The voyagers from the Old Northwest are trading into B.C.
It should be noted the the Iroquois are likely Mohawk/Iroquois of the Iroquois confederation.
They love freedom and are often classed as freemen or spotty records 
and those classified as Indian or Native could be actually Metis
who are also noted for their independence nature.
Indian and Metis usually settle and marry among each other.
Willamette Oregon is a prime example


  B.C. HISTORY 1830 - 1849

B.C. HISTORY Return to MAIN B.C. index


The fur trade basically is conducted from ships to the near extinction of the otter.

The Pacific Northwest (Oregon Territory) began by development 
in Oregon, Washington, Columbia, Fraser and Peace Rivers.

I have not tracked the Hawaiian mixed blood settlers in the Columbia District
 as it is not in my area of interest and research.
There is little doubt that the Hawaiians made a significant contribution 
to the settlement of the Columbia District.
I leave it to others to record this much neglected history of N.W. America.


(I)-Duncan McGillivray (1770-1808), (II)- Jaco Finlay Metis (1768-1828)  and half brother (II)- James Finlay Metis (1766-1830), who kept an outpost of the Rocky Mountain House at Kootenay Plain crossed the Howse Pass.  Joseph Howse crossed the well traveled pass in 1809 and called it the Howes Pass.  Some suggest (II)-Jaco Finlay Metis (1768-1822) was in Kootenai and Columbia District (1800-1828) working between Fort Edmonton, Kootenai, Flathead country and Spokane areas.  Jaco died at Spokane House in 1828.

Pierre Leblanc Metis is in the Kutenai Country (Oregon Territory) as a free trader (1800-1804) some believe he is the first trader into the Columbia District.  He was again recorded having returned from the Columbia District in 1807 to  Rocky Mountain House.  He is the father of Louis Leblanc Metis who was in the Columbia District with HBC (1827-1830).

Charles La Gasse (Gace) joined NWC (1792-1821) he was in Columbia District (1800-1821) & HBC (1821-1822) then a freeman.   Charles La Gasse appears to have taken as a wife, Emme, Flathead (1795-1855). Two of their children may have been: 
    Pierre La Gasse Metis (.1815-1882) 
    Josette/Suzette La Gasse Metis (1812-1896) 
although oral tradition indicates that “Pierre”, a brother of Charles, was the father of the two children but no such “Pierre” appears in any extant records.

Marguerite Kil-a-ko-tah (little song bird) Clatsop (1800-1873) daughter chief Coboway Clatsop Columbia District.
1st married William Matthews of Pacific Fur Trade, one daughter is recorded:
    Ellen Mathews Metis b-1815 and raised in Montreal married (I)-George Barnston (1800-1882) .
2nd marriage (I)- James McMillan (1783-1858) a bigamist NWC (1804-1821) HBC (1821-1930) one daughter is recorded:
    (II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821
3rd marriage Louis Labonte, a Astorian who retired with her to French Prairie, aka Walama, or Willamette and Wallamette, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1830.  Three children are recorded:
    Louise Labonte Metis
    Julienne Labonte Metis b-1818
    Caloine Labonte Metis b-1840
They also raised  (II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821

The Haida population on Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) is 8,000 and in Prince of Wales Island, Southern Alaska they number 1,800.  By 1890 the 8,000 was reduced to 1,500 for Haida Gwaii..

Some suggest the first fur traders into the Columbia District (Oregon Territory,) (B.C., Washington and Oregon) were mostly welcomed by the natives in trade.  They only became aggressive when United States traders  began to move in.  O suspect this is a bias report.

Nancy Twinishe (Winaskshaw) a native of the Dalles, Columbia District ( Oregon Territory,) (1800-1850); 
1st married a Frenchman who was killed by the Blackfoot; Goodrich rescued Nancy, her wounded husband and a small child all near starvation.  The husband died and he married the widow 
2nd married Nache (John, Silas, Bache) Goodrich d-1830 of the United States, of the Ogden's brigade (1824-1827) to the Great Salt Lake; The Smith, Jackson and Sublette brigade.  HBC (1828-1829) Snake Party.  He offered to take the place of HBC Alexander Carson on the rapids of the Dalles he and eleven others drowned.
They had one recorded daughter:
    Susanne Goodriche Metis (1830-1912) baptised July 15, 1838 Fort Vancouver married Poerre Pepin dot Lachance.
3rd married 1839 Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) Jean Baptiste Dobin marriage was formalized January 7, 1839 and they went to Spanish California for the gold rush where he died.

(II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, (Finley) Metis (1768-1828) and Charles Lagasse (La Gasse) NWC (1792-1821) and Lablanc are believed by some to have reached the Columbia River and possibly the Pacific Ocean by this time or earlier.  Others suggest he was in western, Montana.  Jacko is also recorded as Jacco, Jaccot, Jacko, Jocko, Jacquot.  (II)-Jacques Raphael Finlay Metis was born in 1768 in Finlay Fort, on the south bank of the Saskatchewan River son James Finlay and his 2nd wife a Chippewa girl.    Finlay Fort was located at or near Nipawin Rapids, about fifty miles below the forks of the North branch and the South branch of the Saskatchewan River. (I)-James Finlay, d-1797 a free trader and later Nor'wester, was his father, and a Chippewa Indian woman his mother. Some suggest her name was Christiana Youal but this was his first wife in Montreal.  The elder Finlay was in charge of Finlay Fort at the time of his sons birth.  Some suggest he was also born Montreal making his son a third generation Canadian?   Jacko is believed to have had a number of wives and sired about 19 children.

In the fall of this year, 1800, a party of Kutenai (Canadian Indians from west of the Rockies) visited traders of the Canadian Northwest Company at Rocky Mountain House (on the upper Saskatchewan River).  These French Canadians, one with his Indian wife, returned to the Pacific Northwest with the Kutenais.

THE LEATHER PASS Yellowhead pass
The Leather Pass through the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) was first used last century by the Iroquois (Mohawks) and Metis traders of the North West Company.  It was later named Tete Jaune (Yellowhead) Cache Pass after Pierre Hatsinaton, a Metis because he built a Cashe House in the pass.  We now know it as the Yellowhead Pass, Alberta.


The Iroquois (Mohawks) traders are using the Leather Pass (Yellowhead Pass) to harvest furs on the Pacific Slope.  The H.B.C. later called the pass the Tete Jaune Cache after Piere Hatsinaton, a Metis, with yellow hair and because he built a storage shelter.  They also used the Athabasca Pass to the Columbia River Area.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857)  wintered Fort Terra Blanche in Edmonton in 1800, 1802, 1806 and 1807, then set out from here for the Columbia River.  The Piegan People would not allow the North West Company use of the pass to the Columbia.  They expressed concern that the French Metis would arms trade with their enemy, the Kootenay (Water People).  The murder of two Piegan, by Lewis of the United States, drew the Piegan to the Missouri to revenge their death and thus cleared the way for (I)-David Thompson, (1770-1857),  (II)-Fenian (Finan or Finnan?) McDonald (1782-1851) and the group of Metis to make the dash for the Columbia River.  Thompson's wife, (II)-Charlotte Small, (1784-1857) had a Metis baby strapped to her back.  Others suggest (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857)  wintered on the Kutenai (Kootenay) Plains in 1806.  They killed and ate wild horses.  The Stony People taught Thompson how to make moss bread.

The Blackfoot Confederacy (Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan) conducted raiding parties beyond Yellowstone River, Standpoint, Idaho and Tobacco plains, west of the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  The chiefs had limited power beyond influence and are careful not to arrogate or show superiority over others.  Shooting a man from ambush brought little glory, however, touching an enemy with hand or stick, or subduing him in personal encounter, snatching a gun, bow or horse was a high achievement.  Scalp taking, a European introduced custom, is some times practiced, but ranked very low in honors.  Both companies built forts at Chesterfield house near Empress on the Red River.

The Kutenai who live west of the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) came to trade at Rocky Mountain House, aka Poste de la Montagne de Roches, (Alberta).  Charles Lagrasse,  Pierre Leblanc and his wife went to the Kutenai Country, Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).

The Kanakas of Owhyhe aka Hawaiian Islands are scattered from Oregon to Alaska.  Most worked for the H.B.C. who called them 'soldiers of fortune'. 

Fan Tan Alley in Victoria, B.C. named after a popular Chinese game of chance is the narrowest street in the world at 5 feet in places.  The street is in the oldest Chinatown in Canada and was the site of numerous opium dens and gambling houses.

The Willamette Valley (Oregon) was occupied by the Kalapuya people with a population of 4,000 to 20,000 people.  During the period of (1830-1833) disease killed about 90% of the people.  The Metis would gravitate to this fertile valley,. 



By this time many of the Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) Coast People had acquired venereal disease from the sailors of the fur trade.  Some believe it was from Captain Robert Gray (1775-1806) voyage in 1788.  Instead of wearing fine furs, some now wore tattered castoffs of foreign sailors.  One Indian woman wore a permanent tattoo on her arm reading J. Bowman.  The incidence of venereal disease among the Pacific Fur Company and HBC employees would become endemic.  There was less incidents among the NWC because they usually settled for one monogamist mate.   The real distinction was between British vs, Frence fur traders.  



The Kiksadi clan of the Tlingit People capture the Russian stronghold at New Archangel (Sitka, Alaska). They killed 20 Russians and 130 Aleut slaves, and confiscated thousands of pelts.   The Tlingit hold the settlement for two years against the Russian forces under Aleksandr Andreyevich Baranov (1747-1819).


John R Jewitt, (1783-1821) a captive (1803-1805) of the Mowachaht (Nuu-chah-nulth/Nootka) people of the West Coast of Columbia noted that whaling was an important industry.  John Thompson was also captured March 22, 1803 and the rest of the crew of the Boston were killed.  Jewitt and Thompson were allowed to marry.  Jewitt married the 17yr old daughter of a chief of a Nootka tribe.  Maquinna paid the4 bridal dowry for Jewitt.  No mention of Metis children are recorded..

Michel Kinville aka Qurnneville Metis d-1812, in 1802 he left the Great Lakes Region on the Illinois River to St. Charles with wife and child, likely Francois Michel Kinville Metis b-1790 and baptized this year.   In 1803-1811 he went up the Missouri River as a free trader to settle among the Flatheads.  In 1811, September 24 he was in charge of a wooden canoe with 9 men to meet up with (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851).  In 1812 Kinville and Michel Bourdeaux on the plains were killed by the Peigan (Blackfoot).  Michel Kinville appears to have had one wife, “an Indian woman of the Cau Nation,” and two children,
     François Michel Quenneville aka Kinville Metis b-1790 Great Lakes Region
     Marie Kinville Metis

Jean Baptiste "Waccan" Boucher Metis is born 1789 likely Red River or further northwest? died 1850 son of an unknown French Canadian and a Cree woman.  He joined the NWC in 1803 and was posted to New Caledonia by NWC as Interpreter,  (1806 - 1808); Interpreter, Simon Fraser (1808 - 1824); Interpreter, Fort St. James (1824 - 1825); Interpreter, New Caledonia (1825 - 1849).  He was Waccan to be feared, as he was the enforcer of discipline and justice for the HBC.  Although mainly an interpreter, he was a man of all trades; whatever he did, he excelled at, whether he was acting as an interpreter, guiding a canoe, running a dog train or making snow shoes.  Although his status was neither that of a servant nor an officer, he had a house of his own, a most unusual arrangement at that time in New Caledonia.  He was put in positions of trust, exacted punitive measures on those who murdered HBC employees, and roused the natives to exert themselves on behalf of the NWC and HBC, respectively. For example, in 1828 he avenged the murder of his half-brother David Livingston; in 1843 he was a member of the party that avenged the death of William Morwick, the postmaster of Fort Kilmaurs; and, in 1847, arrested deserter Joseph Jacques, who had hidden himself with the natives of Fraser Lake. If trouble arose at a particular post, he was sent off to create an air of stability and occasionally took charge of a post in the absence of an officer. Boucher could always be relied upon to obtain food for the Company and its employees even when food was scarce. Waccan, the enforcer, died on August 26, 1849 at Fort St. James.  Jean Baptiste Boucher had two successive wives and apparently had seventeen children. He first married an unnamed Carrier woman in 1811 but the relationship was short-lived. If they had children, their names have not been traced. He next married (II)-Nancy McDougal Metis, the mixed descent daughter of clerk (I)-James McDougal (1783-1851). Thirteen of their seventeen children were 
    François Boucher (Bouche) Metis (1817-1852) HBC (1834-1852) married Therese Porteuse Costana (Coontantina) d-1851
        Joseph Bouche Metis (1843-1843) married 1851 Heneriette Calpooya d-1852, married 1852 Marianne of Fort Vancouver
    James Baptiste Boucher Metis (1820-1910) HBC (1841-1878) New Caledonia but in Willamette (1844-1850) 
    Jane Boucher Metis b-1821
    Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis Jr. (1822-1852) HBC (1841-1844) Fort Covile 
    George Waccan Bouche (Boucher) Metis (1823-1864) HBC (1850-1864) Columbia married 1855 Cecile Aronhiowan daughter Ignace Aroniowan and Nass woman
        William Bouche Metis (1857-1858)
        William Bouche Metis b-1859
        Elizabeth Bouche Metis b-1861
        Mary Bouche Metis b-1864
    Felix Boucher Metis, 
    Sophie Boucher Metis b-1825, married Edouard Crete aka Crate (1821-1894)
    William Boucher Metis (1828-1924), others say (1842/45-1824) he married Lizette Allard (1842-1938),
    Ellen Boucher Metis b-1831
    Jean Marie Boucher Metis b-1830 or 1826 St. James
    Joseph Boucher (Bouche) Metis b-1833 HBC (1857-1865) 1st married Mary a French woman b-1849
        William Bouche Metis b-1872, 2nd married 1879 Joyal LaPratte b-1839
    Charles Boucher Metis b-1844
    Emilia Boucher Metis b-1853.

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille (1791-1849) from St. Denis, Quebec Joined the Pacific fur Company (1806-1813).  After crossing the Great Divide in late summer 1811, and unsuccessfully attempting to canoe down the Snake River, Dubreuille joined the separated Ramsay Crooks group. However, in March, 1812 he left the group, being too exhausted to keep up with it. He and six others (Alexander Carson, Pierre Delaunay, Louis St. Michel, Jean Baptiste Turcotte, Joseph Landrie and André LaChapelle (1781-1881)) were picked up by John Reed, who discovered that the small group, despairing that they would ever reach the Columbia, had raided the caches left on the way by Hunt. Dubreuille and others were taken by (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) to Astoria where they arrived January 16, 1813.  NWC (1813-1821) assigned Fort George, Columbia District (1813-1814)  HBC (1821-1841) settled Willamette 1841.  Jean Baptiste Dubreuille had one wife and six recorded children. On July 9, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Yougoulhta (Yukleta), Chinook b-1810. The Dubreuille children were 
    Michel Dubreuille Metis b-1835
    Jean Baptiste Dubreuille Metis b-1838 
    Sophie Dubreuille Metis b-1839 
    Isaac Dubreuille Metis b-1842
    François(Dubreuille Metis b-1844
    Thérèse Dubreuille Metis b-1846 
After his death, his widow married Charles Plante at St. Paul in 1851.

Since 1803, over 240 ships have foundered along the Vancouver Island coast, gaining it the reputation as the "Graveyard of the Pacific".

The trading ship Boston sailed into Nootks Sound.  Spokesperson Mcquinna of Nootka Sound entered into trade with the ritual exchange of gifts.  Mcquinna was given a gun which he immediately broke as a sign of protest.  The Captain of the Boston scolded the spokesman like a small child in front of his warriors.  Spokesperson Mcquinna could hardly hold his festering temper and contempt of these uncivilized people.  It is noteworthy that the atrocities of the past twenty five years of the Europeans against his people was near a boiling point.   The Boston was in the wrong place at the wrong time.  The next day spokesperson Mcquinna and his warriors entertained the crew of the Boston then proceeded to kill the entire crew except John R. Jewith (1784-1821).   John was spared because of his trade of being a blacksmith.  The People needed him to repair their guns and iron works that they received in trade.  Mcquinna stripped the ship of all items and scuttled the ship.  Leader Mcquinna gave John R. Jewith the option of becoming his slave or death.  John immediately accepted being a slave.  He visited all the surrounding Nations and is forced to take a native wife, or so he says.  He eventually rose in stature to become leader Mcquinna's adopted son and was treated as such.  When he finally gained his freedom he wrote extensively about his encounter and also lectured.

The Nootka attacked the Boston ship of the United States, killing all but 2 of the crew.  John Jewett, one of the captured men, is rescued in 1805.

March 22:  A three masted barque named Boston is attacked, beached and burned in the Friendly Cove area, fatalities are 25 of 27.  An iron worker and sail maker are spared. 


Aleksandr Baranov (1747-1819) re-founds Sitka after being deserted after Indian attacks.  He waged war for 6 days against the Kiksadi clan when the Tlingt people finally gave up Sitka and fled into the night.

Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1804-1844) born New Caledonia son Jean Baptiste Bouche, joined HBC (1822-1843) New Caledonia, settled Willamette 1843.

The Nez Perce People were named by an earlier French-Canadian, likely a Metis, who thought some were wearing ornamental shells pierced through their noses.  The Nez Perce People called themselves Nee-Me-Poo meaning the Real People.  The Nez Perce must have told the French-Canadian about the trail to the Pacific Ocean.  It is highly unlikely these Voyagers wouldn't have traveled to the Pacific Ocean.  To them it would be no big deal.

One unnamed voyager long past age 75 wrote: I have been 42 years in this country. For 24 I was light canoe-man; I required but little sleep, but some times got less than I required. No portage was too long for me... Fifty songs a day were nothing to me. I could carry, paddle, walk, and sing with any man I ever saw... No water, no weather, ever stopped the paddle or the song. I had 12 wives in the country; and was once possessed of 50 horses, and six running dogs... I want for nothing; and I spent all my earnings in the enjoyment of pleasure... Yet, were I young again, I should glory in commencing the same career again...  I think this is from a Metis out of Red River?

Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838) better known as the Lewis and Clark expedition spent two weeks with the Nez Perce in Idaho.  The Nez Perce allowed the expedition to take a Country Woman during their stay. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition had four objectives from President Thomas Jefferson:

1: To be first to cross the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains), so as to establish a bases, to make claim to the Oregon Territory from California to Alaska with little regard to the Russian, Spanish, Canadian and English claims.

2: To determine the best water route from the Missouri to the Columbia River for future Fur trading and immigration.

3: To report on the flora and geography of the territory for agriculture and minerals.

4: To establish friendly relations with the aboriginal Peoples.

President Thomas Jefferson considered the expedition a failure because:

1.  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) of the Canadian NWC in 1793 or 12 years before the Louis and Clark expedition had crossed the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) to what was to become the Columbia Territory (Oregon Territory) and made Canada's claim to the territory.  Lewis & Clark failed to establish a base.

2. They failed to discover a effective water route and the Canadians developed their routes and developed the fur trade of Columbia Territory (Oregon Territory) long before the Americans did..

3. They failed to establish diplomatic relations with the Indians and in fact soured relations, resulting in loss of trade to the Columbia Territory (Oregon Territory) and wars.

Lewis wrote: We were now about to penetrate a country at least 2,000 miles wide, on which the foot of civilized man has never trodden, the good or evil it had in store for us was for experiment yet to be determined.  Lewis was aware that the territory in question had been explored via the sea by many nations and likely by free traders before him.  Many of his expedition came down with venereal diseases from the natives, to prove this point, having been acquired from previous expeditions of Chinese, Russian, Canadian and British visitors.

Some have said that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) made the Lewis and Clark expedition look like tourists.  It's note worthy that his wife (II)-Charlotte Small, Metis (1784-1857) and some of their children accompanied him on much of his 80,000 mile, geography, biology, and ethnography expeditions, including his first crossing of the divide.  He produced a map in 1812 covering from the Eastern end of Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean between latitudes 40° and 60° North.  The accuracy was within one mile of today's maps.  These maps covered 1.5 million acres and included Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.  Did you know that Lewis and Clark expedition used one of his maps made in 1798 showing the Mandan Village at the Great Bend of the Missouri River.

La Gasse and LeBlanc return with the Kutenai to trade at Rocky Mountain House and are believed to be the first known to cross the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).

(I)-George Henderson b-1799 employed HBC (1798-1811) was with the Mandans expedition out of Albany with (I)-George Budge aka Burgess & Burges (1779-1847),  and (I)-Tom (James?) Anderson, (1775-1856)?, when they came across the Lewis and Clark expedition who were wintering with the Mandans.  In 1811 (I)-George Henderson b-1799 participated in a mutiny, was found guilty at his trial in Albany and returned to Great Britain

Francois Rivet (1759-1852) Quebec a free trader working the North West for years, an interpreter of the flatheads, some claim he was on the Louis and Clark expedition of 1804 but he is not on the list, NWC 1810 & (1813-1814) & HBC (1821-1837) Columbia District.  François Rivet had one wife and two recorded children. On January 21, 1839 at Fort Vancouver, he formalized his marriage to Thérèse Flathead (1755-1852), whose daughter by an earlier union was Julia, later wife of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854). (Thérèse’s family and relatives lived near the site of Thompson’s Saleesh House built in 1809.) Their recorded children were 
    Antoine Rivet Metis b-1814
    Joseph Francois Rivet Metis (1816-1830)

William Sturgis a merchant from Boston arrived west coast of Vancouver Island with 5,000 ermine skins from Leipzip.  He sold these to the Kimgarnee Indians who prized them for ceremonial purposes.  He valued his ermine at 30¢ and traded them at 5 for one sea-otter skin.  These he sold at Canton, China for $50.00 each skin.  

The Nez Perce People were named by an earlier French-Canadian, likely a Metis, who thought some were wearing ornamental shells pierced through their noses.  The Nez Perce People called themselves Nee-Me-Poo meaning the Real People.  The Nez Perce must have told the French-Canadian about the trail to the Pacific Ocean.  It is highly unlikely these Voyagers wouldn't have traveled to the Pacific Ocean.  To them it would be no big deal.

Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838) better known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent two weeks with the Nez Perce in Idaho.  The Nez Perce allowed the expedition to take a Country Woman during their stay. 

Ivan a Russian employee of Baronov Slavonian at Sitka, Alaska reported the discovery of gold but is ordered to not speak of it as the Americans will descend on the area in their thousands and force the Russians out.

Members of the Louis & Clark expedition to the Pacific Ocean included:

John Boley
William Bratton (1778-1841) or (1784-1841) 
Toussant Charbonneau, (1767-1843)
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Metis b-1805
William Clark, expedition head
John Colter (1773-1812) went on to discover Yellowstone Park
John Collins d-1823, received 100 lashes
Peter Cruzatte, a Metis
John Dame b-1784
Joseph Fields (1772-1807)
Reuben Fields (1771-1823)
Charles Floyd
Robert Frazier d-1837
Parrick Gass, he was still in the Oregon Territory in 1807
George Gibson d-1809
Silas Goodrich
Hugh Hall b-1772, received 25 lashes
Thomas Howard b-1779
Francis Labiche
Baptiste Lapage
Meriwether Lewis, expedition head
Hugh McNeal
John Newman (1785-1838) received 75 lashes and expelled from party
John Ordway
John Potts (1776-1808)
Nathaniel Pryor
Moses Reed, expelled from party
John Robertson b-1780 of Fort Kaskaskia, demoted and expelled from party
Sacagawea, (1789-1812) guide, translator and wife Tousant Charbonneau (1767-1843)
George Shannon (1785-1836)
John Shields (1769-1809)
John Thompson
Ebenezer Tuttle b-1773
Peter Weiser b-1781
William Werner received 25 lashes
Isaac White b-1774
Joseph Whitehouse b-1775
Alexander Hamilton Willard (1778-1865) received 100 lashes
Richard Windsor from Fort Kaskaskia, retired to Sangamon River, Illinois
York, a Negro slave of William Clark 

June 12:  John Robertson b-1780 of Fort Kaskaskia, demoted and expelled from Lewis & Clark expedition.  He was sent back to St. Louis with a trading party encountered coming down river.  It doesn't say if the party was from the Pacific coastal region?



Paul Bouche aka La Malice Metis joined NWC (1805-1806) Trout Lake Post, troublemaker and wife beater.  He appears to have had sex with Blais’ woman. The men left him and made their way to Stony Mountain (Rocky Mountain) Portage.  He returned to Red River. 

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) joined NWC 1792 Montreal and became a partner in 1801.  He was asked to open up the region west of the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) that he named New Caledonia.  He built the following forts;
1805 Fort McLeod
1806 Fort St. James
1806 Fort Fraser
1807 Fort George 
1807 He descended the Fraser River thinking he was on the Columbia River.
He had 5 sons and 3 daughters

George Keith of the NWC established Fort Nelson in the northwest corner of B.C. 387 km north of Fort St. John New Caledonia built 1806

The NWC built McLeod Lake post, New Caledonia  this year.

(II)-Jack Ramsey Metis b-1780 Columbia District (Oregon) son shipwrecked (I)-Old Ramsey (1760-1790) and Tillamook woman.  He was reported at Fort Catsup with red hair.

(I)-John Stuart (1780-1847) joined NWC (1796-1821) HBC (1821-1834) assigned 1796 Fort Chipewyn 1805; with Simon Fraser River over the Rockies; 1805 in the fall, established Rocky Mountain House and Fort St. James; (1806-07) wintered Fort McLeod; (1808) down the Fraser River with Simon Fraser; (1809-1824) New Caledonia; (1824-1826 Carleton House; (1826-1827) Lesser Slave Lake; (1827-1832 Fort Alexander Red River;(1832-1834) Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River, it's hard to determine how many wives he actually had as some were castoffs and he was responsible to find suitable husbands but he was also known to sample the fruits if his charges,
1st marriage  (II)-Margaret Tayor daughter (I)-George Taylor b-1860 and cast off family of (I)-George Simpson
    (II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis b-1827
    (II)-John Mckenzie Stewart Metis b-1829
2nd marriage mid 1820's (II)-Mary Tayor b-before 1800 daughter (I)-George Taylor b-1860, this marriage was short lived as he took on a mistress. Francoise Noel Laurain the wife of Joshua Halcro
3rd  marriage 1830 Catherine La Valle 
    (II)-Donald Stuart Metis mother Catherine La Valle
    (II)-John Stuart Metis mother Catherine La Valle
4th marriage cast off wife of McTavish which caused him to run afoul of Simpson and the posting to New Caledonia.
     (II)-Isabel Stuart Metis mother unknown

Fraser, (I)-John Stuart (1780-1847) and (I)-James McDougal (1783-1851) of the N.W.C. wintered at Carrier's Lake aka Stuart Lake, B.C.  They built a trading post in 1805 called Fort St. James (1805-1968) aka Trout Lake, LaMalice's Fort, Fort Simpson and Fort Macleod

The Russian Count Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov (1764-1807) lays down plans to take possession of the west coast to the port of San Francesco which is the northern boundary of Spanish California.  To first establish New Archangelisk at the mouth of the Columbia River (Columbia District).  Once established the sea otter trade is ours.  Take possession of Kaigany (Prince of Wales) Island.  The Charlott Islands will be the new shipyards.  The Charlotte Islands contain forts and artillery but the United States do not venture there as the natives are not friendly towards them.  Ships will be sent to the Strait of Juan De Fuca.  Within 10 years the west coast to Spanish California would be ours.

Lewis and Clark noted the Kalispel People (ear drop People) in northern Idaho.  They also visited the Kamiah People whom they called the Chopunnish People that numbered 800.  They are in fact a group of Nez Perce People.  The Klikitat a Shahaptian tribe who originally lived in Washington along the Lewis and White Rivers were noted by Lewis and Clark as living on the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers.  Lewis and Clark met the Klumaitumsh People who originally lived in Grays Harbor, Washington.  The town of Lahanna is located on both sides of the Columbia River as reported by Lewis and Clark.  They also visited the Paloos People a Shahaptian tribe in Idaho.  They also encountered the Nez Perces People.

Baranov with an armada , long shelled the New Archangel fort on Sitka and recovered possession.  The Tlingit warriors retaliated a short time later by attacking a Russian post at Yakutat killing many Russians.

November 15:  The Lewis & Clark Expedition reached the Pacific ocean in Oregon Territory and their party included:  

William Bratton, 
Toussaint Charbonneau, (1767-1843) husband of Sacatawea (1789-1812), interpreter & guide
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau born February 11, 1804, Oregon Territory, died 1866 aka Pompey, Metis (1804-1866) son of Toussaint (1767-1843) & Sacagawea a Shoshone, 
William Clark, 
John Colter, 
John Collins, 
Peter Cruzatte, a French-Canadian boatman was the Louis and Clark expedition fiddler.
George Drouillard aka Drewyer Metis, was the parties best hunter
Joseph Fields, made salt at Seaside, Oregon
Reuben Fields, 
Charles Floyd, 
Robert Frazier, 
Patrick Gass, 
George Gibson, made salt at Seaside, Oregon
Hugh Hall, 
Thomas Howard, 
Francis Labiche, 
Jean Baptiste Lapage of Fort Mandan, 
Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809), 
Hugh McNeal, 
John Ordway, 
John Potts, 
Nathaniel Pryor, 
Sacagawea Indian (1789-1812) wife Toussaint Charbonneau, (1767-1843) interpreter & guide
George Simpson, (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) the illegitimate Scot? 
John Thompson, 
William Werner, 
Joseph Whitehouse, 
Alexander Willard, made salt at Seaside, Oregon
Richard Windsor, 
Peter Wiser, made salt at Seaside, Oregon 
York Negro, slave of William Clark.  

Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Metis, born February 11, 1804, Oregon Territory, died 1866/1885 son Toussaint Charbonneau, (1767-1843) and Sacagawea Indian (1789-1812)

December 7:  The Lewis & Clark Expedition built Fort Clatsop on what became the Oregon side of the Columbia River.

Dec. 26: The 300-foot British sailing ship Pass of Melfort washed up on these rocks between the towns of Tofino and Ucluelet with the loss of all aboard. The four-masted barque, sailing from Peru, lost her way at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca and was buffeted north to Barkley Sound. Anchors were dropped but failed to hold, and the ship and crew were lost in the night on these very rocks.



Waccan was Jean Baptiste Boucher (1789-1850), interpreter at Fort St. James. Father Morice tells us that he was a French-Cree half-breed who came to Stuart Lake aka NWC Fort St. James (1806-1952) with Simon Fraser in 1806.  Aka Nakasley, Naukazeleh, Fort Nakasleh, Nakraztl, Stuart's Lake, Stewart's Lake and Fort Caledonia.

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791 St. Denis, Lower Canada, employed Pacific Fur Company (1806-1813) Columbia District.

Pierre Bercier (1778-1833) and (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851) were in the Stony Mountains (Rocky mountains) this year and may be in Columbia District out of Rocky Mountain House.  Pierre Bercier was a guide to the NWC (1807-1813) Columbia District, at Spokane house 1813, HBC 1823-1833) Columbia Department.  He was a guide and independent between assignments.
Jacco Findlay with wife, children and some Kutenai Indians blazed a trail over Howse Pass.

Lewis and Clark visited Kauhuk a village of Alsea People on the coast of Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).  The Alsea People also had a village on the Alsea River (Oregon).

An establishment is at the east end of Frazer's Lake [Fraser Lake], New Caledonia, which received its name from that of the gentleman, who first built here, in 1806.  (II)-Samon Frazer born Mapletown, New York, (1776-1862) of N.W.C.  This is the source of the Nechako River.

Lt. Jebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) explored the Great Plains and into the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  He referred to the plains as the great American Desert.  With orders to find the source of the Mississippi, purchase sites from American Indians for future military posts, and to bring a few important chiefs back to St. Louis for talks. He took a force of 20 men on a 70-foot keelboat up the Mississippi.  Pike's expedition returned to St. Louis on April 30, 1806, having traveled nearly 5,000 miles. 

Fort St. James (Stewart Lake) (1806-1952) New Caledonia built this year by Simon Fraser of the North West Company is 60 km north of Vanderhoof, B.C. and 600 miles north Fort Vancouver (Oregon).  A stone near Stuart Lake (B.C.) contains an etched message "Simon E. 1806".

Lisette Suswap (Souchewabe) (1807-1841) married Joseph Delard (1792-1869).  The couple retired to French Prairie, aka Walama, or Wallamette, Willamette Valley, Columbia (Oregon) Territory in 1832.  

Henry Marie Brackenride ascended the Missouri River with the Missouri Fur Company under the leadership of Manuel Lisa.  Wilson Price Hunt led the Pacific Fur Company bound for Astoria, (Oregon) was on the river at the same time and they traveled together for a while.  The Lisa group consisted of 25 men including 20 oars men who were mostly Canadians and Creoles.  They were of the opinion that citizens of the United States s were not considered up to the task.  They claimed that Touissant Charbonneau (1767-1843) and Sacajawea (1789-1812) of the Louis and Clark expedition were their guides.  Each village we visited the People would present the Metis offspring of the Louis and Clarke expedition.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and company are in the Columbia ( Oregon) Territory and he built Kootanae House (1807-1814) below Lake Windermere. 

Simon Fraser following in the footsteps of (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) ascended the Peace River and reached the Fraser River, descending this turbulent river to its mouth during the 1806-1907 season.  Three pathways to the Pacific were now charted, Howse, Athabaska and Peace..

The Louis and Clark expedition encountered two traders on the Missouri River near Omaha, Nebraska, and John Colter (1774-1813) of Virginia asked to leave the employ of the expedition to join the traders.  He departed with them.  John Colter (1774-1813) would go on to trade Wyoming, and the Yellowstone, and admitted that numerous anonymous French fur traders had crossed Wyoming and the Yellowstone before and after his exploration of the region.  It is noteworthy that Louis and Clark, on their return trip, encountered eleven parties of traders coming upstream in twenty boats.  There is little doubt the Metis and Coureurs des Bois had explored most of western America Pacific coast long before the official exploration.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, built Fort St. James (1806-1952) about 38 miles north of Vanderhoof, B.C. on the southeast shore of Stuaret Lake among the Carrier Dene People and later Fort Fraser Lake (1806-1814) this year.

Montreal, Quebec (I)-James McDougall (1783-1851) Joined NWC (1798-1821) & HBC (1821-1830) and was assigned (1806-1830) New Caledonia and Columbia district.  He had a native wife and children but only one is recorded:
    (II)-Nancy McDougall Metis. 

The Russian Count Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov (1764-1807) sailed into San Francisco Bay seeking supplies from the Spanish Government for his Pacific Northwest Operations.  He became engaged to the daughter of the San Francisco Presido, Don Jose Arguello a Dona Concepcion Arguello b-1791.  He was called back to Russia, others say he went back to obtain permission to marry a Spaniard.  He died on his return trip and Dona went into a convent. 

Joseph Rocher Metis (1806-1841) likely born Columbia District joined HBC (1834-1841) Columbia District.  Joseph Rocher had one wife and no recorded children. On May 28, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Cecile, Chinook (1819-1839). However, two months later (on July 30) she died was buried at the Catholic mission at Cowlitz.  Two years subsequent to her death, Rocher appears to have gone insane ("several months of alienation of mind"  which is perhaps why he was removed to Fort Vancouver at the end of his contract in 1841.

Paul Slobodchikov, a Russian trader reached Baja California a Spanish territoty.  The Russian American Company traded in Spanish California and Timofei Tarakanov was on this trip.

The Tlinkits again attacked Sitka, with a fleet of 400 war canoes and 2,000 warriors.  The Russians were warned of the attack and bought off the attack by providing a lavish feast and presents.

January 1:  Fort Clatsop is completed not far from the future Fort Astoria, Oregon.

March 23:  Fort Clatsop is abandoned as the expedition returned.

May 30: (II)-Old Jacco (Jacques) Finlay, a Metis, (1768-1828) wintered on the Saskatchewan above the Kootenai Plains, hoping to establish a trade route to the Columbia using the Howse Pass.  Some claim he was marking a trail over the divide to the Columbia for David Thompson's trip in 1807.  Finlay is likely following a well established Indian trail to the Columbia.  (II)- Finlay would go on, in 1810, to establish Spokane House for free traders who were trading the Columbia District..



NWC built Fort George (1807-1915), New Caledonia  this year.

