EARLY YEARS 
OF THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST 1790 - 1799



EXPLORATION OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST IS MOSTLY
BY THE CHINESE, RUSSIAN AND SPANISH


01/15/2011

  B.C. HISTORY 1800-1829

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN B.C. index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index


The Chinese discovered Fu Sang (British Columbia)

The Spanish Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) was again discovered by Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) in 1774.

The Spanish Bay (English Bay) and the site of the City of Narvaez (Vancouver) was first discovered by Jose Maria Narvaez (1768-1840) in 1791.

Why does a Englishman called George Vancouver (1757-1798) 'who discovered nothing' get credit?

WHY DO WE CALL IT BRITISH COLUMBIA?
British HBC developed the Columbia River District
Oregon, Washington and B.C. was called the
Columbia Department

 


1790  

Captain Don Pedro Alberni (1747-1802) and his Catalonian Volunteers took command at Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island.  He built Fort San Miguel at friendly Cove and planted a garden with 19 different crops.  He built an irrigation system to water his test garden.  He also sent out expeditions to chart the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the coast line up to Alaska.  He was married to Juana Velez who was his only survivor upon his death as his daughter had died. 

Seattle of the Dwamish in Puget Sound, Washington is born this year, became a Catholic, and remained friendly to the Europeans during the 1855-1858 outbreaks. 

Salvador Fidalgo, in the San Carlos explored the coast from Nootka Sound to the Cook Inlet, on Quadra's Island.

Governor Pil of Irkursk sent the following note to St. Petersburg:  "I passed over the British in silence -- they have long since been attempting to steal treasure belonging to Russia."  They were also accused of renaming places which the Russians had discovered and named long before.  They did the same with the Spanish, a shameful activity.

Manuel Quimper alias San Miguel with piolets Lopez de Haro and Juan Carrasco are ordered to chart the north and south shores of Strait of Juan de Fuca.  He anchored outside Sooke Inlet that he named Puerta de Revillagigedo and traded copper for sea otter skins with 500 natives.  He claimed this land in the name of the King of Spain.  At the San Juan Islands he encountered two Dungeness villages that he claimed for Spain.  He anchored at Bahia de Quimper (New Dungeness Bay).  He charted Port Discovery and Neah Bay.  He charted Puerto de Cordova (Esquimault Harbour).  He claimed present Victoria area for Spain.  He anchored at Freshwater Bay near Elwha River on the Olympic Peninsula where the locals directed them to fresh water and gave them salmonberries. He named Mount Baker as La Gran Montagna Carmelita.  He discovered the San Juan Islands of more than 170 islands 90 minutes north of Seattle.  His charts record Mt Baker in what will be called Oregon Territory.

Fort Sooke, located 45 miles (70km) north of Tofino on Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) is built by the Spanish.

Jacques d'Eglise, a Frenchman from St. Louis, is trading with the Mandan in North Dakota and reports that the British traders from Assiniboine are among them.  Jacques lived among the Missouris 1790 to 1792.  Citizens of the United States are along the Mississippi, Canadians and British are in Oregon, and the Russians are in Spanish California. The Spanish still occupied Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) about this time.

The American trading ship Columbia uses cannons to destroy 200 longhouses at an Opitsaht community of Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island. 

"Under threat of war",  The Nootka Sound Convention is signed in Madrid.  England agreed that both Britain and Spain had equal rights of trade, navigation and settlement of unoccupied parts of the West Coast of America.  America would learn that might is right.

By the 1790's there was about 40 Russian fur trading companies operating in the Pacific Northwest. 

The Spanish discovered Sombrio, Vancouver Island and found gold on the Sombrio River.  It would later become know as Hippe Ville about 1957.

April 10:  Francisco de Eliza y Reventa (1759-1825) took possession of Nootka, Quadra's Island, British Columbia to secure Spanish sovereignty to the region. 

May 31:  Esteban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) ordered Manuel Quimper to chart the Juan de Fuca Strait, B.C.  He sailed from the Spanish port of Nootka Sound and named many B.C. features that the British would later rename.  Quimper's Puerto de Cordova became Esquimault Harbour; Puerto de Bodega y Quadra became Port Discovery.  He explored the San Juan Island and traded with the Natives.

May 31:  Manuel Quimper sailing for Spain sailed from Nootka Sound, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) in a captured British sloop Princess Royal (one of John (Liar) Meare's ships) that he renamed Princesa Real.  He sailed the Strait of Juan de Fuca naming Port San Juan (Port Renfrew) and Esquimalt.  He named Rada de Eliza )Pedder Bay), Rada de Solano (Parry Bay), Rada de Valdes y Bazan (Royal Roads).  Other named locations include Sombrio, Haro, Rosario, San Juan, Texada, and Port Los Angelos (Port Angeles) and he claimed all these lands for Spain.

June 30:  Don Manuel Quimper dropped anchor in Esquimalt Harbour, named it Puerto de Coedova, claiming the region for Spain by erecting a wooden cross on a hill. 

August 1:  Alferez Manuel Quimper sailed the Juan de Fuca (B.C.) as far east as the Sanjuan Islands, and lands Neah Bay  claiming the Olymoe Peninsula for Spain.

August 9:  Robert Haswell (1768-1801) arrived Boston in the Columbia, via Hawaiian Islands and China having spent 10 months fur trading the North West Coast of America.  Robert Haswell disappeared 1801 with his ship Louisa and is assumed dead.

