METIS CULTURE 1700-1704




The French begin their 40 year war of genocide against the Fox Indians.
The Metis are reported to be swarming throughout the West.


  06/08/2013
METIS HISTORY summary Detroit 1705-1707

METIS HISTORY 1700-1749

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1700-1749 index

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index


The Metis and Coureurs des Bois, however, continue to conduct expeditions into the North and South West.
They are in the process of nation building.


Mutual Consent Marriage - This was by far the most common type of marriage in the world of the fur trade. Both French and Indian partners consented to be married, and they lived together afterward. Often they would get the marriage consecrated by a priest later, but this still required that the Indian wife be converted to Catholicism. The baptismal register for Mackinac Island indicates that this was the exception rather than the rule as most children listed on the register in the 1700s were technically illegitimate in the eyes of the church.

Country Marriage - The mutual consent marriages were the basis for what became known as la façon du pays, or "the custom of the country." For short, these were called "country marriages." They were made by the mutual consent of both partners (from French-Canadian customs), and they could be dissolved anytime by the agreement of both partners (from Indian custom). This soon became the predominant form of marriage among Frenchmen and Indians and, as these unions produced a growing Metis society throughout the Great Lakes, it became the predominant form of marriage among Metis couples as well.  It's noteworthy that marriage is between a man, a woman and God, a priest is not required however the priests failed to follow this Canon Law.   Most French remained with one mate, however there were a number of exceptions.  Indian women who divorced their French or Metis husbands usually did not return to their tribes but remarried another French or Metis man.  The English and Americans generally corrupted the practice of country marriage by entering into short-term unions with Indian and Metis women that were made only for sexual purposes, there were called a concubine. 

1700  

When we read the birth, marriage and death records for the next 50 years, as recorded by the Jesuits, we note that most considered unions between the French and French Metis with savage pagans (un-baptized women) are usually ignored and the children are considered as bastards.  Many Jesuit would not even marry or baptize the children of such unions.   They often referred to the savages, country wives as slaves.  The Jesuits did not consider that a marriage between two people and God as celebrated by the community as a valid union.  They however would except a baptism by a non-priest especially if the parties involved were influential.    

Kaskakin, Illinois, marriage, (II)-Antoine Baillargeaun dit Durivage (February 22, 1699 at Kaskakin, Illinois) born 1658, Trois River, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636 child of d'Etienne and Jeanne Robineau; 1st married Marie Aco; 2nd married likely 1700, Kaskakin, Illinois, Domitilde Ch8ping8a, sauvagesse.

Louis Thomas Joncaire de Chabert (1670-1740) is with Father Bruyas and Sieur de Maricourt at Fort Ononage.

Illinois, Mississippi voyage (II)-Louis Michel Duhemme dit Terrin born 1671 son (I)-Jean Duhemme: Hueri of Flevre, source (see Relation of the voyage of the R.P. Jacques Gravel S.J. in 1700, country of Illinois of the Mississippi, edition shea, 1859 P.11).   He had one recorded son (III)-Francois Duhemme who married Marie Charlotte Guignard, a..ka. Dinhargue a Basque.  

Pierre Sidrac Dugue dit Laf, sieur de Boisbriant (Boisbriand) (1675-1740), was at Fort Biloxi, Louisiana, across the bay from the present-day city of Biloxi (Harrison), Mississippi, with his cousins, the Le Moyne brothers, as part of the French plan to secure the mouth of the Mississippi River for France.  This was to establish the end link of forts, stretching back to New France, to cut off further English and Spanish expansion to the Mississippi..

Eusebio Francisco Kino, an Italian, Jesuit, built mission San Xavier del Bac near Tucson, Arezonia. 

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) of La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) reported copper mines in the Upper Mississippi.  

Joseph Lorraine married about 1700 Illinois Cunegonde Nagdotieoue


Metis clothingTypical Metis and Coureurs des Bois (runners of the woods) clothing in the early 1700's. They also smeared their faces with grease and paint, like the Indians, as a protection against mosquitoes and black flies.  Some estimates put the engages (Voyagers) as 400 to 500 each year and the Coureurs des Bois as 2,500 to 3,000 to say nothing of those Metis in the field.

The Ojibwa are reported to be trading to the Bay of The North (Hudson Bay) at this time.

During the period 1700 to 1716, the Fox (Ojibwa) became the only Algonquian speaking Natives to war against the French, being provoked by the Jesuit; many said.  Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur of Bienville (1680-1768) explored the Red River of the North, this year.  This is probably the Red River of the Dakotas, but could also include the River of the North into Manitoba.  

Fort Michipicoten, Ojibwa Country, on Michipicoten Bay, Lake Superior is believed built about this time.  Fort L'Huiltier is establishing about this time at the confluence of the Minnesota and Green Rivers called the St. Peter's and Verte Rivers at this time.  It is destroyed by 1739 and rebuilt, being named Fort Verde.

Father (I)-Jacques Gravier (1651-1708), a Jesuit on the Mississipi, with the Illinois, encountered the sick Louis Du Hemme, of Riviere Du Loop and Augustin from Point of Coste de St. Michel in Canada.  Pierre Chabot of the Island of Orleans is also sick.

Fort Pimitoui is closed as a result of the French closure of the fur trade.

Fort Saint Jean, Acadia is built this year.

The Metis and voyageurs marked their canoe routes with Mai.  Mai refer to trees, a pine or spruce, where the lower limbs are cut off, so they would stand out clearly and visible to an approaching canoe.  They indicated a place of portage or a change in direction.

January:  Fort Mississippi, Louisiana is built 40 miles (64 km) upstream.

Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (1680-1767) explored the Red River.

April:   Jean Penicaut, a boat builder on the Minnesota River at the mouth of the Blue Earth at the new Fort L'Huillier near Mankato, Minnesota, encountered 7 traders (Coureurs des Bois or Metis) who wintered near the Fort this season.  The Jean Penicaut party included d'Iberville and nineteen men.  Louis Junchereau ,dit St. Denis/Denys (1674-1744), is at the mouth of the Mississippi River with d'Iberville.  (d'Iberville is likely Pierre Le Moyne (1661-1706).)

The French built Fort St. Croix on the St. Croix River, Wisconsin (western Lake Superior 75 miles SW La Pointe) is 40 leagues from the mouth of the river and is abandoned by 1755.  The Metis build Fort Portage De L’Isle on Winnipeg River, just below Terre Blanche Portage.  Fort Michipicoten is built on Michipicoten Bay, Lake Superior.  Fort Mattagami on Lake Mattagami, (Ontario) is built as an outpost of Fort St. Germain.

The Ojibwa term muskig was adopted by the Metis as muskeg and crept into common usage to describe a unique type of terrain.  

Ojibwa tradition suggests that the Yankton Dakota, at this time, occupied much of the prairies near the Red River of the North.  North of the Yankton lived the Kenisteno and the Assineboins.  The Ojibwa are also known to be among these peoples.