A free trader named Beaulieu likely a French Canadian Metis was first recorded with David Thompson July 2, 1807 as a sick man near death.   Thompson extracted a Porcupine quill which Beaulieu had ingested and which had worked its way to the surface, thereby saving his life.  He remained with the Thompson NWC party (1807-1809) in the Saleesh country (Flathead Area).  He was again recorded August 21, 1811 in the Columbia District and was believed to be working as a free trader.  It is not known where he traded prior to 1807.

Registre Bellaire a French Canadian freeman was trading the Columbia District

Pierre Bercier Sr. (1778-1830/33) of Berthier, Quebec joined NWC (1799-1833) and helped build Kootney House in 1807 then worked Columbia District.  But he likely was a freeman before and during employment.  He married 1817 likely Fort Spokane Emilie Marie Soueshise Finlay Metis d-1848, epouse Simon Plamondon the elder (1796-1900), daughter Francois Finlay Metis (1768-1828) and Josephte Cree.  This likely suggests either (I)-James Finlay free trader d-1797 or one of his free trading sons such as (II)-Old Jacco Raphael Finlay (1768-1828) was in the Columbia District in the late 1700's?  This is likely the basis for some who believe free traders reached the Pacific before Louis and Clarke.  He was a guide of for (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) this year.  After Bercier’s death in 1833, widow Emilie married 1839 Simon Plamondon (1796/1800-1900) and all his possessions went to his children.
Bercier and Emilie had nine children:
    Marguerite Bercier Metis (1814/1818-1890) married Louis Pichette dit DuPre (1800-1876)
    François Bercier Metis b-1821
    Pierre Bercier Metis b-1823
    Ce’cile Bercier Metis b-1826
    Louison (Louis) Bercier Metis b-1826/1828
    Pierre Bercier Metis
    Elizabeth Bercier Metis b-1830
    Basile Bercier Metis b-1833/1835.
    Isabel Bercier Metis

John Colter (1773-1812) of the Louis and Clark expedition went on to explore the Yellowstone area where he wintered and traded with the Indians.    

Hugh Faria (1776-1852) joined NWC (1804-1807) Rainy Lake, (1807-1812) Fort George, New Caledonia, HBC, he is believed to have worked (1812-1836) North West region to Rainy Lake,  (1837-1839) Fort Vancouver.  He married before 1826 and had one recorded son William Faris Metis 

In 1807, others say 1806, (II)-Jacques Finlay Metis (1768-1828) did not appear to be with Thompson when he built Kootenae House [near Lake Windermere]; he was likely in the area as a free trader and the following year was hunting with James McMillan in the vicinity.  Some suggest he was in the Kootenae in 1800 as a free trader.

Michel Kinville aka Michel Quenneville d-1812, married and had a son named Francois Quenneville aka Colvile Metis (1807-1833) at Flathead-Kootenay.
The Jeremy Pinch's Establishment is built in Flathead area of Cloumbia District this year.

Basile Lucier (1807-1838) from Yamaska, Quebec, joined NWC (1807-1816)
(1807-1808) Kootenae House
(1808-1809) Rocket Mountain House, where he wintered, April 29, 1809, wife died in Rockies leaving 4 kids.
(1813-1814) Fort George, Columbia District
(1814-1816) Columbia River. 
One recorded child was 
    Marguerite Lucier Metis b-1814, must be a baptism date or another child by a second marriage?
    Marie Lucier Metis died before 1852), who married Jean Baptiste Gervais (1798-1870) in the Flathead country, may have been another daughter. 
The names of the other two children have not been traced.

Some claim (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), North West Company, built Kootney River (Jeremy Pinch's place) Fort Kootenae (1807-1814), Windermere Lake, B.C. and criticized (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) because the canoes he built the previous year were destroyed by animals.  This animosity is likely because Finley had explored the territory Thompson was planning to cover.  Finlay quit the Northwest Company as a result of this conflict.    Thompson traded with the Ktunaxa Nation in the Columbia Valley and the Kootenay into 1808.  Thompson was also unhappy that Finlay was being paid more than himself.

Some suggest (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) with his large family, returned to Rocky Mountain House, aka Poste de la Montagne de Roches, (Alberta) after his trip to the Columbia River system.  A half-breed (Jacko Finlay) who with his family had been residing among the Saleesh and other Indians as a free Trapper since this time.

(II)-Finan (Fenian) McDonald (1782-1851) son (I)-Angus Ban McDonald and Nancy McDonell (arrived Canada 1786); joined NWC (1805-1806) Fort des Prairies & Rocky Mountain House, NWC (1807-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) Columbia District.  He was at Fort Edmonton 1827.   He chose, or won in a contest, Margaret/Marguerite, daughter of Pend d’Oreille or Spokane chief, Chin-chay-nay-whey, their first 
    (III)- unnamed McDonald Metis child being born in June 1811 at the site of the present day Bonner’s Ferry. 
The mother of his daughter 
    (II)-Helene McDonald Metis  however, was of Charlotte Pend d’Oreille, which would indicate that he had more than one wife.

Robert (Doc) Newell (1807-1869) born Ohio was a free trader wirg SJ &S trappers (1829-1840) on the Pacific Slopesm settled Willamette but in 1861 resettled to Idaho with his Metis family.  Robert Newell had three successive wives and numerous children. In 1833 he married Kitty a Nez Perce woman who died in December 1845 and in 1846 he married Rebecca Newman who died in May 1867. In June 1867, he married a Mrs. Ward.  He recorded the country of his travels is controlled by the HBC.

Fitzhugh Place aka Jasper's House, (Alberta) birth, Marie Comtois, Metis died December 1875 Fort MacLeod (Alberta) daughter Siour Comtois and Josephte Fagnant, Metis who married (III)-Peter Skene Ogden born 1790/94 Quebec died September 27, 1854 Oregon.  Peter had a 2nd marriage about 1816, Julie Rivet Metis (Julia Flathead & Princess Julia) (Salishan Spokane) (1800-1886) daughter Therese Tete Platte (Salishan Spokane).  

Jules Maurice Quesnel (1786-1842) son Louis Joseph Quesnel (Fur Trader) and Marie Josephte Deslander, crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Department with the NWC. 

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) died Montreal, joined 
HBC (1786-1797) York Factory; 
NWC (1797-1806) Saskatchewan River District; (1807-1811) Columbia District
June 10, 1799 IIe-A-La-Crosse, Athabasca District married (II)-Charlotte Small Metis (1784-1857) daughter (I)-Patrick Small  and Cree woman.. Its noteworthy her only brother (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) worked the Saskatchewan Department from (1804-1846).  Thompson was churched October 30, 1812 Montreal.  
Thirteen children are recorded:
    (II)-Fanny Thompsin Metis born June 10, Rocky Mountain House (Alberta)
    (II)-Samuel Thompsin Metis born March 5, 1804, Peace River Forks (Alberta)
    (II)-Emma Thompsin Metis b-1806 Rocky Mountain House (Alberta) died 1813 Montreal
    (II)-John Thompsin Metis b-1808 Boggy Hall, source of the Athabasca River or Fort Augustus (Alberta) died January 11, 1814 Terrebonne
    (II)-Joshuah Thompsin Metis b-1811 Fort Augustus, (Alberta)
    (II)-Henry Thompsin Metis b-1813 Montreal or Terrebonne
    (II)-Charlotte Thompsin Metis b-1815 Williamstone
    (II)-Elizabeth Thompsin Metis b-1817
    (II)-William Thompsin Metis b-1819
    (II)-Thomas Thompsin Metis b-1822
    (II)-George Thompsin Metis b-1824
    (II)-Mary Thompsin Metis b-1827
    (II)-Elizabeth Thompsin Metis b-1824
In 1831 (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) a HBC & North West Company man who was rated as the most important explorer of Canada was bankrupt and living in poverty and obscurity, selling everything just to feed his wife and family.  He died 1857 and his Metis wife of 58 years three months later.  A great shame on Quebec and Canada.    

Legasse and Leblanc with the Kootenay Indians crossed the Howse Pass in trade.

Archibald recorded the only fresh meat available was bears.  The Russians relied on Creole (Indian) supplies of blubber mixed with fish and berries called yukola.

January;  (I)-James McDougall (1783-1851), a sicky Scott working the Pacific slopes was chastised for allowing his men to take native wives.  It ia notworthy that he took a Sekani woman and had at least one child named 
    Nancy McDougall Metis who married Waccin Boucher Metis (1789-1850).

June 11:  Jean Baptiste Buche (Boucher) NWC (1806-1810) is with David Thompson in the Columbia District. 


Registre Bellaire a French Canadian freeman was trading the Columbia District and is at Salish House with the NWC

Miquam (Jacques) or (Jacob) Finlay b-1808 Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains), aka Poste de la Montagne de Roches, son Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.   This is more likely one of the 4 adopted Lussier children.  Nine other children born in Spokane, Washington are attributed to (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.   Some of these are likely associated with a different wife, his brother Xavier Finlay (1779-1859) or some of his sons or adopted sons.  It is suggested he had 3 wives, 1st unknown, 2nd Kutenai and 3rd Spokane.  What-ever the Finlay clan is all over the early Oregon Territory, called the Columbia District.

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the N.W.C. stopped at the Indian village at Historic Yale, B.C.

Miaquin Martin an Iroquois or Metis was with NWC (1808-1812) in Columbia District.  He was with Jaco Finlay Metis (1768-1828) who named a son after his friend Miaquin.  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) didn't get along with Miaquin.  David Thompson wrote : "Martin insolent & dislocated my right thumb in thrashing him which will render me incapable of doing anything for a few days"

Louis Pochette dit DuPre (1800-1876) son Joseph Picher and Angelique Menard from St. Ours, Quebec NWC 1808 a guide for David Thompson, (1811-1813) Spokane House, a free trader in the Willamette Valley in 1818, he traded with NWC (1820-1821) Athabasca and HBC (1821-1840 New Caledonia and Columbia Districts. Louis Pichette had two wives and (according to Munnick) twenty-one children. He had 
    Edouard Pochette Metis b-1830 by an unnamed woman with whom he traveled in the Snake Country. 
On February 3, 1840, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Bercier Metis (1814-1890) daughter Pierre Bercier (1778-1833) and Emilie Finlay Metis. Their recorded children were 
    an unnamed Pochette Metis child b-1830
    Louis Pochette Metis (1832-before 1857), 
    Dominique Pochette Metis (1837-before 1863), 
    Roc/Roque Pochette Metis (1838-1902), 
    Esther Pochette Metis (1840-1860), 
    Charles Pochette Metis b-1842
    Catherine Pochette Metis b-1844
    Emilie Pochette Metis b-1845
    Vitale Pochette Metis b-1847
    Louise Soulange Pochette Metis b-1848
    Marie? Pochette Metis d-1850
    Marguerite (Pochette Metis b-1851
    Marie Pochette Metis b-1853
    an unnamed Pochette Metis child d-1854 
    Cecile Pochette Metis b-1856-?), 
    Julienne (1857 
    Narcisse Pochette Metis (1860-1863). 
    (5 Metis children are unaccounted for.) 
Marguerite (Bercier) Pichette died February 1, 1890 at St. Paul.

Jules Maurice Quesnel (1786-1842) son Louis Joseph Quesnel (Fur Trader) and Marie Josephte Deslander, crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Department in 1807 and was with (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of N.W.C. on their trip down the Frazer River. 

The NWC built Kootenai Falls House (1808-1809) on the Kootney River this year.

June:  (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of N.W.C. on the banks on the Fraser River encountered Indians who were exceeding well dressed in leather and were on horseback.  These horses are called wild mustangs (cayuse) and are descended from mustangs introduced by the Spanish, and still run wild in the area today.

May:   (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862), (I)-John Stuart (1780-1847), Jules Maurice Quesnil, nineteen (16?) Metis and two Indians descended the Fraser River.   John Stuart was one of those men who practiced serial marriages and acquired a new wife whenever he moved.  Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccen, (1789-1850), was one of the Metis mentioned.  Fraser thought he was on the Columbia River and only realized his error when he reached the mouth and took his bearings.  He was greatly disappointed.  He described the Fraser River as "a continual series of cascades, mix with rocky fragments and bound by precipices and mountains, that seemed at times to have no end.  I scarcely ever saw any thing so dreary, and seldom so dangerous in any country."

May 8:  (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, departed Fort George with 2 clerks and 16 voyagers, with 2 guides to find a new transportation route to the Pacific.  It turned out to be a 520 mile trip down the Fraser River.

June 26:  Frazer River, Columbia District, (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) skirted the Hells Gate on the Frazer River by using the ladders and pole walkways that clung to the cliffs built by the natives.

September 28:  Nikolai Isakovich Bulagin, a Russian sighted Cape Juan de Fuca (Cape Flattery).  They sailed north to Slayoquot Sound, then south to Destruction Island, (Washington).  It drifted ashore and became a total wreck.  Anna Petrovna d-1809 was captured by the natives.  The crew tried to free her but she refused as the natives treated her better than her husband.  Four other Russians also deserted to the natives.  The survivors were eventually rescued May 6, 1811 by Brown in the U.S. Lydia.  John Williams, an Englishman was also rescued. 

November Others say; while the Nikolai anchored at Destruction Island (off the mouth of Hoh River), the vessel parted its anchor and, after being cast ashore, was wrecked. The survivors made it to the mainland and tried to walk to Gray’s harbor to rendezvous with a companion vessel, but the Quillayute natives attacked the crew, killing one sailor and taking four woman prisoners. The rest escaped into the woods but were eventually taken as slaves by the Makah and passed as slaves to various settlements around Juan de Fuca.   Many, including the captain and his wife died over the years of captivity. In 1809 and 1811, however, two maritime fur trade vessels rescued a total of fourteen survivors and took them back to Sitka. 



Jacques Cardinal b-1772 joined NWC (1809-1821) Columbia District, he had a wife and son in 1809.  HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District, 1822 in Lesser Slave Lake and then Red River.  Possible children are?

Etienne Forcier d-1818 of NWC 1804 was at Fort des Prairies, 1806 Rocky Mountain House, 1809-1811 with Thompson on the Pacific slopes, 1810 at Boggy Hills and the source of the Athabasca River, January 1811, was at the source of the Canoe River, a tributary river to the Columbia.

(II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) the free trader lived between Blaeberry and Kootenae House, he adopted the 4 Lussier orphaned children.  It is likely these children took on the Finlay name.   The Piegan People robbed Finlay of his horse and goods, he was known to have more than 18 horses which accounted for his mobility..

The NWC built Kullyspell House (Kalispell) (1809-1811) at the north end of Lake Pendorielle (Idaho) Columbia District.  They also built Saleesh post (1809-1821).  These posts are in Flathead tribal area.

John Jacob Astor, a German, attempted to make a joint venture with the Northwestern Fur Company but when rejected organized the American Fur Company to work the Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) (Idaho, Oregon, Washington & B.C.) this year and in 1818, acquired what was left of the Mackinac Fur Company.  He hired Alexander McKay d-1811, the 2nd in command of the (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) Expedition to the Pacific of 1792/93.  It's noteworthy that Alexander McKay d-1811 accompanied Mackenzie to the Pacific Ocean in 1793.  He died in the explosion of the ship Tonquin in 1811.

Colvile Queenville Metis (1809-1833) born Colville Valley, Columbia District (N.E. Washington) son Michel Kinville, joined HBC (1829-1833).

(I)-John Stuart (1780-1847) NWC & HBC (1809-1824) is posted to New Caledonia, B.C.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company built Kullyspell House by Lake Pend Oreille, Columbia District (Idaho better known as Oregon territory by Americans).

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) writes on Feb.19,1809--"Jaco & his two Seauteaux paid us a visit."   

The Tlingit Nation attacked the Russians again this year.

Lost to history are the Metis of the Colville Valley region from Idaho to eastern Washington commonly called part of the Columbia District.  A few reference suggest Metis have been settling in this region before this date, mostly French Canadians, free traders and their families consisting of Flathead, Nez Perce, Iroquois (Mohawks) and Iroquois Metis.  Fort Coville built 1825 likely resulted in more settlement.  Larger numbers of Metis arrived in the 1830's and were followed by missionaries by 1834.

July 18: (I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) of the HBC (1795-1815) with three men (Cree guides) departed Edmonton House to cross the Rocky Mountains.  They returned August 9 before NWC (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) even started to cross the Mountains.  This was the first expedition of the HBC to cross the Rockies.  If it wasn't for NWC (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) we wouldn't know that the HBC party reached Lake Windermere (B.C.) and the Columbia River.  Thompson recorded he encountered Howse and his Indians.  All the HBC record showed is a note "the expedition across the Rocky Mountains, merits some attention"  Jacco Findlay who crossed Howse Pass in 1806 was said to have guided Joseph Howse over the Rocky Mountains.

August 19: (I)-David Thompson recorded his advance pary discovered (I)-John Howse camp at Lake Windereire (B.C.) The Howse party trail was easy to follow because they were on horse back and traveling fast.

October: (II)-Jacques Finlay Metis (1768-1828) entered the Flathead River country area and helped to build Kullyspel House , Saleesh House (1809) and Spokane House (1810) for the NWC, where he was a clerk for three or more years.

October the (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and party, (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851), James McMillan, and a voyageur, possibly Michel Bordeaux or Jean Baptiste Boucher (1789-1850), was near starvation when (II)-Old Jaco Finlay, (1768-1828) a free trader, a fine half-breed arrived and relieved us.  From him we traded twenty-eight Beaver tails, forty pounds of Bear meat, and thirty pounds of dried meat, and now we all, thank God enjoyed a good meal  They were near Libby, Montana.  (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857)  and (II)-Old Jaco Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) were not on friendly terms.  So I doubt if Thompson wrote these words.

October 11:  Weriweather Lewis (1774-1809) of the 1806 Lewis & Clark Expedition to the Pacific committed Suicide, likely because of the failed mission.


Jean Baptiste Buche (Boucher) NWC (1806-1810) is with (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851) and Michel Bourdeaux are in Saleesh Country.

Charles Boucher joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) Fort Astoria (Fort George) NWC (1813-1814) Spokane House

Fort Henry (1810-1811) is built Shake River.

The first know trading post in (Washington), Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) is built as Spokane House by (II)-Jacco (Jacques) Raphael Finlay (Metis) (1768-1828) to service Free Traders.  This was built in the Flathead area.  It is believed to be the first recorded trading post in (Washington).  But NWC built Kullyspel House and Saleesh House in 1809 and the Jeremy Pinch's trading post built 1807.

NWC built Spokane House (1810-1826) in Flathead district

William Canning aka Cannon (1755/63-1852/54) Pacific Fur Company (1810-1812), NWC (1812-1814) freeman (1814-1821) HBC (1822-1836) Columbia Distrit, settled in Willamette (1835-1836) William Cannon had one wife, Polly Clackamas, and one recorded child, 
    John Canning Metis b-1837, baptisted by Rev. Beaver on September 17, 1839.

Guillaume Cardinal joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1812) Columbia District NWC )1813-1814) & HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District

Andre Chalifoux (1789-1851)  son Charles Chalifoux and Louise Dumas of Sorel, Quebec,  free trader? Steersman, (1810-1815), NWC (1815-1821), HBC (1821-1840) all in the Columbia District, retired to Wallamette Valley 1840.  Some say he came to the Pacific Coast with Angus Bethune and (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) in the spring of 1819 Married Catherine Russie Metis daughter Augustin Roussil (Russie) Sr. b-1780 Terrebonne, Quebec and Rose Cayuse.  They had nine children and she traveled on the brigade with some of her children.  On October 22, 1838 while bringing Father’s Demer and Blanchet west, his two children, Charles Chalifoux Metis (1835-1838) and Michel Chalifoux Metis (1838-1838), drowned when running one of the rapids below the Dalles des Morts.  André Chalifoux had two or more successive wives and an unknown number of children. 
1st. An unnamed wife died in October 1830, probably at Fort Vancouver, and their children have not been traced. 
2n a recorded wife was Catherine Russie b-1818. Their children were 
    Rose Chalifoux Metis (1834/37-1846), 
    Charles Chalifoux Metis (1835-1838), 
    Michael Chalifoux Metis (1838-1838), 
    Lucie Chalifoux Metis (183839-1849), 
    André Chalifoux Metis (1842-1880), 
    Catherine Chalifoux Metis b-1844,
    Louis Chalifoux Metis b-1846, 
    Marie Philomene Chalifoux Metis b-1848 
    Sophie Chalifoux Metis (1851-1876).

(I)-Ross Cox (1793-1853) of the Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813) claims to have ascended the Columbia River 9 times and descended 8 times in the next 6 years.  Joined the Pacific Fur Company (1811-1812) at Fort Astoria (1811-1852).  He believed the North West Company who employed him (1813-1816) was the undisputed masters of the interior of America.  On 1819 he married (II)-Hannah Cummings Metis "likely" daughter (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian of Swan River, and they had several unnamed Metis kids.  It is believed he returned to Ireland but disposition wife and Metis children is unknown.
(I)-Duncan McDougall d-1819, joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) & NWC (1813-1817)  Fort Astoria (Fort George).  In 1813 he married IIchee Chinook daughter Comcomly.  Duncan deserted his wife in 1817. 

(I)-Ramsey Crooks (1787-1859) son William Crooks and Margaret Ramsey joined the Montreal Fur Trade (1803-1810).  In (1810-1812) joined Pacific Fur Company for Fort Astoria Columbia District.  On 1817 joined the America Fur Company.  March 10, 1825 married Emily Pratt (Marianna Pelagie)

Francois Desjarlais Metis d-1811 son Antoine Desjarlais of Lac La Biche (Alberta) joined NWC (1810-1811).  June, 1811, François, his wife and four Metis children all drowned in one of the Dalles of the Saleesh River.

(II)-James Raphaeo Finlay Metis Jr. (1794-1854) NWC (1813-1814) Spokane House.  James appeared to have one wife, Susanna Matilda/Susan Bryere/Susan Dupuis. On May 17, 1844, James and Susan were married at La Port d’Enfer [Hellgate, Montana]. Fifteen of their children were 
    (III)-Abraham Finlay Metis (1819-1912), 
     (III)-Catherine Finlay Metis b-1823/1834 
     (III)-Elizabeth Finlay Metis b-1824
     (III)-Louise/Aloysia/Ludavica Finlay Metis b-1826 
     (III)-Nancy/Anna Finlay Metis b-1827
     (III)-Pierre/Pial/Peter  b-1828, 
     (III)-Mary Ann Finlay Metis b-1832 
     (III)-John Finlay Metis b-1832 
     (III)-Jeanne Finlay Metis 1833
     (III)-Sophie Finlay Metis 1834
     (III)-Josephine/Josette/Suzette Finlay Metis 1839 
     (III)-James/Jemmi Finlay Metis b-1840, 
     (III)-William Finlay Metis b-1841 
     (III)-Nazaire/Nazon Finlay Metis b-1845
     (III)-Joseph Finlay Metis .

(II)-Jacco (Jacques) Raphael Finlay (Metis) (1768-1828), and Partner (II)-Finan (Finnan) McDonald (1782-1851) establish Spokane (Spokan) House for the N.W.C. (I suspect it was as free traders as he had a falling out with the NWC) on the Spokane River, a short distance from its confluence with the Columbia.  This house supported the Metis free traders of the region.  Finlay and McDonald settled down to raise their Metis families near the Trading Post.  It should be noted (II)-Jacco's children were born in the Fort Edmonton Area but his adopted children were with him in Spokane with his adult children..  Some suggest he married another Indian girl (or two) in the Columbia District.
NWC Jacco was an Independent Trapper and Fur Trader cutting trails for David Thompson, Kootenay and Flathead area (1806 - 1810); 
Freeman, Kootenae House (1807-1808); 
Freeman (possibly with Joseph Howse [HBC]), Kootenay's (1808-1810); 
Builder, Kullyspell House (Kalispel Post) (1809); 
Builder, Spokane House [Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (Summer 1810); 
Clerk in charge, Spokane House [Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (1810-1812); 
Clerk, Spokane House [Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (winter 1813-1814); 
Interpreter, Spokane House [Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (winter 1813-1814); 
Trapper, Snake Party (1819); 
HBC Untraced vocation, Thompson River (1824); 
Untraced vocation, Spokane House [Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (1824 - 1828); 
Untraced vocation, Stony Mountain (Rocky Mountain) Portage (1824).
Jacques Finlay had a number of wives and nineteen or more children. Three wives were an unnamed Chippewa woman , Teshwentichina, [Spokane] and an unnamed Pend D’Oreille woman . The children were 
    (III)-Xavier Findlay Metis b-1779
    (III)-James Findlay Metis (1794-1853), 
    (III)-John Findlay Metis b-1800, married Catherine Chinook (c.1814-1849) died at Chinook on November 20, 1849
    (III)-Augustin Yoostah Findlay Metis (1800-1883), married Clemence Cah-Le-Moss (1816/20-1909)
    (III)-Patrick "Pichina/Bishnah/Bish-ca-nath/Pishot/Jocko Patrick" Findlay Metis (1802-1879), 
    (III)-François Benetsee/Penetzi/Penache/Penasta Findlay Metis (1805-1873), married Susan/Dew-see-mah/Pen-na-ma 
    (III)-Jacques Miaquam Findlay Metis, b-1820  
    (III)-Maria Josephte "Josette" Findlay Metis ( 1810-1869), 
    (III)-Suzette Findlay Metis 
    (III)-Joatte Findlay Metis , 
    (III)-Keyackie Findlay Metis b-1822, unnamed wife and three children, David (?-?), Susanne (?-?) and an unnamed child.
    (III)-Isabella Findlay Metis 
    (III)-Baptiste Findlay Metis  
    (III)-Basil Findlay Metis 
    (III)-Josette Findlay Metis  
    (III)-unnamed Findlay Metis child 
    (III)-Nicholas "Nicolai" Findlay Metis b-1816 or (1820-1887)    
    (III)-Rosette He-Hi-Ta Findlay Metis (1823-1908)
    (III)-Margaret "Maggie" Findlay Metis b-1828
Jocko River, a branch of the Flat Head River, Jocko Valley, Jocko Prairie and Jocko Mountain Range, all on the Flathead Reservation [Montana], were named after Jacques Finlay.

(III)-Augustin Yoostah Findlay Metis (1800-1883) son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Josko) Finlat and Chipapawa women.  Are at Spokane House.  In August 1840, he married Clemence Cah-Le-Moss (1816/20-1909), Flathead, daughter of Thérèse. Their children were 
     (IV)-Susanne Findlay Metis , 
     (IV)-Louis Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-David Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-Thérèse Findlay Metis , 
     (IV)-Marie LaRose Findlay Metis b-1851 
     (IV)- LaLouise Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-Felicite Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-Vincent Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-Marie Findlay Metis , 
     (IV)-Agatha Findlay Metis b-1849
     (IV)-Philomene Findlay Metis b-1853
     (IV)-Rose Findlay Metis  
     (IV)-Margaret Findlay Metis b-1858

(III)-Francois Benetsee Finlay Metis (1805-1873) it is believed he was born Fort Edmonton or Red River but was raised in Spokane House, he was son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay and a Chippewa woman.  He was a freetrader like his dad and discovered gold in Benetsee Creek, Montana.  His one wife was Susan/Dew-see-mah/Pen-na-ma b-1835 daughter of Old Ignatius Chaves and Louise Ta-yoo-sah-mah. Four children, according to the 1860 Census were 
     (IV)-Sophia Finlay Metis b-1842 
     (IV)-Isadore Finlay Metis b-1847 
     (IV)-Caroline Finlay Metis b-1854
     (IV)-Rosette Finlay Metis b-1857

(III)-Miaquam Finlay Metis b-1820 daughter (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay and a Chippewa woman.  Miaquam Finlay had two or more wives and twelve or more children. His first wife was Agnes Paul b-1820, daughter of Aeneas "Big Knife" (Iroquois (Mohawks)) Paul and Mary "Ukupa" One Hoof. Their children were 
    (IV)-John Finlay Metis b-1844   
    (IV)-Julia Finlay Metis b-1844
    (IV)-Joseph Finlay Metis 1847, 
    (IV)-David Finlay Metis b-1849, 
    (IV)-Augustin Finlay Metis b-1852 
    (IV)-Adolph "Corto" Finlay Metis b-1856, 
    (IV)-Eleanor/Leonore Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Mary Elizabeth/Betsy Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Angelic/Caroline Finlay Metis  
Another wife was Betsey Ashley/Asselin, daughter of Jean Pierre Asselin and Rosalie. Their daughter was 
    (IV)-Jane/Jeanette Finlay Metis . 
Two other children who can’t be placed with their mothers are 
    (IV)-Tinum (Tanum-Anthony) Finlay Metis b-1830 
    (IV)-Cecille Finlay Metis .

(III)-Nicolas Finley Metis (1820-1887) son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay and Teshwentichina Spokane.  Nicholas Finlay appears to have had at least two wives. One wife was Marie, Iroquois (Mohawks). A son was 
   (IV)-François Finley Metis b-1850  
Another wife was Suzette/Josette Cayuse/Palouse. Children from one or both wives were 
    (IV)-Angele Finley Metis b-1842
    (IV)-Josette Mary Finley Metis b-1856, 
    (IV)-John Finley Metis 
    (IV)-Timothy Finley Metis b-1858
    (IV)-Rosalie Finley Metis  
    (IV)-Nicholas Finley Metis 
    (IV)-Dominique Finley Metis .

Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) son Gabriel Franchere and Felicite Miron of Montreal.  Gabriel joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1814).  Gabriel Franchère had two successive wives, ten children and one stepson. In 1815, he married Sophie Routhier d-1837 in Sault Ste Marie daughter Jean Baptiste Routhier. They had ten children, five of whom were 
    Evariste Franchere Metis d-1892), 
    Henriette Franchere Metis married.1836
    Matilda Franchere Metis 
    Sophia Franchere Metis 
    Celina Franchere Metis 
After Sophie’s death in 1837 in Sault Saint Marie, he married Charlotte (Osborn) Prince of Detroit by whom he inherited a stepson, John Prince.

Joseph Gervais (1777-1861) brother to Jean Baptiste Gervais (1798-1870), joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1814) Columbia District, HBC as freeman, (1814-1830), settled Willamette 1830.  Working Fort Vancouver (1831-1836) again returned to Willamette 1836.  Joseph Gervais had three or more wives and eight children. In 1813, he was noted as having a wife. The same or another wife was an unnamed Chinook woman with whom he had daughter 
    Julie Gervais Metis (1820-1845)  
    David Gervais Metis (1823-1853). 
On January 22, 1838 at the Willamette mission and, on January 28, 1839 at Vancouver, he married Marguerite Yiamist (Telex) (c.1814-1840), a daughter of Clatsop Chief Coboway. This Gervais family consisted of 
    Isaac Gervais Metis (1829-1908), 
    Xavier Gervais Metis (1831-1870), 
    François Gervais Metis (1832-1842), 
    Edouard Gervais Metis (c.1835-1912+)
    Adelaide Gervais Metis b-1838
On July 6, 1840, about six months after the death of Marguerite Clatsop, he married Marie Angelique, Chinook (?-1853) with whom he had 
    Rosalie Gervais Metis 

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) son Daniel Harmon and Lucrecia Dewey from Vermont.  joined NWC (1800-1810) working east of the Rockies; NWC (1810-1819) working New Caledonia; 1820 returned to Vermont but not officially retired until 1821.  On October 10, 1805 Daniel Williams Harmon took a mixed descent wife (Cree and French), Elizabeth (Lizzette) Laval and later formalized his marriage to her in Burlington, Vermont. Some of their fourteen children were: 
    George Harmon Metis (1807-1813), 
    unnamed premature Metis twin boys (1810-1810), 
    Polly Harmon Metis b-1811
    Sally Harmon Metis b-1817

(I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) of the HBC (1795-1815) assembled his 2nd Columbia District venture with a party of 17 persons to trade rather than just explore.  (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) was along on this trip,  Two canoes with trade goods was included but Howse and 4 Cree guides and hunters went by land.
The HBC built Joseph Howse House (1810-1811)  in Columbia District [near Kalispell, Montana] also considered a Flathead area. .  This same year Henry's post was built  [near Egan, Idaho] by Missouri Fur Company partner Andrew Henry
(I)-Joseph Howse (Howes) (1774-1852) joined HBC (1795-1815) from York Factory 1795-1799), Saskatchewan 1799-1810) to Columbia District 1810-1812, listed as a bachelor but married Mary Cree Indian
    (II)-Henry Howse Metis (1797-1808) Gordon House or York Factory
    (II) Metis son born December 20. 1798 York Factory
    (II)-Henry Howes (Howse) Metis b-1808 married 1830 Janet Spence
    (II)-Jenny (Jane) Howse Metis b-1812 Paint Creek House on the Saskatchewan River, bapt 1824 killed by a threshing mill on Mr Birds's where she resided d-1830
    (II)-Joseph Howes Metis 

Jean Baptiste Lamoureaux from the Gulf of Mexico joined the Thompson group in the Columbia District.  In August 1814 while acting as sentry for the Fox Cox party at the Dalles he was accidentally shot by his own party.  He was buried at the Dalles.  John Cox, a Hawaiian who came to the Columbia on the Tonquin in 1811 as Edward Cox, was acquired by Thompson.

Francois Laurent an Iroquois (Mohawks) or more likely an Iroquois Metis joined NWC 1810 on a 3 year contract to the Pacific slopes.  Signed NWC (1812-1821) to work Pacific slopes and HBC (1821-1823) to work the Columbia District, he returned to Red River 1823.

Etienne (Amable) Lucier (1793-1853) Son Michel Lussier and Marie Victoire Deline Valet, of French Prairie, joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1812) Fort Astoria later called Fort George, as a freeman he serviced Fort George, Willamette Post and the Columbia District until his death in 1853.  He settled 1827 in Willamette and raised horses, he is also credited with growing the first wheat in Oregon likely 1829-1830.  On January 23, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Josephte Nouite (1799-1840) with whom he had children 
    Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867), married (I)-Donald Manson October 1828
    Adrienne Lucier Metis (1824-1919), 
    Pelage Lucier Metis (1827-1856), 
    Louison (cLucier Metis b-1831
    Michel Lucier Metis b-1835
    Joseph Lucier Metis (1838-1907). 
On August 10, 1840, eight months after the January 10, 1840 death of his wife Josephte, Étienne, married Marie Margurite Chinook b-1804, with whom he had two children, 
    Pierre Lucier Metis b-1842 
    Etienne II Lucier Metis b-1844
Anne Lucier who married Tremewan claims she was a daughter of Etienne as well as;  It's possible there are two different Etiennes
    Donald Lucier
    James Lucier
    William Lucier
    Stephen Lucier
    Isabella  Lucier
    Lizzie Lucier

(I)-Donald McKenzie (1773-1851) emigrated to Canada 1800, joined NWC (1801-1810), joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) & NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District.  He was called 'Fat McKenzie' or 'Perpetual Motion' because he was 312 lbs.  Donald McKenzie married twice and had sixteen children. His first marriage was to an unnamed mixed descent woman, probably Mary McKay, daughter of Alexander McKay d-1811 and Marguerite Wadin (1775-1860)  together they had 
    (II)-Rachel McKenzie Metis -bap.1822
    (II)-Donald McKenzie Metis -bap.1825
    (II)-Caroline McKenzie Metis -bap.1822
McKenzie dropped Mary when he became governor of Assiniboia in 1825  and Mary was married off to (II)-William Sinclair Jr. (1794-1868).  
His second marriage was to Swiss-born Adelgonde Humbert Droz d-1882) on August 18, 1825. She had been the governess of his three children. Together they had thirteen children: Jemina (1827-1926), Catherine, Roderick -bap.1830, Noel Simpson b1831, Fenella, Alexander, Alice , Henry , William , Donalda, Adelgonde, Celeste and Humbertson 

Ovide de Montigny likely a Metis joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) working Fort Astoria and the Ookinagan for NWC and worked PFC, NWC, HBC as interpreter (1810-1823) He traveled to from Montreal frequently suggesting he was related to the Montigny's in the early fur trade. He also had a brother involved with the PFC.   He married Josephate Fagon (a country wife) but this could represent two different wives?
    Narcisse Montigny Metis b-1815/16 married Bestsy Tchinouk
    Edward Montginy Metis
    Tapisshe Montginy Metis

Francois Benjamin Pillet from Quebec joined PFC (Pacific Fur Company) (1810-1813) arriving March 11, Columbia District, he must have been in the West prior to this as he knew Cree fluently.  He appears to have an adversion to the NWC so it may have been as a free trader.

