anne, Hudson Bay by Guillory, a French Armorer.

August:  Two hundred French traders from Mackinaw, New France (Michigan) arrived Montreal, Quebec to attend a Grand Council called by Frontenanc.  (I)-Nicholas Perrot (Pere) also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718) Commandant of the West is ordered to establish a post at Miamis to recapture English trade.

Louis de Buade, Count of Frontenac, appointed Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) to La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) with a company of traders to build a fort and secure this strategic and historic Ojibwa location.  Some contend this fort is named Fort Pointe de Chagouamigon.  He erected a fort near Upper Saint Croix Lake and another fort on Prairie Island, nine miles below present Hastings, Minnesota.  He reported lead mines on the upper Mississippi.   Green Bay, New France (Winconsin) is closed at this time, so the importance of La Pointe is paramount to the fur trade.

August 4:   Two hundred canoes laden with furs arrived at Montreal, Quebec, from the West.

(II)-Dominique Etienne dit LaFranchise (1671-1708) is listed a voyager West.

September 1:   (III)-Pierre Gelinas (1674-1731) listed Voyager West.

September 11:   (III)-Augustin LeGardeur, Sieur de Courtemanche (b-1663) listed Voyager West.

 

 

1694  

Kaskaskia (Illinois), marriage, (I)-Michel Accault  aka Ako, Acau, Aco Dacanand d'Acau, d-1702, a French trader, arrived Illinois country 1679 
1st Married Aramepinchone aka Marie Rouensa born 1677 Kaskaskia (Illinois), died June 25, 1725 daughter Illinois chief Rouensa of the Kaskaskia Indians; 
    (II)-Pierre Accault Metis b-1695 Pimitoui
    Michel Accault Metis bapt 1702 des Peres Rivier
2nd marriage 1693/94 Mary Pinchieoua daughter Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 
3rd marriage 1701 at Kaskaskia (Illinois), Marie Suzanna.  Khaki Scott suggests all three marriages are to the same person under differing names.  Its possible this represents an Indian marriage, a country marriage and a church marriage?  Khaki suggests the only marriage was 1694. 
Marie Rouensa epouse 1703 Michel Philippe
    Jacques b-1704 plus 5 others

Kaskakia, Illinois marrage (II)-Louis Delaundry dit Paquier Pinguet b-1650 son (I)-Pierre Delaunay (1616-1654) killed by Iroquois and (II)-Francoise Pinguet epouse 1685 Quebec Vincent Poirier; married Marie Catherine R8ecanga Sauvagesse
    (III)-Jean Jacob Delaunay Metis b-1695, Kaskakia
    (III)-Charles Delaunay Metis b-1698, Kaskakia

Kaskakia (Illinois) marriage Jean Charon dit Laviolette and Catherine Ouakipakinoue.

The trading currency standard became the beaver, and all trade items from this point forward are in beaver equivalent.  

Laprairie, birth Louis Roy (LeRoy) (1694-1724) son Pierre Roy and Catherine Ducharme; married 1718 Marguerite Dumay (Demers).

Michel Gamelin dit Lafontaine b-1674 Yamaska, Quebec son Michel Gamelin and Marguerite Crevier Bellerive was with Duluth to Michilimackinac and in 1694-95 with Jean La Roy, Jacques Jobin, Jean Baptiste Gastineau Duplessis, Simon Baillarge and Charles Cussion.

Michillimakinac, birth (III)-Marguerite Menard, Metis daughter (II)- Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, an interpreter at Michillimakinac, born June 7, 1664, Trois Rivieres  and (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis,  born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699); married July 5, 1706, Boucherville, Pierre Boileau

Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725) commander of Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) resigned, to be replaced by Cadillac.  

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) and Marie Therese Guton, with their children, arrived at Michillimkinac, New France (Michigan) as commandant where they stayed until 1697/98.  

Marie Nolin wife of Louis in Montreal, Quebec, hired Louis Dupuis dit Parisien and Jean Seguin for Michilimackinac/Sault Ste Marie, New France (Michigan). 

Louis Dupuis (1658-1724) and Jean Seguin voyage Michilimakinac, New France (Michigan) and Sault Ste Marie, New France (Michigan), for Madame Marie Nolan de Louvigny.

Jacques Douaire, sieur de Bondy, hired Rene Beaujean and Jean Mallet for the 8ta8ois.