Rimouski St. Octave de Metis Mission is established this year.

(I)-Pierre Du Roy (LeRoy) (1676-1732) France is claimed to be the first settler about 1700 in or near Fort Detroit (la Ville d'Etroit),  New France (Michigan), married 1703 at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) to Marguerite Ouabankikoue (Ouankikove/Ouabankiknove), Miami, died October 31, 1732, Detroit, 
It is noteworthy that the Detroit area was the location of a Metis Settlement long before the French established their Fort and was likely preceded by an Indian settlement.  Others suggest not true but I think the difference of opinion is just what each means by Detroit area, a small or large area?  See 1703  a Country marriage could be 1700 to 1702 being churched in 1703
    (II)-Marie Marguerite Roy Metis bpt-1704 Detroit married 1739 Quebec (I)-Jean Robin dit Latouche
    (II)-Pierre Roy Metis b-1706 Detroit
    (II)-Marie Louise Roy Metis b-1708 Detroit married 1735 Detroit (IV)-Alexis Desruisseaux et DesRuisseaux dit 'Trotier' (1688-1769) Listed under Trotier
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Roy Metis b-1710, died October 20, 1732, Fort Detroit, daughter Ouabankikoue, Miami married 1728 (II)-Pierre Chesne dit Laboute or dit La Butte (1698-1774)
    (II)-Francois Roy Metis b-1713 Detroit
    (II)-Marie Louise Roy Metis b-1717 Detroit

Marriage, Miami village near Fort Detroit,  New France (Michigan), Pierre Chesne dit La Butte to (II)- Marie Magdeleine Roy, Metis died October 20, 1732, Fort Detroit,  New France (Michigan), daughter (I)- Pierre Du Roy and Marguerite Ouabankikoue, Miami.

The early French Louisiana colonists purchased Indian woman slaves for interpreters, cooks and mistresses.  The authorities requested France ship French girls to prevent these disorders and debaucheries. 

January 26:  It has been calculated that a tsunami struck Siletz Bay near Lincoln City, Oregon with a 50 foot wall of water destroying everything in the vicinity..

April:  Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) and 25 men set out from Fort Biloxi to ascend the Mississippi and explored the Yazoo and Arkansas Rivers.  He entered the Minnesota River and voyaged up stream to Blue Earth River.  Here he built Fort I'Huilier and wintered.

August 13:  Quebec, Quebec, birth, (III)-Louis Durand, Metis, son (II)- Louis Durand, Metis, b-1670 and Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon (1682-1718); married January 22, 1725, Sorel, Marie Anne Dumay.

April 17:  Kaskakia, Illinois, birth (III)-Pierre Baillargeon, Metis, son (II)-Antoine Baillargeon dit Durivahe, b-1658 and Aco Marie likely Sauvagesse or Domitilde Ch8ping8a, sauvagesse.

August 22:  St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, son (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672- 1731) and  (II)- Francoise Paule Campagna (1683-1717). 

September:   Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) and 24 French arrived from the mouth of the Mississippi at Nicolas Perrot's Island Post of Isle Pelee, above Lake Bon Secours or Lake Pepin.  They wintered here, trafficking in furs and other merchandise. They traded with the Cioux, Mententons, Mencouacantons, Ouytespouy, and some other Cioux of the soil.

 

1701  

Kaskaskia (Illinois), marriage, (I)-Michel Accault,  aka Ako, Acau, Dacanand d'Acau, d-1702, a French trader, married 1st Aramepinchone, a.k.a. Marie Rouensa, born 1677, Kaskaskia (Illinois), died, June 25, 1725, daughter, Illinois chief Rouensa; 2nd marriage 1693/94, Mary Pinchieoua, daughter, Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 3rd marriage 1701, at Kaskaskia Illinois), Marie Suzanna.  (see 1680, 1690, 1694)

Father Garnier, a Jesuit is a missionary at Senecas Country 1701 to 1703.

Kaskakia, (Illinois) marriage (II)-Jean Gauthier Sakingoara Saguingoira, b-1669 Montreal  son (I)-Pierre Gauter dit Saguingoira (1629-1703) and Marie Charlotte Roussel b-1646; married Marie Suzanne Capei8suec8a
    (III)-Marie Gauthier Metis b-1702 Kaskakia
    (III)-Domitilde Gauthier Metis b-1703 Kaskakia
    (III)-Jean Gauthier Metis b-1707 Kaskakia
    (III)-Jean Gauthier Metis b-1713 Kaskakia

Father Francois Valliant de Guelsis, a Jesuit is a missionary at Senecas Country 1701 to 1707.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) or vicinity, birth, (II)-Alexis Bienvenue, died Detroit, New France (Michigan) October 13, 1763 son (I)-Francois Bienvenue aka Delisle or DeLisle, born 1663, died September 29, 1751,  is believed by some to frequent Fort Detroit before 1700.  His wives include Genevieve Laferiere, and 2ndmarriage 1708, Marianne Lemoine: Alexis married January 17, 1740 (III)-Elisabeth (Josette) Bouron who died May 30, 1758 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (II)-Joseph Bouron.

Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761) contends that the Outagamis became fierce savages about this time because of ill treatment by the French for the next twenty years, and formed an alliance with the Iroquois as enemies to the French and with the Dakota; a numerous Nation.  This second alliance has rendered all navigation of the upper Mississippi almost impracticable.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, Edmond Roy dit Chatellereau de Ste Anne b-1665/75 son Michel Roy Chatellerault and Francoise Hobbe Aube; married, Marie Anne Janvier daughter of Jean Janvier and Dorthie Dubois.  Possible marriage Ste Anne De le Perade, Champlain, Quebec but Edmond was in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) 1701 being hired by Jean Bochart along with Michel Roy de Ste Anne and Pierre Roy de Ste Anne.  To add to the confusion their son Michel Roy (1701-1761) married 1728 Marie Angelique Perot Perrault

(III)-Marguerite Couc alias Couck, dit Lafleur, Metis, birth June 1, 1664, baptism, June 5:  Trois Rivers, Quebec, died December 21, 1756, Fort Detroit, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); 1st married 1690 d'en Haut, likely Detroit?, (II)-Jean Fafard dit Jean Fafart dit Maconce or Macons, b-1657,  he was a voyageur and interpreter; 2nd marriage 1705 Detroit, Michel Masse.. Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) or vicinity death (II)-Jean Fafard leaving his widow (III)-Marguerite Couc, Metis who married 1705 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Michel Masse.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) or vicinity birth Alexis Bienvenu dit Delisle son Francois Bienvenu dit Delisle.