Jules Maurice Quesnel (1786-1842) son Louis Joseph Quesnel (Fur Trader) and Marie Josephte Deslander, reopened Fort Frazer Lake

Francois Sans Falcon Metis a freetrader met David Thompson at Clark Fork and Flathead River, he was involved in (1824-1825) in the Snake District.  He was last recorded on May 25, 1825 assisting (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) when many of the expedition members were deserting to Johnson Gardner of the American trapping group.

Nathan Winship sailed up the Columbia River 45 miles to Oak Point to establish a fort and garden to support their venture into the fir trading business.  They were a 22 man crew and very optimistic but a July frost destroyed their garden and they departed never to return.

NWC built Salish House aka Flathead House (1821-1847) also called Fort Connah (1847-1871) (Thompson Falls, Montana)

These children are likely not from the same Indian woman, one could be the child of (II)- James Finlay, Metis,  (1766-1830) or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).  They also might be some of the adopted children?  The Finlay's are like locus all over the Columbia District:

Suzette Finley, Metis, (1810-1848) born Spokane, Columbia District (Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.

Marie Josephte Finley, Metis,  (1810-1869) born Spokane, Columbia District (Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.

Pierre Lacourse (1792-1864) joined NWC (1810-1821) HBC (1821-1840) Columbia District retired Willamette.  Pierre Lacourse had two wives and eight recorded children. His first wife was Archange Tchinouk (also called Skaisis Cree, Skoucisse Chinook and Archange Chehalis) (1804-1854). Their children were 
    Rose Lacourse Metis (.1824-1845), 
    Pierre Lacourse Metis (1828-1861), 
    Claude Lacourse Metis b-1831
    Alexis Lacourse Metis (1834-1847), 
    Cuthbert Lacourse Metis (1837-1854), 
    Marguerite Lacourse Metis  
    Joseph Lacourse Metis (1842-1861), 
    Belonie .Lacourse Metis b-1844 
    Louis Lacourse Metis (1846-1860). 
Two years after the death of Archange in 1854, on August 4, 1856, he married Josephte Sinemaule, Nez Perces (also called Okanogan) the widow of Jacques Servant. They had no further children.

Jacques Lafantaise aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) from Montreal employed New York by Pacific Fur Company for Astoria, Columbia District (1810-1813); joined NWC (1813-1821) then HBC (1821-1827) Columbia District Okanagans, Fort George and Thompson River (Kamloops),  married Susanne Okanagan
    Angele Lafantaise Metis (1817-1867) married Joseph Bourgeau (1807-1849)
    Charles Lafantaise Metis (1819-1861) 
    Male Lafantaise Metis born before 1827, listed 1827

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) from Quebec joined American Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) a voyageur in Columbia District.NWC (1813-1821) Fort George HBC (1821-1844) Columbia District, married 1839 Fort Vancouver Emilie Picard

Francois Laurent an Iroquois Metis from Riviere du Loup, Quebec joined NWC (1810-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1823) Columbia District, deserted 1823 for Red River. 

Jean Baptiste Ouvre (Ouvrie) (1790/91-1849) from Montreal, joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) out of Mackinac for Columbia District, NWC (1813-1821) and HBC (1821-1843) Columbia District.  Ouvré’s River [Duwamish River] was named after J. B. Ouvre..  Jean Baptiste Ouvré appears to have had two wives and four children. On July 15, 1838, around the Fort Vancouver area, the Anglican minister, Herbert Beaver, baptised Marianne on 1838 d-1843 or earlier, whose mother was Angeline.
    Marie Anne Ouvre Metis b-1827, baptized 1843
Married September 10, 1839, at Fort Nisqually, the Catholic priests married Ouvre to Jany Sempson, Teoutit, of Nisqually bapt and married September 10, 1839. Their children were 
    Louise Ouvre Metis b-1834, bapt 1839
    Thérèse Ouvre Metis b-1836, bapt 1839
    Jean Baptiste Ouvre Metis Jr. b-1839,  bapt September 8, 1839. 

Mount Hood, Oregon erupted.

William Wallace Mathews joined Pacific Fur Company and NWC (1810-1815) .  He married Kilakotah, (little song bird) Clatsop (1800-1873) daughter chief Coboway Clatsop Columbia District., and their daughter 
    Ellen Mathews Metis b-1815. 
He either traveled with or sent for his daughter for later, Ellen was educated in the East and married a wealthy citizen of Montreal.  Marguerite Kil-a-ko-tah (1800-1873) after being deserted entered 2nd marriage to (I)- James McMillan (1783-1858) a bigamist NWC (1804-1821) HBC (1821-1930) one daughter is recorded:
    (II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821
3rd marriage Louis Labonte, a Astorian who retired with her to French Prairie, aka Walama, or Willamette and Wallamette, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1830.  Three children are recorded:
    Louise Labonte Metis
    Julienne Labonte Metis b-1818
    Caloine Labonte Metis b-1840
They also raised  (II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821

William Perrault Metis joined NWC (1810-1811) Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813) and NWC (1813-1814.  He was last reported at Willamette post 1814.

Amable Quesnel b-1790 Vaudreuil, Quebec Joined NWC 1810, assigned (1813-1814) French Prairie Post (Willamette) and he is believed to have remained in the Columbia District until he joined HBC (1821-1840) settling in Willamette, Amable Quesnel appears to have had two wives and two recorded children. By his first native wife, Marie, he had 
    He’le`ne Quesnel Metis bap.1840
His second wife was Angelique, Chehalis, their children being 
    Josette Marie Quesnel Metis b-1832
    François Quesnel Metis bap.1837
He may have had several other children

(I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856) of the Pacific Fur Co arrived Columbia District, he worked Fort Astoria, Fort Okanagan, Fort George, and Fort Nez Perces for the NWC before joining HBC.  He had a distain for Indians in the fur trade saying all Iroquois are unfit for service.

Augustin Roussil (Russie) Sr. b-1780 Terrebonne, Quebec joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) Fort Astoria NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1832) Columbia District.  Augustin Roussil’s family records are not entirely clear but it appears that Augustine had two wifes, 
Rose Cayuse 
    Catherine Roussil (Russie) Metis b-1818 who married 1836 Canada Andre Chalifoux  (1789-1851)
Rose Chinook half sister to Catherine Russie Chalifoux 
    Augustine Paul Roussil Metis Jr. (1825-1855) married 1844 Agnes (Anne Norwest) Tyikwari epouse William Tison
        Joseph Roussil Metis
        Paul Roussil Metis died 8 months
        Marquerite Roussil Metis
        Hyacinthe Roussil Metis d-1855

Jean Baptiste Saganakei a Nipising or Metis Joined NWC (1810-1821) Columbia District. 

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company is conducting trade near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Columbia District.

Thomas Williams a Creole (1783-1811) from Virginia joined Pacific Fir Company (1810-1811) Columbia District, he likely never left the ship being a cook and was killed Vancouver Island.

March 30: Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1850) , (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851) and Michel Bourdeaux went into Saleesh Country with tabacco and ammunition to persuade the Saleesh to hunt and make dried provisions for the NWC.  

August 20: (I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852)  HBC party reached the Cootana aka Columbia River.  According to a Cree guide, Howse was still on the Columbia September 1.  

September 6-10:   The Pacific Fur Company out of New York sent the ship Tonquin, of 290 tons, under command of Captain Jonathan Thron, to build Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River.  This ship required a crew of 20 men, 13 of whom are Canadian Voyagers.  Thron was dictatorial and held the French Canadians in poor regard, hating their singing, smoking, light-hearted gossip and boastfulness.  He was very loyal to the men who financed the trip but was unco-operative, suspicious , uncommunicative, harsh and unbending in manner towards those he considered beneath him.  A second ship, Beaver, is dispatched with provisions.  A second party of 59 people are sent overland and they both are expected to arrive at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon Territory about the same time.  Only 35 of the overland party survived to reach the Pacific Ocean.  The missing 24 either died from sickness, starvation, drowning, fights with Indians, fatigue or desertion.  They had consumed or lost their provisions.  A Wilson Price Hunt led the overland party.  Some considered him inexperienced.

October 22: A Cree guide who had just crossed the mountains said (I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) was at the old Kootenay House, at the head of the Columbia.  James McMillan was still spying on the HBC party but he departed December 12, as the Howse expedition was wintering down at Flathead Lake (Montana).  

.December (I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) wrote a letter to HBC governor George Simpson "crossed the Rocky Mounts in the simmer and Autumn of 1810 by North Branch of the Saskatchewan - ascended the Kootoonay (Columbia River) - carried into the Flat-Bow (Kootenay) River - descended by the most Southy Bright of it - crossed (Portage Poil de Custer) to Flathead River ...where we built."  In December crossed the continental divide with a couple of my men I accompanied the Flat-heads to the head branches of the Missouri - returned to our house - February 1811.  



The most common affliction among the Chinook are syphilis and consumption (tuberculosis).

NWC 1811 sent an expedition into Snake River

NWC built a Boat Encampment on the Columbia River

Alexis Amiot likely a Frenchman d-1821 Columbia District employed NWC/HBC (1811-1821) to work the North West.

Registre Bellaire a French Canadian freeman worked for the Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813), he worked as a freeman NWC (1813-1814).  He wintered with the Hawaiians and Metis at Willamette (1813-1814).  He and his Metis family departed the Columbia District April 4, 1814 with the 10 canoe Fort William/Montreal brigade east bound.  His wife and family went as customers.

Pierre Bercier Sr. (1778-1830/33) employed NWC (1808-1813) is at Spokane House, Columbia District (1813)

Charlo Charles Iroquois joined NWC 1811 for Columbia River.

Charles aka Charlo Iroquois (Mohawks) joined NWC 1811 for Columbia District.  He may have been with Alexander Henry (1764-1814) at Pembina Post as early as March 3, 1806, when a "Charlo" ran away with the blacksmith’s woman.  On May 4, 1811, Thompson prepared for his run down the Columbia and "engaged Charles a fine, steady Iroquois (Mohawks) to accompany us as Bowsman, being an excellent Canoe Man." On July 3, he began his role as bowsman on the final voyage from Ilthkoyape [Kettle] Falls to the mouth of the Columbia. Charles and group reached the mouth and, on July 22, they began their return voyage upstream where Charles did a variety of tasks, including hunting. On September 18, when they were at Thompson’s old hut at the mouth of the Canoe River, a message written in the Iroquois (Mohawks) language was left in the hopes that someone from Henry’s party passing through from the Athabasca would be able to read it. He was last noted on September 22, 1811, up the Canoe River, as he was about to turn back.

Benjamin Clapp d-1852 joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813) Columbia District, married at Fort Astoria a Chinook girl who he abandoned; he joined the American Fur Company in the east and by 1834 his second wife died, a third wife was Jane F.

(II)-John Clarke (1781-1858) son (I)-Simon Clarke and Ann Waldorf of Montreal, joined NWC (1804-1810) assigned (1804-1805) Fort Vermillon on the Peace River, Pacific Fur Company (1810-1814) Columbia District.  During his life time he had 3 known wives;
1st marriage Josephte Kankopitsa, had one daughter
    (III)-Josephte Clarke Boucher Metis (1818-1879) who married (I)-John McKay (1810-1888), Clarke abandoned wife and child.
2nd marriage 1815 Sapphira Spense Metis, daughter Joseph Spense and Indian girl, for £200, no children
3rd marriage 1830 Mary Ann Truitter (Trauclar) (1803-1906) of Montreal, they had 8 children    

John Colter (1773-1812) while in St. Louis related his story about his discovery of Yellowstone,  in 1807, but folks just mocked him and called his claims "Mad Hallucinations".  Other traders stories just added to the growing legends and fairy tales concerning Yellowstone.
            1820 James Bridger told tall tales of the Yellowstone
            1862 David F. Folsom and C.W. Cook added to the tall tales
            1870 The Washburn expedition finally verifies the legends and fairy tales concerning Yellowstone

John (Edward) Cox (Coxe) b-1779 Hawaii d-1850 Kanaka a Hawaii village next to Fort Vancouver, joined Pacific Fur Company in 1811 assigned Colunbia District, NWC (1811-1821) & HBC (1821-1850) Columbia District.  In 1825 he had a wife and a native slave girl, Marie (1831-1845)

Pierre Delauney Metis d-1813/14 joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1814) Columbia District.  He had a native wife.  He was killed and scalped so reports Poerre Doron who saw his scalp in possion of an Indian.  It was believed he was killed in retaliation for the hanging of a native accused by the Clark party of a theft.

Joseph Delecourt, son Jean Baptiste Delcourt both employed NWC (1809-1811) are on the Columbia River with David Thompson

Pierre Dorion (Dorionne) Metis (1781-1814) born Yankton. Dakota son Pierre Dorion and Yankton woman.  Joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1814) Columbia District.  He was a wife beater when drunk but insisted she join him on the trip to the Pacific.  He married  Marie L’Aguivoise (Laguivoise) aka Ohioise (1786-1850) Iowa Indian 
In January 1814, while the trappers were going about their business, a band of angry Snake Indians in revenge of the murder  of a Nez Perces hanged by John Clarke (1781-1858) for stealing a metal cup, Bannock or Nez Perce natives massacred Dorion along with most of Reed’s group.  Upon hearing the news that the Snakes had burned one of the houses, Marie set out with her children to warn her husband but, not being able to warn him in time, found only one dying survivor, Giles Leclerc. After finding the rest of the party murdered, scalped and cut to pieces, Marie and her two children set out and lived out the winter hiding in the Blue Mountains. 
After tremendous hardships, surviving cold and starvation, she returned to the Columbia area and safety. The widow Marie called Madame Dorion subsequently married two more fur traders and lived in Walla Walla and the Willamette Valley. She died September 3, 1850 but her Snake Country survival story has become legendary.  After the death of Pierre, with whom she had three children: 
    Paul Dorion Metis (1809-1889), 
    unnamed Metis son (b. Dec. 30, 1811, d. Jan. 7, 1812) 
    Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis (1813-1850), married 1845 Josephine Walla Walla
Marie married 1814 Louis Joseph Vagnier/Venier, with whom she had a daughter, 
    Marguerite Venier Metis (1815-1858), 
and later, Jean Baptiste Toupin (1792-1862), with whom she had a son 
    François Toupin Metis (c.1824-?) and daughter, 
    Marianne/Marie Anne Toupin Metis b-1827-?). 1st married David Gervais d-1853; 2nd marriage 1857 Francois Robideau 
Marie L’Aguiviose died on September 3, 1850 and was buried in the Old Catholic cemetery at St. Louis, Oregon.

Francois Ducharquette Metis born Prairie du Chien (Wisconsin) joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1812) & NWC (1813-1819) Columbia District, married 1818 Marguerite Okanogan, one child is recorded:
     Francois Ducharquette Metis Jr. (1819-1862)

(I)-George Kirby Gay (1797-1882) joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1812) to Columbia District.  He married three wives and eight children.
Louisa Hare aka Chehalis Worley
Mary Manson
Mary Ann Rubidow aka Marie Ann Toupin, married 1870

Antoine (Cuthbert) Gingras b-1771, employed NWC pre 1811to1818 Columbia District, (1818-1822) Red River.

Alexander Henry, the younger, (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791 wintered Rocky Mountain House and crossed the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) to trade with the Salish Indians in the Kootenay Region.

Kiakik (Keyackie) Finley, Metis, born 1811 Spokane, Washington son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis,  b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or one of the adopted children?.

Joseph Felix Larocque (La Roque) Metis/Iroquois Sr. b-1786/87 from Quebec joined XL Co (1801-1804) posting not known, NWC (1804-1821) posted 1811 Thompson Valley aka Kamloops; HBC (1821-1825)
    Joseph Flex Larocque Jr. Metis b-1802 

John Jacob Astor’s ship the Tonquin, arrives, and his men establish both a fort and his Pacific Fur Company trading headquarters at Astoria, Oregon. One of the young Canadians, Andre Longtain (1793/94-1879), hired by the Company as a trapper and boatsman, was also on board the Tonquin. Longtain was French Canadian, born in La Prairie, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, November 30, 1794.

Andre Lonctain aka (Longtain, Lonctin, Longtain and Longtin) (1793/94-1879) from St. Pierre, Montreal, Quebec, joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1817) Columbia District, employed NWC (1817-1819) in Columbia, HBC (1819-1827) Columbia and retired Willamette River,  married 1839 Nancy Okanagan,
    Henriette Longtain Metis (1824-1913) married Thomas Moison
    Catherine Longtain Metis (1825-1858 married John Howard, a tavern keep at Champoeg, who left before daughter was born
        Catherine Howard Metis
    Angelique Longtain Metis (1830-1887) married Francois Toupin son Madame Doron her third husband.
    Joseph Longtain Metis Sr. (1838-1859) married 1859 Marie Ducharme
        Joseph Lonctain Metis Jr.(1860-1862)
    Luce Longtain Metis married 1858 Joseph Osburn
        Andrew Allen Osburn Metis
    Genevieve Longtain Metis married Herbert McCann

Francois Lucier Sr. b-1770 employed NWC (1811-1812) Columbia District, NWC (1812-1821) Fort des Prairies, and HBC (1821-1829) Saskatchewan River.then freeman (1829-1868) Saskatchewan River
    Francois Lucier Metis Jr (1796-1866) NWC (1818-1821) Fort Des Prairies, HBC (1821-1842) Saskatchewan River, died Red River.
    Toussant Lucier Metis b-1798 Montreal joined NWC (1817-1821) location not listed, HBC (1821-1830) Red River 

(II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. Metis son (I)-Nicholas Montour Sr. d-1808 a shareholder in the NWC, (II)-Nicolas is employed NWC (1804-1817) posted this season to Columbia District, likely out of Spokane House..

Alexander McKay d-1811 son Donald McKay and Elspeth Kennedy joined NWC (1791-1808) was involved with (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) to the Pacific Ocean in 1793.  Joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1811) to Columbia District.  Alexander McKay had one wife and one or more children. McKay married Marguerite Wadin (1775-1860), the mixed descent daughter of Swiss fur-trader Etienne Wadin. Together they had son 
    Thomas McKay Metis (1797-1849), who became prominent in the Columbia fur trade. 
After McKay's death, widow Marguerite Wadin married Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857).

Thomas McKay Metis, (1797/98-1849) son Alexander McKay d-1811 and Marguerite Wadin, Metis, (1775-1860) epouse 1812 (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857); 
married 1st Timmee Chinook, 
    Joseph McKay b-1820
    Margaret (Marion) McKay b-1823
    William Cameron McKay Metis (1824-1895)
    Alexander McKay Metis, b-1825
    John T. McKay Metis, b-1824 +/-
    Donald McKay Metis 
2nd wife Umatilla Woman, number of children not known
3rd wife December 31, 1838, he married Isabelle Montour, the daughter of Nicholas Montour and Susanne Humpherville. Together they had five recorded children, 
    Marie McKay Metis,b-1839
    Thomas (McKay Metis, b-1842
    Catherine (McKay Metis b-1844 
    Elizabeth/Isabelle McKay Metis,(1846-1849) 
    Nicholas McKay Metis b-1849
 He was involved in the expeditions of Willamette Valley, Fraser River Valley, the Umpqua, Klamath Country and Snake River Valley, all in the Columbia District. 

Jean Amable McKay Metis joined NWC (1813-1819) Columbia District.

Sault Ste Marie, birth Thomas McKay Metis (1796-1850) son Alexander McKay and Marguerite Wadin Metis (daughter Jean Etienne Wadin, a Swiss fur trader and Cree girl); joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813); NWC (1813-1821) and HBC (1821-1838) Columbia District.  Married three times; 1st Timmee a Chinook daughter Concomly; 2nd Umatilla and 3rd Isabelle Montour.  They had 6 sons and 2 daughters.  In the 1820's he led expeditions into Mexico California 

(I)-John George McTavish, a Scot (1778-1847) employed NWC (1798-1821) then employed HBC (1821-1846), a most despicable man.  Montreal (1798-1893), (1803-1806) James Bay, (1808-1809) Fort Dunvegan (Alberta), (1810-1811) Montreal, (1811-1816) Columbia District  He was a bigamist who abandoned wives and children as he lived a life of debauchery.  

1st married about (1803-1806), Fort St. Andrews, James Bay, (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis (1788-1843) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Indian woman, they had two Metis children, John deserted them and Charlotte killed the two Metis children as a result.

2nd marriage about 1816, Fort Astoria aka Fort George, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis, daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and Indian Woman, they had 5 children
    (II)-Mary McTavish Metis b-1817 Athabaska
    (II)-Flora McTavish Metis bapt 1822 York Factory
    (II)-Marharet McTavish Metis bapt 1823 York Factory married Courtney Meade Walker (1804-1887)
    (II)-Ann McTavish bapt 1826 York Factory
    (II)-Grace McTavish Metis bapt 1826 York Factory
He then abandoned Nancy and children in 1830,

3rd marriage February 22, 1830, Moose Factory, Hudson Bay, Catherine Turner, d-1841, they had 2 children
    (II)-Elizabeth McTavish Metis
    (II)-Frances McTavish

4th marriage March 1843, Lake of Two Mountains, Chats District, (II)-Elizabeth Cameron Metis, d-1855 the niece of Chief Factor (I)-Angus Cameron (1782/85-1876).  They had two children
    (II)-Georgia McTavish Metis
    (II)-Alexandria McTavish Metis 

The abandonment of his mixed descent wives did not hold him in good stead with his fellow fur trade officers It was a common practice among the Scots and English of early Canada to abandon wives and children when they transfer posts or to sell or assign wives to other company employees. 


Nicholas Montour Jr. Metis b-1790 Fort des Prairies (Fort Edmonton) son Nicholas Montour Sr. d-1808 a shareholder of NWC and Cree girl, joined NWC (1800-1811) east of Rockies (1811-1821) HBC (1821-1839) Columbia District, settling Willamette 1841.  Nicholas Montour appears to have had three wives and numerous children, seven of which were recorded. One early wife was Marguerite, Cree, their child being 
    Louis Bob Montour Metis b-1825
Another early wife was Anne Fabeau, Humpherville Metis, the children being 
    Toussaint Montour Metis b-1825 
    George Montour Metis 
    Louis Montour Metis  On June 10, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Marie Anne/Susanne Humpherville (1791-1846); their recorded children were 
    Caroline Montour Metis b-1822
    Isabelle Montour Metis married 1838 Fort Vancouver Thomas McKay (1797/98-1849)
    Maria Montour Metis (1829-1841) 
    Marguerite Montour Metis b-1834

Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) employed NWC (1811-1821) ended up in Hunt overland part of 1810 out of Mackinac.  In 1813, October he is listed in the Pacific Fur Co.? then HBC (1821-1847)

Andre Picard (1781-1846) employed NWC (1800-1821) assigned 1811 in Columbia District.  With HBC (1821-1842) in Columbia District, Thompson River and finally Willamette Valley (Oregon).  However he was first recorded in New Caledonia in 1811.  Activity before this date not recorded.
He first married an Indian woman and had at least one child:
    Emilee Picard Metis (1822-1900)_
2nd marriage about 1825 Marie/Marguerite Okanooan country marriage formalized January 21, 1839, espouse 1846 Cuthbert Robillard b-1810: Children recorded include:  
    Marie/Marguerate Picard Metis 
    Jean Baptiste Picard, Metis b-1830; 
    Basile Picard, Metis (1832-1843); 
    Regis Picard, Metis b-1836 who married (II)- Marie Adele Petit (1838-1873), daughter (I)- Amable Petit (1793/03-1867)  and Susanne Tawakon;     
    Henri Picard, Metis who married Celeste Rochbrune; 
    Emile Picard, Metis, he settled Willamette 1836 

Jean Baptiste Petit (Gobin) (1811-1898) son Antoine Gobin and Angelique Gaucher of St. Michel de Yamaska, Quebec, joined HBC (1831-1841) Columbia District, settled Willamette.   Jean Baptiste Petit (Gobin) had three wives and nine or more children. By the time he had settled in the Willamette, he and an unnamed Indian woman had two sons, 
    Toussaint Petit Metis (1835-?) and 
    Jean Baptiste (II) Petit Metis (1837-1858). 
On August 23, 1841 he married Marguerite Vernier (c.1819-58); their children were: 
    François Xavier Petit Metis b-1842 
    Angelique Petit Metis (1845-1873), 
    Julie Petit Metis (1849-1876), 
    Isabelle Petit Metis b-1851-?) 
    Antoine Petit Metis (1854-1854)
    Joseph Petit Metis b-1856 
His wife Marguerite died at St. Louis on May 7, 1858 and ten years later he married Elizabeth Depot on June 1, 1868 at St. Louis.

Andre Picard (1781-1846) from St. Thomas, Quebec, joined NWC (1800-1821) assingned (1811-1813) Columbia District, (1813-1821) New Caledonia and Columbia Districts, HBC (1821-1836) Columbia District, settled Willamette.   André Picard had two wives and at least five children. With his first wife, who had died before 1839, he no doubt had at least one daughter, most likely 
    Emelie Picard Metis (1822-1900) for by 1827 was noted by Simpson as having a wife and two girls. 
    Unnamed Metis girl
2nd marriage Marie/Marguerite Okanogan as his wife probably around 1830 and formalized his marriage on January 21, 1839. His recorded children with Marie/Marguerite were 
    Jean Baptiste Picard Metis b-1830
    Basile Picard Metis (1832-1843) 
    Regis Picard Metis b-1836 married (II)-Marie Adele Petit (1838-1873), daughter of (I)-Amable Petit (1797/03-1867) and Susanne Tanakon d-1878
    Henri Picard Metis  (married Celeste Rochbrune),

 (I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856) and David Stuart of the Pacific Fur Company visited Cum Cloups later called Fort Kamloops, B.C..looking for a site for a fort.  They traded for 2,500 beaver skins that were sold to China for large profits.

A Spanish Metis this year claims to be the child of a sailor that survived a Spanish shipwreck.

The first two-dozen Kanakas (Hawaiian) recruited to work the Pacific North West arrived this year.  Nearly every post had had a contingent of Kanakas, noted for their reliability, cheerful dispositions and hard work.  There is a Kanakas legend that when they first saw the Salt Spring Islands it reminded them of the Hawaiian Islands and some jumped ship and swam to shore.

The Pacific Fur Company ship Tonquin, of 290 tons, under command of Captain Jonathan Thron, with a crew of 20 men, 13 of whom are Canadian Voyagers landed Falkland Islands to take on water, on her way to the Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  The passengers scattered in all directions on exploratory expeditions of their own.  Some did not return on time and delayed sailing, they were beaten for their tardyness.  Their next stop was the Hawaiian Islands, where they recruited 12 Kanaka (Hawaiian) Natives.

Captain Cornelious Sonles sailed for the Columbia River, Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) with another contingent for the Pacific Fur Company that included John Clarke (1781-1858), Benjamin Clapp d-1852, Halsey, Nicolls, Seton, Ehninger and Ross Cox.  Henry Willetts died of scurvy on the trip.

Fort Okanogan, (1811-1860) established in 1811 by David Stuart for the Pacific Fur Company, was the third settlement in what is now the State of Washington.  Fort Okanogan (spelled Oakinagan by Ross Cox) was located on the East bank of the Okanogan river just above it's entrance into the Columbia River.  (II)-Joseph McGillivray Metis (1790-1832) became a partner in the North West Company in 1813 and from that year on was in charge of Fort Okanogan.  In 1821 he became a chief trader and seven years later (1828?) was transferred to New Caledonia.  Fort Spokane was built Freetraders 1810, Fort Astoria built 1811 by PFC, Willamette Post (Oregon) built PFC 1811.  His wife is not listed but two Metis sons Simon and Joseph were recorded

Pacific Fur Company established the first trading post in the Willametta Valley (Willamette Valley, Oregon) Columbia District..

The Pacific Fur Company Employees at the Columbia River Fort Astoria (Fort George) are mostly Canadians and are as follows: 

Antoine Belleau, 
Jean Baptiste Belleau, 
Bazile Brousseau, 
Pierre Brugiere, 
George Cone, 
Joseph Cote aka Cotte, 
John Coxe aka Nawkane a Kanaka (Hawaiian Native) along with 11 other Kanaka
Ross Cox, 
John Day, 
Joseph Delauney, 
Pierre Delaunay, 
Jean Baptiste Delorme, 
Louis Dinnelle aka Dinelle, 
Pierre Dorion, 
Jean Baptiste Dubreuil d-1849, 
Francois Duchoquette aka Dechouquette, (1819?-1863) married Marie Marquerite Okanogan
Andre Dufresne, 
Russell Farnham, 
Prisque Felix, 
Gabriel Franchere, (1786-1863) 
Jean Baptiste Gardipie, 
Joseph Gervais, 
J. Cook Halsey, 
John Hoback aka Hobough, 
Francis William Hodgkins aka Hodgens, 
Charles Jacouette, 
Paul Den Jeremie, 
Jean Baptiste Labonte, 
Louis Labonte Sr., 
Andrie Lachapelle (1781-1881), 
Michel Laframboise, (1788-1861) married 1839 Emilie Picard 
Louis Laliberte, 
Francois Landry, 
Joseph Landry, 
Joseph La Pierre, 
Louis La Valle, 
Giles Leclere, 
Alexis Le Compte, 
Andre Longtain b-1794, 
William Matthews, 
Duncan McDougall, 
Donald McGillis, 
Alexander MacKay d-1811 had departed with Captain Jonathan Thorn, d-1811 on trading up the coast
Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849)  son of Alexander MacKay d-1811 & Marguerite Wadden, Metis who later married 1812, (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857)
Jean Baptiste Ouvre, 
Francis Benjamin Pillette, 
John Reid (Reed), 
(I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856), identified the value of the Willama Falls, Columbia District, (Willamette Falls, Oregon)
Alfred Seton, 
Joseph Samant, 
David Stuart, father of Robert Stuart
Robert Stuart (1785-1848) is credited with being the first to blaze the Oregon Trail after Fort Astoria was acquired by NWC in 1813
Jonathan Thorn d-1811 captain of the Tonquin 
William Wallace.  

Louis Labonte Sr. of the Pacific Fur Company married a Columbia Indian Woman daughter Clatsop chief Coboway.

Other traders in the Oregon Territory are:   
Regis Brugiere, 
William Cannon, aka Canning & Cannon (1763-1854) was employed by the Pacific Fur Company at Fort Astoria, NWC (1813-1821), .
Alexander Carson, 
Ramsay Crooks, 
Pierre Detaye, 
Francois Fripagnier, 
Wilson Price Hunt, 
Benjamin Jones, 
Michel Lanson, 
Basil Lapensee, 
Ignace Lapensee, 
Francois Le Clere, 
Guillaume Leroux, 
Mr Louis,  
John McDonald N.W.C.
Alexander McKay d-1811, 
Jean Baptiste Dupate dit Desportes aka (McKay, McKie, McRoy) (1793-1853) settled French Prairie with wife and family
Andrew McKenzie, 
Donald McKenzie, 
Donald McTavish d-1814, N.W.C
J. George McTavish, N.W.C
Joseph Miller, 
John M. Mumford, 
Antoine Papin, 
Joseph St. Martin, (1786-1825)
Alexander Stewart N.W.C.
Robert Stuart 
Andrew Valle.

Joseph St. Martin (1786-1825) of the N.W.C. arrived at Fort Astoria (Fort George) at the mouth of the Columbia River and married a Chinook Woman (Tchinouk) 
    Genevieve St. Martin bapt 1839.

The French Metis in Columbia District renamed the Willima Valley to the Willimette Valley.  All three nations of the Kalapuya Indians called it the Willima place for years.  The French likely combined Willima + Metis = Willimette.  The Kalapuya had a village near Eugene (Oregon) at this time.

February 28:  The Pacific Fur Company ship Tonquin, under command of Captain Jonathan Thron, departed Hawaiian chief whom he called 'a grasping, trafficking savage as shrewd and sordid in his dealings as a white man."  They departed for the Oregon Territory with 24 Hawaiian aboard on a 3 year contract and finds them to be excellent sailors with superb swimming, diving and boat-handling abilities. A year later he recruits 26 more Hawaiian islanders to work for the company.

March 18:   Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccan (1789-1850) Metis of the NWC at New Caledonia, B.C. married a Carrier (Dene) chiefs Qua (Kwah) daughter and had a second marriage 1817 to Nancy McDougall Metis daughter James McDougall and had 17 Metis children, Jane b-1818, Sophie b-1820, Jean Baptiste b-1822 and Francois b-1824.  Daniel Williams Harmon beat Boucher for asking for a promotion after his first marriage.  This is likely why he abandoned his first wife for a second more acceptable marriage to further his career.  It is noteworthy that Harmon was married to a Metis woman named Lizette a French/Cree.

March 22:   Captain Jonathan Thorn, d-1811 a dictatorial captain of the ship Tonquin arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon Territory to build Fort Astoria..  He had earned the enmity of the fun-loving French-Canadian and Scottish fur traders.  He dispatched a small boat to find the channel, but the five men were lost, three of whom were the French Canadians. In a second attempt he lost another three men: Job Aiken, John Coles, Ebenezer D. Fox and John Martin.  Captain Jonathan Thorn offloaded the Pacific Fur Company employees, but not all the supplies, before sailing for Vancouver Island to trade on June 5.  It is believed his men disserted because of his harsh treatment.

April, Columbia River, Fort Astoria (Fort George), Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) reported the arrival of ready-cut lumber for construction of a 30 ton vessel, that they started on right away.

April 12:  Duncan McDougall's leadership was not appreciated by the men.  A few men tried to desert.  Men began clearing brush and cutting huge trees at the post's site. On May 18 they named the post "Fort Astoria", Columbia District (Oregon Territory). 

May 22:  Daniel Williams Harmon (1778-1845), of the North West Company, on May 22, 1811, planted potatoes and “sowed barley, turnips &c,’ the first ever sowed on the west side of the Rockies in what is now British Columbia.

June 1:   Captain Jonathan Thorn of the sloop ship Tonquin of Fort Astoria, Columbia River, with a crew of 23 men and an Indian interpreter named Lamazee, is taken by the Indians, likely in Clayoquot Sound, Tofino, Vancouver Island.  He antagonized the Natives (Nuuk-mis) and they killed him and his crew, and the crew destroyed the ship and the supplies that should have been off-loaded at the Columbia River.  The crew hoped to kill many natives and to deny them a prize, by blowing up the ship in the Nootka area of Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island .  They killed about 200 natives.  The ship was owned by John Jacob Astor.  It is believed the anchor and some trade goods were recovered in 2003.  The descendents of Nuuk-mis claim the traders had been abusing the People and that was why the ship was attacked.  Captain Jonathan Thorn d-1811 refused to heed the warning of Alexander MacKay d-1811 that because of the abuse of the natives their lives were in peril.  It's noteworthy that Alexander MacKay d-1811was considered as the leader and founder of Fort Astoria.  Jack Ramsey an English/Chinook Metis was part of the crew and they picked up interpreter Joseachal at Gray's Harbor who was originally from Nootka Sound.  Only Joseachal survived to tell the tale.

June:  Francois Desjarlais, his wife and four children drowned in the Columbia District.  Louis Pacquin, wife and child suffered the same fate.

June:  Louis Pacquin HBC (1811-1814) Columbia District lost his wife and Metis child in the rapids of the Salsesh River along with Francois Desjarlais, his wife and 4 Metis children.

July: (I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) returned from his Columbia expedition to Edmonton House.  They had furs valued at £1,500 at a cost of £576  The HBC however did not conduct trade over the mountains until after the 1821 merger with the NWC

July to September Francois Benjamin Pillet with the PFC with David Stewart departed Fort Astoria (Fort George) to explore the interior.

July 15:   (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857), with a party of 9, five French Canadians, two Iroquois (Mohawks) and two Kootenay Indians, reached the mouth of the Columbia River to find John Jacob's Astor, b-1763,  Fur Company had arrived a few weeks earlier.  The party of the United States had built Fort Astonia at the mouth of the Columbia River.  Thompson was unaware that the agreement between the American Fur Company and the North West Company to jointly support the voyage had fallen through.  Thompson had not been ordered to reach the mouth of the river first.

Fall:  Joseph Felix Larocque (La Roque) Metis/Iroquois b-1786/87 Quebec, of the North West Company (1804-1821) explored the Thompson Valley.  He could speak several Indian languages.  He also worked for XL Co. (1801-1804) but location not recorded but likely east of Rockies

Jean Baptiste Lamoureux a Creole Metis d-1814, from Louisiana joined NWC (1808-1814) at Maskinoonge, Quebec. 
In 1808/1809 he traveled with David Thompson (1770-1857) and Alexander Henry (1764-1814) from Boggy Hall/White Earth house to the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  Boggy Hall Post is on the North Saskatchewan just above Blue Rapids at the mouth of the Brazeau River.
September 28, 1811 he went down the Columbia from Canoe River to meet (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851).
August 5, 1814 he departed Fort George, Columbia District with Ross Cox party for the Dalles where they were attacked by the Indians and Lamoureux was killed.