Nicolas d'Ailleboust de Manthet wintered on the Ottawa River, just north of Calumet Island (Fort Coulonge). 

(I)-Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) reported from Mackinac (Michigan), that the Jesuits supressed the playing of Nicomede and Mithridate by the soldiers at Quebec.

(I)-Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) is appointed commander at Mackinac (Michigan), New France from (1694-1697/8).  The Jesuits, especially Father (I)-Etienne de Carheil (1633-1726), claimed that Cadillac had no authority over the Jesuits and instigated a campaign to have him removed from the west.  

May 24:   (II)-Pierre Deneau (Deneau) listed Voyager West.

June 7:   (III)-Charles LeGardeur, Sieur de L'Isle (b-1659) listed Voyager West.

June 9:   (II)-Jean Baptiste Gatineau alias Gastineau dit Duplessis (b-1671) listed Voyager West.

June 19:   (II)-Joseph Alphonse Gaudry alias Labourbonniere (b-1670) listed Voyager West.

June 20:   (II)-Jacques Goguet (1672-1725) listed Voyager West.

September 9:   (I)-Pierre Joachim Germaneau alias Germano, Germanau (b-1656) listed Voyager West.

September 10:   (II)-Joseph Alphonse Gaudry alias Labourbonniere (b-1670) listed Voyager West.

September 11:   (I)-Pierre Gareau (1653-1729) Voyager, engage to the West departing Montreal, Quebec.

September 16:   (II)-Amador Godefroy (Godfroy) Sieur de Saint Paul et de Tonnerre (1649-1730) listed Voyager West.

September 17:   (III)-Charles LeGardeur, Sieur de L'Isle (b-1659) listed Voyager West.

October:  York Factory, Hudson Bay (Manitoba) is being defended by the ill-trained Independent Company of Foot, commanded by Chief Factor Philip Parsons with 53 men, 32 cannon and fourteen brass swivel guns.

October 3:  (II)-Monsieur de Chateduguai (1675-1694) brother d'Iberville is killed by the English while attacking the English Fort on Hudson Bay at the mouth of River Sainte Therese.    Monsieur De Tilly and Monsieur de Caumont brother of Tilly were with the French attacking the fort.

October 13:  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne'd Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), French commander of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay), established a siege position and fired a few experimental shots on the Fort, before assuming an all out attack.  He allowed the Hudson Bay Company to discuss surrender terms.  

October 14:  The Hudson Bay Company surrendered their major Fort York to the French who renamed it Fort Bourbon.  Monsieur Du Tas and 60 men took possession of Fort Bourbon.   (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) was involved in the surrender of York Factory.  Fort Nelson would also fall.  The Hudson Bay Company was not aware of the surrender until 1696.

Nicholas Jeremine, a Frenchman, is at Fort Bourbon (alias York Factory) from 1694 to February 1714.  He serviced the Eagle Eyed Indians (Assiniboine), living east of Lake Winnipeg in the vicinity of Popular River.  Some report that French ships did not arrive with trade goods as frequently as had English ships.

(I)-Louis Jolliet (1645-1700) was commissioned to chart the Labrador coast to Zoar, Labrador.

 

 

1695  

Sixty bark-covered dwellings, housing fur traders and their native consorts, straggled along the northern shore near St. Ignace, Michigan. By 1699 there are 104 outlaws and voyagers were illegally residing in this location.  Some believe many of these traders were Huron/French Metis, from the 1640's first or second generation Metis.

Antoine Menard, Metis, b-1695, Michilimackinac, died June 3, 1764, Chambly, son Maurice Menard, (1664-1741) and Marie Madeleine Couc, Metis b-1669; married January 7, 1723, Boucherville, Marie Huet Dulude.

(I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, with a number of merchants and soldiers, went among the Assiniboine.  They traveled to northern Manitoba, some suggest they reached the Hudson Bay.  Their encounter suggested that the influence of earlier encounters by the French had evaporated.

Fort Pepin is built at the mouth of the St. Croix River near St. Paul, Minnesota.

Fort Isle Pelee is built north of Redwing, Minnesota.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704),  on orders of Frontenac, built a fort on the island in the Mississippi River near the mouth of the St. Croix River, toward Lake Pepin.  

Louis Dupuis (1658-1724), Philippe Andre and Joseph Lepine winter in the North West.

Fort Michilimakinac (Ste-Anne and St-Ignace) (MacKinaw City, New France (Michigan)) maintained birth records (1695-1821), marriage records (1725-1821) and death records (1743-1806). 