(II)-Anna Catherine Parsons born May 6, 1701 Lac Des Deux Montagnes, baptised January 10, 1710 Lac Des Deux Montagnes, taken with Samere by the savages August 22, 1703 and was baptised by Mr Meriel, ptre S.S., daughter (I)-William Parsons and Anne Wheelright; married Claude Antoine De La Martiniere.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth 1701 to 1703 Theresa Tonti is assumed to be the first recorded child born at Fort Detroit, daughter Alphonse Tonti, Baron of Paludy (1659-1727) and Mary Ann Picote de Belestre born February 9, 1673 Montreal died September 11, 1714 Montreal daughter Peter Picote de Belestre and Mary Pars.  

The Green Bay, New France (Michigan), Region is reported swarming with Coureurs des Bois (Metis), going unchecked by the French as they are banned from trading Lake Superior because of the Jesuits.  The Peoria People blamed the Jesuits for the drop in fur value and killed Father Jacques Gravier, Jesuit.

Only twenty five Wendat remained at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), and (I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) wrote that he hoped the obstinate resident priest, Father (I)-Etienne Carheil (1633-1726), a Jesuits, will die in his Parish without one parishioner to bury him.   He said, of the Jesuit conduct, that it smelled of seduction a hundred yards off.  The Jesuits are not allowed to establish a mission at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  Father Constantin De L'Halle, killed 1723, a Recollect, is invited and he built the first church on July 26 and called it Ste. Anne.  The Jesuit would conspire towards Cadillac's demise and this subversion would be long remembered by the native peoples.

(I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) claimed that no one had ever visited this part of the country, Fort Detroit, before himself.  This was an absurd statement to make as he was fully aware the Metis and Coureurs des Bois had been everywhere before him.  There is also reason to believe some were living among the Indians who had villages near this place.  He likely made this statement so that the Jesuits could not lay claim to having made a mission with the Indians in this area and therefore had a right to attend to Fort Detroit.  It is noteworthy that this was historically the lands of the Fox (Ojibwa) Indians.

Madame (III)-Marie Therese Guyon Cadillac, Metis born April 9, 1671, joined her husband on September 10 with five of their thirteen children at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  Guyon had married (I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) June 25, 1687 Quebec. (II)-Antoine Laumet, and (II)-Jacques Laumet were two of the older sons.  The intent of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) at this time, by King Louis XIV (1643–1715), is to get rid of the Coureurs des Bois (Metis) or to curb their activities.  The King had to admit that all attempts to date had failed and their numbers continued to grow.  A number of canoes of the (I)-Alphonse Tonty (1659-1727)  party had defected to the Coureurs des Bois; so strong are the pull of freedom and free trade.  One hundred and fifty disgruntled merchant investors in Mackinaw, New France (Michigan), protested their loss of business and are offered shares in the Compagnie de la Colonie du Canada.

June 25: Quebec to Detroit (I)-Antoine De Lamothe Cadillac b-1661 to (III)-Marie Therese Guyon Metis b-1671daughter (II)-Denis Guyon Metis d-1685 and (III)-Elizabeth Boucher
Married 1687 but moved family to Detroit this date
    (II)-Antoine De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1692 Quebec
    (II)-Jacque De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1695 Quebec
    (II)-Pierre Denis De LaMothe Cadillac Metis (1699-1700) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Anne De LaMothe Cadillac Metis (1701-1701) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Therese De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1704 Detroit
    (II)-Marie Madeleine De LaMothe Cadillac Metis 
    (II)-Antoine De LaMothe Cadillac Metis (1707-1709) Detroit
    (II)-Marie Agathe De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1707 Detroit
    (II)-Rene Louis De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1710 Detroit, d-1714 Quebec
    (II)-Francois De LaMothe Cadillac Metis b-1709

Some thirteen hundred delegates representing 33 different Nations from all tribes, from the Atlantic to Lake Winnipeg (Lake Bourbon) and beyond the Mississippi, met in Montreal, Quebec, to enter into a peace treaty, to remain neutral in any future conflict between the English and French.  The French are just beginning to appreciate the vast country and how immense it really is.

The British and French war of 1701-1713 appears to have had little impact on the Western interior.  The French retain control of the Bay of the North, and Fort Albany, James Bay (Ontario) remains in the hands of the English.  The Hudson Bay Company is effectively insolvent, with no significant activity and no dividends are recorded from 1691 to 1717.  Charles Junchereau de Saint Denys (1665-1703) is granted the rights to establish tanneries at Michilimackinac, Mississippi Valley and Cairo, Illinois.

The Hudson Bay Company reported that the French Canadians discontinued official expedition into the Country of the Cree and Assiniboine.  This new French policy encouraged the Metis to gain control of the Louisiana Territory.  The evolution of New France maps suggests that the Metis continued to explore the North West over the next ten years despite the French policy of non exploration.

The colony of Louisiana consisted of 180 men capable of bearing arms, 2 French families with 3 girls and 7 boys, and 6 Indian boy slaves.  Most are around Fort Louis de la Louisiane at Mobile, Louisiana, Alabama.  It is noteworthy that the Indian wives and slaves are not included in the count.  It is also noteworthy that, at this time, marriages with Indian women were not allowed, and Metis offspring were not recognized by the church.  

Governor Sauvolle died at Biloxi, Louisiana, and Bienville his brother succeeded him.

The missionaries abandoned the Cahokia Indian and Metis Village in upper Louisiana (Illinois) and moved to Kaskaskia (Illinois), both on the Mississippi River.

Some would have us believe that bannock was an addition to the Metis cuisine that originated from the Scots in Red River after 1812.  Wheat was grown in Fort Detroit this year and bannock wouldn't be far behind.  Others suggest it predates this time and was used by the voyagers but didn't come into large use until it was grown in the Old North West.  Some suggest the word originated with the Old English 'bannuc' meaning morsel or little bit.  The French introduced bannock into the voyager trade using wheat instead of oatmeal cakes that the Scottish used.  Some writers of the Scottish cakes suggest they were not fit for human consumption.

From this time on families began to come, and those men who were already at the settlement
sent for their wives and children.

The unmarried soldiers were encouraged to marry the Indian women, and a close study of the parish records of Canada incline me to believe that it was no very uncommon thing for a citizen to have left behind him a lawful wife and to have selected another in Detroit from some savage tribe.  It was a common practice for the French to change their names.

February 11:   Levis, baptism Guillaume Marchand born 1693 (slave) esclave panis, achete par (II)-Louis Marchand (1693-1749).

May:   Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) left Fort Mahkahto under the command of D'Evaque, a Canadian (Metis), and twelve Frenchmen and returned to Fort Mobile (Mobile, Alabama) with 24 Frenchmen.

April 13:   (II)-Jean Francois DuBois alias Brisebois (b-1668) is recorded as a voyager to the west.

April 17:  Kaskakia, Illinois, birth (III)-Pierre Baillargeon dit Durivage, Metis, son (II)-Antoine Baillargeon dit Durivage, November 11, Trois Riviers and Domitilde Ch8ping8a, sauvagesse. 

May 25:   Louis Chouet, a.k.a. Lagiroflee, soldier in company of Cabana captain, son Jean Chouet and Marie Magdeleine Magdile, departed for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), but gave his property to Mary Magdeleine Delisle in the event of his death.