October 11; Columbia River,  Fort Astoria (Fort George) a shallop named Dolly was launched. named after John Jacob Astor's daughter.

December:  Francois Benjamin Pillet, Robert Stauart (1785-1848) and Donald McGillis with the PFC joined Robert Stewart's party to investigate a possible post on the Willamette River  Before 1816, Robert Stuart married Elizabeth Emma Sullivan with whom he had nine Metis children.  




Pacific Fur Company built She-wapps post (1812-1814) in the Okanogan/Thompson River region.

Jacques Cardinal aka Cardinalle & Cardinel Metis b-1772 employed NWC before 1809 but assigned Fort des Prairies (1811-1812) then Columbia District (1812-1822), HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District, (1822-1826) Lesser Slave Lake.  He had a wife and one son in 1809, daughter 1832.  See below, not sure that is correct

Jacques Cardinal Sr. aka Cardinalle & Cardinel b-1772 of St. Genevieve, Quebec traveled from Fort des Prairies to Columbia District for the North West Company until the merger in 1821 then with HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District.  (If the Jacques Cardinalle from St. Laurent, Lower Canada who wrote his will on June 26, 1829 at Norway House is the same as the above, then his children were Jacques , Joseph  and Angelique .  If he died in 1829 can't have a daughter in 1832?  Like two different Jacques??

John Clarke, (1781-1852) a Canadian working for the Pacific Fur Company built Fort Spokane near present city of Spokane, Washington and near the already located post of the North West Co. 

Jean Baptiste Dupate dit Desportes aka (McKay, McKie, McRoy) (1793-1853) is at Fort George (B.C.) he worked for NWC/HBC on and off but was classified as a free trader.

Louis Labonte (La Bonte) (1788-1860) from La Prairoe, Quebec, joined the Pacific Fur Company at St. Louis, Missouri (1808-1812), he arrived Columbia District 1812, It is not known where he spent 1808-1910 or his pre-1808 years, he joined NWC (1813-1821) and HBC (1821-1836) and commenced farming in 1830 Willamette, Columbia District (Oregon).   Louis Labonté married Marguerite or, Kilakota (Little Songbird) (1800-1860), the daughter of Chief Coboway, Clatsop. 1st married William Matthaws, abandoned, 2nd marriage (I)-James McMillian a bigmast, abandoned,  3rd marriage Louis Labonte.   Three of the several Labonte children were: 
    Louis Laboute Metis, 
    Julienne Laboute Metis b-1838 
    Caroline Laboute Metis b-1840
One step-daughter was Victoire McMillan Metis b-1822.

Joseph Laroque, Metis of N.W.C. blazed a trail from New Caledonia to Fort Thompson (Kamloops).  He built a fort at Kamloops Indian Reserve.

Louis Lavalle (1786-1828) of Sorel, Quebec was associated with Pacific Fur Company, NWC and as a freeman (1812-1821) in Columbia District then HBC (1821-1826) & (1826-1828) a freeman.  He was killed by the Blackfoot.  Louis Laval had sons by Thérèse Spokane b-1810, who later married Pierre Grenier d-1830 and Joseph Cournoillè who settled French Prairie, Oregon Territory..
    Martial Lavalle Metis b-1818
    Pierre Lavaille Metis (1821-1844) 

(I)-John George McTavish, a Scot (1778-1847) employed NWC (1798-1821) then employed HBC (1821-1846), a most despicable man.  Montreal (1798-1803), (1803-1806) James Bay, (1808-1809) Fort Dunvegan (Alberta), (1810-1811) Montreal, (1811-1816) Columbia District  He was a bigamist who abandoned wives and children as he lived a life of debauchery.  

1st married about (1803-1806), Fort St. Andrews, James Bay, (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis (1788-1843) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Indian woman, they had two Metis children, John deserted them and Charlotte killed the two Metis children as a result.

2nd marriage about 1814/16, Fort Astoria aka Fort George, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis, daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and Indian Woman, they had 5 children
    (II)-Mary McTavish Metis b-1817 Athabaska
    (II)-Flora McTavish Metis bapt 1822 York Factory, married (I)-Thomas Fraser (1777-1849)
    (II)-Margaret McTavish Metis bapt 1823 York Factory married Courtney Meade Walker (1804-1887)
    (II)-Ann McTavish bapt 1826 York Factory
    (II)-Grace McTavish Metis bapt 1826 York Factory
    (II)-Catherine Turner Metis d-1841, married 1830
        Elizabeth Turner Metis 
        Francois Turner Metis     
He then abandoned Nancy and children in 1830,
3rd marriage 1819/1820 Scotland, Catherine A. Turner, d-1841, they had 2 children
    (II)-Elizabeth McTavish Metis
    (II)-Frances McTavish
4th marriage March 1843, Lake of Two Mountains, Chats District, (II)- Elizabeth Cameron Metis, d-1855 the niece of Chief Factor (I)-Angus Cameron (1782/85-1876).  They had two children
    (II)-Georgia McTavish Metis
    (II)-Alexandria McTavish Metis 
The abandonment of his mixed descent wives did not hold him in good stead with his fellow fur trade officers It was a common practice among the Scots and English of early Canada to abandon wives and children when they transfer posts or to sell or assign wives to other company employees.  Women were considered as commodities by the Scots and the HBC.


(II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. Metis, son (I)-Nicholas Montour Sr. d-1808 a shareholder in the NWC, (II)-Nicolas is employed NWC (1804-1817) posted this season and next at Spokane House, Columbia District.

Jacques Ostiserico an assumed Iroquois from Quebec, a free trader associated NWC (1812-1814) Kootney and Columbia District, assiciate with HBC (1821-1825) Columbia District and joined American Party 1825 and was recorded at Weber River (Utah).

Another 26 Kanaka (Hawaiian) Natives arrived Fort Astoria, Columbia District as employees of the Pacific Fur Company.

The Pacific Fur Company built a trading post 1/4 mile upstream from free traders Spokane House but soon sold it to the NWC, it was called Fort Flathead (1812-1814) because it was in the Flathead area..

Pacific Fur Company built Fort Spokane (1812-1814)

The Pacific Fur Company built the first trading post in Willamette Valley and called it Wallace House (1812-1814), they also built Donald McKenzies Outpost (1812-1813)

Ingnace Shonowane an Iroquois (Mohawks) trader is the first Easterner to reach the mouth of the Columbia River over land. He had quit the North West Company post at Spokane River in 1812 to join the United States post at the Columbia River's mouth. Many of his brothers followed, so many that by 1818 they made up 1/3 of the Companies employees in the District.   By 1818 nearly a third on the Companies employees in the Columbia District were Iroquois Metis traders.

Jacques Raphael (Jacko & Jocko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) was in charge of the Spokane House until this time.

Aleksandr Baranov (1747-1819) of the Russian-American Fur Company built Fort Ross, a fortified village north of San Francisco. Spanish officials objected to the Russian presence, but they lacked sufficient military force to back up their objections. The Russians professed to believe that San Francisco was the northern limit to Spain's claim of exclusive right of settlement in Spanish California

The Pomos People in Bodega Bay near Fort Ross resisted the Russian enslavement and sexual exploitation of their women but their population was greatly reduced by murder, debilitating labor and disease.

On Baranov's orders (by now the first Governor of Russian America), Ivan Kuskov founded Fort Ross in an area to the North of San Francisco. Fort Ross served as a trading post and a source of agricultural products for Russian America in Alaska. Kuskov's wife, Elizabeth, must be given much credit for the success of Fort Ross. She mastered the language of Indian tribes living in the lands adjoining Fort Ross and established extremely cordial relations with them. Russian soldiers and settlers from the fort could roam the surrounding woods without any fear of being scalped by the Indians. Spaniards, on the other hand, from San Francisco and Catholic missions, would always travel armed and in groups.

January 18:  Donald McKenzie, Robert McLellan and John Reed plus 8 others of the Wilson Price Hunt expedition of 54 men reached Fort Astoria overland from New York.

February 15:  The Astor expedition arrived Fort Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River being led by Mr Hunt, 30 men, one woman the wife of Pierre Dorian and their two children.  The total party was originally 54 men but they broke up into four groups.  John Day was not in this group and was considered demented but eventually recovered.  However on his return trip to the east he again became demented and lost his life because he became violent. 

February 19:  Charles Boucher joined the Pacific Fur Company with W.P. Hunt expedition Montreal June 5, 1810 to the west.  By August 1, 1810 they were at Mackinac and arrived Pacific coast at Fort Astoria February 19, 1812.  He joined NWC 1813 assigned to Spokane House.

May 9:  Fort Astoria, John Clarke (1781-1858) son Simon Clarke and Ann Waldorf of Montreal, employed NWC (1804-1810), employed Pacific Fur Company (1811-1812), founded Spokane House to appose James McMillan of NWC.  Joined HBC (1814-1835)  and became Chief Factor in 1821 and George Simpson apposed, he retired and died Montreal in poverty.   During his lifetime, John Clarke had three wives. He appears to have had a Metis daughter with Josephte Kankopitsa. In 1815 he became the husband of Sapphira Spense, the mixed descent daughter of Joseph Spense and a native woman, for a settlement of £200. They had no children, probably due to her illness, and she was taken to live at Clarke’s father’s house where she died. After she died, Clarke married a Swiss woman Mary Ann Trutter (?) [Trauclar] (c.1803-1906+), in Montreal in 1820. Their first four children, Simon (1824-?), William (1826-?), Caroline (1827-?) and Priscilla (1830-?) all died as infants or as youths. Subsequent children were Adele Priscilla Cecilia (c.1830s-?), William Tidy (c.1830s-1906), John (1837-1899) and Louise Waldorf (?-?).

May 11:  The last of the Wilson Price Hunt expedition arrived Fort Astoria, Ramsey Cook and John Day.  They only made it through the kindness of the Umatilla people. 

May 12:  (I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856) returns to Cum Cloups and builds Fort Kamloops, B.C..

May:   The supply ship Beaver of the Pacific Fur Company arrived the mouth of the Columbia River with much needed supplies.

June 29:  The Pacific Fur Company at Fort Astoria, Oregon Territory discovered the fur trade was not as lucrative as they once thought.  They found the Indians were not friendly or their leaders lacked the basic skills to win them over.  The majority of the Expedition set out for home.  The party consisted of three proprietors, nine clerks, 55 Canadians, 20 Sandwich Islanders and Messrs. Crooks, McLelland and R. Stewart.  Messrs. Wilson Price Hunt, Duncan McDougall, Benjamin Clapp d-1852, Halsey, Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) and six others remained at Fort Astoria.   

June end: Francois Benjamin Pillet with the PFC joined John Clarke's party to found Spokane House.  

July:  David Thompson and nine men of the Northwest Fur Company arrived the Pacific Fur Companies Fort Astoria, Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) and stayed a month.  They said they were scouting for a fort location.

August:  The Indians reported the ship Tonquin had been taken by the Nootka Indians.  It appears the Captain Thorn of the ship Tonquin had struck one of the chiefs of the Nootka for alleged theft.  Alaxander McKay d-1811 of the Tonquin was living among the Nootka at the time and informed Captain Thorn that the natives were insulted and were determined to take the ship.  Captain Thorn just laughed at this threat.  Canoes full of Nootka arrived with furs to trade and Alexander McKay d-1811 again warned the Captain Thorn the Indians were dangerous.  Captain Thorn laughted and said he had enough fire power to deal with twice this number of savages.  Thorn and Alexander McKay d-1811 were the first to be dispatch then the crew followed shortly there after.  John Anderson, John Weeks and Stephen Weekes made the relative safety of a secure cabin where fire arms were stored.  They said they would leave the ship in peace if they were allowed.  Anderson rigged a fuse to the ships supply of powder and escaped unmolested out a window to a small boat.  The Nootka swarmed the ship intent on stripping the ship when it exploded killing 200 Nootka and wounding another 200.   Anderson and company could not clear the bay because the tides were running against them and were dispatch by the Nootka that night.  

September:  David Stuart, a Scott, for the American Pacific Fur Company built Fort She-waps near the confluence of the North and South Thompson (Kamloops).  Then Joseph Felix Larocque, Metis,  b-1786/87 Quebec, and McDonell of the North West Company was quick to establish a fort nearby, Fort Thompson is established this year and was later called Fort Kamloops then just Kamloops (B.C.)

November 23; William Wallace and John Cook Halsey d-1837 and 14 men of the Pacific Fur Company established a trading post called Wallace House (1812-1814) near the future site of Salem on the French Prairie also later called Wallamette Valley. (I)-John Reed d-1814 and Alfred Seton (1793-1859), fellow Astorians, spent the winter with them and returned to Fort Astoria in March 1813.  Wallace House was replaced by Willamette Post in 1813.

December Joseph Felix Laroque (1787-1866) was at the post on the Thompson River [Kamloops], constructed in opposition to the Pacific Fur Company post right next door.


NWC built Kootenai House (1813-1821) on the Kootney River.
The Pacific Fur Company built Kootney Fort (1813-1814) on the Kootney River. 
The Pacific Fur Company built John Reed's Post (1813-1844) in Snake River area.

The NWC built Willamette Post (1813-1830's in Willamette Valley to compete against the Wallace House built 1812.

NWC built Thompson River Post (1813-1821)

Pierre Bercier Sr. (1778-1830/33) of the N.W.C. is at Spokane House, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) as boatman and horse keeper.

Registre Bellaire, a free trader and former employee of the Northwest Fur Company, traveled with John Day, and Alexander Carson, both former employees of Astor's Pacific Fur Company, into the Willamette Valley. The men hunted with William Cannon and traded for furs during the winter of 1813-14 working as free trappers along the Willamette River.  The NWC built the Willamette Trading Post near the Willamette River S.E. of Newberg, (Columbia District, aka Oregon Territory).  He departed Columbia District with his Metis family, April 4, 1814 with the Fort William/Montreal brigade east bound.

Angus Bethune Metis (1783-1858) sailed on the Isaac Todd to China to further learn the business.  He joined NWC (1804-1821) & HBC (1821-1839) He returned in 1814 as a partner of the North West Company in Columbia (1814-1817).

Micheal Bourdon d-1823 Salmon River (Idaho) likely a Metis was a free man working the Columbia District before 1813 when he was hired by NWC as an interpreter at Fort Connah, Saleesh House for the Columbia District.  In 1819 he explored and named the Bear River (Utah).  He worked on and off for HBC (1821-1823) and was killed with 5 others including Finan McDonald (1782-1851) in Snake Country Salmon River (Idaho) by the Blackfoot.  

Thomas Canasawarrette Iroquois (Mohawks) (1793-1832) Columbia District joined NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1832) Columbia District,  He married a native from the Dalles and had two children:
    Marie Canasawarrette Iroquois who married Chadot Tsete (Charles Tchietel)
    Ignace Canasawarrette Iroquois b-1818 joined HBC (1838-1839) settled Willamette 1841

Pierre Cawanarde a Metis or Indian joined NWC 1813 at Bas de la Riviere ( Lake Winnipeg) for Columbia District. He was again at Fort George 1814.

Joseph Cire likely Metis joined NWC (1813-1821) - HBC (1821-1823) Columbia and New Caledonia Districts.

Patric Conner d-1824 a freeman went to the Columbia District to claim Fort George for the NWC.  He was associated with the NWC at Athabasca in 1813.  In 1824 he joined a group of seven Americans to steal horses from a normally friendly Snake Indians.  The were caught in the act and Conner and the 7 Americans were killed.

(I)-Peter Corney (1789-1835) served West Indies and Columbia/London run to 1834 and received permission to bring Wife Francois Lodger d-1874 whom he married on ship and to settle them in Fort Vancouver with their four children.  Widow Francois retired to Hawaii and opened a boarding house.  This family is unique because the HBC Committee resolved that he "be allowed to take his wife and four children A.1/59 fo. 69d-70 out in the vessel to remain in the Country; his wife to mess with him at the Captain’s table, the children in the steerage and that he be charged at and after every rote for three persons say 4 s. 6 d. p. diem for the whole; further that they be no expence to the Company for their maintenance in the Country, it being understood that the Chief Factor in charge may engage Mrs. Corney in any capacity, for the education of the Natives or any other that she may be qualified for."
    (II)-Anne Corney b-1821
    (II)-Peter Minors Corney (1824-1876)
    (II)-Sara Francois Corney (1826-1901)
    (II)-Emily Handley Foster Carney (1834-1876)

Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir (1790/91-1851) from Yamaska, Quebec joined NWC (1811-1821) worked (1811-1813) Fort William, wintered (1813-1814) Willamette Columbia District, HBC (1821-1837) Columbia District, settled Cowlitz (1837-1842)  Cottenoire had two wives and five children. 
He appears to have married a Chehalis native woman, (Tchialis aka Tchinouk Woman). by whom he had 
    Michel Cottenoire Jr. Metis (1820-1854), son of a Tchinouk woman was bapt 1840, married 1842 Sophie Plamondon Metis daughter Simon Plamondon (1796/1800-1900) & Victoria Scanewa (Thas-e-muth) a Cowlitz 
    Lisette Cottenoire Metis b-1821/22 of a Tchialis woman, married 1839 Pierre Laplante dit Badillac
after her death, he united with Marie Ketse’ b-1818 bapt 1840, on September 13, 1835 which was formalized on April 8, 1839. Together they had three children, 
    Edouard Cottenoire Metis b-1831/32,  mother was a woman of the country, bapt 1838
    David Cottenoire Metis b-1836/37, mother was a woman of the country, bapt 1838
    Marie Cottenoire Metis b-1840

(III)-James Raphael Finley Metis (1794-1853/54), of Alberta is at Spokane this year along with (II)-Old Jac Rap Finlay (1768-1828) and (III)- Bonhomme Finlay all likely the sons (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.  (II)-Rap Jun Finlay and Thorburn Finlay (1768-1828) are at Fort George and also likely the sons (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) of Alberta.  The location of Miquam Raphael Finlay who was born Alberta is unknown but he married Agnes Paul daughter Aenas (Big Knife) Iroquois (Mohawks) Paul and Mary Ukupa one hoof.

(III)-James Raphael Finlay Metis (1794-1854), joined HBC (1813-1814) at Spokane house, James appeared to have one wife, Susanna Matilda/Susan Bryere/Susan Dupuis. On May 17, 1844, James and Susan were married at La Port d’Enfer [Hellgate, Montana]. Fifteen of their children were 
     (IV)-Abraham Finlay Metis  (1819-1912), 
     (IV)-Catherine Finlay Metis b-1823/1834
     (IV)-Elizabeth Finlay Metis b-1824
     (IV)-Louise/Aloysia/Ludavica Finlay Metis b-1826
     (IV)-Nancy/Anna Finlay Metis b-1827 
     (IV)-Pierre/Pial/Peter Finlay Metis b-1828
     (IV)-Mary Annr Finlay Metis b-1832
     (IV)-Johnr Finlay Metis b-1832
     (IV)-Jeanner Finlay Metis b-1833
     (IV)-Sophier Finlay Metis b-1834 
     (IV)-Josephine/Josette/Suzetter Finlay Metis b-1839
     (IV)-James/Jemmir Finlay Metis b-1840
     (IV)-William Finlay Metis b-1841
     (IV)-Nazaire/Nazon Finlay Metis b-1845
     (IV)-Joseph Finlay Metis 

Thorburn Finlay Metis joined NWC (1813-1814) Columbia District, he was to be freed from his contract in Fort Spokane in 1816.  This likely implies he was hired in Columbia District.. 

Etienne Gregoire Metis (1791-1867) son Etienne Gregoire Sr.  and Marie Savigny joined NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1842) Columbia Distrist, settler Willamette 1842.   At Fort Vancouver on June 24, 1842, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite, Kamloops (Shuswap [Shouchauabe]) (1790-1860). Their children were 
    Julie Gregoire Metis b-1819
    Antoine Gregoire Metis b-1823
    Sophie Gregoire Metis (1826-1900), 
    David Gregoire Metis b-1828
    Felix Gregoire Metis b-1830
    Thérèse Gregoire Metis b-1832 
    Simon Etienne Gregoire Metis b-1833

(I)-James Keith (1782-1851) and brother (I)-George Keith sons James Keith Sr. and Isabella Bruce of Scotland, they joined NWC April 29, 1800 and James worked (1800-1813) on the prairies and (1813-1821) Columbia District.  James Keith had two wives and at least two children. Early in his life he married the Metis daughter of Jean Baptiste Cadot with whom he had daughters 
    (I)-Helen Keith Metis b-1811
    (II)-Mary Keith Metis b-1814). 
He provided for them in a will written at Fort Chipewyan on January 19, 1820 with the following preamble: It having fallen to my lot (a most lamented and almost unavoidable consequence of the situation and country wherein I have passed such a lapse of time and which I trust will be viewed with that Christian indulgence, due to human frailty and imperfection) to have two reputed children, Helen and Mary whom I have adopted. He married his second cousin, Susan Angus on July 8, 1845.
(I)-James Keth came to Fort George [Astoria] with Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814) and Alexander Stewart, and wintered there

Michel Lafforte (Laforte, Ferte) (1788/94-1858/61) engage NWC 1810, 1st assigned to Fort des Prairies (Edmonton) 1811 before going to Columbia (1812-1815) & freeman with HBC 1821-1831) & freeman and one assignment Fort George, Caledonia (1813-1814), married (churched) 1839 Joseohte Nez Perce Chimbany
    Antoine Laforte Metis b-1827
    Oliver Laforte Metis (1829-1853)
    Michel  Laforte II Metis (1831-1889)
    Marie Laforte Metis (1835-1899)
    Catherine Laforte Metis b-1838
    Madeline  Laforte Metis (1840-1842)
    Pierre Laforte Metis  b-1843

(V)-Charles Loyer Metis son (IV)-Gregoire Loyer dit Desnoyers b-1759 and (IV)-Terese Trembly b-1766 Detroit, joined NWC 1804, Fort Des Prairies, NWC (1813-1814) Flathead Columbia, 1815 freeman at Fort William, freeman (1824-1825) Columbia  

Alexander Henry, the younger, (1764-1814) writes the Indians bring in large quantities of beeswax to trade.  It is believed to be dug out of the sand near this spot (Nehalim Bay, Oregon).  It is believed to be be from a sunk Spanish Galleon many years ago made from Asian honeybees.

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) for NWC (1831-1821) interpreter at Fort Astoria (Fort George) Columbia District.

Alexia Laprade (1796-1871) son Louis Lapard and Angelique Matte of Quebec, jointed NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1821-1842) settled Willamette 1842.   In 1827 he had an unnamed wife and no children at Thompson River. Her fate is unknown. 
On July 18, 1842, he formalized his marriage to Nancy/Anne Pion Metis (1824-1847), daughter of William Pion b-1815/16 and Charlotte Okanagan . Although Nancy/Anne claimed she was eighteen at the time, she may have been much younger. Together they had four children, 
    Rosalie Laprade Metis b-1838    
    Alexis Laprade Metis b-1842 
    Charlotte Laprade Metis b-1843
    Jean Laprade Metis b-1847
Nancy, whom the priests married as Nancy and buried as Anne, died of the measles on December 23, 1847 and was buried the following day. One month later, on January 31, 1848, after special dispensation, Laprade married Louise, Okanagan. Together they had 
    Marie Ann Laprade Metis  
    Thomas Laprade Metis (1850-1851), 
    Angelique Laprade Metis b-1857 
    Rose Laprade Metis b-1860

Etienne Loncton joined NWC 1812 Montreal and was assigned Willamette, Columbia District (1813-1814), he might have been back 1819?  The NWC Willamette Trading Post was believed to be built this year. 

(II)-Joseph McGillivray Metis (1790-1832) son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian, joined NWC 1812 at Michillimackinac and NWC/HBC (1813-1828) Columbia District.   Joseph McGillivray appears to have had at least one wife, a Françoise Bouché (Boucher), and three children: 
    (III)-Hector McGillivray Metis (1816-1837), 
    (III)-Alfred McGillivray Metis  
    (III)-Murdoch McGillivray Metis 

In the spring of 1813, (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847), (I)-John Stuart (1780-1847) and Joseph Larocoue of the North West Company arrived at Fort Astor (Fort George) with news of the War of 1812. The Astorians namely Duncan McDougall decided to sell out to the NWC before a Royal Navy ship could arrive and seize Fort Astor as a prize of war. Some Astorians joined the NWC and others went independent.  Wilson Price Hunt was away in Hawaii recruiting men when Duncan sold him out.  The truth was morale was low, desertions were frequent, and venereal disease plagued the employees.  John Clarke was harsh towards the natives resulting in animosity towards the Company.

Louis Majeau of the N.W.C. is in Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).

Nicholas  Monique Mohawk/Iroquois or Metis from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC 1811 Athabasca (1813-1816)  & HBC (1823-1830) Columbia District, worked Saskatchewan (1821-1822)  

Antoine Pembrillant Metis joined NWC (1812-1820) assigned Columbia District 1813

Maurice Piccard (Pocard) Iroquois or Metis from Quebec joined NWC (1813-1814) Willamette post and was noted back in Columbia District 1825, however between these dates he was in Montreal and at Fort des Prairies as a free trader.

Francois Benjamin Pillet of PFC in the spring was sent to oppose NWC Nicholas Montour on charge of Kootenae post situated in the south end of the Kootney River loop (Montania)

Louis Pion from Montreal joined Pacific Fur Company (1811-1813) & NWC (1813-1821) then HBC (1821-1825) all Columbia District, settled Willamette.  About 1814-1815, Pion appears to have married a native woman Mary "Sukomelk", daughter of the Okanagan tribe hereditary chief "Huistesmetxe" [1780-1865] (Walking Grizzly Bear) of the Douglas Lake area and the union most likely brought son 
    William Pion Metis b-1816, married Charlotte Oganagan and Julie Laroche. 
    Baptiste Pion Metis b-1820 born in the Spokane area.
    ?Nancy Pion Metis (1824-1847)

(II)-Jack Ramsey Metis b-1780 Columbia District (Oregon) son shipwrecked (I)-Old Ramsey (1760-1790) and Tillamook woman.  He was reported at Fort Astoria (Fort George) Columbia District.  He appeared at Fort Clatsup in 1805.  An Indian belonging to a small tribe on the coast, to the southward of the Clatsops, occasionally visited the fort. He was a perfect lusus naturae and his history was rather curious. His skin was fair, his face partially freckled and his hair quite red. He was about five feet ten inches [178 cm] high, was slender, but remarkably well made; his head had not undergone the flattening process; and he was called Jack Ramsay, in consequence of that name having be punctured on his left arm. The Indians allege that his father was an English sailor, who had deserted from a trading vessel, and had lived many years among their tribe, one of whom he married; that when Jack was born he insisted on preserving the child’s head in its natural state, and while young, had punctured the arm in the above manner. Old Ramsay had died about twenty years before this period; he had several more children but Jack was the only red-head one among them. He was the only half-bred I ever saw with red hair, as that race in general partake of the swarthy hue derived from their maternal ancestors. Poor Jack was fond of his father’s countrymen, and had the decency to wear trousers whenever he came to the fort. We therefore make a collection of old clothes for his use, sufficient to last him for many years

Jacques Shatackoani Iroquois joined NWC (1810-1813) Temiscaming then NWC (1813-1821) & HBC 1821-1830) Columbia District.  Several children were recorded as born to Iroquois Jacques.

Robert Stuart (1785-1848) is credited with being the first to blaze the Oregon Trail after Fort Astoria (Fort George) was acquired by NWC in 1813

Joseph St. Martin (1786-1825) from Soral, Quebec, joined NWC (1813-1821)  & HBC (1821-1825) Columbia District.  Joseph St. Martin had one wife and two recorded daughters. He married a Chinook woman with whom he had two daughters - 
    Genevieve St Martin Metis b-1814 bapt 1839
    Marie St Martin Metis (1821-1907).

Canote Umpreville aka Canotte Umfreville, Humpherville Athabasca Metis (1788-1842) NWC/HBC (1813-1842) mostly in Columbia District.
1st married Pauline Sinpoil who died, three children were recorded;
    Pierre (Waccon) Umpreville Metis
    Isabelle Umpreville Metis b-1823
    Gregorie Umpreville Metis b-1825
2nd marriage Marie Marguerite Michina, 7-8 children are known;
    Louise Umpreville Metis b-1831
    Jeanne Umpreville Metis b-1833
    Nancy Umpreville Metis b-1834
    Josephte Umpreville Metis b-1837
    Louis Umpreville Metis b-1838
    Felicite Umpreville Metis b-1840
    John Umpreville Metis HBC (1841-1842)
    plus one unknown
His widow and 5 small children went to live with her step-son Pierre (Waccan) Umperville Metis b-1817  in French Prairie 

Fort She-waps near the confluence of the North and South Thompson not far from Kamloops is sold to the North West Company. 

(II)-John Clarke, (1781-1852) left the Pacific Fur Company when Fort Astoria (Fort George) was sold and rejoined the North West Company, returning to Montreal in 1814. to join the Hudson Bay company in 1815.

Etienne Gregoire (1793-1867) of Maskinonge employed NWC (1813-1815) posted to Columbia (1814-1815) and HBC (1821-1843) to Columbia. retired 1843 Willamette.

Jacques Lafantaise aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) of the NWC an interpreter is with the Okanagans.  He likely married an Okanagan girl and had 2 boys and 1 girl by 1827 so reports (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853), who also says "not sufficiently resolute with Indians - very thoughtless".  

(II)-John McDonald of Garth aka Le Bras Croche (1771-1866) son (I)-John McDonaled Sr., arrived New France and joined NWC (1791-1814); 1799 married * (III)-Nancy Small Metis b-1818 daughter (II)-Patick Small Metis (1789-1846) son (I)-Patrick Small Sr. and Cree Woman, they had 5 Metis children whom he abandoned in 1823 at Garth (Ontario) to marry Amelia McGillis daughter Duncan McGillis and Maria Coon (Kuhn) of Ontario (daughter Jacob Coon and Pettiteau) and had 6 children with her.  During his early days he was at Moose Lake (Manitoba Fort George (Alberta) and the Fort Des Prairies Department.  In 1795 he helped build Fort Augustus aka Fort Edmonton; in 1799 he helped build Rocky Mountain House; in 1809 he was at Red River with John Wells d-1814 a former XL Company man who joined NWC; In 1813 he, Isaac Todd and John Wells went to Fort George Columbia District.  Jane Barnes the 1st white woman to Columbia District was on the same ship of 1813. * this doesn't compute as John had a native wife and 5 kids when they were abandoned in  1823, Patrick birth date of 1789 is questionable and maybe Nancy b-1818 is a baptism date??  One daughter is recorded (III)-Elizabeth McDonald Metis of Garth (Ontario) who married J.D. Campbell.  It should be noted that (II)-John tended to exaggerate his accomplishments with the NWC likely because of his La Bras Croche. 

Duncan McDougall married “Ilchee,” a daughter of Comcomly, chief of the Chinooks.   He abandoned her in 1817 no children are mentioned.

(I)-John George McTavish, (1778-1847), the bastardize who practiced serial marriages, took possession of Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River for the North West Company.  It was renamed Fort George.

The Tlingit Nation attacked the Russians again this year.

(I)-James McMillan of the N.W,C. d-1858 met Ross Cox on the Spokane River in 1813.

(I)-Alexander McTavish (1784-1832) joined NWC (1813-1821) Columbia, Fort William, Long Lake, Lake Superior; HBC (1821-1832) Lake Superior, Albany, married about 1820/21 Josette Monier Metis/Indian epouse 1834 (I)-Peter McKenzie (1806-1852).  Children went to live with their grandmother in 1831 and were sent to New South Wales;  He was assigned Columbia (1813-1817)
    (II)-Duncan McTavish Metis
    (II)-Donald McTavish Metis 

Etienne Oniaze (1789-1850) Iroquois or Metis born Lac Des Deux Montagnes, Quebec joined NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District, first assignment was Willamette post in 1813.  Joined HBC (1821-1850).  Étienne Oniaze had two, possibly three, successive native wives and two recorded children. His first wife, who died at an unspecified date, was Catherine Kanatawose, probably an Iroquois or Metis from the Sault St. Louis region, who likely traveled with Etienne in his early years. The mother of Etienne’s two recorded children, 
    Jean Baptiste Oniaze Metis b-1828 Columbia District
    Ignace Oniaze Metis (1835-1842), son Kohothe [Kwoithe] woman. 
On November 10, 1842, eight months after the death of son Ignace, he legitimized his marriage to Jany/Jeanne Tchinouk/Chinook b-1817, who may be the same Kwoithe woman who was the mother of his surviving son, Jean Baptiste.

Jean Baptiste Ouvre (Ouvrie) of Montreal (1790-1849) joined Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) departed Mackinac over land.  NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1847) Columbia District.  Two wives are recorded;
Unnamed Native died by 1843
    Mary Anne Ouvte Metis b-1827
Married 1939 Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually bapt 1839
    Louise Ouvre Metis b-1834, bapt 1839
    Therese Ouvie b-1836 bapt 1839 married Antoine Gregoire Metis sone Etienne Gregoire (1793-1867) and Marguerite Souchenabe Metis or Indian (1790-1860)
    Jean Baptiste Ouvre b-1839, bapt 1839 

Jean Baptiste Proveau b-1788/89 Trois Rivieres, joined NWC 1802 Trois Rivieres and was noted at Willamette Post Columbia District (1813-1814)  likely in Columbia District until 1821 as HBC (1821-1839) Columbia District, settler Cowlitz 1841.  Little is known of his family; in 1850 he was living in the same household as Isabell b-1820 [possibly wife Elizabeth], 
    Hariett Proveau Metis b-1838
    Matilda Proveau Metis b-1847
    Isaac Proveau Metis b-1842

Augustin (Russie) Roussil , b-1780 was employed by Pacific Fur Co/NWC at Fort Astoria/Fort George as blacksmith and HBC (1821-1832) then moved to Canada 1833 as a freeman.  One daughter Catherine Roussil, Metis who married Andre Chalifoux (1789-1851) who came west in 1810/15.  Augustin married a second wife Rose Cayuse, Indian and had a child Augusin Jr., Metis in St. Paul, (Oregon) (1839-1898).

Ignace Salioheni Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec Joined NWC (1813-1814) Willamette Post Columbia District.  He made a trip to Fort William and in his absence; [There was a] battle between Mrs. McDougall and Ignace’s woman regarding the latter’s children, who were playing with some trifling things, when the former lady, who is haughty and imperious, took the playthings from them and set them bawling; the consequence was a slap from the mother. Royalty was offended, and a dreadful row ensued. Some women landed in the bay, unknown to me; but hearing of it, I ordered them off.   Three weeks later, on May 6, Ignace’s wife and family were sent outside the fort to the house with the Nepisangues to make room for storage inside the fort.  As a result Ignace became a freeman.  He was involved with HBC (1821-1822) but as a free man. 

Alexander Stewart (1780-1840) NWC (1796-1821) HBC (1821-1833) at Fort des Prairies 1806 and Lesser Slave Lake, Athabasca River working the area until 1813.  Assigned as partner to Columbia District (1813-1815) Fort George, Spokane, Fort Astoria, Okanagan.  Back to Lesser Slave Lake (1815-1821)

George Tewhattohewnie Iroquois from Fort William freeman joined NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District, recorded HBC 1824 he was hunting at “Chihalis Bay” [Gray’s Harbor] with several slaves shooting sea otter, 1824-1825 he was on Fraser River James McMillan expedition from Fort George was passing through, George took one slave from several whom he sent back to Fort George, and joined the group to explore for the future site of Fort Langley. His hunting in the area and possession of slaves suggests that he married locally inheriting his wife’s slaves and hunting rights.

Alexander Henry, the younger, (1764-1814), of HBC since 1791 was sent to establish a trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River in opposition to the Americans. He was with Alexander Stewart (Stuart) bot are partners of the NWC.  After securing Fort George he and Donald McTavish there boat capsized and they drowned near the fort on May 22, 1814.  Angus Bethume (Bethune) Metis (1783-1858) was part of this expedition.

Andre Bellanger and Oliver Roy Lapensee of the NWC (1813-1814) on the North Saskatchewan River hit a rock and they drowned.  They were in a brigade from the Flathead Post (Fort Connah, Saleesh House) to Fort William.  