Kaskaskia (Notre-Dame de la Conception (Randilph, Illinois) maintained birth, marriage and death records (1695-1834). 

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (Rasles) (1657-1724) visited an Aknakis Village about 40 leagues from Quebec where 25 French households existed.  This must be a reference to the Akensas Village on the Mississippi?

Quebec, birth, (II)-Marguerite St. Michel, Metis,  daughter (I)-Francoise St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 and (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667; married 1716 Jean Baptiste Brisebois.

Seven or eight different tribes came to the French Fort Bourbon on Hudson Bay to trade.  The most numerous was the Assiniboels (Assiniboines) and the Kriqs or Kiristinnons (CVree).  The Kriqs trade Hudson Bay to Sault Ste Marie, Michilimakinak (Mickinac) and as far as Montreal, Quebec. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of France wrote on the margin of a report from (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) "He lies like a Gascon."

April 4:   (II)-Jean Geoffrion also Joffrion (b-1672) listed Voyager West.

April 28:  Michillimakinac, birth, (III)-Antoine Menard, Metis, son (II)-Maurice Menard, an intrepeter at Michillimakinac, b-1664 and Madeleine Couc, Metis; married January 7, 1723, Boucherville, Quebec, (II)-Marie Huet, b-1698, daughter (I)-Joseph Huet

April 28:   Michillimackinac, baptised, (III)-Antoine Minard (Mainard, Menard) dit Montour, Metis, son of the late (II)-Maurice Menard alias LaFontaine (born 1664), interpreter at Michillimakinac and (III)-Madeleine Couc also Lefebvre, Metis, b-1669; married January 7, 1723 Boucherville, Quebec, (II)-Marie Huet, b-1698, daughter (I)-Joseph Huet..   

May 20:  Engage ouest, (II)-Jean Cadieux, a Coureurs des Bois, born March 12, 1671, killed 1709, by Iroquois, son [no verified link] (I)-Jean Cadieux (1634-1681) and Marie Valade, b-1644 [parents unknown]; married May 30, 1695??, Marie Bourdon, (some say his wife was Algonquine), daughter (I)-Jacques Bourdon (1650-1724) and (II)-Marie Menard (1658-1716).

May 25:   (III)-Pierre Gelinas (1674-1731) listed Voyager West.

June 12:   (II)-Antoine Trottier Desruisseaux (1640-1706) son (I)-Jules Trottier (1590-1655) and Catherine Louiseau (1599-1656) a significant Merchant of Batiscan is the ancestor of the following families Desruisseaux, Beaubien, Desaulniers, and Labissonniere, see (Metis 1660).  Antoine joined "Associate Travellers" of Batiscan his brother Pierre Trottier, Francois Frigon, Charles Lesieur, Pierre Lefebvre all of Biscan for voyage west after furs  Under the terms of the contract, Antoine is to ensure the substance of the children of Francois Frigon and is to provide them clothing throughout the voyage.

June 13:   (III)-Augustin LeGardeur Sieur de Courtemanche (b-1663) listed Voyager West.

Mid July:   Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) returned to Montreal with Chiefs from the Ojibwa and Dakota as well as five other Frenchmen.  Pierre commanded Fort Chequamegon (Lapointe) and built another post on the Brule St Croix River route in 1794.

September:  The two French war ships departed Fort Bourbon, Hudson Bay, leaving 80 men to defend the Fort.

Three Navy frigates under Captain William Allen easily recaptured Fort Bourbon from the French.  The Bay of the North's (Hudson Bay) commander, (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), is in France.

In Jamaica an indentured servant costs $15-$25 plus transportation, and, upon completion of his contract, he is allowed land in direct competition to his master.  A landed African slave only costs $30, sexual favors can be extracted and they can be resold for a profit.

(III)-Antoine Menard, Metis, born April 28, 1695, Michillimakinac son (II)-Maurice Menard b-1664 and Madeleine Couc, Metis

 

1696  

HBC attacked Fort St. Louis aka Moose Fort (Ontario) also known as Moose Factory built 1673 near the mouth of Moose River and burned it to the ground.

The French King listened to the Jesuit's request to ban the French from Illinois Country but expanded the ban to all the Great Lakes with devastating results.   The Royal ordinances of May 21 and 26 were:  Travel outside New France and trading licenses for the west were not to be permitted, and western posts were to be abandoned. 