 

1791  

Aleksandr Baranov (1747-1819) explores the Aleutian Islands for Russia.

Francisci Eliza, a Spanish captain sailed into Port Angeles Columbia District (Washington) and named it Puerto de Nuestra Senora de los Angeles.

Alejandro Malaspina (1754-1810) a Spaniard is ordered to find the North West passage from the west coast of America.  Extensive exploration by Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794), Francisco de Eliza, Jacinto Caamano, Manuel Quimper, Dioniso Alcala Galiano and Cayetano Valdes (1767-1839) explored the coast line from California to Alaska.  Until Spain was forced to withdrew from Nootka Sound and the west coast of Canada in 1795 because of pressure from Britain and threat of war.  Spain was hoping to get backing from France against Britain but this failed so the Spanish backed down.  All that remains of Spanish influence is names like Quadra, Alberni, Laredo, Carmelo, Mazaredo, Bodega and Narvaez.  It is note worthy that Vancouver Island was formally called Quadra's Island and was eventually changed to Vancouver Island by the English.

The Spanish built a fort at Nunez Gadna aka Neah Bay, New Spain (Columbia District) (Washington) having claimed at for Spain in 1790.    The Spanish called it Fort Nunez Gaona.

Alexando Malaspina (1754-1810) an Italian sailing for Spain spent a month at Nootka Sound.

Etienne Marchand b-1755 traded with the Tlingit for otter pelts near Sitka, Alaska and noticed signs of smallpox.

Fort Defiance at Tofino, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) was the first British fort in British Columbia.  It was short lived and abandoned in 1792.

During the 1791/92 voyage Captain Robert Gray (1775-1806) ordered the destruction of the village of Opitsant near Tofino, Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island destroying 200 homes.  John Boit recorded six violent encounters by Captain Gray towards the People.  Captain Gray is also noted to have kidnapped a son of chief Wickaninnish.

1791 Nuu-chah-nulth Woman Indian woman

Nuu-chah Woman is a drawing by Tomas de Suria which is one of 16 groups that comprise the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation.  

The tribal council of Nuu-chah-nulth is located at Port Albemi.  Ironically a town named after Pedro de Albemi who led a Spanish contingent of 76 soldiers who arrived April 1790 to fortify Friendly Cove under command of Francisco Eliza.

Mowachaht of Gold River traditionally wintered at Tahsis.

Ka:'yu:k't'h of Kyuquot

The Ehattesht of Esperanza Inlet and Zeballos

The Huu-Ay-Aht at Pachena Bay and Cape Beale

The Ahousat on Flores Island

The Tia-o-qui-aht in Clayoquot Sound

The Toquaht of Barkley Sound:  This is the authors favorite fishing area.  It still is a little bit of paradise.

The Ucluelet of Ucluelet inlet

The Uchuck of Uchucklesit Inlet

The Dididaht in the Nitinat Lake region

The Pacheedaht around Port Redfrew

By order in council, the limit of Ontario should extend to what is known as the western limit of Canada under the French, namely the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  Ninety one men are issued travel permits out of Montreal for Grand Portage and the Western Sea.

Cossack Ivan Kobelev landed on little Diomede Island, between Siberia and Alaska.  He found 100 people; 45 males and 55 females, healthy, daring and cheerful.  This Island has been continuously occupied for the past 2,000 years.

Francisco Eliza, with two Spanish navy ships, explored the Strait of Georgia; the body of water separating Vancouver Island and Mainland British Columbia.  The Spanish discovered and named Hornby Island as Island Isla de Lerna but in 1850 the British renamed it Hornby Island.  Francisco Eliza landed Port Angeles, New Spain (Washington) and named it Puerto de Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles meaning ``port of our lady of the angels``

The Spanish built a fort at Neah Bay, New Spain (Washington) and called it Fort Nunez Gaona.

George Vancouver (1757-1798), an Englishman, charts the Pacific Coast; Vancouver Island to Alaska from 1791 to 1793. 

Port Alberni, B.C. is named after Don Pedro Alberni, a Spanish commander of the Nootka Garrison during the Spanish occupation.

June 5:   Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806), of the United States arrived Clayoquot, Vancouver Island.  Captain Gray wintered 1791-92 on Meares Island, Columbia District (Oregon) where he built Fort Defiance.

June 16:  Captain John Kendrick in the sloop Lady Washington dropped anchor near Anthony Island.  In his arrogance he believed his humiliation of the Haidas supreme chief Koyah had taught him a lesson.  The Haidas attacked the ship but lost the battle with 60 dead Haidas.  The Lady Washington escaped but any ship arriving the Queen Charlottte Islamnds in the next five years is attacked.  Captain Gray returned and lost three men.  The brig Eleanora arrived off Antony, was boarded and her entire crew killed. A British ship, limped through Houston Stewart Channel with a broken mast.  The ship was boarded and all British seamen were also killed.  In 1794 the schooner Resolution with Captain Burlington and an 11 man crew were captured by Koyah and all killed except Beyers who was made a slave.  

June 27:  Alejan dro Malaspina (1754-1810) of Spain sailed to Mulgrave Sound (Yacutat Bay, Alaska).  