January; Willamette Post NWC (1813-1821) HBC (1821-1830's) was built this year by (I)-John Reed d-1814 killed January 1814 by Bannok Indians in retaliation for an Indian hanging and Alfred Seton (1793-1959)

April 1813, Joseph Felix Laroque (1787-1866), along with nineteen others under (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) traveled to the Pacific Fur Company’s Fort Astoria and camped within cannon range of the post, waiting for Isaac Todd to arrive

May:  (II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. Metis son (I)-Nicholas Montour Sr. d-1808 a shareholder in the NWC, (II)-Nicolas fought a duel at Spokane house with Ftancois Benjamin Pillet out of Quebec and with the Pacific Fur Company.  They had a duel but no one was hurt.  Nicolas is recorded as indolent, an expensive trader, fond of liquor, to be discharges in 1823.  But he was rehired for the (I)-Alexander Ross's (1783-1856) Snake Country Expedition of February 1824 as head of Fort des Prairies half-breeds and again May 1825 when he deserts (III)-Peter Skeene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1827).  He was rehired 1829-1842 to work the Columbia District to retire 1842 Willamette, Columbia District.   He and his family settled Willamette, Columbia District 1843

Summer:   Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), departed Fort George (fort Astoria) with a group led by John Reed to Snake River Country and wintered on the Boise River in (Idaho) Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).  Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) noted finding Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), wife Marie Aioe Laguivoise (1786-1850) and two boys on the Upper Columbia River on his return journey to Canada from Fort George (Fort Astoria). 

October: Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) of Montreal is at Flathead with The Pacific Fur Company.

October:  The N.W.C. purchased Astoria on the Pacific Ocean from the Pacific Fur Company for $40,000 and renamed it Fort George.

November:  James Keith (1782-1852) came overland to Fort George (Fort Astoria)

Joseph Felix Laroque (1787-1866) in August 1813, during the negotiations for, but prior to the surrender of, Fort Astoria, Laroque and some of Mr. John Stuart’s men, originally bound for Fort William, changed plans upon hearing about NWC plans to purchase the Pacific Fur Company, made a circuitous route north to New Caledonia via Red Deer River, Lesser Slave Lake and Dunvegan arriving at Stuart Lake on November 7, 1813  Joseph Felix Laroque (1787-1866) was a former employee of XY Company (1801-1904) then NWC (1804-1821) to eventually become a partner of NWC

December 18:  Capt. Black of HMS Raccoon formally took possession of the small Fort Astoria post and renamed it Fort George.


Alexis Aubichon b-1792 Berthier, Quebec, employed NWC (1814-1821) & HBC (1821-1841) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1841.   He was successful at farming for, in 1844 it was said that he had 270 horses, 1,800 cattle and 155 hogs.
On July 8, 1839 Aubichon married Mariane b-1805, a Chinook woman and with whom he had seven children: 
    Alexis Aubichon Metis b-1822-and was killed on a California expedition.
    Sophie Aubichon Metis b-1826
    Emilie Aubichon Metis b-1830
    Julie Aubichon Metis b-1833
    Catherine .Aubichon Metis b-1836
    Philomene Aubichon Metis b-1840
    Elizabeth/Isabelle Aubichon Metis b-1843

Registre Bellaire a French Canadian freeman was trading the Columbia District and engaged 4 Hawaiian trappers and was at Walla Walla with his family before returning back to Montreal.  He paid for his families passage

Angus Bethune Metis (1783-1858) born Calleton Island, Lake Ontario, , son Rev'd John Bethume, (likely a Metis) the elder (1751-1815) a Scott born Mohawk Valley Upper New York State, Angus joined NWC (1804-1821) Red River, China and Columbia District;  He married Louisa McKenzie Metis daughter Rodericdk McKenzie of Terrebonne and had 5 Metis sons and 1 Metis daughter.  
    Norman Bethune Metis (1822-1892)
Angus Bethune had three wives, one native girl around White Earth House in 1810, a Clatsop girl at Fort George in 1814, and finally (II)-Louisa Mackenzie Metis (1793-1833) ("Miss Green Blanket"), the mixed descent daughter of Scottish fur trader (I)-Roderick Mckenzie (1772-1859) (cousin of Sir Alexander McKenzie) and a native woman. She bore him five children. Angus and Louise’s great-grandson was Dr. Henry Norman Bethune (1890-1939), the Chinese revolutionary hero whose exploits are known to every Chinese student. In many ways, he resembled his great-grandfather, fur trader Angus Bethune.

Pierre Boucher (1793-1828) joined NWC 1810 working out of Fort William, 1814 working the Northwest likely New Caledonia and (1827-1828) Fort Vancouver

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791 St. Denis, Lower Canada, employed Pacific Fur Company (1806-1814) Columbia District, employed NWC (1814-1821) Columbia District.

Antoine Desjarlais Metis is a very elusive fellow, we may never know who he was, or they are?
(An Antoine Desjarlais, from Lac St-Francis, signed a contract on January 29, 1793 with the NWC [D. P. Grant] to work in the northern area; 
An Antoine Desjarlais, from Montreal, signed a contract on December 23, 1795 with Alexandre & James [NWC] to work in the north. 
Other Desjarlais' from the NWC contract sheets are from Riviere du Loup - François, Charles & Moise signed on in 1792, 1808 and 1819 respectively.)
A former guide for the NWC who had been free since 1805, Desjarlais was encountered by Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) in 1814 at Lac La Biche on his return to Canada from the coast.
On June 5, 1814, Desjarlais provided the party with provisions.
On June 6th, Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) saw that Desjarlais was living contentedly with his family at Lac la Biche and hunting for food. Desjarlais asked Franchere to read two letters from his sisters in Varennes, letters which he had held onto for two years waiting for someone who could read.
This may be the same Antoine Desjarlais who contracted with the HBC on May 28, 1828 as an interpreter for two years and included work in the Columbia Department. By May 1833, an Antoine Desjarlais, perhaps not the same, was contracted to work elsewhere as a post master or interpreter.

Etienne Gregoire (1793-1967) from Maskinonge joined NWC (1813-1821) Athaspasca River & Columbia HBC (1821-1843) Columbia District settled Eillamette 1842.  Marguerite Souchenabe Kamloops maybe Porter or Porteuse Metis (1790-1860).  Recorded children are:
    Julie Gregoire Metis (1814-1877), married 1841 Willamette, Luc Gagnon (1804-1872) 
    Sophie Gregoire Metis , married William Porteus and Firmen LeBrun; 
    Antoine Gregoire Metis , married September 17, 1849, Willamette, Therese Ouvre b-1836 daughter Jean Baptiste Ouvre (1790-1849) Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually, 
    Simon Etienne, bapt. 29 August 1839, age 7, married Victoire McMillan; 
    Felix Gregoire Metis b-1833 bapt. September 5 1839, age 6, married Genevieve Beleque 
    Mary Wilquet Gregoire Metis  born of bapt August 15, 1894

Martial Lavalle Metis b-1814/18 Columbia District, son Louis Lavalle (1786-1828) and Therese Spokane, some suggest b-1818 but joined HBC (1829-1848) Columbia District, and settled near Fort Nez Perces 1841 

Basil (Bazil, Basile) Poirier (1774/88-1844) from Montreal brother of Toussaint Poirier (1782-1850) possible sons of (IV)-Joseph Poirier b-1744 and (III)-Marie Beland b-1761 of Montreal, joined NWC (1810-1821) out of Fort William and likely entered Columbia District 1814 where he remained HBC (1821-1844) he settled on Portland side of the Columbia River.  Bazil Poirier had three wives and seven children. His first wife he left behind in Canada.  It is unknown if he abandon any children.
As early as 1823 he became the husband of Helene, Celiast, Clatsop (Choboway) daughter of chiel Coboway; their children were: 
    Xavier Poirier Metis b-1823
    François Poirier Metis b-1825
    Alexander Poirier Metis b-1831
When Helene learned that Bazil had a wife living in Canada, and was a bigamist, she left him to make her home with her sister, Mrs. Joseph (Coboway) Gervais. The three boys were later returned to their father. 
On December 29, 1838 he formalized his marriage to Louise Moatwas/Watelchie. Their children were 
    Basile II Poirier Metis b-1834 
    Joseph Poirier Metis (1836-1906), 
    Pierre Poirier Metis b-1838 
    Ange`le Poirier Metis b-1840

John Reed and his party were killed in January 1814 in a likely act of revenge for the over-reaction of John Clarke towards the natives in 1813.

Louis Satakarata (Rabesca) Mohawk/Iroquois joined NWC (1814-1821) & (1821-1852) both Columbia District.  Louis had at least one recorded son, and 2 daughters
    François Satakarata (1831-1853). 
    Theresa Satakarata 
    Louise Satakarata (1820-1850).

January:  Alexander Henry, the younger, (1764-1814) (cousin, brother or son to William Henry), William Matthews, Angus Bethune Metis (1783-1858) and eight oarsmen traveled up the Willamette River to see William Henry at his Champoeg post. Below the Falls they noted a village of the Clowwewallas (a Clackamas Upper Chinook people). At first the voyagers beached on the opposite (eastern) bank but their camp was so miserable that they decided to risk a visit to the Clowwewalla village.  After a peaceful night and portage around the Falls along the west bank, Alexander Henry, the younger, (1764-1814) and his oarsmen reached Champoeg. There they found cousin/brother William Henry, Alfred Seton, and about 30 more employees of the North West fur company. Two huts housed freemen (unaffiliated trappers) and Nepisangues who worked as hunters. Kalapuyans were also camped near the post. (The term "Nepisangues" is so far unidentified--perhaps Native American or half-Indian (Metis) people from Canada)

January 3: (I)-James Keith (1782-1851) struck out for east of the Rockies along with Stewart and fifteen crewman. On the 8th, they were attacked and robbed above Celilo Falls on the Columbia River and Stewart was seriously wounded with two arrows but Keith escaped injury. In spite of Keith’s insistence that they wait for elderly hunter Jean Baptiste Sakanakee, the Nipissing native was left to fend for himself while they headed back downriver. Eventually, by July 1814, he reached Fort William and became partner with four other clerks, two of whom were Angus Bethune Metis (1783-1858) and Dr. John McLoughlin.(1784-1857)

January 14:  A Bannock raiding party destroyed John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) Pacific Fur Company trading post at Boise River and carried out intermittent raids on trapper and explorer parties.  The Boise River party consisted of 9 men and one woman Marie Iowa Indian and her two Metis children.  All the men were killed including her husband Pierre Dorian, along with Jacob Reznor, Joseph Delaunay, John Hoback, Edward Robinson, Andre Lachapelle (1781-1881) and Giles Laclerc.  .For three months she traveled with her children across the snow-choked Blue Mountains under conditions that might have proved deadly to even an experienced mountain man.  By springtime she had made her way down to the Columbia River and found refuge amongst the Walla Walla Indians.  Finally in April 1814, she was rescued by a party belonging to the Hudson’s Bay Company traveling up the river from Fort Vancouver. 

March 1814, Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814) wrote :which describes certain Chinook women whom he found taking their daily bath by the sea: “They were perfectly naked, and my presence did not affect their operations in the least. The disgusting creatures were perfectly composed, and seemed not to notice me. Although they stood naked in different postures, yet so close did they keep their thighs together that nothing could be seen.”

April:  An English barmaid named Jane Barnes, blonde and buxom, traveled with the Isaac Todd to Fort George (Astoria), Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) and is believed to be the first European woman in Oregon.  They renamed the shallop Dolly launched in 1811 as Jane when the NWC tool control of Fort Astoria.  Donald McTavish took her as a concubine to the Columbia River where he shared her with his men.  He first shared her with Alexander Henry, the younger,  (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791.  McTavish took on a Chinook squaw (Iskwao) left behind by the departing United States men.  Jane Barnes later made the rounds of the men at the fort.  She sailed to China and eventually returned to England.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)  Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown wrote that the biggest surprise package aboard the Isaac Todd was Jane Barnes. 

April 4:  A NWC brigade of ten canoes of 78 men arrived to take over the Fort Astoria (Fort George) Columbia District..

May 22, Fort George (Fort Astoria), Oregon Territory, mouth of Columbia River, Donald McTavish and Alexander Henry, the younger (1764-1814), the younger, after a night of drinking, capsized a skiff and they and five other occupants drowned.  Henry had served the North West Company for 23 years.

October 16, the Astorians sold all their interest in the Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) to the North West Company.  During their evacuation John Clarke, a hot tempered Astorian hung a Nez Perce and soured all relations with these friendly peoples until 1816.



Aleksandr Baranov (1747-1819) of the Russian-American Fur Company built Fort Kauai, Hawaii.

Angus Bethune (1783-1858) son Rev. John Bethume and Veronique Waddens of New York, others say his mother was (II)-Louisa Mackenzie Metis and he was born Carlton Island, Lake Ontario, he joined NWC in 1804, was posted to Columbia District (1815-1819 and retired HBC 1841.  Angus Bethune Metis had three wives, one native girl around White Earth House in 1810, a Clatsop girl at Fort George in 1814, and finally Louisa Mackenzie Metis (1793-1833) ("Miss Green Blanket"), the mixed descent daughter of Scottish fur trader Roderick Mckenzie (cousin of Sir Alexander McKenzie) and a native woman. She bore him five children.  Angus Bethume Metis and Louise Bethume Metis’s great-grandson was Dr. Norman Bethune Metis, the Chinese revolutionary hero whose exploits are known to every Chinese student. In many ways, he resembled his great-grandfather, fur trader Angus Bethune.

(IV)-Andre Chalifoux (1789-1851) born Sorel, Quebec son (V)-Charles Chalifox and Louis Dunas, joined NWC (1813/15-1821) and HBC (1821-1838) all in Columbia District, settled 1840 Willamette (French Prairie).  Some suggest he came west with Angus Bethune and Peter.  Married Catherine Russie, first two sons likely hers
Unnamed wife died 1830 Fort Vancouver likely Catherine
    (VI)-Charles Chalifoux Metis drowned near Dalles des Morts
    (VI)-Michel Chalifoux Metis drowned near Dalles des Morts
    (VI)-Rose Chalifoux Metis (1834/7-1846)
    (VI)-Lucie Chalifoux Metis (1839-1849)
    (VI)-Charles Chalifoux Metis  (1835-1838)
    (VI)-Michel Chalifoux Metis  (1838-1838)
    (VI)-Andre (Andree) Chalifoux Metis  (1842-1880)
    (VI)-Catherine Chalifoux Metis  b-1844
    (VI)-Louis Chalifoux Metis  b-1846
    (VI)-Marie Philomene Chalifoux Metis  b-1848
    (VI)-Sophie  Chalifoux Metis (1851-1876)

Mary Finley, Metis, and Angelique Finlay both born 1815 Spokane, Columbia (Washington) daughters (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the children of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883) or adopted children?

Nicholas (Micolai) Finley, Metis, (1815-1886) born Spokane, Columbia District ( Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Susan Teskwentichina or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).  Susan Teskwentichina had another child born 1829 named Marguerite Maggie Finlay and is likely not the daughter of (II)-Old Jacko. 

Etienne Gregoire likely Metis (1791/93-1867) of Maskinonge son Etienne Gregoire and Marie Savigny employed NWC (1813-1815) posted to Athabasca River (1813-1814) Columbia Department (1814-1815) & HBC (1821-1842) Columbia and New Caledonia.   He is likely the brothers of Francoise Gregoire NWC (1810-1814) Columbia but mostly a freetrader.
Etienne Gregoire had one wife and seven children. At Fort Vancouver on June 24, 1842, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite, Kamloops (Shuswap [Shouchauabe]) (1790-1860). Their children were 
    Julie Gregoire Metis b-1819, married Luc Gagnon 
    Antoine Gregoire Metis b-1823, married 1849 Therese Ouvre 
    Sophie Gregoire Metis (1826-1900), married William Porteus and Firmen LeBrun
    David Gregoire Metis b-1828-?), 
    Felix Gregoire Metis b-1830, married Genevieve Beleque and in 1894 married Mary Wiguest 
    Thérèse Gregoire Metis (c.1832-?) and 
    Simon Etienne Gregoire Metis b-1833, married Victoire McMillan 

(II)-Joseph Grenier (Massia) likely Metis? (1796-1830) son (I)-Joseph Grenier Sr. and Marie Sicard of Ruisseau des Chenes married 1795 Maskinowage, joined NWC (1815-1821), HBC (18211830) Columbia District.   He married Thérèse Spokane/Quilquil/Sehan and they had one child, 
    Marie Ann Grenier Metis (1829/30-1850) married 1843 Gedeon Senecal. 
His widow married Joseph Cornoyer on July 11, 1839.

Joseph Grenier dit Massa (1797-1830) employed HBC (1815-1830) in Columbia District son Joseph Grenier and (married February 9, 1795, Maskinonge, Quebec) Marie Greinier of Ruisseau des Chenes:   

Columbia District birth Pierre Lagace Sr. Metis (1815-1882) son Charles Lagace and Emme Glathead, joined HBC (1832-1858).    On October 29, 1855 in the Victoria area, he confirmed his marriage to Lisette, Tsimshian/Nass whom he most likely met when working in the Fort Simpson area. Their recorded children were 
    Charles Lagace Metis b-1838
    Pierre Lagace Metis (1840-1887) 
    Edward Pierre Lagace Metis (1849-1856). 
By 1865, he appeared to have another wife, so far, unnamed, a step-mother to Pierre Jr. (The Colonist, March 31, 1865, p. 3). She may have been the Cleek who appeared on the 1881 Census. Legace Island [How’Ku’ynda], one mile west of Burnt Island, Queen Charlotte Islands [Haida Gwai] was named after Pierre Lagace Sr.

Laurent Karonhitchego (1794-1851) an Iroguois or Metis, joined NWC 1815-1821) Columbia District but might have been earlier as his 1815 salary was paid to his wife.  HBC (1821-1842 and settled Willamette 1842.  On March 28, 1840, he formalized his marriage to Thérèse Wahkaikom, Chinook, b-1810. The recorded Karonhitchego children were 
    Laurent II Karonhitchego Metis b-1838 
    (Elizabeth) Marie Anne Karonhitchego Metis b-1841
    Josephte Karonhitchego Metis b-1843

Charles Plante (1790/91-1854) joined NWC (1810-1814) Athabasca, assigned (1815-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1821-1842) Columbia District, settler Willamette where he died 1854.  He had 6 wives:
1sr unnamed native woman
    Jean Baptiste Plante Metis (1828-1843)
    Xavier Plante Metis b-1830
2nd married January 21, 1839 Agathe Kaousse (1820-1842)
3nd married February 7, 1842 Susanne Kphoss (Cayuse) (1823-1843)
    Magdeleine Plante Metis b-1842
4rd married April 24, 1843 Elizabeth Chinook (1829-1843)
5th married December 18, 1843 Pelagie Tchinook (1791-1851) 
6th married December 17, 1851 Margeurite Yougoulht (Yougtet) Uculet widow Jean Baptiste Dubreuil (1791-1849)

Jean Baptiste Tyequariche aka Norwest Tyikwarhi (1798-1855) Iroquois or Metis joined NWC 1815-1821) & HBC (1821--1834) Columbia District, maried 1st Judith Walla Walla, married 2nd Heritte Pend d'Oreille.

Louis Vandalle (1800-1862) born Sorel, Quebec or Lac la Biche (Alberta), joined NWC (1815-1821) & HBC (1821-1842, settled Willamette 1841.  Louis Vandalle had one wife and five recorded children. On June 19, 1841 at St. Paul, (Oregon), he formalized his marriage to Unat/Catherine Porteuse/Nankaselias, Carrier (1801-1866). Their recorded children were 
    Louis Vandalle Metis (1834-52) 
    Genevie`ve Vandalle Metis b-1839
    Marie Vandalle Metis b-1842
    Cecile Vandalle Metis b-1844
    Catherine Vandalle Metis b-1847
Catherine Porteuse died on May 9, 1866 at St. Louis.



Ignace Atiadongo Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis (Cauchnawaga), Quebec joined NWC (1814-1816) Michillimackinac then Columbia District.

Pierre Bostonais (Hatisinato), dit Tete Jaune d-1827 (meaning yellow head for his yellow hair) an Iroquois Metis became a free guide and scout.  He obviously explored the passes over the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).  The Yellow Head Pass and Yellow Head Highway was named after him.  He and his brother Jean Baptiste Bostonais Metis likely explored the Columbia district because he provided a map of the district to (I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842)  in 1819.  Little is know about his wife and family but in September 1827, Tête Jaune, his family and children, as well as his brother and his family, were all killed by a party of Beaver Indians near the mouth of the Finlay River.  One son died earlier in 1805 at St. Crois (Minnesota).

Charles Brisbois (1798-1847) son Michel Brisbois and Domitelle Gaultier de Verville of Praire du Chien (Wisconsin) joined NWC 1816 with uncle Henry M. Fisher Senior and Charles is in the Columbia District (1820-1821).   HBC (1821-1842) in the Athabasca, Mackenzie, and Cumberland Districts.  Charles Brisbois had one wife Ann  three sons and four daughters. Their children were 
    Edmond Brisbois Metis 
    Michel Brisbois Metis 
    Edward Brisbois Metis 
    Ann Brisbois Metis 
    Charlott Brisbois Metis  
    Adelaide Brisbois Metis  
    Thérèse Brisbois Metis 

James Keith (1782-1852) is in charge of the Columbia River department (1816-1817) for the North West Company out of Fort George (Fort Astoria). 

Nicholas Finlay, Metis, b-1816 Alberta married Suzette (Josephte) b-1819 Oregon Territory daughter Cayuse and Palouse.

Dominique Finley, Metis, (1816-1886) born Spokane, Columbia District (Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883) or children of adopted children..

Johann Fredrich Eschshiltz and Ludovick De Chamissio, both naturalists visited the Ross Colony in New Spanish territory (California) in the ship Riurik.

Antoine Godin Metis d-1835 Columbia District, son Thiery Goddin Metis (1779-1830) of NWC in Columbia District, and Iroquois (Mohawks) mother, Antoine may have joined NWC 1816 Fort William but both he and his father were mostly freemen, worked HBC (1822-1835) Columbia District.  Both were killed by the Blackfoot  At the 1832 Rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole Antoine Godin shot dead a Blackfoot Chief. A battle ensued with immediate casualties on both sides amounting to twelve dead and twelve wounded. The Blackfoot got their revenge on Godin between September 1834 and September 1835 on a riverbank opposite Fort Hall. Led by a former HBC employee by the name of Bird, Godin was lured to the other side of the river. While sitting down to smoke with the group, he was shot in the back. While Godin was still alive, Bird tore off his scalp and, in a touch of bitter irony, cut the initials of Nathaniel J. Wyeth into his head. And so ended the life of Antoine Godin.

Ignace Hatchiorauquasha (Grey) Metis son William Gray and Mohawk girl.  A freeman he was in Columbia district 1816 and was involved with HBC (1822-1843) he retired to Kansas City with 12 Iroquois (Mohawks) families in 1835.  John Gray had one wife, Maryanne/Marienne Naketchon/Neketichon [Mary Ann Charles] (c.1800-1862), a Caughnawaga Mohawk, and several children. Four of their children were 
    Peter Hatchiorauquasha Metis b-1818
    Mitchell Hatchiorauquasha Metis b-1823
    Cecile Hatchiorauquasha Metis b-1827
    Thomas Hatchiorauquasha Metis b-1832. 
After John’s death, Marrianne was flooded out in 1844 and in 1850 moved to Fort Scott, Kansas.

Eitenne Hotesse an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined NWC 1816 Fort William to Pacific Coast, may have taken a number of trips?.

Martin Kanonswasse Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1792 at Lac des Deux Montagnet, Quebec joined NWC (1816-1833) Columbia District.

Louis Kanota Abenaki or Nipising from Abinakis, Quebec, often a freeman joined NWC 1816 and HBC (1822-1844) all in Columbia District.

Poerre Kanotahare Iroquois (Mohawks) from Quebec joined NWC (1816-1819) Columbia District.

Pierre Karagdnyate (1794-1830) an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined NWC (1813-1816) Mackinac and NWC/HBC (1816-1830) Columbia District.

Pierre Kaweneguy Quebec Iroquis joined NWC (1816-1819) Columbia District and was with the Joseph Felix Larocque, Metis b-1802 party of (1817-1819) that crossed the Rockies.  It is noteworthy Joseph Sr. Metis b-1786/87 was in the Kamloops Valley in 1811

(I)-James Keith (1782-1851) was in charge of Fort George for the next few years.  He traveled throughout the lower Columbia region.

Jacques Lafantaise aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) of the NWC an interpreter is with the Okanagans.  He likely married an Okanagan girl and had 2 boys and 1 girl by 1827 so reports (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853), who also says "not sufficiently resolute with Indians - very thoughtless".  He likely abandoned this family and married Susanne Okanagan and had 2 more children.

Ignace Madotehisam an Algonquian from Lac Des Deux Montagnes, Quebec joined NWC 1816 on the Pacific slopes with wife and children, in (1822-1823) he was a freeman working out of Fort George, Columbia District.

Dominique Monique Mohawk/Iroquois or Metis from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC 1816 Pacific slopes, NWC (1815-1819) various locations and might be same person HBC (1830-1834) Columbia and New Caladonia Districts.

Joseph Monique Mohawk/Iroquois or Metis from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC 1816 Pacific slopes,

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1794-1854) son Quebec Judge (II)-Issac Ogden and 2nd wife Sarah Hanson died Three Rivers;  He  joined American Fur Company, NWC 1809, assigned 1810 Île-á-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, assigned 1814 Green Lake Post 100 miles south.  In 1816, HBC clerks reported that Ogden killed an Indian who had traded with the Hudson's Bay Company. The Indian was "butchered in a most cruel manner," according to HBC officer James Bird. Although many in the North West Company viewed this as a necessary part of living in the Northwest, the HBC viewed Ogden as a dangerous man whose actions were deplorable, especially considering his background as the son of a judge. Ogden was charged with murder, and the North West Company moved him further west to the Columbia District, to attempt to avoid any further confrontations with the HBC.  In 1823 he was made head of the Snake River Country of the Columbia District.  (1824-1827) he explored the Snake Country.  Ogden set out on a series of expeditions to explore the Snake River country. One of the company's objectives was to bring as many furs from this area as possible to the HBC so as to create a "fur desert". This would discourage inroads by American trappers and traders.  He married Marie Comtois Cree/Metis woman born Jasper House 1800/1807, died 1875 Fort Macleod, daughter of Sious Comtois and Josephte Fagnant Metis likely about 1814 but had a number of native wives and the children while recorded are considered half brothers and sisters.  I have however only discovered two wives.  Comtois is said by some to have had two sons but I found only one.  
    (IV)-Annie Ogden Metis 
    (IV)-Sarah Julia (Jane) Ogden Metis who married Archibald McKinlay
    (IV)-Peter Ogden Jr. Metis (1817-1870) likely Cree/Metis Woman Marie Comtois, he married Euphrosini/Phristine/Freezen Brabant (1817-1889) daughter of Augustine Branbant of Quebec and Angelique Lucer.  

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) son (II)-Issac Ogden and Sara Hansin.  
He first married Marie Comtois Cree Indian or Metis  (1800-1875)whom he abandoned in the Prairies along with his children.
    (IV)-Annie Ogden Metis 
    (IV)-Sarah Julia (Jane) Ogden Metis who married Archibald McKinlay
    (IV)-Peter Ogden Jr. Metis (1817-1870) likely Cree/Metis Woman Marie Comtois, he married Euphrosini/Phristine/Freezen Brabant (1817-1889) daughter of Augustine Branbant of Quebec and Angelique Lucer. 
His second wife was Julie Rivet (1788/1800-1886), Flathead/Spokane. Together, they had seven children: 
    (IV)-Charles Ogden Metis (1819-1890) likely son Julie Rivet a Spokane/Flathead
    (IV)-Cecilia Ogden Metis b-1822
    (IV)-Michael Ogden Metis b-1824 likely son Julie Rivet a Spokane/Flathead, married two wives, first not listed 2nd Julia  widow C. Bordenium
    (IV)-Eurette Mary Ogden Metis (1836-1861)
    (IV)-David Ogden Metis
    (IV)-Issac Ogden Metis (1839-1869)  likely son Julie Rivet a Spokane/Flathead, married (II)-Anna Manson Metis b-1844  daughter (I)-Donald Manson and Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867)
    (IV)-Margaret Ogden  Metis (1844-1918). 
After Peter Skene’s death, Julia [Rivet] Ogden went to live with relative-by-marriage Archibald McKinlay and family in Lac la Hache [BC], and died there January 2, 1886.

Thomas Oraquenandagan Iroquois joined NWC 1810 was recorded Columbia District 1816.

Nicolas Oskononton (1800/1810-1819) a Mohawk/Iroquiis or Metis fromLac des Deux Montagnes (Sault St. Louis) Quebec joined NWC (1816-1818) Columbia District.  He purchased a wife that the NWC paid, likely part of his wages.  He became disgusted with his fellow Iroquois and considered freetrading.  He was killed on 1819 by the Cowlite.  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) retaliated killing 12 Cowlite men, women and children who were mostly innocent.  As retribution for this slaughter, Cowlitz chief How-How demanded that one of his daughters be married to a high ranking officer of Fort George. The ceremony was carried out in April 1819 and peace was secured.

Michel (Old Michel) Ouamjany Iroquois (1775-1828) from Quebec, joined NWC (1798-1821), first recorded in Columbia District 1816 but was likely here earlier.  Joined HBC (1821-1828) Columbia District.

Fitzhugh Place aka Jasper's House, (Alberta) birth, Marie Comtois, Metis died December 1875 Fort MacLeod (Alberta) daughter Siour Comtois and Josephte Fagnant, Metis who married (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) born Quebec died September 27, 1854 Oregon.  Peter had a 2nd marriage about 1816, Julie (Julia Flathead & Princess Julia) Rivet (Salishan Spokane) (1800-1886) daughter Therese Tete Platte (Salishan Spokane).

Joseph Perrault Metis joined NWC (1816-1831) HBC (1821-1825) Columbia District, he had a wife but she was not listed.

William Pion Metis b-1815/16 Columbia District, son Louis Pion and Mary Sukomelk, joined HBC (1828-1842) Columbia District, settled Willamette.  The family took the name of Kalamalka (Taramalka).  William Pion’s family life is unclear. In the 1820s he married Charlotte, Okanagan and had one child, 
    Anne Kalamalka (Taramalka) Pion Metis b-1824 or 1834? she claimed to be born in 1824? This begs for a much older William? or a much younger Anne?. Or Anne is same as Nancy Pion Metis (1824-1847)?
Later, he took as a wife Julie LaRoche b-1820 daughter of Chief Nicolas, Okanagan and half sister to Mary, one of his father’s wives. They had several children, some of whom were 
    Gideon Kalamalka (Taramalka) Pion Metis
    Bazile Kalamalka (Taramalka) Pion Metis b-1838
    Baptiste Kalamalka (Taramalka) Pion Metis
    Marie Kalamalka (Taramalka) Pion Metis b-1839

Michel Rashihitita an Iroquois was recorded (1816 & 1820) with NWC in Columbia and New Caladonia Districts.

Francois Rivet Jr. Metis (1816-1830) born Columbia District son Francois Rivet (1759-1852) and Therese Flathead.  He joined HBC (1828-1830).

Thomas Sacahandstan Iroquois at Pacific slope with NWC 1816

Louis Shaegoskatsta (Le Frise) Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec, joined NWC 1816-1821) HBC (1821-1844) Columbia District.  He was a free man 1832 and on.  On July 12, 1839, he legitimized his marriage to Louise, Kalapuya or Churathea b-1814. Their children were 
    Marie Anne Shaegoskatsta and Marie Anne later married Joseph, the stepson of Jean Baptiste Brulez and, upon Joseph’s death, Jean Baptiste Vautrin.b-1832-?) 
    Michel Shaegoskatsta b-1836

Louis Shanagrate d-1835 Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC (1814-1816) working out of Fort William and as a free man HWC (1816-1821) & HBC (1821-1835) Columbia Fistrict, likely settled Chanpoeg.   Upon his death he was a widower and left three children, 
    Isabel Shanagrate d-1837), 
    Joseph Shanagrate  
    Nicholas Shanagrate d-1835)
Four Indian slaves, 
    Mah-loo-ah Ahikalt 
    Solomon , in the care of the Protestant Mission on the Willamette. Shortly after the slaves died or ran away and two of his children also died.

Francois Xavier Tarihongo (1799-1828) Quebec Iroquois might be Metis, joined NWC (1815-1821) assigned Columbia District 1816 & HBC (1821-1828) Columbia District.   

Michel Tecanarane Iroquois joined NWC (1813-1814) Michillimackinac; 1816 Columbia District.

Michel Tchaeongwatie Iroquois joined NWC (1814-1816) Michillimackinac & NWC (1816-1818) Columbia District.

Charles Tecawatiron (Gros Charles) Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec.  Joined NWC 1815 but on Pacific Slopes (1816-1821) & HBC (1821-1844)

Thomas Tewatcon (1796-1853) Iroquois freeman from  Sault St. Louis or Lac des Deux Montagnes, Quebec, joined NWC (1814-1816) Michillimackinac & (1816-1821) & HBC (1821-1844) Columbia District.  Thomas Tewatcon had two successive wives and seven recorded children. His first wife was an unnamed Chinook woman with whom he had 
    Thomas II Tewatcon (1820-1848), 
    Catherine Tewatcon b-1820
    Susanne Tewatcon b-1821 
On July 8, 1839, Thomas married Françoise/Louise Walla Walla, or Cayuse probably at Fort Vancouver. Their four children were 
    Pierre Tewatcon b-1836
    Louise Tewatcon b-1837 
    André Tewatcon b-1844
    Philomene Tewatcon b-1846
Thomas II died in the home of Joseph McLoughlin; Joseph himself died a few months later. His widow married Paul Guilbault and then Laurent Sauve

Tiegne b-1796 Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec, NWC (1816-1819) & freeman HBC (1822-1844) Columbia & New Caledonia. 

Charles Toherongenghiton Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louise, Quebec joined NWC 1816 for the Pacific clopes.

A party of trappers with the Northwest Fur Company killed a chieftain at the Clackamas rapids on the Willamette River when the Indians demanded tribute for safe passage. Two of the ten men in the trapper party were wounded in the battle.  James Keith (1782-1852) of the Northwest Fur Company dispatched a party of 25 to restore peace but the Indians refused to accept compensation for the death of their chief. One of the fur company party was wounded in a night attack during the voyage back to Ft. George (formerly Ft. Astoria). 


Jean Baptiste Arionga d-1826 Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined NWC (1817-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) Columbia District, suffered from venereal disease contracted in Columbia.

Michel Aroza an Iroquois (Mohawks) joined NWC (1811-1820), he was recorded having crossed the Rockies in 1817 with Joseph LaRocque Metis Sr b-1786/87 or could be Jr b-1802.  Joseph Cire likely a Metis was with this group.  It is noteworthy Joseph Sr was in the Kamloops Valley in 1811

Alexis Bellanger (Belanger) Metis (1817-1848) joined HBC (1831-1845) married a native girl 1837 from Grand Rapids  but he was a wife beater and he also disliked his own mother.  The Quesnel natives eventually killed him.

Francois Bouche Metis (1817-1852) born Columbia District son Jean Baptiste "Waccan" Boucher Metis (1789-1850) and Nancy McDougal Metis, joined HBC (1834-1852) in New Caledonia and Columbia District, settled Willamette 1843.  He had three, possibly four, successive wives and at least three recorded children. His first wife, Costahna /Contantina, was recorded in 1843, when, in the Fort Vancouver area, their child, 
    Joseph Bouche Metis (1843-43), was born and died on the same day. 
Wife Costahna, however, was likely the same as Thérèse, Porteuse (d-before 1851). With Thérèse (Costahna?), François had 
    François Bouche Metis Jr. (1844-1847) 
    Isabelle Bouche Betis b-1847. 
Wife Thérèse, however, died before 1851 as, on January 20, 1851, he married Henriette, Calapooya (d-.1852); however, Henriette died shortly after. On April 19, 1852, François married his third or fourth wife, Marianne , of the Fort Vancouver area.