Michillimakinac, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Menard, Metis daughter (II)- Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, an interpreter at Michillimakinac, born June 7, 1664, Trois Rivieres  and (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis,  born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699); married November 11, 1714, Chambly, Carle Pavy

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) attacked and captured Fort York, Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) on the north bank of the Hayes River (Hudson Bay) and shipped the inhabitants to France.  The English struck back and recaptured the Fort, but only held it for one season.  Fort Moose is finally abandoned by the English, not to be re-established until 1730.  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) secures Fort William Henry at Pemaquid, Maine then goes on to Newfoundland to take Saint John by murderous raids.

(II)-Pierre Roy (Leroy) (1676-1743) is employed by Dumez, Trudeau and Bonoit to go to the 8ta8ois People.

Pierre d'Ailleboust, sieur d'Argenteuil (1669-1711) is sent by Governor Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac, to Sioux (Dakota) Country with presents to cover the death of Tioscates/Tioskatin.  Tioskatin is, by some accounts, a Dakota chief or a warrior at the mouth of the Minnesota River.   La Potherie says he is the first of the Dakota to visit New France, along with their allies the Ojibwa Chief Chingouabe in 1695.

Governor Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac wrote to King Louis XIV speaking of the masterless men (outlaws, those coureur de bois): they smoke incessantly, singing the songs of their country, which they have learned from their fathers.  Every so often they disembark from their canoes and rest.  They calculate distances by the number of pipes they smoke.  This is an interesting letter, implying second generation Metis.

(I)-Father Francois Pinet (1661-1704), a Jesuit missionary, established a mission of the Guardian Angel at Chicago.  It was abandoned in 1700 as his missionary efforts proved fruitless.

January 3:  Father (I)-Herri Nouvel (1621-1696) died in the Ottawa Mission, near Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin). 

January 11:   Sault Ste. Marie, death, Father (I)-Charles Albanel (1616-1696)

April 11:   Louis Durand, Metis b-1670 and Joseph Moreau are engaged by Marie Therese Guyon, the wife of Antoine de Lamouthe Cadillac, for a trip to Michellimackinac with freight for Cadillaic, for a salary of one hundred pounds silver.  They were permitted to take along one hundred pounds of merchandise to trade for their own profit..  

April 28:   The use of the Trade Passport (Conge de Traite), established 1681 in New France, is suppressed and would not be reinstated until April 1716.  The Royal ordinance of travel restriction and closure of western trading posts are designed to reduce the harvest of furs by the Coureurs des Bois. Troops were sent to the trading posts to enforce the law. The troops, however, were soon part of the illegal trade. The Indians are being encouraged to come to Montreal to trade. This strategy is not successful. The policy had been an attempt to stop the drain of Frenchmen, as Coureurs des Bois, to the Indian Territory which resulted in Metis savages.

July 27:   Cadillac encouraged Louis Durand, Metis b-1670, and Joseph Moreau to form an association to trade with the Dakota, far west of Michillimackinac, and suggested they join up with another voyager- Mathieu Sauton.  Cadillac had seized many of the trade goods from Louis and Joseph, forcing them to borrow from other traders in order to make the trip.  They planned to go via Green Bay, Fox River, Wisconsin River to the Mississippi River.  They wintered among the Dakota.  It is noteworthy that the Quebec had a strict policy, forbidding excursions into Dakota Sioux country.

 

 

1697  

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) encouraged the distribution of alcohol and did not hesitate to take part in the fur trade for his own profit.   He stole goods from voyagers such as Louis Durand, Metis b-1670, Joseph Moreau and Mathieu Sauton who recently returned from the Dakotas.  It would take legal action until October 1699 to establish a claim against Cadillac.  At the time it was said that never before had a man amassed so much wealth in such a short time (3 years), nor caused so much disruption through the wrongs he inflicted upon those who were involved in his dealings.  He destroyed the good relations that Dulhut had established in 1679 among the native peoples.  As a result, trade is diverted from the French to the English via the Iroquois.  This did not bother Cadillac. He just took up trade with the English.  It is noteworthy that when he arrived in Acadia in 1683, he was labeled as a man with an evil mind.   

King William III of England granted Labrador to Joseph de La Penja; a Jewish merchant of Rotterdam.

Louis Dupuis (1658-1724) winters in the North West until 1699, then basically goes Coureurs des Bois into the North West for the remainder of his life.