May 27:   (III)-Rene Godefroy (Godfroy) (1675-1748), Monsieur de Linctot, (II)-Louis Gateau, alias Gastineau dit Duplessis, Sieur de Ste Anne (1674-1750) and (II)-Jean Baptiste Giguere (ancient voyager, out of Montreal, Quebec) (1660-1750) are listed as voyager’s West, and his brother (II)-Jean Giguere (1663-1711) is also listed but no specific year and date of travel is given.

May 27:   Mathurin Rivard Feuilleverte engage west, source Lyle Trottier.

May 27:   (II)-Jean Lemire (1676-1754) is listed a voyager West.

May 29:   Louis Badeillac, a.k.a. Laplante, arrived Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) in the first convoy.

June 1/5:   (I)-Alphonse Tonty (1659-1727) Captain of the Company, the brother of (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, second in command Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit, New France (Michigan) with (I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730), Jesuit Father Vaillant, Recollet Father Constantine, Dugue, Chacornacle and 100 Men (50% soldiers) with twenty five canoe went to build Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit, New France (Michigan) traveling via Fort Michilimackinac.  This long out of the way route is alleged to be taken to retrieve a Cadillac cache of 198 pots of brandy which are hidden in the woods near the Post and to pick up a cannon, muskets and munitions.  These had been seized from unauthorized Coureurs des Bois (Metis) and really belonged to Montreal merchants.  (I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730), under command of (I)-Alphonse Tonty (1659-1727)- the brother of (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, established Post Pontchartrain d'etroit, drawing many of the personnel from the Jesuit mission of Father (I)-Etienne Carheil (1633-1726), the Jesuit of Michilimackinac.  He used 100 Algonquian, 50 Frenchmen and 50 soldiers to build the Fort.  He named this Fort, Pontchartrain d'Etroit (also known as Fort Ticksarondis).  He reported that about six thousand Indians are camped about the Fort.    (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) would later claim that he invited the Indians to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and most authorities in France are well aware that he makes less than honest claims.  He would also claim that they were the first ones in this region, and that his wife, (III)-Marie Therese Guyon born 1671, and Tonty's wife were the first white women in this region.  This was also a bold unsupported claim.

June 4:  Charles Juchereau de Saint-Denys (1655-1703) is granted the rights to establish tanneries in the Mississippi Valley, at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), and at Cairo, Illinois Country.

June 7:  The Seminary of Foreign Missions is assigned to Tamaroa (Cahokia) near St. Louis and the Jesuits abandoned Cahokia for Kasakia.

June 28: Montreal (II)-Jean Baptiste Gigulere b-1660 died April 18, 1750 departed Montreal, Quebec, this date for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) having made a present of his property in event of his death to (II)-Louise Maignan (1675-1740) whom he married on January 22, 1704, in Montreal, Quebec upon his return.  Many were fearful for their lives at this time.
His brother, (II)-Robert Gigulere, born January 28, 1663 Chateau Richer and died December 10, 1711 Montreal, Quebec is also at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

June 28:   Engage west (III)-Francois Marie Trottier-Bellecour (1679-1744) son (II)-Antoine Trottier-Dusruisseaux (1640-1706) and Catherine Lefebvre (1648-1705), source L. Trottier

June 28:   (II)-Mathieu Perrin, also Garao, alias Garaut, Gavahau and Perrin de Louarget (1664-1742,) born Bout de I'lle, Montreal, Quebec and departed Montreal, Quebec as engage (Voyager) to the West.  (II)-Mathieu Garno is the father of (III)-Oliver Garno (born 1706), alias Garneau and, Perrin de Louarget.

July 10:   Jean Francois Volant sieur de Fosseneuve born 1670 went to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), as a hunter and married June 6, 1701, Marguerite Godfroy.

July 10:  Marie Anne Lienard, Metis born July 10, 1700 daughter (II)-Jean Francois Lienard (1657-1731) and Marie Madeleine Arpot (sauvagesse) also called Richard died July 16, 1758; married October 29, 1721 Rene Trudel.

July 23: Detroit was a minor French post in a wilderness.  In the next eight month it sprang to life like a field of mushrooms.  The French Coureurs des Bois, the Metis and Indians descended on Detroit from every direction.  It's population soured to 6,000 people and was a rival on Montreal and Quebec in trade.  The citizens owned their own homes but those of the soldiers belonged to Cadillac (The Government).  The French didn't want Detroit to be colonized but were powerless to stop it.

July 24:  (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) arrived at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  He selected this location hoping to prevent the Indians, Metis and Coureurs des Bois from trading with the English.  He erected palisades on a arpent of land ( 192 feet by 192 feet).  About 100 souls counting the natives and Metis resided in and about this new fort.

September 5:   (II)-Robert Reaume b-1668, brother (II)-Charles Reaume, (III)-Joseph Trotier dit Desruisseaux (1668-1709 or 16) and Toussaint Pothier dit Laverdure are engaged to escort Francis Mary Picote de Belestre and equipages, Mrs De Lamothe Cadaillac, Mrs Alphonse Tonti and their children from Montreal, Quebec, to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  (II)- Robert and (II)- Charles are the son of (1) Rene Reaume (1643-1722) and Marie Chevreau b-1652; (II)- Charles is not listed Tanguay, a possible Metis 1/2 brother??

September 6:   Pierre Cardinal (1665-1719) arrived in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) son Simon Jacques Cardinal (Cardinault) and Michelle Garnier (Grenier).

September 10: Detroit (I)-Alphonse Tonty an Italian (1659-1727) captain of a company, 
1st married 1689 Montreal (II)-Anne Picote (1673-1714).  It is said she and Cadillac's wife (III)-Marie Therese Guyon Metis were the first women in Detroit.  (I suspect there were other women in the area.) 
2nd marriage 1717 Montreal (II)-Marianne de LaMaroue (1669-1744) epouse 1688 Montreal of Jean Baptiste Nolan, epouse 1712 Laprairie Joseph Antoine de Fresnel, I suspect she is Metis??

September 31:   Mathurin Rivard Feuilleverte engage west, source Lyle Trottier.

October 7:  Fort Detroit planted its first French wheat.

October 24:   Montreal, Quebec, marriage,  Jean Deslanders and (II)-Madeleine Galarneay, Metis, died July 16, 1716, Montreal, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal Jean Picard; Madeleine 1st. married August 8, 1691, Quebec, Quebec, Joseph Langevin, 2nd marriage October 24, 1701 Montreal, Quebec; Jean Deslandes, 3rd marriage November 3, 1715, Montreal, Quebec, Jean Baptiste Joly.

October 31:  Quebec, marriage, Jean Metivier to (II)-Genevieve Couturier, Metis, died March 24, 1715, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649. 


1702
 
Fort Detroit and area numbered 6,000 Indian, and French outnumbering Quebec and Montreal in trade. 