July:  Joseph Ingraham was hired by a Boston merchant from 1790 to 1792 to sail the Pacific Northwest to bring back furs in the brigantine Hope.  He visited Skidegate Inlet of the Queen Charlotte Islands in July 1791.  At 10 o'clock in the evening a small canoe was seen coming to us in which was 4 men as she was so small I let them come alongside they said they were of the tribe of Skeetkiss and had furr for sale they sold us but one skin when they could better examine our articles of trade as the least flaw in our chizzles or daggers was sufficient to condemn them as unfit for their purpose . . . Towards night a large war canoe came into the bay and after holding a conversation with some other canoes (perhaps relative to the trade) they came alongside in this canoe was Skeetkiss a chief of the first consequence among these people as at every place we visited they spoke of him as a man of great power and of whom they were afraid.  After trading he sailed for China in August, hoping to sell his cache.  Trouble between the Chinese and Russia stymied his sales.

July:  Jose Maria Narvaez (1768-1840) on the expedition to chart the Juan de Fuca and Georgia Straits, commanded a small schooner, the Santa Saturnina that reached the Spanish Banks in Vancouver, the first European to do so.  His two commanding officers were Francisco de Eliza and Manuel Quimper.   He created a detailed chart showing the Straits of Juan de Fuca and showed Punta of Gaviota (S.E. Corner of Gabriola Island).  He entered El Grand Canel de Nuestra Senora Del Rosario la Marinera (Straits of Georgia), visited the Mud Flats (of Delta) passed the UBC site (Vancouver) and sailed up to Texada Island and Ballenas Islands.  He could see the straits went further to the north but was running out of supplies so returned to Gabriaola Island and anchored Silva Bay (Gabriola).  

August 4: Etienne Marchand b-1755 traded at Barkley Sound, Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island for three days.  This is the author's favorite fishing area.  For millennia the Nuu-chah-nulth have dwelt on the west coast. Archaeologists estimate that 10,000 native people once lived in Barkley Sound. In the Broken Group they were abundantly rewarded with salmon, bottomfish, shellfish, sea birds and marine mammals. The Nuu-chah-nulth were able to devote time to activities other than simple survival and thus developed a highly complex culture.

August 12:  Alejan dro Malaspina (1754-1810) is at Nootka Sound, Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island then sailed to Marianas, Philippines, New Zealand, Australia then back to Spain via South America. 

Jose Mariano Mozino b-1757, Mexico, wrote that the Spanish in Island of Quadra aka Vancouver Island insulted the People at various times, crippled some and wounded others, and did not fail to kill several.  They used to pull the women into the blacksmith's and rape them without any romance.  The blacksmith had that red-hot iron always ready for those women who refused.  Others reported that by this time the terrible ravages of syphilis, which threatens them with the the appalling fate which overtook the ancient inhabitants of Spanish California, a race which has become almost extinct owing to this disease. 

Jacinto Caamano, d-1830's, was sent to re-explore Bucareli Bay and Douglas Channel in search of the Channel to the Hudson Bay.  He said it did not exist and the Spanish had been misled by the charts of English Captain James Colnett.  He dined with Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798) and provided him with copies of his charts.

June:  George Vancouver (1757-1798) met two Spanish vessels off Point Gray in Vancouver harbor, Columbia District (Washington) giving rise to the name Spanish Banks.  The Spanish captains were Galiano and Cayetano Valdes (1767-1839).

August:  George Vancouver (1757-1798) sailed to Nootka Sound and met with commander Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794).  The only thing they agreed to was to call Vancouver Island "the Island of Quadra and Vancouver".

September:  Captain Robert Gray (1775-1806) built a winter quarters on Meares Island that he called Fort Defiance and he named the area Adventure Cove.

September 14:  Edward Bell a crewman aboard the Chatham that accompanied Captain Vancouver's ship the Discovery discovered the murder of one of Captain Quadra's (1744-1794) servants, naked and mutilated at Friendly Cove.  Edward Bell wrote a fine little Spanish boy who had been missing about 8 and 40 hours, a bloody knife was found lying near him.  It is supposed he was decoyed thither by some of the Indians, under pretence of gratifying an illicit intercourse with one of their women.  No other reason could be found, no quarrels with any of the Spanish.  None of his clothes were to be found, but he was found naked with his throat cut from ear to ear.  Bell's captain on the Chatham was Peter Puget, after whom Puget Sound is named.  

 

1792  

Alcala Galiano and Cayetano Valdes (1767-1839) of Spain named Tsandwuch, New Spain (Washington) as Enseuada de Garzon but Captain George Vancouver's (1757-1798)  later visited the Bay and named it Birch Bay.

The Russian Governor Aleksandr Baranov (1788/92-1818) of the Russian Pacific Northwest had established Forts, settlements, shipbuilding facilities and agriculture.  Cattle were imported to Kodiak Island and kitchen gardens were planted wherever possible.  

The English claim that George Vancouver (1757-1798) was the first to circumnavigate Quadra's Island later named Vancouver Island and this is an English Lie either by Vancouver or English historians.  A bronze statue of George Vancouver (1757-1798) outside city hall claiming he was the first to sail English Bay but this is also an English lie.