Michillimakinac, birth (III)-Louis Menard, Metis son (II)- Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, an interpreter at Michillimakinac, born June 7, 1664, Trois Rivieres  and (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis,  born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699); married February 5, 1725, Longueuil, Francois Robidou.

The Assiniboine and Dakota Sioux occupied the Red River and Lake Winnipeg area at this time.

The French King abolished all trading privileges in the Territories causing a disastrous financial blow to those whom followed the party line and forcing them into poverty.  The hardest hit is (I)-Nicholas Perrot (Pere) also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul)(1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, the former engage of the Jesuit, who is the effective Commandant of the whole Northwest Territories.  He would spend his declining years in poverty for his allegiance to the Church and Crown.

March:  Hannah Duston, b-1657 of Haverhill, Massachusetts Bay was attacked and captured March 12, 1697  On their trip back to Canada they killed Hannah's daughter Martha.  Hanna, Mary Neff and Samuel Lennardson age 14 were kept alive.  On March 30, 1697 the three captives took tomahawks and killed 10 of their guards.  Some say Hanna took home their scalps for the bounty money.

July 27:   Michillimackinac,  Louis Durand, Metis b-1670, Joseph Moreau and Mathieu Sauton were jailed on trumpeted up charges so that Cadillac could steal their goods.  They would return to Montreal in 1697 to launch a lawsuit.  

September 5:   The Bay of the North commander (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706)  retook Fort York (Hudson Bay) in September, sinking the 118 gun man-of-war Hampshire Captain John Fletcher with all hands.  The thirty-two gun Royal Hudson Bay surrendered and the thirty gun Dering fled.  Henry Baley, Chief Factor of York Factory, is forced to surrender, being outfoxed by Iberville.  (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) was again involved the the surrender of the Fort.  The French again called their new acquisition Fort Bourbon.  The English are allowed to retreat into the forest to face the hazards of a Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) winter.  The Hudson Bay Company credited the Metis cunning with the loss of their fort, rather than their own ineptness.  The French victory is complete when Commander (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) made for home.  The Hudson Bay Company's York Factory remained a French possession until 1713.  It is noteworthy that, although the English lost every important battle, they eventually reigned supreme over the territory of their choice.

September 3:  The British ship, Owners Love, sank September 3, 1697 in the Hudson Strait.

September 13:   A treaty restores the English position, making (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres' (1661-1706) efforts for naught.  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) now turns his attentions to the Mississippi, saying if France does not seize the mouth of the Mississippi now, then, in less than 100 years, England will be strong enough to take over all of America and chase away all other nations. 

September 23:  St. Augustin, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, born February 3, 1672, died July 15, 1731 St. Augustin, Quebec son (II)-Jean Dubeau, Metis, (1669-1743) and Marie Felix d'Arontio (Huronne); 1st marriage September 23, 1697 St. Augustin, Quebec, (II)-Francoise Paule Campagna b-1683; died December 10, 1717 St. Augustin daughter (I)-Pierre Campahna,  2nd marriage September 10, 1718 St Augustin, Quebec,  (II)-Marie Francoise Sevigny, elle epouse September 27, 1734 St. Augustin, Quebec, Jacques Deleugre 

 

 

1698  

The Western outposts were recalled and the forts abandoned not because of falling prices but because Quebec didn't want to get involved in the Indian wars.

(II)-Jean Baptiste Reaume b-1675 son (I)-Rene Reaume (1643-1722) and Marie Chevreau b-1652 was one of eight voyageurs who traveled from Outaouois (Ottawa/Anishinaabe) to Montreal to deliver letters from Alphonse de Troy at Ft. de Buade (St. Ignace, Michigan) to French Governor Frontenac.

The abandonment of Fort La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) is due to falling fur prices, but, more immediate, the canceling of trade privileges.  Some claim this effectively curtailed voyager trade for the next 20 years.  Others said that the Coureurs des Bois now occupy La Pointe.  Most records of this period are destroyed during the French Revolution, so these claims are mostly speculation.
(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), who hoped to make Louisiana a southern New France, gained no support in France.  French Protestants would emigrate but are not guaranteed religious toleration, so they emigrated to Anglo-America.  King Louis XIV (1643–1715) encouraged the Coureurs des Bois to become farmers in Louisiana.  They only stayed as long as they were on the garrison payroll.