Joseph Delard (Deslard) (1797-1869) from Sorel, Quebec employed NWC, (1813-1821) assigned Columbia District (1817-1821), then HBC (1821-1836).  Settled Willamette (1836-1837).  Joseph Delard married two or three times and had eleven recorded children. 
On January 21, 1839, he legitimized his marriage (1820) to Lisette Shuswap (1806-1841) in St. Paul, (Oregon): their family members were:
    Catherine Delard Metis (1821-1858), 
    Pierre Delard Metis  b-1824 
    Marie Delard Metis b-1826 
    Augustin "Quine" Delard Metis b1826
    Basil Delard Metis b-1831/33
    Marie Anne Delard Metis b-1835 married Louis Vandalle (1819-1859)
    Antoine Delard Metis b-1838
On January 16, 1843, he married Marie Toussaint Poirier (1825-1914), daughter of Toussaint Poirier (1876-1850). The second Delard family consisted:
    Marguerite Delard Metis (1847-1853), 
    Cecile Delard Metis b-1852 
    Marguerite Delard Metis (1857-1880), and 
    Catherine Delard Metis (1862-1862).

Bonaparte Finley, Metis, (1817-1860) born Spokane, Columbia District (Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).

Charles Groslin d-1833, joined NWC (1817-1821) HBC (1821-1833) Columbia District.  Charles Groslin married Thérèse, a Flat Head or Pend d’Oreille woman, their children being 
    Ursule Groslin Metis (1821-1841), 
    Henriette Groslin Metis (1826-1844), 
    Joseph Groslin Metis b-1829
    Pierre Groslin Metis b-1827
    Jean Baptiste (John) Groslin Metis b-1831 
    Charles II Groslin Metis b-1832

Okanagan, Columbia, birth, Angle Lafantaise (1817-1867), Metis daughter Jacques Lafantaise aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) of NWC and Susanne Okanagon: married Joseph Bourgeau  (1807-1849)  They had four children: 
    Rose Bourgeau Metis 
    Joseph Bourgeau Metis b-1844
    Marie Anne Bourgeau Metis b-1841, likely died young
    Marie Anne Bourgeau Metis (1848-1849). 
    Upon his death, his widow, Angele, married Theodore Gervais.

(I)-Keekanah (1798-1846) likely Hawaiian joined NWC&HBC (1817-1846) in Columbia District.  Keekanah partnered with a Chehalis Native woman, their child being 
    (II)-Cecelia/Cecile Keekanah Metis b-1828, who was first baptisted Anglican by the Rev. Herbert Beaver, and then, to ensure a passage to heaven, Catholic, by priest F. N. Blanchet.

(I)-James Keith, fearing that the deserter from the ship Columbia, Joseph Carpenter, would incite the Clatsops to storm Fort George, Keith had the mutinous blacksmith banished from the area.

(II)-William Kittson Metis?(1792-1841) from Sorel, Quebec, in war of 1812, employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) all in Columbia District.  William was the adopted son at Sorel of (I)-George Kittson (1780-1824) and Anne Tucker aka Turner.  It's unknown if he was Metis but most likely.  William joined NWC (1817-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1821-1841) same department.   There is some confusion about the family life of William Kittson but he appears to have had two and possibly three successive wives and several children. According to historian Dale Morgan, at one time Kittson had a Kutenai wife. A definite wife was Marie, Walla Walla with whom he had 
    (III)-Pierre Charles Kittson Metis (1830-1915) 
    (III)-Jules Kittson Metis 
On April 19, 1839 at Fort Nisqually, he formalized his marriage to (III)-Helene McDonald Metis, daughter of (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851) and Charlotte, Pend’oreille. She later married 1845 Richard Grant (1793-1862).  The William Kittson-Helene McDonald Kitson children were 
     (III)-Jesse Kittson Metis (1832-1837)
     (III)-Caroline (Kit) Kittson Metis (1834-1837)
     (III)-Eloise/Louise Jemima Kittson Metis (1836-1929) married William Sinclair III 
     (III)-Edouin/Edwin Kittson Metis b-1839/40
After Kittson’s death in 1841, his widow Helene married 1845 Richard Grant (1793-1862).

Andre Lachapelle (1781-1881) son Andre Lachapelle Sr. and Josephte Vincent of Montreal.  He joined NWC (1817-1821) HBC (1821-1841) all in Columbia District, mostly Fort Vancouver, retiring Willamette 1841.  André Lachapelle had one wife and a large family of sixteen recorded children. He married Adrienne Lucier Metis (1822/24-1919), daughter of Etienne Lucier (1793-1853) and Josephte Nouite (1799-1840) on May 17, 1841. The Lachapelle children were 
    Pierre Lachapelle Metis b-1842, 
    Felicite Lachapelle Metis (1842-1872), 
    Mariette Adrienne Lachapelle Metis (1845-1882), 
    Joseph Lachapelle Metis b-1847
    Victor Lachapelle Metis (1848-1891), 
    Adelaide Lachapelle Metis b-1849, 
    Catherine Leocadie Lachapelle Metis b-1851 
    Blandine Lachapelle Metis (1853-1862), 
    Christine Lachapelle Metis b-1853 
    Prosper Pierre Lachapelle Metis b-1855 
    Lisette Lachapelle Metis b-1856
    Pierre P. Lachapelle Metis b-1857
    Clementine (Lachapelle Metis b-1857-?), 
    Amedee Lachapelle Metis b-1859, married Eupheme Chamberlan
    Marie Adele Lachapelle Metis b-1862 
    Helena Lachapelle Metis b-1865

Jean Baptiste Despatie McKay Metis aka (Deshortez McRoy) (1793/99-1853) son Jean Baptiste Depatie McKay and Temiscaming native joined PFC 1809??,  NWC (1817-1821) Columbia District, a Freeman with HBC (1821-1836) settler Willamette 1830.  He may have had six or more wives/partners and a minimum of seven children. The earliest wife appears to have been Catherine Ochikabawike (.1784-1834) a Nipissing native, whom he married, at l’Annonciation d’Oka on October 27, 1817, shortly after he was contracted to leave for the coast. Other wives/partners were an unnamed Calapouya woman , Marguerite, Indian , Catherine Tichailis/Chehelis d-before 1839), Jany/Jenny/Jane/Eugenie Wanakske (Willamette) (.1819-1851) and Catherine Saste . The various children were 
    Marie Lisette McKay Metis (1823-1841) 
    Agathe McKay Metis (1825-1848) 
    Françoise McKay Metis b-1828
    Jean Baptiste II McKay Metis b-1830
    Jean Baptiste III McKay Metis (1839-1840), 
    John/Jonathan McKay Metis (1836-1910)
    Antoine McKay Metis b-1841

(IV)-Peter Ogden Jr. Metis (1817-1870) Western Canada or Columbia District son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Cree woman;  Educated in Red River He joined HBC (1835-1870) assigned 1841 Columbia and New Caledonia Districts.  On January 17, 1844 Edmonton House, he married Euphrosini (Phristine/Freezen) Brabant (1817-1889) the daughter of Augustine Brabant (of Quebec) and Angelique Lucer.  Their children were:
    (V)-Peter Skene Ogden  Metis (.1844-1870), 
    (V)-Margaret Julia Ogden Metis (1844-1918), 
    (V)-Adelaide V. Ogden Metis b-1847 
    (V)-Christine Ogden Metis b-1851 
    (V)-Charles Griffin Ogden Metis d-1904), 
    (V)-Rachel Ogden Metis b-1852
    (V)-Sara Julianna Ogden Metis b-1854 
    (V)-Mary Elizabeth Ogden Metis b-1858
    (V)-Elizabeth Martha Ogden Metis 
    (V)-Isaac Ogden Metis b-1859
    (V)-Henry Ogden Metis b-1864
Phrisine died on July 27, 1889.

Ignace Ostrayou b-1796 a Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louise, Mexico.  He joined NWC 1816 out of Sault Ste Marie, assigned (1817-1821) Columbia District.  HBC (1821-1826) Columbia District, He disappear returning from the Flatheads. 

.Dick Owhyhee aka Loolon Hawaiian d-1855 NWC 1817 Comumbia District HBC to 1854.  Married native Chinook, he had
    Richard Owhyhee Metis bap.1838
    James Owhyhee Metis bap.1838 (baptised Anglican), 
    Thérèse Owhyhee Metis b-1840
    Luce Owhyhee Metis (1843-1844), who was baptised Catholic.

Joseph Pin (1794/95-1841) joined NWC (1813-1814) Fort des Prairies on the Saskatchewan River, NWC 1814 at Michillimacinac, assigned NorthWest 1815 likely Saskatchewan River, then he crossed the Rockies (1817-1818) with Joseph Felix Larocque Metis Jr. b-1802, (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1841) Columbia District, settler Willamette..  Joseph Pin had one wife and five recorded children. On April 19, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Kwe’he’ssest, Pend d’Oreille. Their children were 
    Joseph II Pin Metis b-1827
    Nancy Pin Metis b-1830
    Jean Baptiste Pin Metis b-1833
    François Pin Metis b-1836
    Marguerite Pin Metis (1839-1925). 
When widow Marguerite died in 1851, daughter Marguerite (1839-1925) was made a ward of Dr. John McLoughlin in Oregon City.

Joseph Plouffe Metis? d-1849? son Louis Plouff and Suzanne Desrosiers, from Berthier, Quebec and was recorded in the fur trade since 1793, NWC 1814 in the North West, NWC 1816 at Fort William NWC (1817-1821) & HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District.  He appears to have been in Montreal frequently.  I suspect the two Josephs records might be mixed up.  He might be the father of 
    Joseph Plouffe Metis (1808/09-1849) from Berthier, Quebec who Joined HBC (1831-1847) Columbia District settled in Wallamette
    Antoine Plouffe Metis (1808/09-1836) from Sorel, Quebec who joined HBC (1828-1836) Columbia District married Angelique Stawa; had two daughters Rosalie b-1834 but raised by her uncle Joseph and Charlotte
    Marie Plouffe Metis b-1834
    Rosalie Plouffe Metis b-1840 married P.O. Riley , John Desportes McKay and Xavier Pelland
    Henriette Plouffe Metis (1841-1847)
    Archange Plouffe Metis (1844-1851)
    Joseph Plouffee Metis b-1845
    Jean Baptiste Plouffe Metis b-1848

Francois Poette b-1798 Quebec joined NWC (1817-1821) & HBC (1821-1836 Columbia District settled Willamette 1836 and Cowlitz 1838.  On April 8, 1839, then farmer Piette formalized his marriage to Félicite, Sassetté. Their recorded children were 
    Mathilde Poette Metis b-1828
    Rachel Poette Metis b-1836

Joseph Portneuf (1796/97-1830) a native or Abenaki Metis  from St. Francois, Quebec he said he joined NWC 1815, as a  Hunter on, Pacific slopes (1817-1821); Boatman, Pacific slopes (1819 - 1821); HBC (1821-1830) Columbia Department  A twenty year old Joseph Portneuf first signed on with the fur trade from the parish of St. François on January 11, 1817 under fur entrepreneur Pierre Rocheblave to serve in the Northwest for three years as a milieu and hunter. At the time of coalition, he joined the HBC in the Columbia. He worked on Snake Expeditions and may have been in July 1830, steering a boat in which he and eleven others, including his wife and two children, drowned. He and the small crew were engulfed in a whirlpool in the lower part of the Dalles. Additionally, three-hundred beaver pelts were lost.  
Joseph Portneuf Metis Jr. d-1836), who died of tuberculosis while attending the Methodist Mission school in the Willamette  
    unnamed Portneuf Metis

(I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856) and a force of 45 men made another attempt at peace on behalf of the Northwest Fur Company. This time the party brought a large quantity of tobacco, a precious commodity. The Indians (the Multnomahs) camped on the east bank just below the Falls of the Willamette while the whites, with their two field pieces, camped on the west bank.  After three days of peaceful approaches, Ross met with Kesno, the chief. The calumet (peace pipe) was smoked, the flag offered, tribute and restitution given, and an Indian slave was given to Ross and returned. The whites received permission to pass peacefully along the Willamette River and make portage around the Falls. They were forbidden to establish an outpost or to take salmon at the Falls.

Jacques Servant (1796-1854) son Jacques Servant and Josephte Charlebois of Vaudriville, Quebec joined NWC (1817-1821) - HBC (1821-1841) Serving Columbia and New Caledonia Districts, settled Willamette 1841.  His family claims he was in Columbia 1811 but no records could be found.  On January 8, 1842, he formalized his marriage to Josephte Sinemaule b-1815 a Nez Perce (also called Okanogan). Their children were 
    Marie Anne/Magdalen Servant (1825-1863), 
    Marie Servant b-1830
    Marguerite Servant (1833-1848), 
    Antoine Servant b-1836, 
    Angelique Servant (1838-1849), 
    Pierre Servant Servant (1841-1887), 
    Elizabeth (1843-1845), 
    Josette/Josephte Servant (1845-1857) 
    François Xavier Servant d-1847
    Moise Servant (1850-1879). 
His widow married Pierre Lacourse I on August 4, 1856.

Pierre Shatacarbon Iroquois from Quebec crossed the Rockies into the Pacific slopes in 1817 NWC with Joseph Felix LaRocque Metis could be senior b-1786/87 or Jr b-1802 

Michel Tawanarion b-1790 Quebec Iroquois joined NWC (1814-1821) in Columbia District 1817 & HBC (1821-1827) Columbia District but in Montreal 1826.

Jean Toupin (1797-1862) from Maskinonge, Quebec joined NWC 1815 east NWC (1817-1821) & HBC (1821-1841) Columbia District 1841.  Jean Toupin had two successive wives and more than three children. The name of his first wife is unknown and the number of their children undetermined. 
On July 19, 1841, he formalized his marriage to Marie L’Aguivoise Dorion Metis (1786-1850) widow Pierre Dorion Metis (1781-1814) and 2nd husband Louis Joseph Vagnier/Venier for Marie, who brought children into the marriage.  She was known as Madame Dorion a very respected lady.
    Marguerite Vernier Dorion Metis b-1819
    Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis b-1816
The subsequent Toupin children were 
    François Toupin Metix b-1825
    Marie Anne Toupin Metis b-1827 married 1st David Gervais d-1853 had 4 children; married 1857 2nd Francois Robideau, 1 child     
Angelique Toupin Metis b-1831

Jacques Touranquash (1779-1829) Sault St. Louis, Quebec Likely joined NWC 1817 & HBC 1821-1829) New Caledonia murdered 1829 by Bugn Chin.

Jean Baptiste Tyeguartiche b-1799 Sault St. Louis, Quebec Mohawk/ Iroquois joined NWC 1817-1821) & HBC(1821-1844) Columbia District.  Jean Baptiste Tyeguariche had two wives and six recorded children. On July 8, 1839 at Fort Vancouver, Tyeguariche formalized his marriage to Judith (Josette) Walla Walla. Their children were 
    Catherine Tyeguartiche Metis b-1824
    Agnés Tyeguartiche Metis b-1829
    Thomas Tyeguartiche Metis (1831-1888), 
    Marie Anne Tyeguartiche Metis b-1832
    Lazare Tyeguartiche Metis b-1835
    Cécile Tyeguartiche Metis b-1837
Judith died sometime before 1847 at which time he was married to Henriette Pend d’Oreille. Henriette died in February 1852.

Pierre (Waccan) Umpreville Metis b-1817 Columbia District son Canote Umpreville aka Canotte Umfreville, Humpherville Athabasca Metis (1788-1842) and Pauline Sinpoil; joined HBC (1835-1843) settled Willamette 1840.  He tried unsuccessfully to get title to his claim south of St. Louis (Oregon).  The Americans were determined to land clear those Metis and Canadians from the Oregon Territory.  Only the intervention of Father Blanchet, who said that he was single and looking after seven orphans and a step-mother, reversed the decision. (Umpreville was head of the Humpherville/Martineau families who had drowned in the 1842 river accident.) Also, according to the Oregon City Argus, at the time of the 1861 winter flood, "Waccom Umpherville rescued thirty persons between Champoeg and Fairfield, taking fifteen of them from one house, to which they had fled for refuge"

Antoine Valle (LaValle) joined NWC (1817-1821) & HBC (1822-1834) Columbia District, 
    Unnamed son Valle Metis (1812-1824) and unknown mother

Fort George is established. The post is staffed by approximately 50 men, more than half of whom are Kanakas (Hawaiians). A year later, the Northwest Company establishes Fort Walla Walla in the interior. Among its employees are 20 men of mixed Indian-white parentage (Metis), 38 Iroquois (Mohawks) Indians and 32 Kanakas. 

The USA Congress passed a Protectionist law that barred foreign traders from USA Territories.  The Americans discovered they could not compete with the Canadians in the NWC, HBC and with independent fur traders.  It became an American tradition to impose laws, regulations, tariffs to limit free trade.  North America was built on the principle of Free Trade by the native peoples but the USA would violate this fundamental principle for greed and entitlement.  This effectively shut down Mackinac to free trade and allowed (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a monopoly with his American Fur Company.  It would also bar Canadians from part of the Columbia District in the future that included Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. 


Francois Noel Annance an Abenaski Metis b-1790 son Francois Joseph Annace and Indian woman.  His ancestors are Samuel Gill and Rosalie James captured in Massachusetts about 1700 and raised by the Abebski.  They married each other but their decedents married into the tribe.  Francois joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) Columbia District.  His first wife was an unnamed Flathead woman, with whom he had three Metis boys, one of whom drowned. With his second wife, unnamed, he had a Metis  boy and a girl.

Joseph Beaulieu Metis born 1792 or 1802 Red River.  He told HBC born 1802 but at his baptism May 28, 1843 at St Paul (Oregon) he said his age was 51 which makes his birth 1792.  It is claimed he was the son of Joseph Beaulieu and Josephte Cree however only Francois Beaulieu Metis (1772-1872) was in Red River working into the Peace River region during this time period.  Francois came from an old family of the Slave River region.  A Jean Baptiste Beaulieu Metis b-1799 Red River is also recorded..   Francois Beaulieu Metis (1772-1872) was on the Mackenzie party of 1789 to the Arctic and the Mackenzie party to the Pacific of 1793.  However the Jr. Beaulieu was known to be in the Columbia District in 1818 (Oregon).  Some have suggested that some of the Mackenzie party of Metis had been to the Pacific previously as free traders.  Joseph joined HBC (1831-1844).  He was on HBC debt list for 1845 but didn't work for them.  On January 29, 1844 he married Betsy Killimaux [Tillimook] (c.1823-1846), who died two years later.

Pierre Beleque (Belleque) (1793-1849/50) son Louis Belleque and Margarite Baudouin, joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1830) new Caledonia settler French Prairie 1830.  Churched 1839 to Genevieve St Martin Metis, epouse Casimir Gardepie after 1850, daughter of Andre St. Martin and Indian woman of Sorel, Quebec.  Pierre was the father of eight children including: 
    Mary Sophie Beleque Metis (1832-1920), 
    Pierre Beleque Metis (1835-1913) 
    Jane Beleque Metis b-1837 
    Genevieve (Beleque Metis (1838-1890) 
    Esther Beleque Metis (1840-1915) 
    Joseph Beleque Metis (1843-184?) 
    Jean Baptiste Beleque Metis (1845-1925)
    Cyperion Beleque Metis (1848-1914). 
The name is often seen spelled as Belleque.  His widow married Casimir Gardipie.

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) crossed the Rockies with Angus Bethune Metis (1783-1858) and James McMillan.

(I)-James Birnie born Calcutta, India (1799-1864) joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1846) Columbia District.  Birnie Island, Fort Simpson [B.C.], is named after James Birnie.  On November 8, 1838 at Fort George [Astoria], he formalized his marriage to Charlotte Beaulieu Metis (1805-1878) of Red River. The Birnie children were:         
    (II)-Suzanne Birnie Metis (1828-1854), 
    (II)-Robert Birnie Metis bap.1837 joined HBC (1841-1843) Columbia District
    (II)-Charlotte Birnie Metis bap.1838 
    (II)-James Birnie Metis bap.1838 
    (II)-Amelie Birnie Metis bap.1838 married (I)-John McAdoo Wark (1829-1909)
    (II)-Victoria Birnie Metis bap.1838 
    (II)-Lakse Birnie Metis bap.1838
    (II)-Mary A. Birnie Metis b-1840 
    (II)-Alexandre Birnie Metis (1842-1922), 
    (II)-Caroline Birnie Metis b-1844 
    (II)-Archibald Birnie Metis (1847-1850)
    (II)-Thomas Lowe Birnie Metis (1851-1883). 
A child, Eliza  (possibly one of the above) became the wife of A. C. Anderson.  

Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1804-1844) joined HBC (1818-1843) New Caledonia settled Willamette.

Pierre Charles dit Langlois (1799/1800-1862) from St. Francois, Quebec, joined NWC (1818-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1840) chose to live with the Indians as a freeman but worked on and off for the HBC.  Pierre had at least three wives and five children..
    1st married February 3, 1840, Cowlitz, Louis Clallam (1815-1841)
        Pierre Charles Metis b-1828
        Antoine Charles Metis b-1832
        Joseph Charles Metis b-1835
        Charles Charles Metis b-1839
    2nd marriage January 24, 1842 Marguerite Sassete b-1828
    3rd marriage by 1857 Sophia b-1815
        Dauphine Baptiste Charles b-1847

Francois Charpentier (1796-1834) joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1843) Columbia District, wife not recorded but one daughter recorded:
    Sophia Charpentier Metis b-1830 and taken in by Gervais of Willamette and married Caesar Beaudouin b-1814

Jean Baptiste Chotoriorikon Iroquois (Mohawks) joined NWC (1818-1821) and Free trader to 1822 Columbia District.

Ignace Dehodionwassere Iroquois (Mohawks) joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District.  Alexander Ross deemed Ignace as being unfit for Snake Country, an assessment which applied to practically all the Iroquois (Mohawks) of the group.  As a result they all deserted the HBC.

Francois Xavier Horatoshan an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined NWC (1817-1818) Columbia District.

Poerre Kakaraquiron Iroquis (1800-1832) joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1832) Columbia District.

Louis Kanatioha Iroquois (Mohawks) joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) both Columbia District.

Ignace (Big Ignace) Kanetagon Iroquois (Mohawks) from Quebec joined NWC (1818-1821) & HBC (1822-1823) Both Columbia District.

Laurent Karatohon an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Quebec,  free trader joined NWC (1818-1821) Columbia District, he was with Angus Bethume and James McMo;;an who crossed the Rockies in 1818.  In 1819 he was with Angus Bethume and (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) 

Rene Karaquante an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined NWC (1818-1819) Columbia District.

Pierre Charles (Langlois) Metis (1799-1862) employed NWC (1818-1821) Columbia District; HBC as a freeman who wanted to live with the natives (1821-1840) retired to Cowlitz.    Pierre Charles had at least three wives and five children. On February 3, 1840, the Cowlitz farmer Pierre Charles dit Langlois formally married Louise Clallam (c.1815-1841), died July 23, 1841, their children being;
    Antoine Charles Metis b-1832
    Joseph Charles Metis b-1835 
    Charles Charles Metis b-1839             
    Pierre? Charles Metis b-1828 a possibility?
He married Marguerite Sassete b-1828 on January 24, 1842. 
By 1857, he was married to Sophia b-1815. Their child appears to have been; 
    Dauphine Baptiste Charles Metis b-1847.

Henry Como aka Comeau a Hawaiian (1794-1850) emplied HBC (1818-1850) Columbia District. married Nancy Native and recorded three children;  
    Marguerite Como Metis b-1829 who married 1853 John Collis, 
    Marie Como Metis b-1833
    Thomas Como Metis (1835-1856)

Meaquin Martin (1811-1825) Iroquois joined HBC (1818-1824) Columbia District, freeman by 1824

(I)-Francois Morigeau (Moriceau) Metis (1793-1870) a Columbia District freeman settled 1818 Canal Flats near Lake Windermere.  He and his friend Edward Berland Metis d-1853 another free trader (1827-1835 likely earlier) traded out of Fort Kootenay.   Francois married twice, 
1st in 1819 Aneas or Anne Ken-pe-skut b-1799 Cree Indian girl, (a la Facon du pats), some attribute the first three children to this wife.  Some suggest heer name was Isabelle McTavish a Swampy Cree.   Others suggest she abandoned husband and kids to return to her family, as she was home sick.  Some suggest he married in Quebec but this is highly unlikely.
    (II)-Sallese Morigeau Metis b-1830  born Kootney   
    (II)-Rosalie (Betsy) Morigeau Metis (1834-1884) born Kootney
    (II)-Alexander Morigeau Metis (1835-1916) born Kootney
2nd he married 1837 a (II)-Isabella Taylor Metis b-1815 Red River a Metis girl, daughter (I)-William Taylor b-1788 and Sarah Sabiston b-1804 Fort Edmonton, Saskatchewan River daughter Hugh Sabiston Metis (1772-1810), and they had 11 Metis kids.  Father Pierre Jean De Smet (1801-1873) in his 1845/46 Kooteney expedition sanctioned Francois country marriage and baptized the children.  In appreciation his wife prepare a banquet that included bear paws, roast porcupine, moose muzzle, buffalo , venison, beaver tail, hares, partridges and more.  Some suggest he retired to Colville Valley, Washington.in 1844 but this is not correct as in 1945 Father Pierre Jean De Smet (1801-1873) went up the Kootenay River to the Lakes and to the mouth of the Vermillion Riveer.  He encountered the Morigeau family as in his words the sole occupant with 7 Indian children and states they have occupied this area from (1818 to 1845).  I couldn't find if and when he moved to Colville Valley. 
    (II)-Francois Morigeau Metis (1838-1901) born Kootney
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Morigeau Metis (1840/42-1932) born Kootney married Koolatte (Colette) and Theresa Philomena Kain (Coy) and had 12 kids.
    (II)-Abraham Morigeau Metis b-1844 born Kootney
    (II)-Sylvia Morigeau Metis (1845-1920) born Kootney
    (II)-Margaret Morigeau Metis b-1847
    (II)-Sophis Morigeau Metis (1849-1916)
    (II)-Louis Eli Morigeau Metis (1852-1910)
    (II)-Rosolie Morigeau Metis (1855-1943)
    (II)-Philamine Louise (Lizzie) Morigeau (1857-1946)
    (II)-Joseph Morigeau Metis b-1858
    (II)-Josephine Morigeau Metis b-1860

Toussant Poirier (1782/86-1850) from Vaudereuil, Quebec brother of Basile Poirier (1774/88-1844) possible sons of (IV)-Joseph Poirier b-1744 and (III)-Marie Baland b-1761 of Montreal, joined NWC 1817 arrived Columbia District (1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1839) settling in Willamette.  (His brother was Bazil Poirier (1774-1844)).  On January 21, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Catherine, Clatsop (Marguerite, Chinook) (1800-1850) at Fort Vancouver. Their children were 
    Marie Poirier Metis (1825-1914), 
    Antoine Poirier Metis b-1831 
    Louison Poirier Metis b-1836/38
    Rose Poirier Metis (1838/39-1916) 
    Joseph Poirier Metis b-1843

Louis Sagohandsta b-1798 Iroquois joined NWC (1818-1821) Columbia District, HBC 1829 and (1835-1838)  Columbia District.

Charles Tchigt b-1798 Mohawk/Iroquois Sault St. Louis, Quebec NWC 1818 then likely free traded until HBC 1822-1836) Columbia Disteris, then settled Willamette 1836.  He had three successive wives and two recorded children, although, there were likely more. The first wife, Charlotte Pend d’Oreille, was the mother of 
    Agathe Charlot Tchigt b-1835
Marie Thomas (Canasawarette?) was the second wife and appears to have died. Their child may have been 
    Susanne Tchigt b-1845
On May 2, 1847, he married a Calapooia woman usually mentioned as Thérèse (c.1832-?). Their one recorded child was
    Laurent Tchigt (1846-1851).

Pierre Tecanatassin Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec likely a free trader recorded 1812 Michillimackinac; 1814 Fort William; 1818 Columbia District and HBC 1822 Columbia District.

Charles Ughnawera a Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec was a freeman hunter and was associated with the NWC (1833-1817) east of the Rockies then (1818-1822) Columbia Distract.  He was part of the Miaquin Martin group.n

British Columbia south of 54° 40' and west of the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains) and south to the Spanish Territory (California) border is considered part of the Ouragan Territory (meaning Hurricane) (Oregon Territory) and the United States began making claim on the Ouragan Territory although no United States citizens occupied this territory.  The Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) was managed by the Hudson Bay Company for Great Britain and N.W.C. for Canada.  The United States cry became 54-40 or War.  This 'joint occupancy' arrangement would last until 1846.  It is noteworthy that Russia and Spain had also made claim to the Ouragan Territory by right of first exploration and settlement.

Russia recorded this year twenty four trading posts from Alaska to Spanish Territory (California) in the Ouragan Territory.

Baranov requested help from the Russian Royal Navy to send a warship against the Tlingit Nation.  This failed to stop the Tlingit War which continued until 1867.  Some suggest the Russian failure to put down the Tlingit People was a contributing factor in the sale of Alaska to the United States.

The Russians were first to build ships on the west coast of North America. Four ships were constructed at the Ross colony in Fort Ross Cove, north of Spanish San Francisco Bay (Spanish California). The first was the brig Rumianstev, launched in 1818. This ship lasted only until 1823. The second was copper-hulled brig Buldakov. It was launched in 1820 and was in use until 1826. The third was the brig Volga, launched in 1822 and in use until 1827. The last brig, Kiakhta was built in 1824 and it is unknown how long this brig was in use.

The Ross colony had a vineyard with 2,000 vines, a Russian Orthodox Church, had one or two blacksmiths, and imported glass from Russia.

Fort Walla Walla (1818-1860?) In 1818, just north of where the Walla Walla and Columbia Rivers merge, (I)-Donald (McKenzie) Mackenzie (1783-1851) with A. Ross built a fort that was to become one of the most important key strategic posts in the Pacific Northwest. The fort was christened Fort Nez Perce (1818-1855) on the Columbia River, but later took on the name Fort Walla Walla, after the nearby river.  There were six forts in all to bear the name "Fort Walla Walla".  (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) employed NWC (1901-1810); Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) is back with the NWC (1814-1821) then went on to the HBC (1821-1835) 

In the winter of 1818-19, Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849)  led a hunting brigade south towards the sources of the Willamette River (Oregon). His mostly Iroquois (or mixed race (Metis) hunters killed 14 Indians in a battle on the Upper Umpqua River. The party retreated back to Ft.George (formerly Ft. Astor) but Louis LaBonte, Joseph Gervais, Etienne Lucier, Louis Kanota, and Louis Pichette dit DuPre (1800-1876) stayed to hunt in the Willamette Valley (Oregon) throughout 1819. The five were free trappers, not bonded employees of the fur company.

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) of the NWC fled Quebec for the Columbia River because he was indicted in murder.  He abandoned his Cree/Metis wife Marie Comtois (1807-1875) and his two Metis children.  One child was sent to Red River for education.  He was known to be a bully and a violent man.  Andre Chalifoux (1789-1851) free trader? Steersman, is believed to have traveled with Ogden and Angus Bethune (1783-1958) from Western Canada to Columbia.  It is noteworthy that Andre Chalifoux a Steerman was in Columbia (1810-1840) then retiring to Wallamett.  Angus Bethune (1783-1958) was also in Columbia District (1814-1817) with NWC having returned from a trip to Japan in 1813 from Columbia District..

Louis Labonte, Joseph Gervais, Etienne Lucier, Louis Kanota and Louis Pichette dit Dupre (1800-1876) are free trading in Oregon Territory.

October 20:  Britain and the USA sign the treaty of Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory aka Columbia District.  The motto should be don't invite an elephant into your tent.  At this time the British dominated the Columbia District through the HBC and Canadian fur traders and the USA was a very minor player.



Pierre Bellique (1797-1849) son Louis Belleque and Margarite Baudouin of Saint Pierre du Portage, Quebec joined the NWC Columbia District (1819-1821) HBC (1821-1836) and retired to Willamette 1832 growing wheat for Fort Vancouver . When Pierre Sr. died, his widow Genevieve married Casimir Gardipied.  The children of Bellique and Genevieve St. Martin Metis, the daughter of André St. Martin of Sorel, Quebec and a native woman of unknown origin, were: 
    Mary Sophie Belloque Metis (1832-1920), 
    Pierre Belloque Metis (1835-1913), 
    Geneviève Belloque Metis (1838-1890), 
    Esther Belloque Metis (1840-1915?), 
    Joseph Belloque Metis (1843-1847), 
    Jean Baptiste Belloque Metis (1845-1925) 
    Cyprian Belloque Metis  (1848-1914?). 

Pierre Bostonais (Bostonnais) dit Tete Jaunes, d-1827 an Iroquois Metis with yellow hair guided Jose Gaubin b-1800 Yamaska, Quebec joined NWC (1818-1821) to Rocky Mountain house and into the Rocky Mountains but it is not known how far into B.C, they went but in (1821-1836) he worked IIe-a-la Crosse, Bow River and Saskatchewan District.

Pierre Narcisse Depot (1799/1803-1868) son Joseph Louise Depot and Suzanne Brault of Richelieu, Quebec.  employed NWC (1819-1821) HBC (1821-1842) Columbia District retired village Gervais.  Depot had three wives and seven children. 
1st married 1834 Susanne Tchinook d-1839 Fort Vancouver
    Pierre Depot Metis Jr. b-1835  married 1851 Marie Nanak(Banak) Brousseau epouse Louis Brousseau
    Joseph Depot Metis b-1837 married October 6, 1858 Angelique Laroc
On January 23, 1839, the farmer Depot married a Marguerite Klamak (Clamak [Tlamat, Klamath]) d-1850) by whom he had four children, 
    Pierre Depot Metis b-1839
    Joseph Depot Metis  
    Harriette Depot Metis b-1842
    Adeline Depot Metis b-1843, baptized 1858 
    Etienne Depot Metis bapt-1847. 
    Joseph Depot Metis married 1858 Angelique Laroc
On August 23, 1858 Depot married Lisette (Elizabeth Gagnon), "orphan under the protection of Louis Vandale", who married 1868 Jean Baptiste Gobin (1811-1898) after Depots death, 
    Catherine Depot Metis b-1859
    Marcelline Depot Metis b-1868

Francois Deschiquette Metis Jr. (1819-1862) born Columbia District son Francois Ducharquette Sr. from Prairie Duchien (Wisconsin) worked Pacific Fur Company (1811-1814) then NWC (1813-1814) and married Margurite Okanagan;  Jr joined HBC (1836-1862) Columbia District.

Jean Gingras b-1799 employed HBC (1819-1841) Columbia District and Thompson River finally retiring Willamette, Columbia.

Paul Guilbeau (1800-1849) at Fort Vancouver 1819, HBC (1821-1840) settled Cowlitz 1840 and Willametta 1841.  On December 29, 1838 he formalized his marriage to Caty/Catherine Sakaian, Walla Walla d-1848). Their children were 
    François Guilbeau Metis (1833-1855),
     Louis  Guilbeau Metis b-1837 
    Paul  Guilbeau Metis b-1838 
    Marie  Guilbeau Metis b-1841 
    Vincent Abraham  Guilbeau Metis b-1844
    Joseph  Guilbeau Metis 
After the death of Catherine in 1848 he married Françoise, Cayuse, Walla Walla, the widow of his Iroquois (Mohawks) friend, Thomas Tawatcon, on November 5, 1848. After Guilbeau’s death in 1849 his widow married Laurent Sauve on April 9, 1850.

Pierre Hathawiton (Thaawitha) Iroquois (Mohawks) worked both NWC/HBC as a free trader but employed HBC ((1819-1820) New Caledonia

Okanagan, Columbia, birth, Charles Lafantaise (1819-1861), Metis son Jacques Lafantaise aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) of NWC and Susanne Okanagon

Okanogan Area; birth Charles Lafontasies Metis (1819-1861) son Jacques Lafantasie (1788-1827)  and Sussan Okanogan of Columbia District; he joined HBC (1834-1842) retired Willamette 1842. Charles Lafantasie had two wives and thirteen children. His first wife was Isabelle Humpherville (also Isabelle, Spokane or Elizabeth Canote) (1817-1852), daughter of Canote Humpherville and his Sinpoel wife Pauline. Their children were:
    unnamed Lafontasies Metis child (.1838-1845), 
    Marie Lafontasies Metis b-1842 
    Cecile Lafontasies Metis b-1843 
    François Lafontasies Metis b-1845
    BibianeLafontasies Metis  (1847-1848), 
    Thomas Lafontasies Metis b-1849
    Flora Lafontasies Metis (1851-1851). 
Nine months after the death of Isabelle in 1852, on May 3, 1853, Charles married Genevieve Rondeau Metis (1830-1879), daughter of Charles Rondeau (1793-1855)  and Lizette Bellaire Metis (1813/14-1835) likely daughter Registre Bellaire a free trader. Their subsequent children were 
    Bibianne Lafontasies Metis (1854-died before 1876), 
    Baptist Lafontasies Metis (1855-1856), 
    Adelard Lafontasies Metis b-1857 
    Eliza Lafontasies Metis b-1859 
    Clarisse Lafontasies Metis b-1860
    Jacques Lafontasies Metis (1861-1863).