Dionisio Alcalá Galiano (1762-1805) and Cayetano Valdes y Bazan (1767-1835) Spanish hydrographers in the schooners Sutil and Mexicana were the first to continuous circumnavigation of Vancouver Island and not George Vancouver (1757-1798) as is commonly believed.  In fact it was from the natives that Cayetano Valdes y Bazan (1767-1835) heard of a passage in 1791 to the sea from north of the Strait of Georgia.  Vancouver agreed to call the Island "Quadra's and Vancouver's Island" insisting Quadra's name being listed first in recognition of the Spanish being first in exploration.

It is noteworthy that Galiano Island is named after Dionisio.  Dionisio Alcala Galliano (1762-1805) produced an excellent map of the southwestern, B.C. waters.  He is also the first European to see the mouth of the Fraser River.  George Vancouver (1757-1798) maps were based on other peoples work namely Jose Maria Narvaez (1768-1840) map of 1791 and excluded the Fraser, Skeena and Stikine Rivers.  Some question if he actually did much charting of his own.  He failed to record Seymour Inlet opposite the north end of  Quadra's Island aka Vancouver's Island.  He named northern Washington as New Georgia, and successive northerly regions as New Hanover, New Cornwall and New Norfolk.   Thankfully non of these stuck.  Places named Vancouver are not warranted.   George Vancouver (1757-1798) had trouble collecting his back pay and some say his achievements were never adequately recognized, others that he was a fraud and is grossly over rated.  His downfall was also that he was a stern disciplinarian and the flogging of Thomas Pitt assisted in his down fall.  Also few historians note that the Spanish pilot Jose Maria Narvaez (1768-1840) in 1791 preceded George Vancouver (1757-1798) to the entrance to English Bay within the Canadian City that now bears Vancouver's name.  It is noteworthy that Vancouver had been ordered to map South America and had failed to do so.

Jacinto Caamano led a survey expedition to the north-west coast in 1792, discovering and naming the Principe Channel and Gil Island. He remained in charge of the Spanish base at Nootka until the arrival of Fidalgo in 1794. 

Charles Barkley with wife Frances are in the Pacific Northwest.

Joseph Whidbey finds some square patches of ground in a state of cultivation in the Quadra Islands.  The natives were growing a local tobacco that is now extinct.

Twenty eight ships are working the Pacific Northwest this year.  Francisco and Juan Martinez de Zayas are exploring the Juan de Fuca.

Sigismund Bacstrom a painter on one of the two British ships Butterworth and Three Brothers near Langara Island shows blue-eyed Haida where the two Spanish priests aboard Santiago had seen about eighteen years earlier.  These sightings likely represent the earliest know Metis in the Pacific Northwest.

Salvador Fidalgo for Spain built a fort at Puerto de Nunez, later called Neah Bay, Washington.  He planted the first garden in the future (Washington) state.  This is believed to be the first settlement in the future state (Washington) aka Oregon Territory aka Columbia District.

Salvador Fidalgo was sent to command Nootka, from there he established a base at Nunez Gaona (Neah Bay), where he wintered until 1793

Dionisio Galiano, a Spanish navy commander, explored the B.C.'s Gulf Islands; Galiano Island is named after him. 

Robert Haswell, (1768-1805), a seaman,  is in the Oregon Territory

Thomas Heddington (1775-1860) made a sketch of a Kwakiutl village at the entrance to Bute's Inlet, South Kwakiutl or Salish.  He was part of the Vancouver Expedition of 1791-1795.

Henry Humphrys (d-1799) made a sketch of the Spanish Fort, San Miguel, and the colony of about eleven houses with fenced in gardens at Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island.  The settlement appears well established at this time.

Jacinto Caamano Moraleja b-1759 explored Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

Zachary Mudge (1770-1852) made a sketch of the ship Discovery, stuck on the rocks, with the ship Catham in the background and the Haida in the foreground at Queen Charlotte Sound, British Columbia.  He is part of the Vancouver Expedition of (1791-1795).

John Sykes (1770-1858) is at Port Townsend, Washington with the Vancouver Expedition of 1791-1795.  He also made a sketch of a Kwakiutl Village in Johnson Strait, Vancouver Island.

Tofino was named in 1792 after the Spanish Hydrographer Vicente Tofino de San Miguel (1732 - 1795) who was Rear Admiral of the Spanish Naval Academy in Cadiz.

Some suggest there are 28 ships trading the Pacific Northwest Coast this year.

The British ship Jenny sails to Nootka Sound with two Hawaiian women. They were returned home in 1794 with Captain George Vancouver, who had the distinct impression that they had been taken against their will.

Cayetano Valdes (1767-1839) accompanied Galiano in 1792 in a Spanish expedition to the northwest coast. They sailed in the Sutil and Mexicana, met with George Vancouver (1757-1798) in the Point Grey/Burrard Inlet area, and, in a cooperative venture, charted the body of water between Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia.  He discovered that Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) was actually separated from the mainland, and that the body of water they were sailing in did not lead to a northwest passage

George Vancouver (1757-1798) explored Puget Sound, finding a vast charnel house of human remains promiscuously scattered about the beach in great numbers, as smallpox had preceded them.  Peter Puget noted that most were terribly pitted, indeed, many have lost their eyes.  George Vancouver said "I experienced no small degree of mortification" when he discovered from Captain Bodega had charted the Straits of Juan de Fuca, Straits of Georgia and discovered the Frazer River.  Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794), Spanish commander of the Northwest Coast, took charge of the Noothka Post and negotiated with Captain George Vancouver, but remained firm in defending Spanish sovereignty over Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island).  It is noteworthy that Juan Josef Perez Hemandez (1744-1794) had first discovered Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) in 1774.  Bodega had been the second expedition to visit Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) in 1775.  Jose Maria Narvaez (1768-1840) in 1791 discovered the site of Vancouver City and produced a detailed chart that Vancouver used in his visit..

Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) a Creole (Metis), was Commandant of Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island), New Spain and had his headquarters at Nootka.  Bodega has been sailing and charting British Columbia and Alaska since 1775, primarily in quest of the Northwest Passage and to stop the spread of the Russians traders into Spanish America.

The Columbia reached land between Nootka Sound and Clayoquot Sound and young John Boit (1774-1829) recorded the crew of the Columbia frequently fraternized with the native women or as Boit put it some of the females are not very chaste.   The women wore lip plugs which he considered looks very ghastly.  The principle village was Opitsatah, governed by Wickananish, a warlike chief.    

The west costal Peoples are grouped into two major linguistic groups:

The Salishan Family:

Bella Coola, living along the Bellacoola River, B.C.
Clailam (Clallium), living on Puget Sound, Washington
Comox
Haida speak Na-Dene, lived Queen Charlotte Islands
Lillooet, moved more easterly
Lumni (Lummi), living near Bellingham, Washington
Salish aka flathead, widely dispersed 
Sinkiuse-Columbia
Songish
Squamish

The Wakashan Family:

Bella Bella
Heiltsuk
Kwakiuti
Nootka
Penutian-Chinook, moved more southerly

Some consider the Salishan and Wakashan as the same linguistic family called the Mosan Phylum.  It would appear that they traded with the Algonquian People and share some common cultural traits. 

Others include:

Cowichan
Kwakiutl-Haisla
Nanaimo
Nooksack
Putlatch
Seechelt
Semiahmoo
Stalo

Captain Cook encountered the Tututni also called the Coast Rogues an Athabaskan speaking People at Chetco River, Oregon.

Galiano Island, British Columbia Gulf Island is named after the Spanish commander Dionisio Galiano who explored the area this year.

The Spanish noted at Nootka Sound, on Quadra's Island, the natives are already beginning to experience the terrible ravages of syphilis.

Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798) the British Sea captain, claimed the entire Strait of Georgia without even leaving his ship.  Maquinna of the Nuuchahnulth could have claimed all the British Empire because he saw the English ship. Both claims are not taken seriously. The Nootka Convention of this year recognized the right of both Spain and Britain to trade at Nootka Sound.  Neither nation was awarded sovereignty and each could erect only temporary buildings.  It was accepted that the Spanish had discovered Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) but might is right.

March:  Alejandro Malaspina returned from the Northwest 1791 expedition and sent two ships to find the Northwest Passage now believed to be in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.  Cayetano Valdes (1767-1839) and Dioniso Alcala Galiano sailed into Juan de Fuca Strait and explored the southern end of Vancouver Island.  They encountered George Vancouver and were convinced this was not the Northwest Passage and headed north through the Queen Charlotte Strait back into the Pacific Ocean.  They basically circumnavigated Vancouver Island.  They stopped at the Spanish port of Nootka Bay on Vancouver Island.

April 2:   Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806), in the ship Columbia, encountered George Vancouver (1757-1798) off the coast of Oregon Territory.  George Vancouver wrote that if any river should be found it must be a very intricate one and inaccessible to vessels of our burden.  This was in reference to the Columbia River mouth, discovery by Captain Gray.  Gray's Bay and Grayland are also named after this explorer.

April 29:  Jose Mariano Mozino, a botanist, spent 4 months studying the Peoples customs, religion and government.  The native fright in first encounter with the Spanish in 1774 was because they believed Quautz (God) was coming to make a visit, and were fearful they would be punished for misdeeds of the People.  This tends to suggest some religious visited the People before 1774   No mention is made of the first visitation of Quautz (God).  It was noted the People practiced polygamy.  

April 29:  George Vancouver (1757-1798) circumnavigated Vancouver Island and charted the British Columbia coast to counter the Spanish exploration of these regions in 1774-1775.  He failed to secure the release of ships captured by the Spanish, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) commandant at Nootka Sound and the Spanish maintained control of the region.  The matter would be referred to Madrid.  It is noteworthy that Bodega had charted these areas as early as 1775.

May:  The Butterworth Squadron operated the Pacific Northwest under command of William Brown for the next three years.  The ships were the Butterworth commanded by William Brown, The Jackal commanded by Alexander Stewart and the Prince Lee Boo comanded by Captain Sharp. 

May:  The Three Masters Schooner, the Jenny captained by James Baker departed Hawaii with two young Hawaiian girls for their pleasaure.  They arrived Nootka Sound Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) after trading Oregon/Washington coast October 7, 1792 and Baker asked George Vancouver (1757-1798) to take the girls back to Hawaii, which he agreed to do.

May 7:   Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806), in the ship Columbia, anchored in the Columbia River harbor and traded with the Indians.  He named the river Columbia after his ship.  He sailed on to Gray's harbor recording "Being within six miles of the land, saw an entrance in the same, which had a very good appearance of a harbor...We soon saw from our masthead a passage in between the sand-bars. At half past three, bore away, and ran in north-east by east, having from four to eight fathoms, sandy bottom; and as we drew in nearer between the bars, had from ten to thirteen fathoms, having a very strong tide of ebb to stem....At five P.M. came to in five fathoms water, sandy bottom, in a safe harbor, well sheltered from the sea by long sand-bars and spits".