Antoine Boisseau (1680-1754), son of Pierre Boisseau of Vercheres, Quebec, departed with a sauvagesse, Angelique Bastien (or Sebastein), for the Illinois, returning about 1728 having had a daughter Therese Boisseau in Fort de Chartes, Kaskaskia (Illinois).  He also had a son Antoine Boisseau b-1716, Kaskaskia (Illinois).  Source, Jacques Boisseau, Debbie Washington & (Tanguay).

Francois Guyon Des Pres Derbanne (1671-1734) a Canadian trader with Le Suer searched for minerals along the upper Mississippi River 1698-1699 and voyaged up the Missouri River.

Michillimakinac, birth (III)-Francois Menard, Metis son (II)- Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, an interpreter at Michillimakinac, born June 7, 1664, Trois Rivieres  and (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis,  born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699); married August 13, 1736, Laprarie, Marie Charlotte Sauve.

Thomas Welch, an Englishman, ventured from Charleston, South Carolina to the mouth of the Arkansas.

(I)-Jacques Gravier (1651-1708) a Jesuit and Father (I)-Etienne De Careil (Carheil) (1633-1726), a Jesuit, visited Mackinac, meeting with Montigny (Jacques Testard sieur de Montigny (1662-1737)?), Father St. Cosme and Davion.

William Bond sailed from London with two armed ships to survey the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in preparation for its settlement by the Carolina Company.  They were given a Royal Grant for all Spanish lands from the Carolinas to the Pacific Ocean, including the gulf coast.  This war group was led by Dr. Daniel Coxe.  They had French Huguenot refugees for colonists who had fled to England to avoid religious persecution.  They would winter at South Carolina's Charles Town.

Thomas Welsh treked from Charles Town to the Arkansas River junction with the Mississippi.  He instigated the Chickasaw to attack the Choctaw who were friendly to the French.  He took 150 Choctaw as slaves and sold them in Charles Town, South Carolina.

September 9:  Marriage, (II)-Louis Durand, Metis, born November 13-14, 1670, Sillery, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1636-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) d'Annannontak Huronne;  1st married September 9, 1698 Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon b-1682, died May12, 1718 St. Antoine-Tilly; 2nd marriage January 30, 1719 St. Nicolas, Quebec Jeanne Houde.

November 29:  Louis Hector de Callieres (1648-1703) is appointed administrator of New France until September 13, 1699.

December 7:  Father Saint Cosme arrived Cahokia (St. Louis) des Illinois a.k.a. Upper Lousiana on the Mississippi River across the river from Saint Louis, Missouri.  There were a number of Metis traders here at the time.  It is noteworthy that this is the ancient site of a great city that had a population of some 10,000 people in 1200 A.D.   At its peak of 50,000 people it was larger than London, England or Paris, or France.

 



1699
 

Father (I)-Julien Binneteau (1660-1699), a Jesuit in Illinois Country wrote: "There are many Illinois women married to Frenchmen, who would be a good example to the best regulated household in France."

Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725) is appointed commander Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario).

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) accompanied his wife's (Marguerite Messier St. Michel) cousins, (II)-Pierre LeMoyne sieur d'Ilberville (1661-1706), (II)-Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur de Bienville (1680-1767), (II)-Antoine Le Moyne de Chateaugue, and Jean Beranger b-1685, to find and permanently secure the mouth of the Mississippi for France.  

(II)-Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur de Bienville (1680-1768), with brothers (II)-Pierre Le Moyne sieur d'Iberville (1661-1706) and (II)-Francois Le Moyne sieur de Sauvole (1670-1700), founded the settlement of Biloxi, Louisiana, across the bay from the present-day city of Biloxi (Harrison), Mississippi.

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), son of (I)-Charles le Motne de Lounguevil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685),  between now and 1701, ordered the building of Forts Maurepas (Biloxi), Mississippi and Saint Louis (Mobile, Alabama).   (II)-Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur de Bienville (1680-1767) was left as second in command at Fort Biloxi, Mississippi, with 200 French immigrants.  New France was effectively extended from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico.

The Acadian Metis community of La Heve (Port Royal), Nova Scotia had spread into other communities, namely Beaubassin (Beautiful Pond), Cocagne (Land of Plenty), Paradis Terrestre (Earthly Paradise or Garden of Eden).  The Acadians, by this time, had firmly acquired their own culture, separate and distinct from the French or English.  They traded mostly into Boston, trading their wheat and furs for cloth, tobacco and pipes.