(I)-Francois de Beauharnois de La Chaussaye, Baron de Beauville (1665-1746, is appointed Intendant New France (1702-1705)

Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Jean Gauthier to Marie Suzanne Capciouekoue, Indian.

Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) departs the Louisiana Territories, never to return, and is assumed to have died or was killed..

Mobile, Louisiana, birth Claude Jousset, Creole Metis son of a Canadian and unknown woman.

Charles Junchereau d-1704, son Nicolas Junchereau established a trading post at the mouth of the Ohio River near future Fort Massac.

A considerable number of French Metis had settled at Cahokia in the Mississippi Valley.  This was an established place long before Kaskaskia.  Most of the inhabitants of the French fort at Kaskaskia took Indian wives to form the nucleus of the Village of Kaskaskia, Illinois. 

Pierre Cardinal (1665-1719) and Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714)  are with Charles Junchereau de St. Denis on his venture on the Mississippi.  They were accused of trading illegally on the Mississippi by Boishebert.  The concession at Fort St. Louis was revoked, and Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) was recalled to New France but continued to trade illegally with Pierre LeSueur (1657-1704).  The claim apparently did not stick, as he replaced (I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), in 1710.  

Europe is again at war.  The Sac and Fox attack Fort Mahkahto (Ouabache) at Blue Earth River (Minnesota), killing three of his 16 men.  D'Evaque Pierre Charles LeSueur (1657-1704) is forced to abandon the Post and returned to Louisiana.  They encountered Charles Juchereau, sieur de St. Denis/Denys de Beaumarchis (1655-1703), son Nicolas Junchereau de St. Denis de Beauport and Marie Therese Giffard,  with a concession in the Ohio Valley to establish a fort at the mouth of the Ohio River (Ouabache (Cairo, Illinois)).  His thirty five men party were in eight canoes.  Members of his party included:  Charles Denu Detaillis, Nicolas Laberge, Paul Teyssier, Francois Legardeur de Mutrecy, Nicolas Le Moyne sieur de Leau, Alexis Legay, Gabriel Philippe sieur de Manteville, Pierre Cardinal, Paul Groust, Reverand Jean Mermet and Francois Marie Bouet.  Juchereau had plans to establish a tannery at the mouth of the Ohio to process bison (buffalo) skins.  This business venture ended in tragedy, as most contracted and died from malaria.  Sieur de St. Lambert takes command of this Post in 1703, upon the death of Juchereau.   The Indians on the Fox-Wisconsin waterway demanded and received tribute for the use of their trade route.  Some suggest Juchereau was responsible for Michilimackinac, Green Bay, Wisconsin River and the Mississippi River.

Fort L'Huillier is operating this year with 12 men near Blue Earth on the Minnesota River, but the site is believed abandoned later this same year.

Onanguisse, a Potawatomi Chief,  threatened to trade with the English speaking people unless the French established better trade.  The establishment of Saint Michael's Mission in the south west corner of Lake Superior, Ojibwa Country, occurred this year.  The French complained this year that the Metis (Coureurs des Bois) are also swarming throughout the Western Country.

Fort Louis at Mobile, Louisiana- a supply ship, arrived with 23 women for marriage, along with 75 soldiers, of which 30 died shortly after their arrival.

Captain Michael Grimington is the first recorded ship to visit Stromness, Orkney Islands seeking 12 suitable men for Hudson Bay Company oversea service.  The English were not considered robust enough for this service.

The frontier villages were mostly made from stakes, driven into the ground as closely as possible and the spaces filled with mud or mortar.  The roof was made of tree bark or split rails.  Sawing lumber or log cabins at this time was too labor intensive.  

The Jesuit (I)-Sebastian Rale (Rasles), (1657-1724), a Jesuit, a rigid and unbending man, and a missionary of the Abenaki, wrote that the Abenaki are ready to lift the hatchet against the English speaking peoples.  He would die, not a martyr, but as a soldier.  Another Jesuit of the time wrote that the priests abhorred the sending down of the heathen to commit outrages against the English speaking peoples, saying it is more like committing murders than managing a war.  Mostly women and children are being targeted and killed.  A ten year, Jesuit inspired war against the English and Coureurs des Bois (Metis) would commence.  The Jesuit war is really a war of French Roman Catholic vs. American Protestant, as America is peopled with all nationalities of Europe including thousands of French Protestants.

Fort Detroit, New France had constructed a picket line palisade enclosing 1 arpent of land, about 800 feet in length, rising 12 to 15 feet to defend against the Indians.  There were no women in the fort at this time.

Madam Cadillac and Tonty's wife arrived in the spring of 1702 being the first white women..

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) planted Indian corn that grew to 8 feet tall, and each soldier (50 men) were required to plant 1/2 acre garden for their own use and the citizens planted 60 arpents of wheat.  Wild grapes, fruit, berries and nuts were also harvested. 

Old Mobile, Louisiane the capital from 1702 to 1711, the French and Metis traded initially with the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico.  

As the result of the three expeditions sent by South Carolina from 1702 to 1708 against the Yamasee, Apalachee, and Timucua of northern Florida, there was carried back to Charleston, for sale as slaves, almost the entire population of seven towns, in all, some 1,400 persons.

January 6:  Kaskakia, birth (III)-Marie Gauthier, Metis, daughter Jean Gautier dit Sakingoara Saguingoira , b-1669 and Marie Suzanne Capei8suec8e. 

March:  Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and vicinity is estimated to contain 6,000 people, mostly natives.  The natives and Metis flocked to the fort and rivaled Montreal and Quebec in trade.

May 13:   (IV)-Francois LeGardeur (b-1675), sieur de Mutrecy Repentigny listed a Voyager to the Mississippi.

May 18:   (II)-Jean Francois DuBois alias Brisebois (b-1668) is recorded as a voyager West.

Spring, the first white women arrived this spring being Madam Cadillac and Tinty's wife.  Women recorded in these parts prior to this time were Metis or Indian.

June 16:  Engage west (III)-Francois Marie Trottier-Bellecour (1679-1744) son (II)-Antoine Trottier-Dusruisseaux (1640-1706) and Catherine Lefebvre (1648-1705), source L. Trottier

June 26:  Quebec, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Louise Dubeau, Metis, son (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672- 1731) and  (II)- Francoise Paule Campagna (1683-1717). 

July 5:  (I)-Father Francois Pinet (1661-1704) departed Tamarous or Arkinsa for Cascaskias (Kaskaskia, Illinois).  It is noted that many Frenchmen are at Kaskaskia, Illinois and some have married to Indian women.

July 12:   Paul Chevalier and wife Campau arrived in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

July 16:   (II)-Louis Gateau, alias Gastineau dit Duplessis, Sieur de Ste Anne (1674-1750), is recorded as a voyager West.  Also (II)-Jean Baptiste Gatineau, alias Gastineau dit Duplessis (b-1671), is listed as a voyager West.  Also listed is (II)-Pierre Gouin (1679-1761) Voyager West.