May 11:    Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806) sailed up the Columbia River about 20 miles where he traded with a vast number of natives and obtained fresh water.  He recorded his discovery as follows: "At eight a.m. being a little to windward of the entrance of the Harbor, bore away, and run in east-north-east between the breakers, having from five to seven fathoms of water. When we were over the bar, we found this to be a large river of fresh water, up which we steered. At one p.m. came to with the small bower, in ten fathoms, black and white sand. The entrance between the bars bore west-south-west distant ten miles; the north side of the river a half mile distant from the ship; the south side of the same two and a half miles distance; a village on the north side of the river west by north, distant three-quarters of a mile. Vast numbers of natives came alongside; people employed in pumping the salt water out of our watercasks, in order to fill with fresh, while the ship floated in. So ends." 

May 19:  Mount Saint Helens in the Oregon Territory (Washington) erupted and is noted by the fur traders.  It is the most active volcano in the Pacific Northwest. 

June 22: George Vancouver (1757-1798) hurried back from Jervis Inlet and joined the Spanish captains on Sutil.  When shown the Narvaez chart produced in 1791, George Vancouver (1757-1798) was irritated. This confirmed beyond all doubt that the Spaniards - deemed to be inferior in every way - had beaten the British navy to the Pacific northwest.  Moreover, on board Galiano’s ship was Dr. Tadeo Haenke, first Ph.D. to come to B.C. These Spaniards in their small ships had stolen a jump on the British. Vancouver was often irritable and his crew kept out of the way when the "ol’ man" was in a sour mood. The Spanish chart didn’t help matters.

July:  Joseph Ingraham met with Captain Bodega y Quadra (1744-1794) at Nootka Sound, B.C.

July 23:  Joseph Ingraham met with Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806) at Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.  Ingraham returned to Boston having failed commercially.  It is noteworthy that Vancouver Island was called Quadra's Isle at this time.

August:   George Vancouver (1757-1798) encountered Juan Francoisco de la Bodega Y Quadra (1744-1794) of Spain at Nootka, Vancouver Island.  The Spanish had seized the British property for trespass at Nootka Sound, based on first possession by the Spanish of Vancouver Island.

September:  The Sao Jao y Fenix (often known as the Fenis and St. Joseph) was a Portuguese brig captained by John de Barros Andrade, which visited Nootka in September 1792. However, it also had Robert Duffin, who had been First Officer under John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809), on board as supercargo and the suspicion was that Duffin was in charge.  Zachary Mudge sailed as a passenger on the Sao Jao y Fenix when it sailed on 30 September back to China.

September:  The Butterworth Squadron is at Nootka Sound.

October 23:   George Vancouver (1758-1798), after seeing Captain Robert Gray's charts at Nootka Sound, now believed Captain Gray (1755-1806) had discovered the Columbia River.  He immediately set sail for the Columbia River.  He said he couldn't cross the sand bar, but William Robert, in the ship Chatham, did cross.  He sailed to the Portland, Oregon area, nearly 100 miles up stream.  He named this location Point, Vancouver, and he observed and named Mount Hood.  Henry Broughton (or William R. Broughton? d-1821) was on this expedition up the Columbia River and corrected Captain Robert Gray's rough charts.  He named Mount St. Helens for a British ambassador to Spain.  He named Mount Hood after British navel hero Samuel Hood.
(I)-William Robert Broughton (1763-1821) of the George Washington (1757-1798) Expedition was the first recorded sighting of the Willamette Valley of the Columbia District.  It is noteworthy that the natives occupied this fertile valley since 8,000 B.C. and presently 70% of the population of Oregon live in this valley.

 

1793  

Alexander Andreievich Baranov, (1747-1819), a Russian Trader, abandoned his wife and daughter near the Russo-Finnish border bound for Russian Alaska.  He married the daughter of Kenaitre, in Alaska.  He established a trading empire stretching from Russian Alaska to Spanish California and Hawaii.

(II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1763-1820) son (I)-Kenneth MacKenzie of New York joined NWC 1779-1812) married 3 wives:
Marie an Inuit girl
    (III)-Julie MacKenzie Metis b-1789 who married Pierre Coignat (Carignan) dit Trouch Leveille (1783-1876) settled 1817 Red River
Unnamed Indian or Metis girl(s)
    (III)-Roderick MacKenzie Metis (1772-1859)
    (III)-Andrew MacKenzie  Metis b-1788/1793, d-1809 Fort Vermillion
    (III)-James MacKenzie Metis in Athabasca 1799/1800
Married Scotland Geddis Nee and had three children

John (Liar) Meares (1756-1809) a fur trader advised the British that Spain has claimed the west coast of North America.  This led to the voyage of George Vancouver d-1798 

Fort Voskresenskii at Resurrection Bay incorporated many military features and is completed this year.

A treaty in 1793 gave the two countries Spanish/English joint ownership of Nootka, Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island).

A Indian of the Bella Bella tribe says up the Dean Channel, long arm of the Pacific Ocean in B.C. they were attacked by white men.  He said the leader fired a musket at him and that another hit him on the back with a flat sword.  Some believe it must have been George Vancouver and company.