The Jesuit established a mission at the Metis settlement at Cahokia on the Mississippi River.  

Mathieu Sagean (1655-1710) convinced the French that he had discovered Acaaniba, Minnesota where a river runs south southwest to the Gulf of California.  The People were descendants of the Aztec who had fled from the Spanish.  The traded gold with people to the west.  Pierre Charles Le Sueur exposed him as a hoax.

The British established a rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England and violations where punishable by stiff fines.

The King of Spain banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.

January 5:  Sorak8a?, birth, (II)-Simon Cote Du Botte, Metis, son (I)-Abraham Cote ou Botte dit Sorak8a de Dieppe and Marie A8endea, Onontaise sauvagesse.

February:   Biloxi, Louisiana, Pierre Lemoyne d'Iberville built Fort Iberville at the Bay of Biloxi, Lousania.  He placed Sauvolle in command with De Bienville, Lavesseur, de Bordenac and 88 men including 13 Canadians.  Later this year another 60 Canadians joined the colony.

February 22: Kaskakia (Illinois) marriage (II)-Antoine Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636: married 1st Marie d'ACo; married 1697/1700 Kaskakia (Illinois) Domitide Ch8ping8a (Choupingoua), Indian girl
    (III)-Pierre Baillargeon Metis b-1701 Kaskakia (Illinois)
    (III)-Michel Baillargeon Metis b-1711 Kaskakia (Illinois), d-1720 Montreal
    (III)-Marie Baillargeon Metis (1725-1725)
    

February 26:  St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Therese, Metis, daughter (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672-1731) and  (II)- Francoise Paule Campagna (1683-1717); married January 7, 1728 St. Augustin, Quebec Etienne Valieres. 

March 19:  Kaskakia, Illinois, marriage (II)-Antoine Baillargeon dit Durivage son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon b-1658; married Marie Aco and Domitilde Ch8ping8a. 

May:  Father Saint Cosme built a church at Cahokia, Illinois on the Mississippi.

May 3:  (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) left Louisiana for France, leaving command to Ensign Sauvole (d-1701) and d'Iberville's brother, (II)-Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (1680-1767).

May 27:   (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) convinced the French King to give him a commission in New France.  He was ordered to achieve a six fold mandate:

-Prevent the beaver trade from falling into Iroquois hands.
-Deliver high quality pelts
-Ensure work for Coureurs des Bois
-Guarantee benefits for merchants
-Reunite the allied nations of Pontchartrain (la Ville d'Etroit (Fort Detroit), New France (Michigan)) also known as Fort Pontchartrain
-Assimilate them into the French Nation.  

 

June 19:  (II)-Jean Baptiste Reaume b-1675 transfered to his brother (II)-Robert Reaume b-1668 (who could neither read or write)  the special permit that he received from Governor Frontenac to trade with the Outaouois near Michilimackinac.  The permit was a reward for delivering letters in 1698.  Louis Marchant, Le Moyne dit Despin, Nollan, Dupre, Boutillier, Mitchelon, and Maignon were also given permits to trade and retrieve their possessions, for the same reason. 

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a Frenchman, is on the Mississippi Delta 1699 to 1725. 

The list of d'Iberville Canadians on the Mississippi Delta, Lauoisiana and 1697 list is as follows:

Charles Aigon
Francois Amel
Pierre Allain
Jean Aussour
Jean Francois Ayet
Louis Baudoin
Soleil Beau
Antoine Beausse dit Marene
Clement Begon
Mathieu Bellefonds
Bellerive
Charles Berrichon (Berichon)
Hoseph Bonhomme
Volonte Bonne
Bourbonniere
Bourgeois
Guillaume Brassard
Philipe de Briere
Brossard
Carcy
Charles Carose
Caumon
Sebastein (Bastien) Charpentier
Nicolas Chauvin
Jacques Chauvin
Joseph Chauvin
Joseph Chesnier, deceased
Chenie
Paul Du Chiron
Francois Clavery
Pierre Couillard dit Lafontain
Courville
Courville
Maruice Crepant (Crepeau)
Clement
Coeurbien
Antoine Dalmas
Gilbert Dardenne (D'Ardenne)
Dore
Denis Dubois (Darbois)
Paul Ducheron
Antoine Duclos, deserted
Bombardeur Dupre
Jean L. Eveille
Francois Faux
Forestier
Claude Francoeur
Charles Francoeur
Alexis Francois
Gaudefroy
Joseph Gaulin
Jean Gautier
Jean Geofroy
Graveline
Jean Gros
Ange Guion
Francois Hamel
Jeremie
Joyeuse
Oierre L'Arrive
Labarre
Jacques La Brie
Jean La Briere
La Boutillerie
Estienne La Chambre
La Coceur
Pierre La Fontaine
Lafontaine
La Fortune
La Junesse
Laloire
Lamarche
Canadien Lamarche
Laplaine
Jean Migneron
Philippes Minet
Charles La Motte
Ignace Simon dit Lapointe
Joseph Lapointe
Laramee
Charles La Roze
Louis Larrive jeune
Pierre Larrivee I'aisne
Francois Lasolaye
Nicholas La Toupine (Tulipe)
Ignace Laval
Lavergne
Lavigne
Laviolette
Le Garcon
Louis Lemoine
Le Piemontois
Simon Lespine
Charles Le Vasseur
Leveliie
Lucia
Marot
Pierre Martin
Matagon
Charles Marquis
Leonnard Matte
Minet
Montanboux
Montreuil
Jean Pierre
Francois Poudrid (Poudrie)
Prevost
Joseph de Ropitailler (Robataille)
Antoine Roussin
Andre Roy
Cartier Sans
Chagrin Sans
Sausie
Charles Savage
St. Denis
St. Martin
St. Michel
Ste. Marie
Jean Talon
Pierre Talon
Claude Trepanie
Jean Trepanie
Jean Baptiste Turpin
Pierre Venard
Pierre Villaire

August 3:  A small English vessel ascended the Mississippi River 30 leagues and (II)-Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur de Bienville (1680-1768) ordered Captain Bon to withdraw.  He did but said he would return.

August 29:  William Bond sailed some 40 miles up the Mississippi River to find a settlement with Jean Couture in the Chickasaw lands, for his French Huguenot refugees, Sieur de Bienville ordered him to leave on threat of imprisonment.  Bond withdrew, escorted by the French for England.  The disposition of the French Huguenot's is not known.

October:  Early in 1696, three men entered into partnership:  Louis Durand (Metis b-1670), Joseph (Pierre) Moreau and Mathieu Sauton.  They were approached by and entered into an agreement to join (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730); a military officer at Michillimackinac and a most unpleasant man.  He seized their property, and this court case established security in law regarding the ownership of personal property, crushing forever the power of any one to seize property, other than by or through the court of Laws.  The voyagers won but lost, having only received a fraction of the court judgment.  Father Etienne Carheil painted a vivid picture of the situation at Fort Michillimackinac:   First, year after year came a riotous invasion of Coureurs des Bois, and then a garrison of soldiers followed to crown the mischief.  Discipline was very weak at these advanced posts, and, to eke out their pay, the soldiers were allowed to trade brandy, whether permitted or interdicted, being the chief article of barter.  Our mission is reduced and we can no longer maintain against infinity of disorder, brutality, violence, injustice, impiety, impurity, insolence, scorn and insult.  The commander of the Fort, ( (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) and company ), is even worse than the subordinates.  They hire swarms of Indian girls to make it their resort.

December 1: Montreal marriage (II)-Jacques Campeau (1677-1751) to (II)-Jeanne Cecile Catin (1681-1715)
    (III)-Jean Louis Campeau b-1702 Montreal married 1725 Detroit Marie Louis Robert
    (III)-Henri Campeau b-1704 Montreal married 1731 Montreal Marguerite Luillier  
    (III)-Marie Cecile Campeau b-1707 Montreal 
    (III)-Marie Angelique Campeau b-1708 Dettroit d-1720) Montreal 
    (III)-Nicolas Campeau b-1710 Montreal a voyageur d- 1756 Detroit, married 1737 Detroit Agathe Casse
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau b-1711 Montreal d-1783 Detroit, married 1737 Detroit Catherine Perthuis
    (III)-Marie Anne Campeau, married 1732 Detroit Joseph Douaire
    (III)-Therese Cecile Campeau (1714-1742) Detroit married 1734 Detroit Francois Marsac
    (III)-Claude Campeau b-1715 Detroit, married 1742 Detroit CatherineCasse

December 25:  Father (I)-Julien Bineteau (1660-1699) died at Kaskaskia (Randolph Co., Illinois).


Back to Top


METIS HISTORY: Return to METIS 1600-1699 index