July 16:   Charles Daze arrived in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

July 18:  Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Arnauld Bertrand, merchant arrived Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

August 30:  Father (I)-Etienne de Carheil (1633-1726), a Jesuit of Mackinac, complained to (I)-Louis Hector de Callieres (1648-1703) Governor of New France about Michilimakina.  He wrote: "The infinite multitude of evil acts, acts of brutality and violence; of injustice and impiety; of lewd and shameless conduct; of contempt and insults.  The infamous trade in brandy where they go from village to village with prodigious quantity of brandy in barrels, without any constraint."  His complaints are not just directed at the Metis, Coureurs des Bois and Voyagers but at the soldiers and commandants of the forts and posts.  He said:  These places are turned into brothels.   The soldiers keep open house for all women of their acquaintance, they gamble, they scorn to observe-the feast-days.  They have no intercourse with the missionaries (himself).  They are hostile to the fathers (again himself).  We now have no power.  The Voyageurs, the only authorized traders, conspire with the Coureurs des Bois and the soldiers against the Missionaries.  These fugitive Voyagers, go about seducing the women, in all the cabins where they lodge; or they go to visit them, entertain them, caress them, solicit them, and purchase the enjoyment of their bodies.  These men justify the women's presents as, who would pound the corn, do the cooking, cut the wood, do the laundresses, make shoes, garters and pouches, and other articles.  They only use the excuses to justify the commerce of the woman's bodies.  This will cause their infallibly ruin of our missions.  The liberty of women among the French must be taken away.  The doors should remain open when they visit on business so they can be spied upon.  They are the prostitutes of this place.     

October 28:  Sorel, Quebec, birth, (III)-Antoine Durand, Metis, son (II)- Louis Durand, Metis, b-1670 and Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon (1682-1718).

 

 

1703  

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), death, Jeanne Bannois (Beauvais) wife of Guillaume Bouche aka Beauvais.

Rafel Bienvenue born 1703 died April 24, 1706 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), age 2 son  Francois Bienvenue aka Delisle or DeLisle born 1663 died September 29, 1751  is believed by some to frequent Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) before 1700.  His wives include Genevieve Laferiere, and 2nd Marianne Lemoine, some believe this is an error, possible he had both wives same time??

(I)-Richard Michel Bisaillon et Bizaillon d-1728 son Benoit Bisaillon and Louise Blay
1st married Marie Therese Akensamacoue an Illinois
    (II)-Michel Bisaillon Metis b-1712 possible same as Michel (1713-1749)?
        (III)-Marie Anne Bisaillon Metis married (IV)-Louis Cote (1734-1762) 
2nd married before 1703 Kaskaskia, Illinois Marie Therese Amerindienne 
3rd married 1710 Detroit (III)-Marguerite Fafard (1695-1728) daughter (III)-Francois Fafard
    (II)-Michel Bisaillon b-1713 d-1749 Montreal married 1740 Laprairie (II)-Marie Madeleine Oliver Perrier daughter (I)-Laurent Oliver Perrier (1617-1740) and (II)-Marie Jeanne Dumas Rencontre b-1679 veuve (I)-Francois Dumont dit Laviouette daughter (I)-Rene Dumas (not listed Tanguay?) I suspect married Indian or Metis? 
        (III)-Etienne Bisaillon Metis? b-1741 Laprairie or (III)-Elisabeth Bisaillon (1741-1770) married 767 Montreal William Thorne
        (III)-Etienne Bisaillon Metis? b-1743 Laprairie
        (III)-Marie Angelique Bisaillon Metis? b-1746 Laprairie married 1770 Lachine Pierre Campeau
        (III)-Marie Josephe Bisaillon Metis? b-1748 Laprairie married 1770 Montreal Daniel Murry
  (II)-Marie Marguerite Bisaillon Metis? b-1718 married 1748 Montreal (I)- Nicolas Ducorps dit St Medard b-1723  
        (II)-Marguerite Ducorps b-1748 Montreal
        (II)-Marie Madeleine Ducorps b-1750 Montreal
4th married a possible illegitimate?
    (II)-Michel Bisaillon Metis? 

(II)-Francois Marie Bouat is a voyageur  and is on the Mississippi River this year,

Madam Guillaume Bouche (Jeanne Beauvais) is believed to have died this year.  

(I)-Jacob DeMarsac dit Durocher b-1667 d-1747 Detroit married about 1703 (III)-Therese David d-1727 Detroit daughter (II)-Claude David d-1706
    (II)-Jacob DeMarsac b-1704 d-1706 Montreal
    (II)-Jacques DeMarsac b-1707 Montreal d-1745 Detroit, married 1745 Detroit (II)-Marie Anne Chapoton
    (II)-Francois DeMarsac b-1706 d-1777 Detroit married 1734 Detroit (III)-Therese Cecile Campeau b-1714, d-1746 Detroit    

Michel Etienne dit Phillipe married about 1703 Kaskalia Marie Ouacanteoua

Baron Lahontan (1666-1715?) was told about and some say visited Great Salt Lake, Mexican Territory (Utah) however he also reported a river ran from the Great Salt Lake to the Pacific Ocean and maps from this time forward recorded this error.

Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron Lahontan (1666-1737) wrote:  The reason they marry so easily in that country (New France) is the difficulty of making contact with persons of the opposite sex.  A man has to speak of marriage, otherwise slander comes to haunt one and the other.

(I)-Pierre Roy (1676-1732) arrived Detroit before Cadillac and was living with the Indians, married (churched) 1703 Fort Detroit Madeleine Quabanquiquois sauvagesse of the Miamis Nation who died October 31, 1732 Fort Detroit.  see 1700 for 6 kids
The priest called them legally married with six Metis children
    (II)-Marguerite Roy Metis (bapt 1704-1755) Detroit married 1739 Quebec (I)-Jean Robin dit Latouche 
    (II)-Marie Louise  Roy Metis (1708-1735) Detroit married Alexis De Ruisseau
    (II)-Marie Magdeleine Roy Metis (1710-1732) Detroit, married Pierre Chesne dit La Butte
    (II)-Pierre Roy Metis bapt-1706 Detroit

Marie Francoise Roy (1703-1760) daughter Edmond Roy du Chatellereau de Ste Anne b-1665/75 and Marie Anne Janvier; married 1725 Pierre Thomas Laquerre

Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725), is implicated in illegal activities

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), death, Jeanne Beauvais wife Guillaume Boucher who 2nd married August 16, 1716 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan),  Angelique Tholme widow Pierre Robert

Maps compiled from last century and first published during this period, covers the Northern Bay (Hudson Bay), Lake Winnipeg (Lake Bourbon), Red Lake, Missouri River (Pekitanoui) and Mississippi River Systems.  The French Government issued yet another Act of Amnesty for all illegal traders, those Coureurs des Bois (Metis), to come down from the West.  They are requested to give themselves up.  Few responded, not wanting to give up their freedom.  A roundup of these Metis criminals caused many to flee further to the west and to Louisiana of the south where they are most welcomed.