May: Francois Beaulieux Metis (1772-1872) joined the Mackenzie Party to the Pacific at Fort Chipewyan.  Some suggest this was his return journey to the Pacific.  Beaulieu was from an old family long established in the Slave River Region.  It is truly amazing so little is known about this man who lived a hundred years in the North West.

May 9: In Peace River (Alberta) (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820), of the North West Company, expressed his determination to follow Peter Pond's (1739-1807)  second great river to the Pacific.  He expected to trade with the Russians who had a string of trading posts from Russian Alaska to Spanish California. Alexander McKay a Jr. clerk d-1811 and six Metis, Jacques Beauchamp, Francois Beaulieux Metis (1772-1872), Baptiste Bisson, Francois Courtois, Charles Ducette,  Joseph Landry,  two natives as guides, interpreters, one named Canere a native or Metis  and hunters and a large dog left for the Pacific.  The Parsnip and Sekani helped direct (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) to the great river and stinking lake, the Pacific, where white-men arrived in ships.  The Sekani drew a map that suggested the stinking lake was a moon's journey away.  They met the Carrier and Bella Coola Natives.  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) appears more fascinated with the native culture, their honesty, and architecture than with finding the Pacific Ocean.  It is noteworthy that at Bella Coola (before July 20) they encountered Natives with metal spearhead and European beads.  Had those Metis reached the Pacific before him?  They arrived near King Island, at the top of Fitz Hugh Sound, on July 23.  These Nor'westers returned to Fort Chipewyan having covered two thousand eight hundred and eleven miles.  It is worth noting that these Metis, Indians, and Mackenzie officially crossed the continent twelve years before Lewis and Clark.  Six of the 10 man party were French Canadians, one being Francois Beaulieu who died about 1872 nearly 100 years old.  The only other Scot was a jr. clerk Alexander McKay.  One of the native guides was named Canere.  Most Scots don't realize the 69 ships with Scots aboard preceded the Mackenzie expedition to the Pacific coast in trade.

July 19:  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) records they were accompanied by seven natives and met many canoes  on the river.  They stopped at a village of natives that had many trade items which Mackenzie assumed were from Spanish origin.  They had blue cloth with brass buttons.  They had brass and a lot of copper that they reworked into arrow heads, spear heads, collars, ear-rings and bracelets.  They said they saw two ships at the Pacific Ocean in 1783 (ten winters ago) and Mackenzie assumed it was Cook.

July 22:  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) encountered a different tribe of Indians than the July 19 Indians, these called the Bella Coola who told him he just missed Captain Vancouver by a few weeks (June).  He wrote the following for the North West Company on a rock at the mouth of the Bella Coola River:  "Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty second of July, one thousand seven hundred ninety three."  It was acknowledged that without the natives goodwill and guidance, the long, hazardous journey could not have been accomplished.    It is noteworthy that the Indians told him not to go down the Fraser River as it was impassable in some places and was a long way to the ocean.  They directed him to go on the Indian trail to the Bella Coola River which he did.  This is noteworthy that these people had explored the Fraser River to its mouth and the Indian trail to the Pacific.   They retraced their route over the Indian trail to the Fraser River, to the McGregor River, the Parsnip River to the Peace River in Alberta.

1794

Alexander Mackenzie of the North West Company commenced construction of Fort St. John on a plateau north of Peace River.  It is the oldest non-native settlement in the B.C. mainland.  It is noteworthy they currently consider themselves as northeasterners rather than north westerners.

Captain Vancouver remarked that there was little difference between the Russians and the Pacific Natives because they had adopted each others food and clothing.  It is noteworthy that the Russians encouraged intermarriage between the Russian promyshlenniki and native Americans.

Captain Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of Peru (1744-1794) died this year at San Blas.  He wrote his own epitaph: "I flatter myself that by treating these Indians as people should be treated and not as though they are individuals of an inferior nature, I have lived in complete tranquility."   

July:  The ship Resolution was in flames and sank into the ocean off the Queen Charlotte Islands have been destroyed by the Haida.  The British ship Phoenix, out of Bengal, captained by John Moore, appeared.  He repelled the Haida attack with the loss of only one man.  He decided to manoeuver the Phoenix closer to shore to began to shell the Haida village and teach them a lesson.  To his utter surprise and dismay his cannon fire was answered by canon fire from the village, the Haidas having learned to man the guns taken from the Resolution.  Captain John Moore hastily retreated.  It is not sure how many ships were captured and destroyed by the Haida but estimates run from 8 to 12. 

September 24:  The first formal Orthodox Christian Mission to America arrived on September 24,1794, in Kodiak. This Mission consisted of eight Monks and two Novices, together with ten Alaskan natives who had been taken to Russia by Gregory Shelikov in 1786.

 

1795

A common practice by a captain was to turn his cannon on an Indian village to demonstrate their superiority. The British ship Phoenix had a brush with the Indians on the Queen Charlotte Islands, fired its big guns at a village and had the Indians reply with cannon taken from a captured Boston schooner. The master of the Pheonix took his vessel away in haste. The Indians soon become bored with the cannon and left it to rust in the mud.

Captain Bishop of the Ruby planted an experimental garden on a island at the mouth of the Columbia River.

Tomas de Suria wrote that at Nootka Sound, Island of Quadra and Vancouver Island, the Spanish traded guns for children who were slaves, ostensibly to baptize them and save them from 'alleged' cannibalism.  This is likely to justify making slaves of the children.