(I)-William Johnson (1789-1848) joined NWC 1817, crossed the Rockies for Columbia District 1819, joined HBC 1821-1836), settled Willamette 1836.  William Johnson had possibly two wives, Polly Clackamas/Chelsamn and Mary, a native. Two recorded sons of William and Polly were, 
    (II)-James Johnson Metis bap.1836
    (II)-Herbert Johnson Metis bap.1838 both baptised by Reverend Herbert Beaver. 
William Johnson and Mary had one child, 
    (II)-Amelie Johnson Metis b-1845

(IV)-Charles Ogden Metis (1819-1890) born Columbia District son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Julie Rivet a Spokane/Flathead.  Joined HBC (1853-1890) in Columbia and New Caldonia Departments.  He was wrongly accused by the Americans of selling gun powder to the Indians in 1854.  He didn't even have gun powder on hand.  The Americans were looking for an excuse to drive all HBC employees from the territory and burn this buildings.  

Etienne Onidse a Metis or Iroquois is associated with NWC (1819-1821)

Charles Onaharashan Mohawk/Iroquois from Salt St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC (1831-1821) east of Rockies but is noted in Columbia District (1818-1824) as a freeman.

Louis Ossin (Aucent, Aussan, Ossant) (1800-1856) from Sorel, Quebec joined NWC (1819-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1824-1839) New Caledonia and Columbia District, settling Willamette 1841.  Louis Ossin (as Louis Aucent) had three or more successive wives and four recorded children. In February 1829, while at Fort Langley, he took an unnamed Kwantlen wife. On July 13, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Catherine, Cayuse (.1813-1848). Apparently their children were 
    Rose Aucent Metis (1828-1901), 
    Louis Aucent Metis (1832-1899), 
    François Aucent Metis b-1836
    Josephte Aucent Metis (1839-1850). 
Catherine died March 12, 1848 and two months later, on May 29, 1848, Louis married Mary Mollilis/Mollala b-1818. Upon Louis’ death, his widow, Mary, married Joseph Simoneau on January 6, 1858.

Jean Baptiste Perrault (1797-1857) arried Columbia District 1819 NWC (1815-1821) HBC (1821-1837) settled Willamette.  Jean Baptiste Perrault had two wives and three recorded children. His first wife, a Chinook woman may have been a daughter of Chinook Chief Concomely. Two daughters,     
    Jeanette Perrault Metis b-1820
    Marie Anne Perrault Metis b-1823
both lived near Perrault with their respective husbands near the big bend of the Willamette. On January 21, 1839 after the possible death of his first wife, he married Angele Tichailis b-1803 and had one recorded daughter, 
    Lucie Perrault Metis b-1844

(I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1942) (who is perhaps the namesake of Mount Robson), in charge of Fort St. Mary, recorded in his journal for December 1819, “Tête Jaune aka Pierre Bostonais d-1828, the free Iroquois (Mohawks), has given me a chart of that country across the Rocky Mountains.

Louis Rondeau b-1800 Berthier, Quebec employed NWC (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1844) Columbia District.settled Wallamette with native wife and Metis daughter

Francois Xavier Sassanare Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec a Free trader was first detected 1819 in Columbia District, first associated NWC 1800 out of Michillimackinac, in 1821-1822 was selling firs to HBC at Fort Spokane, in Snake region (1824-1825), selling furs to American Fur Company 1825 Weber River.  

Joseph Tehongagaraete b-1794 Sault St. Louis, Quebec a Mohawk/Iroquois joined NWC 1819-1821) & HBC (1822-1844) Columbia District settled Willamette 1841.

Pierre Thestironsara Iroquois a freeman (1819-1820 New Caledonia District, traded with HBC 

Louis Vivet (Sanschagrin) from Faubourg St. Laurent, joined the NWC as [Pierre Rocheblave], joined NWC (1819-1821) HBC (1821-1842) Columbia District freeman and settled Willamette Valley.  Louis Vivet had one wife, Lisette d-before 1843), Chinook/Commashioua, and two recorded children, 
    Henriette Vivet Metis b-1829
    Narcisse Vivet Metis (1831-1870).

Peter Wagner (1799-1865) born St. Laurent joined NWC (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1842) Fort Vancouver, Columbia District.   Peter Wagner had one (possibly two) wives and five (possibly six) children. On June 10, 1839 he formalized his marriage to Marie Stens (Stomis), (Tchinouk) Chinook [1805-1865] (she may be the Lizette b-1810 of the 1850 Census). Their children were: 
    Marie Anne Wagher Metis (1829-1847)-although her mother is listed as "Louise"-perhaps another wife, Rose (1836-1861), 
    Rose Wagner Metis b-1837
    Marie Wagner Metis b-1838/39
    Elizabeth Wagner Metis (1840-1863), 
    Scholastique (same as Elizabeth?) Wagner Metis b-1841
    Marguerite Wagner Metis (1844-1851). 
Wife Marie Stens died on the farm on March 24, 1865, at the age of sixty.

The trappers, fur traders, Mountain men and River men are generally credited with exploring the west.  The Army Corp in persons such as Major Stevan Long, who led an expedition west, said the entire region was unfit for cultivation or human habitation.  He joined General Henry Atkinson's in the Yellowhead expedition.  In five expeditions he covered 26,000 miles.  

February 22:  Spain ceded its legitimate claim to Florida and Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) not wishing to go to war with the US and Britain.  This led to the 'Manifest Destiny' where the USA was determined to take possession of North America by force if necessary.

December:  (I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842) at Fort St. Mary recorded that Tete Jaune alias Pierre Bostonais d-1827 had provided him with a map of that country across the Rocky Mountains.  Pierre Bostonais (Bostonnais) dit Tete Jaunes, d-1827 an Iroquois Metis with yellow hair guided a HBC party from Rocky Mountain house and into the Rocky Mountains to trade with the Secwepemc (Shuswap).


Francois Noel Annance, Metis, b-1789/90 of the Abenaki tribe, a descendent of Samuel Gill and Rasaline James captured and raised by the Abenaki tribe, employed NWC (1820-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1821-1834) Columbia, Mackenzie River, retired to Montreal 1834-1835.
1st married a flathead woman and had 3 boys one who died young
    One Metis son b-1826
2nd unnamed wife
Became involved with John Stuart's wife 1833, Mary Taylor, she may have been his 2nd unnamed wife?

(I)-George Barnston (1800-1882) employed NWC 1820, HBC 1821-1863) and took his family to the Columbia District in 1832.  He had married Ellan Matthaws Metis b-1815 daughter William Matthews and Marguerite Kil-a-ko-tah, Clatsop , they had 11 Metis children.  George considered Governor George Simpson as 'quite mad'.

Pierre Belleque, (1797-1849) employed NWC (1820-1821) location not recorded but likely Caledonia, New Caledonia, Western Caledonia and Columbia; and HBC (1821-1837) same areas as canoeman.  He married 1st. Genevieve St. Martin, Metis daughter Andre St. Martin and Indian Woman; she married after 1850 Willamette, Oregon, Casimar Gardepie.

Pierre Bostonais (Bostonnais) dit Tete Jaunes, d-1827 an Iroquois Metis with yellow hair guided Ignace Giasson to Rocky Mountain house and on into the Rocky Mountains to trade

James Boucher aka Bouche Metis (1820-1910) son Jean Baptiste Waccan Boucher Metis (1789-1850) and Nancy McDougal Metis of New Caledonia, worked HBC 1841-1878.  In July 24, 1848 he married the pregnant wife of Joseph Plouffe (1808-1849) [Thérèse Makaina]  at Willamette intending to have an affair but June 8, 1949 killed Joseph Plouffe (1808-1849), his new wife's husband and he fled north to New Caledonia to escape execution.  He returned to New Caledonia in 1853, he retired 1893 to Fort St. James.  July 24, 1848 in St. Paul, Oregon, he married Rosalie Plouffe b-1834, husband of Antoine Plouffe (1808/09-1836. They had no recorded children in the short time they were together. 
In June 1868, in New Caledonia, he formalized his marriage to Maria Titnan , from Stella [British Columbia], Maria Titnan died sometime before 1890 and together they had 
    Mariya/Maria Boucher Metis, 
    Ellen Boucher Metis b-1852
    Nancy Boucher Metis 
    Philomena Boucher Metis b-1856
    Sophie Boucher Metis b-1857
    Margaret Boucher Metis b-1855
    Jane Boucher Metis b-1865
    Jenny/Jennie Boucher Metis b-1865
    Angela Boucher Metis b-1869
    William Boucher Metis b-1871 ; 
By 1896 he was living with his third wife, a Carrier woman.

Clatsop country, Columbia District, birth, Michel Cotenior (Cottenoire) Metis Jr,(1820-1854)  son Michel Cotenoir  (Cottenoire) Sr. aka, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Tchialis aka Tchinouk Woman d-1817 a Chehalis.  He joined HBC (1834-1839) Columbia District, settling Cowlitz 1839 
On March 3, 1841, he united (Country Marriage) with Sophie Plamondon, Metis daughter of Simon Plamondon (1796/1800-1900) Victoria Scanewa (Thas-e-muth) a Cowlitz woman. They formalized their marriage on June 7, 1842. Their children were: 
    Cecilia Cottenoire Metis b-1843 
    Isabella Cottenoire Metis b-1843 
    Simon Cottenoire Metis b-1847
    Elizabeth Cottenoire Metis b-1850 
    Victoria Cottenoire Metis b-1852
    Francis Cottenoire Metis .

(III)-Nicholas Finlay (1816/20-1887) son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay (1768-1828) and Chippewa Girl [date of birth is problematic and could be from wife #2 or #3 or a son of one of the other Finlays or maybe 2 different Finlays?]. Joined HBC (1834-1844), Nicholas Finlay appears to have had at least two wives. 
One wife was Marie, Iroquois.
    (IV)-François (1850-?).
Another wife was Suzette/Josette Cayuse/Palouse. Children from one or both wives were 
    (IV)-Angele Finlay Metis b-1842
    (IV)-Josette Mary Finlay Metis b-1856
    (IV)-John Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Timothy Finlay Metis b-1858
    (IV)-Rosalie Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Nicholas Finlay Metis
    (IV)-Dominique Finlay Metis 

Thirey Goddin Metis (1779-1830) of Maskinonge, joined NWC (1798-1819) to work the North West, HBC (1820-1828) Columbia District, killed by the Blackfoot in 1830.  He married an Iroquois (Mohawk) girl, one son is recorded:
    Antoine Godin Metis d-1835

(II)-Thomas Hodgson Metis (1789/90-1865) born Albany son (I)-John Hodgson Sr. b-1763, and Indian/Metis woman, joined HBC 1800-1814) Albany, discharged, joined NWC (1818-1821) St Maries, Fort William and Columbia District 1820, HBC 1821-1865) New Caledonia, Athabasca, English River, Red River, Fort Edmonton, married (II)-Ann Thomas Metis daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Margaret

Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849) some time during the 1820's built Fort Roseburg which is believed to be the first non-native structure in Douglas Country..

McKay's Old Establishment NWC is built this year.(in Southern Oregon)

(I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, joined HBC (1818-1860) sent men he didn't like to New Caledonia (British Columbia)  He established policy that his officers make alliances (country marriages) with important Indian families to improve trade.  In exchange for their daughters, the Indians would have access to supplies from the forts.  Other accounts suggest he forbid his men from marrying Indians or Metis unless it was his cast offs of which 5 were known.  The Hudson Bay Company policy was that a man was not legally bound to these relationships when he moved to another post, as there was no longer an economic advantage.  He was however expected to maintain the woman and her Metis children until she was "under the protection of another" or in a new relationship with another man.  The agreement from a H.B.C. perspective was that of a  mistress, concubine not as a wife.  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, was a vile man when it came to country women.  He referred to them as bits of brown, commodities and brown jugs when he referred to them at all.  He disrespected the customs of the country.  He abandoned his own women with no concern for their feelings and showed only minor concern for his Metis children.  By modern standards he would be considered as a psychopath.  Most of the Men of the North West Company did not endorse this uncivilized H.B.C. policy however many Scottish and English traders followed the example of Simpson.   Some considered him as 'quite mad'.  Others suggest he had an inferiority complex because of his short stature.  He married at least 5 times;
We know little about wife #1 
    (II)-Marie Louisa Simpson  b-1815 Scotland married Donald McTavish
    (II)-Isabella Simpson  b-1817 Scotland  married James Cook Gordon
We know little about wife #2  but likely (II)-Elizabeth Betsy Sinclair daughter (I)-William Sinclair and Margaret (Nahoway Cree) she was passed off to (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) in 1822
    (II)-Maria Simpson Miles Metis (1822-1838), daughter (II)-Elizabeth; she married Robert Wallace 
We know little about wife #3
    (II)-James Keith Simpson Metis b-1823
    (II)-Unamed Simpson Metis
His 4rd wife (II)-Maria Betsey Miles Metis d-1838 daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and Elizabeth Betsay Sinclair Metis (1805-1822)
    (II)-Mary Keith Simpson Metis
    (II)-Ann Foster Simpson Metis
    (II)-Margaret Simpson Metis
Married his 5th wife about 1826 Margaret Taylor (1810-1816)
    (II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis (1827-1894) 
    (II)-John Simpson Metis b-1829
Married his 6th wife about 1830 Cousin Frances Ramsey Simpson b-1812 they say she soon returned to England but it was 1845
    (II)-George Geddes Simpson (1831-1832)
    (II)-Francois Webster Fanny Simpson b-1833
    (II)-Augusta D'Este Gussy Simpson b-1841
    (II)-Margaret Mackenzie (Maggie)Simpson b-1843
    (II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, may belong to Lachine girl?
    (II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, May belong to Lachine girl
Married his 7th wife a Lachine girl 
    (II)-John Henry Pelly Simpson Metis? b-1850

Peon Peon or Peopeo, a Hudson Bay employee married one of the Sub-chiefs daughters and settled Maple Ridge across the river from Fort Langley.  Their first daughter, believed to be the first born in Fort Langley area, married a Sandwich Islander known as Hahu who worked as a river pilot.  Her sister Sophie wed a Kanaka named Ohule, and Peopeo's son, Joseph Mayo, worked alongside his father and Ohule as a cooper at the fort.  A fellow Kanaka known as Chier wed a local woman named Katherine, by whom he had at least three sons, David, Joseph and Thomas.  These people are early Metis of B.C. by any standards of measure.

David Douglas, a Scottish botanist this decade studied the flora of the Pacific Northwest, exploring the upper Columbia River country.

Old John b-1820 B.C. and wife Madge b-1826 B.C. are living Skeena in 1901 census

Etienne Pepen alias Maille and Magice (1799-1874) from St. Michel de Yamaska, Quebec the son of Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec; arrived Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) with HBC  then was assigned to Fort Langley as a blacksmith  in 1927 (some suggest Fort Langley was not built until 1827?), married Country style at least two, perhaps three country wives.  He took a country wife in Fort Vancouver but it is unknown if he had children in the marriage.          
Etienne Pepin alias Etienne Maille aka Etienne Magice (1799-1874) son Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec: married Isabelle Kwantlen but also married Uiskiwin Woman and Quyslen Woman one being in Fort Vancouver, I think it was Quyslen.

Samuel Williams and his brother are said to have settled Woody Island, B.C. this year and were still there in 1880.  Sam Crab, Thomas Russell are both single and fishermen, also live Woody Island..  

The inland fur trade in the Pacific Northwest is growing slowly composed mostly of French Canadians and their half-Indian (Metis) families, the British traders and their half-breed (Metis) families and a hand full of United States Mountain Men also with their Indian women.

Tete Jaune dit Pierre Bostonais, d-1828 a yellow haired Iroquois Metis guided a H.B.C. party over the Rocky Mountains and returned the end of October the same year.  His brother Jean Baptiste Bostonais also a Iroquois Metis joined his brother in guiding.  Pierre was nicknamed "Tete Jaune" meaning Yellowhead because of his light-colored hair.  The mountain pass that has been in use for about 30 years was named Yellowhead Pass.

John Quincy Adams, this decade, created the term 'Manifest Destiny' to mask a 'World Domination' objective.  He believed the United States would eventually be coextensive with the North American continent, destined by God and Nature to be the most populous and powerful people ever combined into one social contract.  John O'Sullivan in 1845, however, is the first person to publish the term 'Manifest Destiny'.   The invasion and conquest of Texas, New Mexico, Arizonia and California is justified as part of God and Natures Grand Plan. Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada would naturally follow.   The Principle of Might is Right allowed the U,S.A. to annex Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.  The central States of Spanish Mexico fell by isolation.  The next objective was to clear the lands of Native Peoples.  Its unclear when the United States citizens assumed the term American to describe themselves.  Canadians, Mexicans and all the peoples of South America are Americans but would never call themselves as such.  American has become known as USA citizen.

William Raymond Metis (1809-1832) from east of the Rockies joined HBC (1820-1832) Columbia District.

Louis Rondeau (1801-1860's) son Joseph Rondeau and Agathe Dalcour, joined NWC (1820-21) HBC (1821-1845) Columbia District, settled Willamette.   Louis Rondeau had three successive wives and one recorded child. His first wife was one of Concomley’s daughters, Marguerite, the former wife of Duncan McDougal. Their little daughter 
    Marie Rondeau Metis was born on the brigade going to California and was reared by Chief Factor James Douglas after Marguerite died in about 1834. On October 3, 1842, he married Henriette, Yogalta d-1846) at St. Paul, Oregon. They had no recorded children. In the latter part of his life, Rondeau lived at Baker’s Bay with Marie Rondeau Ducheney. Both he and Marie are buried in a spot where Columbia (Fort) Park now stands near the mouth of the Columbia.

Pierre Satakarass b-1788 Mohawk/Iroquois from sault St. Louis, Quebec HWC (1795-1821), 1st appeared in Columbia District 1820) & HBC (1821-1844) settled Willamette but was classed as a free man 1831

Marguerite Souilliere, Metis, b-1820 daughter Basile Souilliere and Cree Woman; 1st married at Lake Superior Sieur Roussin, and traveled to Fort Vancouver B.C. in 1831; 2nd marriage 1833 David Dampierre, this marriage was consecrated at Fort Vancouver B.C. in late December 1838.   

A treaty between Spain and U.S.A. establishes the Idaho (Oregon) Territory at the 42nd parallel.  No treaty was made between Russia, Canada or England it was still called Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).

September 4:  Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence extended as far south as the Oregon Territory and this year closed Alaska to foreigners.


NWC built Fort Alexander (1821-1960's), New Caledonia this year and HBC acquired it.
HBC built Kootenay Post (1821-1871) on Kootney River this year.
HBC built Fort Flathouse/Saleesh House (1821-1847) in the Flathead area this year.

Louis Andre (aka Pierre Akieja, Akaissa) Iroquis Metis (1792/93-1843) from Quebec, likely employed NWC (1818-1821) Columbia District?, employed HBC (1821-1838) Columbia District, He was in Fort Vancouver 1830.  He married Angele Native

(I)-James Birnie of Calcutta, India (1799-1864) likely worked for NWC (1818) prior to this date but is employed HBC (1821-1846) in Columbia, at Fort George aka Fort Astoria (1821-1823) 

Jean Baptiste Boucher possible Metis (1759-1824) is with NWC 1821 but could be earlier, HBC (1821-1824) Columbia District married Josephte Kanhopitsa (des Chaudieres) abandoned wife of John Clarke (1781-1858) and she married Joachim Hubert Metis (1795-1873) after 1824.  Hubert b-1794/5 is from Sault St. Louis and therefore is likely a Iroquois Metis.  One child is recorded:
    Josephte Clarke Boucher Metis daughter John Clarke married John McKay.
    Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis b-1819

(I)-William Brown (1790-1827) joined HBC (1821-1826) Columbia District married and had a family

(III)-John Dugald Cameron, born Quebec (1777-1857) employed NWC (1790-1821), employed HBC as Chief Factor in charge of the Columbia District (1821-1824).  He was employed HBC 1821-1824).  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, described him as "Strictly correct in all his conduct and dealings, and possess much influence over the natives:  Speaks Sealteaux well, and is one of the best Indian Traders; but in other respects not a man of business; nor well Educated, yet possesses a good deal of general information having read almost every book that ever came within his reach."  It sounds like sour grapes from Simpson or his inferiority complex is showing.  see below

(III)-John Dugald Cameron (1777-1857) born Sorel, Quebec younger brother of (III)-Duncan Cameron Jr. & of (III)-Ranald Cameron sons of  (II)-Duncan Cameron Sr. (1764-1849), born Scotland came to USA with parents in 1773 to New York 
Joined NWC (1790-1821) a self educated man
A partner in 1813
In 1815 wrote "Peace all over the world except at R.R." R.R. = Red River
Joined HBC (1821-1846) 
Chief factor Columbia District out of Fort George (Astoria) (1821-1824) replaced in 1824 by John McLoughlin
Settled Grafton, Ontario
Married (formalized) 1833 to à la façon du pays Ojibwa who was named Mary and they had 4 sons and 3 daughters
    (III)-Margaret Cameron Metis

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed NWC (??-1821) Columbia, a freeman Fort George (1821-1822), 

Columbia District, birth, Lisette Cotenior, Metis daughter Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Tchialis aka Tchinouk Woman; married Pierre Laplante dit Badillac.

Edouard Crete aka Crate (1821-1894) son Jean Baptiste Crete and Marie Anne Lanoir, joined HBC (1838-1850) Columbia District.  Vancouver on June 24, 1844 he married Sophie Boucher Metis b-1825/1830, daughter of Jean Waccan Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1850) and Nancy McDougal Metis and together they had fourteen children, some of whom became well-known citizens of Oregon. Four of their children were; 
    Edward Crete Metis b-1843
    Nancy Crete Metis b-1845 
    Jane Crete Metis b-1847-?)  
    John B. Crete Metis b1848 (from the 1850 Census).

Joseph Delard (Deslard) (1797-1869) employed HBC, (1821-1832) assigned Columbia, settled at Wallamette, Columbia, likely the 3rd settler 1832 in 'French Prairie' aka Walama or Wallamette, Willamette Valley, Columbia District (Oregon).

Hyacinth Desloges aka Lavigneur (1797-1846) from St. Genevieve, Montreal, joined HBC (1821-1844)  Columbia District, a settler Willamette 1837.   On January 21, 1839, shortly after the priests arrival, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Colvile Metis (1814-1848).
Their children were: 
    Noel Desloges Metis (1829-1848), 
    Jean Baptiste Desloges Metis (1832-1847), 
    François Desloges Metis  b-1834 
    François Xavier Desloges Metis (1836-1850), 
    Joseph Desloges Metis b-1838
    Josephte Desloges Metis b-1840
    Hyacinthe Jr. Desloges Metis b-1842, 
    unnamed Desloges Metis son b-1845

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791 St. Denis, Lower Canada, employed Pacific Fur Company (1806-1814) Columbia District, employed NWC (1814-1821) Columbia District. and HBC (1821-1842) Columbia District before retiring to Willamette with Wife Margeurite Youlkta aka Youngoulhta, who after he died, married December 17, 1851, Uculet, Charles Plante (1790-1854).

Jean Gingras (1799/1802-1856) from Yamaska joined NWC (1819-1821) Columbia & HBC (1821-1841) Columbia then (1827-1841) Thompson River, settled Willamette 1841.  Jean Gingras had two successive wives and eleven children. He legitimized his marriage to his first wife, Charlotte Ske’alks, Okanogan d-1845 on August 2, 1841, their children being 
    Joseph Gingras Metis b-1828
    Jean Gingras Metis b-1831
    Narcisse Gingras Metis b-1833
    Angele Gingras Metis b-1835
    Louise Gingras Metis , 
    Marguerite Gingras Metis (1837-1846) 
    Lizette Gingras Metis b-1841 
After Charlotte’s death in 1845, he married Olive Forcier Metis b-1834 on July 28, 1845. Their children were: 
    Louis Gingras Metis b-1847 
    François Gingras Metis b-1848
    Calliste Gingras Metis b-1854
    Charles Gingras Metis (1856-1858).

(II)-Thomas Hodgson Metis (1789/1790-1865) employed HBC at Albany (1800-1814), then with NWC (1818-1821) then back with HBC (1821-1865) on and off but assigned to New Caledonia, Fort St. James (1821-1824). 

Joachim Hubert Metis (1794/95-1873) born Sault St Louis son Ignace Hubert an Margaret Charlot Charles, Joined NWC 1814-1821) Michillimacinac, unknown assignment after 1814, HBC (1821-1843) Columbia District, retired Willamette, married Fort Colvile Josephte Kanhopitsa (dea Chaudieres) (1797-1848) epouse John Clark and Jean Boucher
    Jean Baptiste Clark b-1819 
    Lisette Hubert Metis b-1826
    Andre Hubert Metis b-1828
    Joseph Hubert Metis b-1831
   Isabelle Elizabeth Hubert Metis b-1833
    Andre Hubert Metis b-1828
    Marie Archange Hubert b-1835
    Rosalie Hubert Metis b-1839
    Adele Hubert Metis b-1841
    Joseph Hubert Metis b-1842
    Louis Hubert Metis b-1844

Charles Jeaudoins (1700-1848) joined HBC 1818 but didn't cross the Rockies until 1821 and retired Willamette 1841.  At an unknown date, he chose as his wife Wallalikas, Chinook who died before 1840. Together they had 
    Jean Baptiste Jeaudoins Metis (1820-1879) 
    Celeste Jeaudoins Metis (1827-1899). 
On July 10, 1843, he married Madeleine Servant (daughter of Jacques Servant and Josephte, Okanagan) but they had no further children.

Louis Kawationna Quebec Iroquois (Mohawks) joined HBC 1821 Columbia District.

(II)-William Kittson Metis?(1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season Kooteney Post, Columbia.

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) former engage American Fur Company,  NWC and HBC 1821-1844) out of Fort George, Fort Vancouver and various expeditions in Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  This year he is at Fort Vancouver as an interpreter.

Jean Baptiste Lapierre Metis (1795-1865) born Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River (Saskatchewan Province) likely son (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francois Itagisse Chretienne Sauteause (Ojibwa).  He joined HBC (1821-1865) New Caledonia and Columbia District.

(I)-John Lee Lewes (Lewis) (1792-1872) joined HBC (1807-1852), assigned (1807-1815) Churchill, Nelson House, Deer's Lake, Cumberland House and Ile-a-la-Crosse; (1815-1821) Slave Lake and lesser Slave Lake; (1821-1823) Spokane House; (1823-1828) Moose; (1840-1844) Mackenzie River; (1845-1847) New Caledonia  
Married (II)-Francoise (Jean-Jane) Ballenden Metis (1790/1800-1889)  daughter (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and Cree Indian.
    (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden Lewes Metis b-1812 Cumberland House, widowed 1870 
    (II)-Adolphus Lewes Metis (1821-1856) educated England (1826-1839) joined HBC (1839-1853)
    (II)-Albert Lewes Metis bapt 1833 Oxford House
    (II)-Federic (Frederick) Lewes Metis bapt 1833 Oxford House
    (II)-Emma Lewes Metis bapt 1835 Oxford House
    (II)-John George Lewes Metis bapt 1835 Oxford House
    (II)-Elizabeth Lee Lewes Metis bapt (1837-1897) married 1872  (I)-William Douglas Lane (1819-1882)
    (II)-Nancy (Anne) Lee Lewes Metis bapt (1842-1930)

(I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) employed HBC (1801-1821) east of Rockies HBC (1821-1853) partly Columbia District, married 1812 Cumberland House, Francoise (Frances) Ballenden, Metis (1790-1800) daughter (I)-John Ballenden and country wife in Fort Severn, a Cree woman, John had another wife in Orkney who requested in 1801 he be sent home but was denied.  He had two wives, one in Orkney,  one in Canada a Jean Ballenden (1790/1800-1889), daughter of John Ballenden and a Plains Cree woman. In a will written at Edmonton House on March 21, 1849, four of his children were listed, but eight in total were recorded. They were 
    (II)-Francoise Lewes Metis b-1812 Red River
    (II)-Adolphus Lewes Metis (1821-1856), educated England (1826-1839) joined HBC (1839-1853)
    (II)-Albert Lewes Metis bap.1833 Oxford House
    (II)-Frederick Lewes Metis bap.1833 Oxford House
    (II)-John GeorgeLewes Metis bap.1835 Oxford House
    (II)-Emma Lewes Metis bap.1835 Oxford House
    (II)-Elizabeth Lee Lewes Metis (1837-1897) born Cumberland House 
    (II)-Nancy [Anne] Lee Lewes Metis (1842-1930) born Fort Simpson.

Duncan Livingston Metis Jr. (1797-1828) born Red River or Athabasca, son Duncan Livingstone Metis Sr.  Some say he is the 1/2 brother of Jean Baptiste Boucher, Metis or native? (1789-1850) of New Caldonia District born around the same time frame.  Both joined NWC (1819-1821).  Duncan worked HBC (1821-1828) New Caledonia.  He married 1824 a Cree Metis woman from McLeod Lake and formalized his marriage May 26, 1825 and had one son
    unnamed Livingston Metis son born July 15,1825. 

(I)- Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) joined HBC (1821-1844) assigned to help settlers to Red River (1812-1820) assigned Ile-a-la Crosse (Saskatchewan) (1820-1821) assigned Columbia District (1821-1844)  Archibald McDonald had two successive wives and fourteen children. 
He first married 1823 Princess Raven/Sunday d-1824), the daughter Chief Comcomly, who died that same year while giving birth to 
    (II)-Ranald McDonald Metis (1824-1894) now considered a cult figure in Japan. 
His second marriage was to (II)-Jane Klyne Metis (b. Aug. 23, 1810-d. December 15, 1879), the daughter of (I)-Michel Klyne b-1781 a dutchman and Suzanne LaFrance Metis, a marriage that begun in 1825 but formalized at Red River in 1835 while he was on furlough.  Their thirteen children were 
    (II)-Angus McDonald Metis (1826-1843), 
    (II)-Archibald McDonald Metis (1828-1868), 
    (II)-Alexander McDonald Metis (1830-1875), 
    (II)-Allan McDonald Metis (1832-1891), 
    (II)-Marianne/Marrian/Mary Ann/Maryanne McDonald Metis (1834-1860), 
    (II)-John McDonald Metis (1836-1836), 
    (II)-John McDonald Metis (1837-1861), 
    (II)-Donald McDonald Metis (1839-1845), 
    (II)-James McDonald Metis (1839-1845), 
    (II)-Samuel McDonald Metis (1841-1891), 
    (II)-Joseph McDonald Metis (1843-1845), 
    (II)-Benjamin McDonald Metis (1844-1845),
    (II)- Angus Michael McDonald Metis (1846-1867).

(I)-Donald McDonald (1787-1865) Joined HBC 1818 assigned (1821-1863) New Caledonia & Columbia Districts.  In October 1836, Donald McKenzie married (II)-Matilda Bruce Metis b-1810, Saskatchewan District, the daughter of (I)-Benjamin Bruce (1771-1823) and Matilda Metis b-1778,  Together they had eight children: 
    (II)-James Bruce McDonald Metis bap-1825 
    (II)-Mary McDonald Metis (1828-1904), 
    (II)-Benjamin McDonald Metis (1839-1871), 
    (II)-Malhilda (Matilda?) McDonald Metis b-1836
    (II)-David (c.McDonald Metis b-1843
    (II)-Ann McDonald Metis 
    (II)-John McDonald Metis b-1845
    (II)-Roderick McDonald Metis b-1847

(I)-John McDonell (1782-1834) of NWC (1801-1821) ?? is posted (1820-1821) St. John's, Athabasca.  HBC (1821-1831) New Caledonia, including Fraser Lake (1825-1827) and Stuart's Lake (1830-1831)  and (1831-1834 Great Slave Lake.  A wife Mary native from Norway House is listed as "a woman supported" in 1823, returned to her family in Norway House, 1835 and one Metis boy under 7 years in 1824-1825.

Ignace Mardotehisane Indian or Metis transferred from NWC to HBC this year in the Columbia District..

(II)-John Miles Metis (1825-1861) son (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Sinclair Metis (1805-1838) joined Hudson Bay (1853-1854) on January 23, 1861 Victoria married (Churched) Elizabeth Meason likely because he was dying.

Lasard Onaharyou b-1798 Quebec joined HBC (1821-1932) Columbia and New Caldedonia District.  It is likely he was involved with the NWC prior to 1821.

Michel Otoetanie an Iroquois (1792-1833) joined NWC (1815-1821) east of the Rockies and HBC (1821-1833) Columbia District.

 Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) of Montreal is in Columbia at time of merger HBC & NWC

Antoine Paget (Basteny) Metis b-1753 joined NWC joined HBC (1821-1825) Columbia District.  in 1823 he was involved in the burning of a Piegan Fort for the death of Michel Bourbon.  February 10, 1824 Alexander Ross rejected him as too old for a Snake river expedition however in December 20, 1824 he was part of the (II)-Peter Ross expedition of 1824-1825) through the Snake River.

J. Benoit Pensonant Metis joined HBC (1821-1822) Columbia District.

Joseph Pin b-1794, Sorel, employed by HBC (1821-1841) Columbia District. In the 1820's he was with (III)-Peter Skene Ogden's (1790/94-1854) Snake Country expedition, then 1837 Fort Colvile, 1838-1841 Fort Nisqually Sheep Farm.  He married Marguerite Pend Oreille.

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia.  and worked as a free man on the Ogden's Snake Country Expeditions (1826-1842).

Joseph Portneuf (1796-1830) joined NWC (1815-1821) & HBC (1821-1830) Columbia District, Nine were drowned at the Dalls including Joseph Portneuf, his wife and two Metis children.

Jean Baptiste Proveau b-1788, ship builder at Fort Vancouver (1821-1839), he was previously employed NWC (1802-1821), retired to Cowlitz.

Pierre Roi (King) (1821-1885) from Sorel, Quebec joined HBC (1840-1858) New Caledonia, retired Chewalah.  In 1853 he married Mary Anne Finlay Metis (1834-1925). Their children were 
    Pierre King Metis b-1853 
    Sophia King Metis 
    Mary King Metis, 
    Julia King Metis 
    Louise King Metis, 
    Martina King Metis 
    William King Metis 
    Patrick King Metis
    Louis Henry King Metis
    Elizabeth King Metis
    Marshall King Metis

Louis Rondeau b-1800 Berthier, Quebec employed NWC (1819-1821) in the Columbia District. is now employed HBC (1821-1833) in the Columbia District,

Thomas Roy b-1795 St Jacques, Quebec joined HBC (1821-1840) settled Willamette.  By 1850 Thomas Roy had one wife, Marie b-1822 and three children: 
    André Roy Metis b-1837-?), 
    Thomas Roy Metis b-1841 
    Rosalie Roy Metis b-1843

Ingnace Salioheno's step son or Metis or native born Columbia District, joined HBC (1821-1822)

Michel Sancisse (Sansoucy) Metis from La Prairie, Quebec, joined NWC (1797-1821) working the North West and HBC (1821-1822) New Caledonia. 

 (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot is made governor of Hudson Bay Company (1821-1860) and ruled over much of Canada and North Western United States; namely Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana.  He was called the 'Little Emperor' as he only stood 5 feet 6 inches tall and some suggest he had an inferiority complex as a result.   He was a ruthless efficient administrator, cut the staff by 50% and cut wages of the rest.  As a result by 1826 he became Governor for all H.B.C. property in North America.

Saulteau St. Germain native joined HBC (1821-1832) Columbia District

(I)-James Taylor (4) (ID # 4639) born 1798 Orkney, Scotland, joined HBC (1817-1826)
(1817-1818) Cumberland House
(1818-1821) Fort Edmonton
(1821-1823) New Caledonia
(1823-1826) York Factory
1826 Red River marriage and children listed Red River and my Taylor section

Thomas Tagauche Iroquois joined HBC (1821-1826)( Columbia District.