The Massachusetts colony offered $60 for each Indian scalp.

The Company of New France claimed the trading rights previously granted to Cadillac and provided him with a salary as commandant.  This effectively destroyed his incentive to build a colony, he devoted his energy trying to regain the trading rights.

The Fort Detroit, New France, (Ste-Anne) church records for 1701-1702-1703 are assumed burnt in the fire in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), that destroyed the church and house of the Recollects, and some believe Alphonse Tonti Baron of Paludy may have been responsible.  Record keeping didn't resume until 1704 after a replacement church was built.

July 6:   (II)-Francoise Dumouchel d-1681 Champlain daughter (I)-Roman Bernard Dumouchel dit Laroche b-1652 and (II)-Jeanne Juin b-1655, agreed to serve Madam De La Mothe (Cadillac) in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), for two years at 180 livres per year. 

July 10:   (II)-Francois Gariepy (1665-1738) listed voyager West.  Also (II)-Robert German (b-1680) listed voyager West.

July 10:   (III)-Claude Rivard sieur de Loranger son (II)-Robert Rivard dit Loranger d-1699 Batiscan and (II)-Madeleine Guillet d-1736; married 1696 Ste Anne de la Perade (II)-Catherine Roy Metis daughter (I)-Michel Roy (1649-1709) and Francoise Hobbe Indian/Metis; agreed with the company of the colony, represented by Francoise Dumontier of Montreal, Quebec, and Etienne Volland de Radisson of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), to go to Detroit July 10, 1703 as an interpreter (usually implies Metis).  

July 10:   Mathurin Rivard Feuilleverte engage west, source Lyle Trottier.

July 10:   Etienne Gervais de Bourguion arrived in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) as a hunter.

July 10: (II)-Jean Francois Violant sieur de Fosseneuve (160-1768) arrived Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) as a hunter.  Married 1701 Montreal (III)-Marguerite Godfroy (1676-1714)

July 21:  The first French wheat crop of Fort Deytroit was harvested, resulting in a good crop.  The spring wheat was not as successful as the fall wheat.

Summer:  Five Frenchmen are killed by the Ouabacho (Ohio) at the instigation of some Englishmen.

October 12:   Raymond Jean dit Godon contracted to go to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) as a farmer. 

October 12:   Guillaume Laberge contracted to go to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), as a farmer.

October 12:   Joseph Laude dit Mata contracted to go to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) as a farmer.

October 12:   (I)-Jean Michel contracted to go to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) as a farmer.  He married about 1675 Sara Mene Indian/Metis
    (II)-Joseph Michel Metis b-1676 bpt 1691 St Francois du Lac

November 14::  Kaskakia, birth (III)-Domitilde Gauthier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Gauthier dit Sakingoara Saguingoira , b-1669 and Marie Suzanne Capei8suec8e. 

November 22:  St Augustin, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Jean Dubeau et Dubocq, Metis, born June 10, 1669, Quebec, died September 12, 1743, St. Augustine, Quebec, son (I)-Laurent Dubeau (1636-1689) and Marie Felix d'Arontio (Huronne); married (II)-Marguerite Harnois b-1677, died May 20, 1747 St. Augustin, Quebec, daughter (I)-Isaac Harbois.

 

1704 

(II)-Rafael Bienvenue born 1704 Detroit died April 24, 1706 Fort Detroit son (I)-Francois Bienvenu aka Delisle or DeLisle born 1663 died September 29, 1751, is believed by some to frequent Fort Detroit,  New France (Michigan), before 1700.  His wives include Genevieve Laferiere, and 2nd marriage 1708, Marianne Lemoine.

Francois Marie Bouet is hiring voyagers for the west from 1704 to 1718.

William Byrd (1674-1744) inherited his fathers estate, Westover, on the James River, Virginia.

Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage, Gutoutagan to madame La Chenette aka Techenet alias Elisabeth Couc born 1685.  Actual country marriage likely predates this time.

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) is finally made commander of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  

(II)-Jean Baptiste Charles likely son (I)-Etienne Charles dit Lajeunesse and likely an Indian girl, not likely his wife, married 1704, Madeleine Illinoise (Sauvagesse)
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Charles Metis b-1705 married 1750 Montreal Marie Joseph Dumas

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) received permission to make conveyances on the lands in and around his village and he applied for the title marquis of Detroit..

Birth, marriage and death records were maintained (1704-1764) for Fort Conde de la Mobile and Fort Louis de la Louisiane (Mobile, Co. Mobile, Alabama). 

Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit (Ste-Anne) (Detroit, Co. Wayne, New France (Michigan), recorded birth, marriage and deaths (1704-1800).  Records prior to this were destroyed in the fire of 1703.

Rev. (II)-John Williams (1664-1729) and his daughter Esther Williams (1691-1751) who was married to an Indian named Joseph Meacham (likely a Metis) from Deerfield, Massachusetts, are held prisoner in Quebec.  His wife Eunice Mather (1664-1704) died or was killed on the trip to Quebec.

In Louisiana Indian slavery began with the founding of the colony. A report of the colony written in 1704, states that at Fort Louis de Louisiane, having a white population of 180 soldiers and 27 French families numbering 64 persons, (a total of 244 white persons), there were six Indian boy slaves from twelve to eighteen years of age, and five Indian girl slaves from fifteen to twenty years of age.

January 22:   Montreal, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Jean Baptiste Giguere dit Dolsesse, an ancient voyager, born 1660 died April 18, 1750 Montreal, Quebec, married (II)-Louise Magnan born 1675, died November 17, 1740 Montreal, Quebec, all children born Montreal, Quebec. 

February 2:   Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), baptised, (II)-Marie Therese La Mothe , daughter (I)-Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac (1658-1730) wife (III)-Marie Therese Guyon, born 1671, Adele Genevieve La Tendre listed as God mother to Therese. The registre of Detroit is Pere Constantin de Chaille, the child has as godfather Bertrand Arnand and Marraine Genevieve le Tendre 

February 29:  Deerfield, Massachusetts;  Captured by Indians, a Sarah Mattoon Fields born April 25, 1687, died March 21, 1752, married December 31, 1711 Zechariah.  It is believed she was taken to Canada were she lived until about 1709, living among the Indians.  

March 5:   Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), baptism (II)-Joseph Bienvenu dit Delise died December 3, 1711 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son  (I)-Francois Bienvenue aka Delisle or DeLisle born 1663 died September 29, 1751  is believed by some to frequent Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), before 1700.  His wives include Genevieve Laferiere, and 2nd marriage 1708, Marianne Lemoine:

March 11:  St. Nicolas, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Anne Durand, Metis, daughter (II)- Louis Durand, Metis, b- 1670 and Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon (1682-1718); married January 11, 1723 St. Antoine-Tilly, Nicolas Marion.