Hieromonk Juvenaly left Kodiak for Nuchek, where he baptized more than seven hundred Chugach, and then crossed to Kenai Bay and baptized there all the local inhabitants. 

The Spanish are forced to give up claims to Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) under threat of war.

1796

(II)-Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) son of (I)-James Finlay d-1797 was chief factor Fort des Prairies at Edmonton, (Alberta).  He was the highest paid man of the Northwest Company.  Some suggest this was the reason that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) took a dislike towards him.  At this time Finlay built a number of trading posts east of the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  It is believed he discovered Finley Pass a.k.a. Howse Pass and the headwaters of the Columbia River and maybe even the Pacific Ocean over the next 4 years.  He was also in Montana where there is a Jocko River, Jocko Valley and Jacko Mountain Range named after him.  He was possibly the founder of Spokane House, Columbia built in 1810 for free traders and he died there May 20, 1828.  Most of his children were born in the area of Fort Edmonton (Alberta). 

March:  William Robert Broughton (1763-1821) arrived Nootka Sound for the second time, he was previously Captain Vancouver's second in command and he explored the Columbia watershed and described Mt Hood in Oregon.

Hieromonk Juvenaly crossed to Alaska in the direction of Lake Iliamna, where his apostolic duties came to an end, together with his life. He was killed by the natives, and the reason for his death, was partly because the first thing he did after baptizing the natives was to order them to give up polygamy. He had also persuaded the chiefs and other leading men in the tribes there to give him their children so that the latter might be educated on Kodiak. When he set out with the children, the men regretted what they had done, gave chase, caught up with him, and fell upon him.

June:  Francois Peron d-1810 a zoologist visited Nootka Sound, Island of Quadra and Vancouver Island.  Both names were in use at this time.

July 23:  The Arthur captained by Henry Barber is at Cross Sound.

1797

Samuel Hill reported nine ships are on the Oregon Coast including Captain Dodge and Captain Rowan.

John Finlay of the N.W.C. built Rocky Mountain Fort, later called Hudson Hope Post at Tea Creek where it enters the Peace River 4 miles west of Fort St. John.

February:  Ebenezer Johnson a common citizen of the United States and sailor wrote at Queen Charlotte Islands "Distressing is our situation on account of bad provisions by the neglect of the owners of the ship, confined to three small biscuits per day, and three pints of water .  In this situation for three months, with a small allowance of beef."  He sailed the India Packet commanded by William Rogers and owned by Dorr and Sons of Boston.  They then sailed south about 45 miles to Skiticus (Skidegate) and in a very large village purchased 300 skins.

1798

Jean Baptiste Leolo Metis aka Mr. St. Paul and Captain St. Paul (1798-1868) born Thompson River (B.C.) joined HBC (1822-1845) working New Caldoina and Columbia District, settling Thompson River (B.C.) and Kamloops in 1843.  The following locations were named after this famous man;  Mt. Paul near Kamloops, Mt Lolo, Paul Lake, Paul Creek and St. Paul street in Kamloops. 
By 1827 he had a wife and two children.  Recorded children are:
    Edouard Leolo Metis of HBC (1835-1837)
    Daughter Leolo Metis d-1846 who married 1845 Jean Baptiste Vautrin Metis (1813-1893)
    Sophie (Martha) Lolo Metis who married 1863 (I)-John Tod (1794-1882)   

Birth Etienne Pepin, Metis (1798-1874) son Michel May married 1803 Marquerite Indian (1784-1818); Etienne married 1st 1830 Mascoyennes Indian girl, married 2nd 1856 Isabelle Kwantlen

Mascoyennes children

Marie Pepin Metis, b-1835 married 1849 Simon Gill

Francois Pepin Metis, b-1838

Isabelle Kwantlen's children

Simon Pepin, Metis (1855-1906) married 1878 Emma Sarah Houston (1864-1930)

 

  

1799

Aleksandr Baranov (1747-1819) founds New Archangel (Sitka) as the capital of Russian America.

Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814), in his expeditions of (1799 to1814), noted that the natives on the interior of British Columbia had European trade goods and Russian coins.  

A major settlement was established at Sitka, Alaska  but the Tlingit burned it and killed all but two Russians in 1802.  The Russians took their revenge in 1805.

The Russian Czar I granted to the Russian American Company exclusive monopoly to the Pacific Northwest.  It was modeled after the East India Company and the Hudson Bay Company.  The Aleuts in their skin baidarkas did most of the sea otter hunting.

Alexander Andreievich Baranov, (1747-1819), a Russian Trader became the first Governor of Russian America and Chief Manager of the Russian American Company with a monopoly on fur trade in America.  They employed natives instead of Russians to avoid conflict with other nations trading in America.  He governed as far south as Fort Ross just north of San Francisco, Spanish California to Hawaii. 

The Tlingit People resisted the Russian from the 1790's to 1867 and were never conquered.

March 20: Island of Quadra and Vancouver Island, William Sturges, a British trader, captured a Haida hostage so that he could spend the night in a Haida village.  The Haida said that others had lived among them before, for a long time.  They said we always treated all white people as brothers, who treat them well.  The People showed Sturges a man with venereal disease which was unknown to them.  Sturges promised them medicine to deal with this disease.

 

 

 

 

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