April 24:  Mobile Bay, Louisiana, the French ship Pelican landed two Grey Nuns and 23 girls, being the first European women into Mobile Bay, Louisiana.  Father Hunt was responsible for their well being.  The Kings Girls among them were married within a month.  It was normal for ships to Louisiana to stop at Quebec and could include additional passengers and non-Kings Daughters are included so we shouldn't assume they are all Kings Girls.  The list of female passengers names are:

Gabrelle Binet
Jeanne Catherine de Berenchard (Berenhard)
Francoise Marianne de Boisrenard (Boirenaud), married Nicolas de La Salle, widower
Marie Briard, married Antoine Rivard dit La Vigne
Marie Theresa (Thereze) Brouchou (Brochon), married Pierre Brossard, mason
Gabrielle Bonet, married but spouse deserted
Genevieve Burel, married Claude Trepanier
Jeanne Burel, married Francois Trudeau
Louise Burel, daughter Etienne Burel and Marguerite Rousseau
Marguerite Burel, married Gilbert Dardenne
Catherine Christophe, married (1) Rene Boyer (2) Claude Parent
Elisabeth Deshays (Deshayes), married Jean Bourbonnois
Madeline Douanne
Marieanne Docoudreaux
Angelique Drouin, married Jean Baptiste La Croix dit Grimauld
Angelique Fayard
Marguerite Fayard
Marie Du Fesne (Fresne), married Jean Baptiste Alexander
Louise Francoise Le Feure, died on day of arrival 
Francoise la Fontaine
Marguerite Geuchard (Guichard)
Rene (Renee) Gilbert (Guilbert), married Jean Baptiste Roy
Louise Marguerite Housseau, married Guillaume Boutin
Marie Jeanne Marle, conductrice
Marie Noel du Mesnil
Catherine Moulouis, midwife
Marie Madeline Ouanet, married Francois Dupre (d. Feb 16, 1722)
Jeanne Elisabeth le Penteau (Pinteux), died two days after marriage
Marie Phillipe (Philipe), married Pierre Allain dit Rouseve
Marguerite Rousseau wife Etienne Burel
Gabrielle Sanart (Savarit), married (1) Jean Baptiste Saucier, born December 4, 1674 Sillery (2) Philip Vifvarenne, (3) Jean Baptiste Sansot
Marguerite Travenier (Travernier)
Laurent Cloquinet, servant Catherine Moulois (Moulois), midwife
Henry Savant, cousin of Gabrielle Savarit (Savary) 

April 25:   Michel Le May agreed to conduct a canoe and crew to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

April 27:   Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), baptism (II)-Marguerite Du Roy, Metis, (1703-1755) died April 21, 1755, daughter (I)-Pierre Du Roy (1676-1743) and Marguerite Ouabankikoue (Quabanquiquois), Miami Indian d-1732; married Quebec 1739 (I)-Jean  Robin dit Latouche.

April 29:   (II)-Pierre Gouin (1679-1761) Voyager West.

May 11:  St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Jeanne Dubeau, Metis, died May 29, 1732 St. Augustine, Quebec, daughter  (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672- 1731) and  (II)- Francoise Paule Campagna (1683-1717). 

Summer:   Antoine Dounay arrived Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

July 9:  Ste Foye, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marguerite Louis Dubeau, Metis, son (II)-Jean Dubeau et Dubocq, Metis, (1669-1743) and  (II)-Marguerite Harnois (1677-1747; married October 20, 1722 St. Augustin, Quebec, Antoine Lemarie..

July 16:  Father (I)-Francois Pinet (1661-1704) died Chicago, New France (Illinois).

July 28:   (I)-Pierre Gareau (1653-1729) Voyager, is an engage to the West departing Terrebonne.

July 28:   Edmond Roy dit Chatellereau b-1665/75 arrived Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), as brigadier, his son Joseph married 1736, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).  See 1701

July 28:  List of voyageurs by Notaire: Antoine die Saint-Martin (1668-1714) Montreal.

Louis Baribeau
Rene Beaujan
Pierre Benoist dit Laforest, des Trois Rivieres
Etienne Besme
Albert Bosnie dit Lafranchise, de Lachine
Pierre Bougret dit Dufort, de Boucherville
Denis Bourgeris
Pierre Bourgeris
Jean Boyer, de la prairie St. Lambert
Jean Cadeau, de Longueuil
Jacques Campots
Jean Campots
Jacques Cardinal, de la cote St. Pierre en I'ile de Montreal
Joseph Couturier
Toussaint Dardenne
Jean David, de la riviere Becancourt
Francois Denoyons
Jacques Denoyons
Pierre Desautels, de St. Martin en I'ile de Montreal
Antoine Donnay
Paul Dumouchel
Pierre Edeline
Louis Fafart
Francois Frigon
Jean Gariepy, de St. Francois en I'ile de Montreal
Pierre Garro (Gareau) dit Xaintonge (1653-1719)
Pierre Guignard dit Dollone, de Lanoray
Ignace Guyon
Jean Houre de Champlain
Robert Lafontaine
Claude Lamy, de Saurel
Landreville
Pierre Leboeuf, de la ville de Villemaire
Ignace Lemay, de Lotbinieres
Jacques Lemelin, des Grondines
Charles Lescieur
Julien Lescieur
Jean Mandeville, de Berthier
Gaspard Maignan, de Mouillepied
Pierre Mauriceau, de Repentigny
Michel Messier, sieur de Sainte Michel (1640-1725)
Jean Moreau
Joseph Moreau
Jacques Pellissier dit Boisdamour
Alexandre Petit, du cap St. Michel
Antoine Pinard, de la Baye St. Anthoine sur le lac St. Pierre
Pierre Puybarreau, de Boucherville
Charles Ricards
Jean Ricards
Pierre Richer, de Ste Anne
Joseph Rivard, de Batiscan 
Robert Rivard
Francois Robert
Vincent Rodrigue, de Quebec 
Mathieu Rouillards
Simon Rouillards
Edmond Roy dit Chatellereau
Antoine Salvay, de Saurel
Joseph Sarrasin, de Charlesbourg
Adrien Senecal, de Varennes
Antoine Thunay dit Dufresne
Jean Tousignan dit Lapointe
Jacques Vaudry, de la ville de Villemaire
Pierre Villier, de Quebec

August 28:   Jacques Hamelin (b-1680) voyager, father of Charles Hamelin alias LaGueniere and LaGuenier, is also listed as a voyager West.

September 28:  Maryland allowed divorce if a wife displeased the clergyman or preacher.

November 13:   Indian and Black slaves in New France are declared to be "moveable property".

November 18:   Quebec, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Jacques Galarneay, Metis, died November 26, 1744, Ste Foye, Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal, Quebec,  Jean Picard;  married November 18, 1704 Quebec, Quebec,  Marguerite Panneton.

 

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