Pierre Tevanitagon joined HBC (1821-1828) a freeman in Columbia District.

September 16:  Russia by edict claimed the Pacific Northwest coast and sent military units to enforce their claim and expel the British and American foreigners,



Francois Noel Annance, Metis b-1789 of the Abenaki tribe, voyage to the heads of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, as guide and interpreter, summer 1822, in Thompson River, Columbia District (1821-1825)

Joseph Annance Abenoli Metis b-1800 son Francois Joseph Annace, brother Francois b-1789 above.   His ancestors are Samuel Gill and Rosalie James captured in Massachusetts about 1700 and raised by the Abebski.  They married each other but their decedents married into the tribe.  joined HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District.  May 24-25, 1825, he deserted with twelve others to the American camp at Weber River [Utah] after he, Alexander Carson and John Grey paid their debts to (III)-Peter Ogden (1790/94-1856). He then joined the American trappers and, in 1830, was trapping east of the Rockies in the upper Missouri area.

Michel Atihataroues Iroquois (Mohawk) d-1823 a free trader in the Columbia District (1822-1823)  He was part of the Pierre Tevanitagon group of Iroquois free trader.

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Spokane House, Columbia District (1822-1823)

Jean Baptiste Boucher, Metis, (1789/97-1849) employed HBC (1822-1849), died Fort St. James.

Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1804-1844) joined HBC (1822-1843) New Caledonia, settled Willamette 1844

(V)-Laurent Cadotte b-1786 he joined the NWC from L’Assomption on December 27, 1810 and worked at Cumberland House and Ile a La Crosse, English River (1811-1819) before coming to the Columbia.  NWC/ HBC (1810-1839), bowsman from York Factory to Columbia District (1822-1826) he ended his career east of the Rockies.  In 1824-1825 Cadotte transported Governor Simpson when he visited the Columbia but we know nothing of his character. After leaving the Columbia, he spent the rest of his career east of the Rockies before retiring in 1839 at the age of approximately fifty-three.  see below:

(V)-Laurent Cadotte Jr. Metis (1786-1874) (2) (ID # 616) claims a birth date of 1783/86 in the North West in the Red River census, see French Canadians (MB7-23 & 175) son (IV)-Laurent Cadotte Sr. (2) (ID-618) born 1757/58 Canada and Susan Indian born 1760.
Jr. worked NWC (1810-1821) and HBC (1821-1839)

Married about 1810 unknown

Married about 1846 Betsy William Metis born 1820 Red River


(VI)-Michel Cadotte Metis (ID # 619) born 1811 Red River married about 1841 Nancy Cochrane born 1820, Red River

(VI)-Josephte Cadotte Metis born 1813 North West (Manitoba) married Paul Chartland born 1812 North West (ID # 758).

(VI)-Angelique Cadotte Metis b-1818 Red River married Louise Grandbois b-1825

(VI)-Pierre Cadotte Metis (ID # 620) born 1829 Red River District married about 1851 Julie Blondin born 1835 Red River. Living St. Norbert 1870 (MB7-23)

(VI)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Metis (ID # 617) born 1830 Red River married about 1857 Elise Pilon born 1839 Red river daughter Antoine Pilon (ID # 3935) born 1789 and Angelique Lisette born 1805 Red River.

(VI)-Joseph Cadotte Metis (ID # 618) born 1832 Red River son Laurent Cadotte (ID # 616) born 1786 and Betsy William born 1820; married about 1861 Christine Carron born 1843, Red River

(VI)-Joseph Cadotte Metis b-1835 Red River married Marie Carron

(VI)-Maria Cadotte Metis born 1844 Red River married Antoine LaLiberte born 1839 Red River (ID # 2558).

(VI)-Felix Cadotte Metis born 1847 St. Norbert, Red River

(VI)-Julie Cadotte Metis born 1845 Red River married Louis Vermette born 1839 Red River (ID # 5100).

(VI)-Elizabeth Cadotte Metis born 1851 St. Norbert, Red River

Antoine Clement Sr. NWC (1799-1806) but is mostly a freeman is at Fort Des Prairies on the North Saskatchewan River, his son appeared HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District.

John Warren Dease Metis (1783-1830) son Dr. John Deaseb-1744 of Mackinac, John Jr. took charge of Rainy Lake,  NWC (1814-1821).  Employed HBC (1822-1829) Columbia District,  He had three known wives.  
This is likely when he married 1814 Mary Cadotte of Sault Ste Marie.  They had two children:
    Jenny Dease Metis b-1815?
    Unnamed Metis girl.b-1816?
Married 1817 Jenny Beignot,  six children recorded, Jenny had a son Peter Goulay 
    Margaret Dease Metis b-1818 Rainy Lake or Mickinac
    Mariane Dease Metis b-1820 Rainy Lake or Mickinac
    John Dease Metis b-1823 Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla)
    Nancy Dease Metis b-1825 Fort Spokane
    William Dease Metis b-1827 Fort Covile (a Kootney Flathead post)
Married or affair with Flathead woman, one child
    Napoleon Dease Metis, born Fort Colvile ( 1827-1861), married Marguerite Saanish

Ignace Dehodionwassere an Iroquois joined HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District.

Louis Delonie (1797/1800-1852) from Fauxbourg de Quebec son Antoine Delaunais and Marie Ursule Judith Connaissant, joined HBC (NWC) 1816-1843) Athabasca (1816-1817), Cumberland 1818, Great Slave Lake 1819, New Caledonia (1822-1824) Fort Babine (Fort Kilmaus), Wester Caledonia (1824-1828), Columbia (1828-1842) retired Cowlitz 1843
1st. married (churched) 1841 Fort Langly,  Elizabeth Kwothe (1807/17-1843)  
    Felicite Delonie Metis b-1832, bapt 1843
    Catherine Delonis Metis b-1834, bapt 1843
2nd married 1844 Cowlitz Marie Cowlitz b-1829
    Mary Delonie Metis (1845-1924)
    Adelaide Delonie Metis (1847-1909) 

Joseph Frederick Despard (1793/94-1875) NWC 1816-1821) English River, HBC (1821-1842) retired Willamette 1837.  
On January 21, 1839 he formalized his marriage to Lissette, Chinook (.1808-1851). He helped raise a native child and probable orphan, called "Umpqua Joe"  The Despard children were: 
    Joseph Despard Metis b-1827
    Marie Anne Despard Metis  b-1834
    Rose Despard Metis b-1836
    Marguerite Despard Metis b-1838, 
    Marie Despard Metis b-(1840
    Victoire Despard Metis b-1843
Lissette died on April 27, 1851 at St. Paul.

(III)-Keyackie Finlay Metis joined HBC from Saskatchewan River to Columbia District (1822-1826) as a free trader, married unnamed girl
    (IV)-David Finlay Metis
    (IV)-Susanne Finlay, Metis
    (IV)-unnamed Finlay Metis child.

Jean Baptiste Gadoua b-1790 joined HBC (1816-1820) working Norway House; (1822-1823) working New Caledomia; (1823-1843) working Columbia District; 1838 on the North Saskatchewan with wife Marguerite Deschamps Metis  and three children, 
    Jean Baptiste II Gadoua Metis b-1834
    Charles Gadoua Metis b-1836
    Louis Gadoua Metis b-1837

Jean Baptiste Cadia (Cadien) dit Geaudreau alias Gendreau Metis Sr. a free trader but recorded HBC (1822-1835) Columbia District and was with his son Jean Baptiste Geudreau Metis Jr. HBC (1824-1825).  The sir name is likely Gendreau.

Jean Baptiste Gervais (1798-1870) employed NWC (1811-1820) Red River, employed HBC (1821-1826) mostly in Columbia, deserte HBC in 1826, in (1830-1834) joined Rocky Mountain Fur Company.  In 1850 he settled Willamette Valley.  Jean Baptiste Gervais had one wife, a Mary/Marie Lucier Metis d-1851), with whom he united in the Flathead Country, and who was likely the daughter of Basile Lucier. Together they had five recorded children before she died in the Willamette area on January 7, 1851. She left behind 
    Celestine Gervais Metis b-1833 
    Euphrasie/Felicite/Fresine Gervais Metis b-1838 
    Rosalie Gervais Metis b-1840 
    Abraham Gervais Metis b-1844
    Lizette/Elise Gervais Metis b-1847

Fort Babine (Kilmars or Old Fort) is built this year 35 miles S.E. of Babine Lake and east of Smithers Landing.

Louis Henry Delonie (1797-1852) son Antoine Delaunis and Marie Irsule Marguerite Judith Connaissant of Montreal, Quebec, employed HBC (1816-1842), assigned New Caledonia, Western Caledonia and Columbia (1822-1841), settled Cowlitz (1843-44).   Louis Delonie had two successive wives and four recorded children. 
On December 20, 1841, he married Elizabeth Kwoithe (1807-1843) and together they had two daughters, 
    Fe’licite Delonie Metis b-1832
    Catherine Delonie Metis (1833-1902). 
Elizabeth died February 19, 1843 and was buried at the St. François Xavier Mission on Cowlitz Prairie. About a year after Elizabeth’s death, on February 17, 1844, Delonie married Marie Cowlitz and together they had two daughters, 
    Mary Delonie Metis (1845-1924)  
    Adelaide Delonie Metis (1847-1909).

(II)-Lucien B. Fontenelle (1807-1840) son (I)-Francois Fontenelle and Mareonise.  He joined the Missouri Fur Company in 1822 trading into the west.  He married a Omaha Nebraska girl and they had four Metis children. 

Joseph Baptiste Jean (1792-1841) an Abenaki from Quebec, joined HBC (1822-1841) Columbia District

Jean Baptiste Lefevre (1796-1841) from Pointe Clare, Quebec. joined HBC (1817-1841) but likely assigned to Columbia District 1822.  He formalized his marriage to Marie, Cowichan on February 11, 1839, their children being 
    Jean Baptiste Lefevre Metis II (1836-1852)
    unnamed Lefevre Metis girl b-1840

Louis Kanetagon Iroquois (Mohawks) d-1825 joined HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District.

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) joined HBC (1798-1829)  is at Spokane House, Columbia District (1822-1823) York (1798-1805), Swan River (1808-1811), Red River (1811-1812) and (1822-1825) Columbia District and Albany
married Aggathas (Agatha and Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister (1782-1863) and sometimes called Bear. Indian/ Metis (1782-1863)
    (II)-John Frederick Kennedy Metis (1805-1859) married Fanny (1818-1858) Indian girl and had 2 or more children by 1837
        (III)-Dr. Alexander Augustus Kenndy Metis d-1859 
    (II)-Mary Kennedy Metis b-1807 married 1821 Norway House (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836)
    (II)-Alexander Kennedy Metis b-1808 Moose Lake, bapt 1822 Orkney 
    (II)-Elizabeth Kennedy Metis b-1810 married Mr Finlayson b-1829
    (II)-James Kennedy Metis b-1812 d-before 1829
    (II)-William Kennedy Metis b-1814 Cumberland House married 1859 Eleanor Elizabeth Cripps d-1890
        (III)-Wille Kennedy Metis 
        (III)-Mary Louise Kennedy Metis
    (II)-George Kennedy Metis b-1816
    (II)-Philip Kennedy Metis (1818-1873) married 1838 (II)-Jessie McKenzie Metis b-1824 daughter (I)-Roderick McKenzie (1791-1830) and Indian woman
    (II)-Isabella Kennedy Metis b-1820
    (II)-Roderick Kennedy Metis (1822-1911) Cumberland House married 1847 Mary MacTavish (1817-1887) daughter John George McTavish (1778-1847) or Roderick Mackenxie and Nancy McKenzie and widow of (I)-George Ross (1808-1846) and daughter John George MacTavish; children George Ross and Mary (1817-1887) some conflicting information concerning Mary?
    (II)-John George Ross Metis
    (II)-Thomas Ross Metis

Francois Xavier Laderoute dit Seguin likely Metis (1800-1864) born Sault St. Louis, Lachine, Quebec, recorded  from Vaudreuil, Quebec, A free trader started dealing with  NWC (1812-1821); free man dealing with HBC (1822-1836) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1837.   He appears to have two brothers in the fur trade; Oliver Laperoute dit Seguin Metis b-1813 HBC (1853-1861) Fort Edmonton and York Factory, and Frederick Laperoute dit Seguin Metis b-1822 HBC (1847-1851) York Factory.both from Sault St. Louis, Lachine, Quebec
François Xavier Laderoute dit Seguin had two successive wives and fifteen recorded children. Ladéroute’s first wife was Julie Gervais Metis (1820-1845), daughter of his neighbor, Joseph Gervais (1777-1861) and Chinook woman. According to the Catholic Records, he was "married by Jason Lee, the Methodist missionary, in 1838 and frequently mentioned by him." The marriage was later reenacted by Father Blanchet on January 23, 1839. Their four recorded children were 
    Joseph Laderoute Metis b-1835
    Victoire Laderoute Metis b-1837
    Isadore Laderoute Metis b-1841
    François Xavier Laderoute Metis b-1844
After Julie died on July 11, 1845, he chose Marie Anne Ouvrie’ as a wife. The eleven recorded children by Marie Ann were
    Julien Laderoute Metis b-1846
    Julie Laderoute Metis  (1847-1848), 
    Louis Laderoute Metis b-1849
    Gedeon Laderoute Metis b-1851
    Christine Laderoute Metis b-1853 
    François Laderoute Metis b-1854 
    Charles Laderoute Metis b-1856 
    William Laderoute Metis b-1859 
    David Laderoute Metis b-1861
    Marie Laderoute Metis b-1863
    Hyacinthe Jeremie Laderoute Metis b-1864.

John McLeod (1788-1849) is at Kamloops, B.C. and would return to Fort Edmonton (Alberta)

Joseph Moreau (1795-1831) from Quebec, drowned June 29, 1831, joined HBC (1817-1831) and is posted to Thompson River, Columbia District (1822-1831) .

Thomas Naraketa Sr and his son Thomas Jr. Iroquois or Metis both free men were recorded HBC (1821-1823) Columbia District

Charles Rondeau (1793-1855) from Sorel, Quebec, joined HBC 1815-1837) assigned Athabasca (1815-1817); Il-a-Lacrosse (1817-1822) & Columbia District (1822-1937) settled Willamette.  Charles Rondeau had four successive wives and six recorded children. His first wife was Lizette Bellaire d-1835) (daughter of Register Bellaire of PFC (1810-1813) and indian woman) with whom he had three children: 
    Angelique Rondeau Metis (1829-1850), 
    George Rondeau Metis (1833-1869)
    Genevie`ve Rondeau Metis (1835-1879). 
After wife Lizette’s death he married a daughter of "Old Portneuf"; she died while they were visiting Old Portneuf on French Prairie 1837 Old Portneuf is likely the brother of Joseph Portneuf, (1797-1830) an Abenaki Metis
His third wife was Agathe Dupate (McKay) Metis (1820-1848) daughter Jean Baptiste Depatie McKay and one of six native or Metis wives.  Their three recorded children were 
    Jean Baptiste Rondeau Metis b-1842 
    Charles II Rondeau Metis b-1844
    Thomas Rondeau Metis (1847-d-after 1927). 
On July 23, 1849, he married Elizabeth b-1825, a native living at the house of Jean Baptiste Aubichon.

Fort McLoughlin birth (II)-John Ross Metis (1822-1863) son (I)-Charles Ross Sr. (1794-1844) and Saulteau Indian girl from Lac La Pluie (Ontario) joined HBC (1840-1854) Columbia District.  At some unknown date and place, he married Genevieve Plamondon Metis b1836, daughter of Simon Plamondon metis (1796/1802-1881) and Victoria Scanewa (Thas-e-Muth) a Cowlitz woman d-1839. Their children were
    (III)-Charles Simon Ross Metis bap.1854 
    (III)-Jean BaptisteRoss Metis (1855-1855), 
    (III)-Pierre Ross Metis bap.1857
    (III)-Marie Emilie Ross Metis b-1859
    (III)-François Ross Metis (1861-1862)
    (III)-Alexandre Julien (?Ross Metis-bap.1862

Baptiste Sakoereka d-1822 an Iroquois from Quebec a freeman at Lesser Slave Lake and Spokane House where he died.

Lazard Saondaquequa Iroquois is part of the Smake Country, Columbia District Iroquois in September 1822, he was found to be a member of Pierre Tevanitagon’s independent band of Iroquois trappers. He and other members, Charles Onahariohou and Michel Atihatarenes, would have sold furs to the HBC.

Pierre Tecanasogan Iroquois was involved in the fur trade earlier because he was a steersman but is recorded NWC 1814 at Machillimackinac, 1818 posted to Indian Country then HBC 1822 Columbia District.  He was likely a freeman,

Jacques Tehotarachtew Iroquois from Quebec is furtrading prior to 1821 but recorded HBC (1822-1836) Columbia District.

Francois Xavier Tenetoreseuve an Iroquois from Quebec joinred NWC 1818 to work on Indian country then HBC 1822 working Columbia District.

Lazard Teyecaleyeeaoeye Iroquois from Quebec a freeman worked (1818-1821) Indian Countryr, HBC (1822-1825) Columbia District joined 1825 Etienne Provost group with Jack McLeod, three Canadians, a Russian and an old Spaniard. 

HBC built Fort Babine (1822-1971), New Caledonia this year.

The most successful mountain man was William Ashley, who in 1822 advertised in the St. Louis Gazette for men who wanted employment for up to three years in the Oregon Territory. The ad was answered by Jedediah Smith, (I)-Thomas Fitzpatrick (1799-1854), David Jackson, William Sublette, and Jim Bridger, who made up the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Ashley earned $80,000 the first year and retired to politics after the second.

Father Mariano Payeras, last Franciscan prelate of the Spanish missions in Spanish California, visited the Russian Ross Colony (California).


Pierre Charles b-1800 a freeman is living with the Natives (1823-1825), 

Peter Bell, Metis (1823-1839) employed HBC (1838-1839) Columbia District, died Fort Vancouver.

Alexis Bonamis (Bonamie) dit L'Esperance Metis? b-1798 Sorel, Quebec died 1890 son Pierre Lesperance (L'Esperance alias Magnon) and Marguerite Auchin joined HBC 1816-1870)
(1816-1817) Fort William
(1818-1819) Peace River
(1819-1820) Athabasca
(1823-1825) Columbia District
(1825-1870) east of rockies
Married 1825 Red River Margaret Gounon aka Gournon (Grenon) Metis (1800/-3-1871) daughter Joseph Gounon and Nowananikkwee.
Children recorded:
    Baptiste Bruce Bonamis dit L'Esperance Metis
    Joseph Bonamis dit L'Esperance Metis married Marie Lavallee (1827-1872)

George Waccan Bouche aka Boucher Metis (1823-1864) son Jean Baptiste Waccan Boucher Metis (1789-1850) and Nancy McDougal Metis of New Caledonia, he joined HBC (1850-1864)  He married Cecile Aronhiowan daughter of Ignace Aronhiowan and a Nass woman. Their children were:
    William Bouche Metis (1857-1858), 
    William Bouche Metis b-1859
    Elisabeth Bouche Metis b-1861
    Mary Bouche Metis b-1864

Joseph Frederick Despard of Yamaska, Lower Canada, employed HBC (1821-1842) assigned Columbia (1823-1842), appears to have retired to Willamette, but still trapping.. 

Andrew Dubois b-1800 son Basile Dubpis and Genevieve Champo Joined HBC 1819 assigned New Caledonia (1823-1839) settled Willamette 1840.  
In February, 1827, he took a wife at Fort Babine and promised to provide for her if and when he departed
André Dubois had two or more successive wives and two children. He had a wife, "LaBoitrun", in 1826 at Fort Babine. 
On April 2, 1840, he legitimized his marriage to Marguerite Cree b-1844). Their only recorded child was 
    Basile Dubois Metis b-1829-?), 
    Joseph Crochiere or Dubois Metis b-1825 was brought in from a previous marriage of Marguerite (and possibly Louis Crochetier).  Marguerite died around March 13, 1844. 
On January 14, 1845, he married Josette Marie Quesnel, b-1830 daughter of Amable Quesnel and Angelique, Chehalis. Their one recorded child was 
    André Dubois Metis (1849-1850).

Antoine (Palaquin) Felix (1798-1861) employed HBC (1823-1845) settled Willamette 1845.  At Fort Colvile in 1830, he country married (legitimized at St. Paul on July 2, 1845) Marguerite, Colvile, des Chaudieres a.k.a. Bethsey, Indian b-1848 with whom he had children 
    Narcisse Felix Metis (1830-1848), 
    Emmanuel Felix Metis b-1830 
    Antoine Felix Metis b-1836
    François Felix Metis (1837-1846), 
    Guillaume Felix Metis b-1839 
    Marguerite Felix Metis b-1841
    Pierre Felix Metis (1844-1846) 
    Marie Felix Metis (1847-1858), all dying young except Emmanuel and Marguerite. 
On June 20, 1848, six months after the death of wife Marguerite, he married Marie Archange Hubert, daughter of Joachim Hubert Metis (1795-1873).
Antoine Felix (1805-1861) of Montreal, working Colville, ( Washington) married 1st Marguerite (Betsy) Colville Des Chaudieres (1815-1848) a Salishan Flathead, they retired to French Prairie, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1843.
2nd marriage Marie Archange Hubert.Metis b-1835 daughter Joachim Hubert Metis (1795-1873) and Josephte Kanhopitsa des Chaudieres (1797-1848)
 Appears to be confusion with Antoine Felix (1798-1861)

Jean Baptiste Gervais (1798-1870) joined NWC Red River 1815-1819;  (1820-1821) and went to Columbia District in (1823-1829).  Gervais found better luck with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, of which he became a partner, along with (I)-Thomas Fitzpatrick (1799-1854), Milton G. Sublette and Henry Fraeb, on August 4, 1830 when the group met near South Pass. This partnership lasted until the summer of 1834 when he sold out his partnership for twenty horses, thirty beaver traps and five hundred dollars worth of merchandise.
Settled Willamette River 1850, Jean Baptiste Gervais had one wife, a Mary/Marie Lucier Metis d-1851), with whom he united in the Flathead Country, and who was likely the daughter of Basile Lucier. Together they had five recorded children before she died in the Willamette area on January 7, 1851. She left behind 
    Celestine Gervais Metis b-1833 
    Euphrasie/Felicite/Fresine Gervais Metis b-1838 
    Rosalie Gervais Metis b-1840 
    Abraham Gervais Metis b-1844
    Lizette/Elise Gervais Metis b-1847

Amable Hogue, Metis (1796-1858) born 1795 opposite La Riviere des Prairies, Saskatchewan District, son Louis Amable Hegne and Marie Anne Labella, employed HBC (1821-1834) Norway House, Bow River, and then is assigned Columbia District (1823-1829) finally settling Red River 1834, married 1831 (II)- Margaret Taylor Metis b-1818,  epouse 1st (I)-George Simpson (1786-1820)..

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) is at Fort George, Columbia District (1823-1825)

Miles (Archibald?) MacDonell in Columbia River District married Koale'xoa d-1824 daughter Chief Comcomly,   who died the following year giving birth to a son Ranald MacDonell, Metis, b-1824. 

Angus Michel b. 27 Nov 1846, d. 27 Aug 1867 ARCHIVES WINNIPEG

Simon Plamondon (1792/1802-1900) is employed  HBC (1823-1835) in Western Caledonia and Columbia District.  1827-1828 he wintered Fort Colvile.  He settled and farmed Cowlitz..

Simon Plamondon (1796/1800-1900) is employed NWC (1820-1821) Athabasca then HBC (1821-1823) in Athabasca District, assigned Western Caledonia (1823-1827) and Fort Colvile, Columbia District.  He retired 1835 Cowlitz
1st married Victoria Scanewa (Thas-e-muth) a Cowlitz d-1839; 2nd married 1839 Emelie Soueshise Finlay Metis d-1848 widow Pierre Bercier; 3rd married Louise Henette Pelletier; 4th married Kitty Tilikish.  This may in fact represent two different Simon Plamondon?
    Victoria Scanewa Plamondon a Cowlitz Metis 1st wife or a child?
Simon Plomondo had several wives and children. An Athabasca or New Caledonia family have not been traced.  Around 1829-1830, he married the daughter of the Cowlitz trader Scanewah d-1839) and together they appear to have had 
    Sophie Plamondon Metis b-1830, daughter Victoria Scanewa a Cowlitz and married 1842 Michel Cottendire Metis (1820-1854)
    Simon Plamondon Metis b-1831 
    There`se Plamondon Metis b-1831
    Marie Anne Plamondon Metis b-1834
    Genevieve Plamondon Metis b-1836. 
On April 8, 1839, he married Emelie [Finlay], Squeshise, mixed descent widow of Pierre Bercier (1778-1833). Their recorded children were 
    Lena Plamondon Metis b-1837
    Moyse Plamondon Metis b-1840
    Angelique Plamondon Metis b-1841 
    Baptiste Plamondon Metis b-1843
After the death of Emelie, he married Louise Henriette Pelletier b-1812, the niece of Archbishop François Blanchet. Their only child was 
    Francis Plamondon Metis? b-1849

Louis Portneuf b-1794 from St. Francois likely brother Joseph Portneuf (1796-1830) with NWC (1815-1821. Louis joined NWC (1818-1819) Montreal/Lac des Isles NWC (1820-1821) & HBC (1823--1824) Columbia District (1821-1833) Athabasca, English River, Nelson River in 1825 he is listed as having 11 years service 

Laurent Quintal (1799-1861) from St. Constant, (Montreal) LaPrairie or St. Pierre, Quebec, joined NWC 1817-1821) English River  & HBC (1821-1836) (1823-1936) Columbia District, settled Willamette (La Prairie) 1841.   Laurent Quintal had one wife and ten recorded children. On July 9, 1839 he formalized his marriage to Marie Anne, Nipissing b-1816 a daughter of Louis Nipissing and a woman of the country. Their children were 
    Louis Quintal Metis b-1835 married Cecile Tyikwarkl full blood Iroquois
    Rosalie Quintal Metis b-1837
    Zoe Quintal Metis b-1840
    Laurent II Quintal Metis (1842-1842), 
    Louis Toussaint Quintal Metis b-1843, 
    Marianne Quintal Metis b-1848
    Esther Quintal Metis b-1851
    Marie Elizabeth Quintal Metis b-1854
    Louise Quintal Metis b-1856
    François Quintal Metis b-1859
    Isabelle Quintal Metis conf.1860 may also have been a daughter.

Chief trader James Murray Yale's (1776-1871) men are killed at Fort George on the junction of the Fraser and Nechako Rivers this year.

(I)-John Tod (Todd) b-1794, Scotland, died 1882 Oak Bay, B,C. Joined HBC (1811-1852) assigned New Caledonia (1823-1833) (1833-1850) York to New Caledonia and Columbia. and started work at Fort George (Prince George, B.C.) working for James Murry Yale (1776-1871).  He abandoned wife (II)-Catherine Briston Metis daughter (I)-Magnus Birston, (1769-1837) refused to move with their son (II)-James Tod, Metis (1818-1904) who would move to Fort Victoria about 1840.  He Joined James Murry Yale at Fort George (Prince George, B.C.)   (I)-John Tod was said to have excellent principles but vulgar manners.  John Tod had a complex family life of five successive wives and ten or more children. 
1st. married Island Lake (II)-Catherine Birstone Metis York Factory area daughter (I)-Magnus Birston (1769-1837) and Indian Woman.  He abandoned this wife and child.
    (II)- James Tod, Metis (1818-1904)
2nd marriage The Singing Girl at McLeod's Lake.  Probably Sekani,  
    (II)-unnamed Metis daughter
3rd marriage Nelson district he was the companion of a local native woman.  No children recorded
4th marriage 1834 England, Elizabeth Waugh died at a London asylum, May 12, 1857 but she was from Red River as maid to Mary Jones,  it didn't work out so he returned her to England.
    (II)-Emmeline Jean Tod Metis (1835-1928) born England, married William Henry Newton
4th marriage August 19, 1863, Sophia (Martha) Lolo Metis (1826-1883) of Thompson River likely daughter Jean Baptiste Lolo
    (II)-Mary Tod Metis b-1843 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-John Tod Metis b-1845 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-Alex Tod Metis b-1847 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-Isaac Tod Metis b-1849, Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-William Tod Metis (1853-1881) Vancouver Island
    (II)-Elizabeth Tod Metis b-1856 Vancouver Island
    (II)-Simeon/Tim Tod Metis b-1859 Vancouver Island
Sophie died on September 9, 1883.

  (I)-John Tod b-1794, Scotland is transferred to Fort McLeod under (I)-James Douglas Metis (1803-1877).  Here he married his first country wife or concubine/housekeeper/sex partner as he considered her, she was identified as a singing girl.  He married his second wife Elizabeth Waugh in England but it didn't work out so he returned her to Wales.  

(I)-John Work aka Wark, b-1792, Ireland, d-1861, Hillside near Victoria,.employed  HBC (1814-1861) assigned Spokane House, Columbia District 1823 and 1st. married a Red Deer Indian woman, two children (II)-Elizabeth Work, Metis, (II)-Anne Work, Metis, baptized August 27, 1826, 2nd marriage 1826, Josette Legace, Spokane Metis,  

Laurent Quintal (1799-1860) employed by NWC (1817-1821) HBC (1821-1836) and this year is working the Snake Country of the Columbia District.  After 1836 he is described as a "free man of the prairies" meaning Wallamette Valley..  

(II)-Walter Phipps Ross Metis (1823/27-1855) son (I)-Charles Ross Sr. (1794-1844) and Saulteau Indian from Lac La Plue joined HBC (1846-1855), he died Victoria leaving a wife, two Metis daughters and a Metis son.

Laurent Sauve (Laplante) (1794-1858) from aux Deboules (Deboulie), Quebec, joined NWC (1817-1821) & HBC 1821 Mackenzie River, 1823 New Caledonia (1826-1844) Columbia District, settled Willamette aka French Prairie.  Laurent Sauvé had two successive wives and two children. He first married native Josephte, Tlalam/Tsik, d-1848, by whom he had two children, 
    Catherine Sauve Metis (1839-1852)
    John Sauve Metis d-1848). 
Following her death, around May, 1848, he married Françoise Walla Walla/Cayouse on April 9, 1850, widow of Thomas Tawakon and Paul Builbault.

Rhene Selahoanay b-1791 Iroquois from Lac Des Deux Montagnes a freeman worked on off HBC (1823-1854) Columbia District.  Rhene Selahonanay had an unnamed wife and one child 
    Jean Baptiste Selahoanay b-1836 
His wife died May 21, 1844 at Fort Alexandria having suffered for a long time from “common leprosy in the country”

((I)-John Work alias Wark an Irishman (1792-1861) joined HBC (1814-1822) York District then (1823-1861) Columbia District.  
1st married a native girl Red River bapt 1826
    (II)-Elizabeth Work Metis
    (II)-Anne Work Metis
2nd marriage 1849 Josette Legace Metis 1812-96), the daughter of Pierre Legace and Emma, the daughter of a Nez Perce chief.  They formalized their marriage on November 6, 1849. Together they had twelve children: 
    (II)-Jane Work Metis (1827-1880), born Fort Colvile married 1850 W. Tolmie
    (II)-Sarah Work Metis (1829-1906), born Fort Colvile married 1849 (I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892)
    (II)-Letitia Work Metis (1831-1910), born Idaho married 1857 (I)-Edward Huggins (1832-1907)
    (II)-Margaret Work Metis (1836-1907), born Fort Vancouver married 1861 E.H. Jackson
    (II)-Mary Work Metis (1837-1919), born Fort Simpson married 1860 J.A. Grahame
    (II)-John Work Metis (1839-1886), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-Catherine Work Metis (1842-1869), born Foert Simpson married 1861 C. Wentworth Wallace
    (II)-Josette Work Metis b-1843, Fort Victoria married 1878 E. Prior 
    (II)-Henry Work Metis (1844-56), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-David Work Metis (1846-78), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-Cecilia JosephineWork Metis b-1849 born Fort Simpson married 1870 Charles Jones
    (II)-Suzette Work Metis (1854-1897) ?.

November 2: The white men at the post (Fort St John) had taken a chief’s wife. The Beavers were, of all the tribes, least likely to intermarry with other tribes or white men either; this was an outrage that many a white man has avenged in the same way. The Indians fell upon Guy Hughes who was in charge of the post, and murdered him. Four other men were also killed when they returned. The company closed down the post in 1823 as a "punishment".



Francois Noel Annance, Metis b-1789 of the Abenaki tribe, voyage from Fort George to Fraser River (1824-1825), as guide and interpreter,  in Thompson River, Columbia District (1821-1825)

(I)-James Baker b-1804 joined HBC (1824-1840) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1840.  He married Betsy  Cascades/Chinook aka Pepispa produced children 
    (II)-James Baker Metis -bap.1836
    (II)-John Baker Metis b-1839
    (II)-Guillaume Baker Metis b-1842

Pierre Bercier Sr. (1778-1830/33) was on the Ogden expedition of Snake River (1824-1826)

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Okenogan, Columbia District (1824-1825)

Jean Marie Boucher (Bouche), Metis, (1797-1870) employed NWC (1820-1821), Athabasca, employed HBC (1821-1836) is assigned New Caledonia (1824-1825), he deserted in summer of 1825, was brought before the Northern Council, and posted Fort Churchill, York District, retired Red River, two marriages, 
    1st married Marie Louise Garneau 
    2nd married about 1837 at Red River Catherine Minsey (1814-1869)
        Isidore Boucher b-1833/38
        Jean Baptiste Boucher (1838-1911)
        Louis Boucher b-1841        
        Joseph Boucher b-1846
        Hilaire Boucher b-1849

Francois Bouvet b-1798 from Montreal employed HBC (1824-1826) at York Factory is assigned Columbia District (1826-1828)

William Cannon, aka Canning & Cannon (1763-1854), employed HBC Fort George, Columbia (1824-1826), he likely was a freeman (1821-1823) and a freeman (1826-1827)

Philip Cheenook a Chinook Metis (Techonook) a free trader considered a good trader was first recorded at Prairie De Cheveaux a Flathead post.  It is believed he traded before this date but wasn't recorded.  He worked with Alexander Ross.

(II)-William Connolly b-1786/87 Lachine, Quebec, d-1849, Montreal, son (I)-William Connely (Conoly, Connelly); Joined NWC (1801-1821) assigned Red River area (1801-1818), assigned  Cumberland House (Saskatchewan) (1818-1821)  married 1803 Red River Suzanne, Pas-de-Nom d-1862 a Cree and together they had six children,  (1821-1824) made chief factor of HBC Lesser Slave Lake, transfered 1824 to New Caldonia, 1829 at Fort Vancouver, 1832 took his wife and 6 kids to Montreal where he disavowed his country marriage. In 1841 his first wife had moved to a convent in St. Boniface, Manitoba  In 1832 William Sr. married his cousin, Julia Woolrich, in Montreal.  Connolly willed his estate to his second wife, but Susanne’s oldest son, John Connolly challenged the will resulting in the courts supporting his claim of the validity of the first marriage. The extension of legal rights to country wives was precedent setting in Canada.  This effectively made William a bigamist.
HBC (1831-1833+) working Quebec 
Some of Suzanne's children are:
    (III)-John Connolly Metis
    (III)-Amelia Connolly Metis (1812-1890) married 1828 Fort Saint James (I)-James Douglas Metis (1803-1877). 
    (III)-William James Connolly Metis, b-1807 worked for the HBC (1825-1832) on the Pacific slopes
    (III)-Henry Connolly Metis d-1910 joined HBC (1838-1869) various posts then Esquimaux Bay, (deduced not proven) 

(I)-David Douglas (1799-1834) joined HBC (1824-1833) a naturalist/botanist in Columbia District, the Douglas fir is named after him.

Jean Baptiste Dubois out of Fort Langley area in 1824 drowned July 27, 1828, at Fort Nez Pierce.   

(I)-James Grieve Sr. (1797-1875) Orkney, employed Northern District (1816-1821) and Columbia district (1824-1825)

Charles Groliu d-1833 McLeod's River, listed Free trader Columbia District (1824-1826) Listed HBC (1831-1833) Columbia, married Flat Head or Pend d'Oreille died before 1841  Their children were born between (1821-1832)
    Ursule Groliu Metis
    Henriette Groliu Metis
    Joseph Groliu Metis bapt 1833
    Pierre Groliu Metis
    Jean Baptiste (John) Groliu Metis
    Charles Groliu II Metis

Louis Paul Hus (1799-1831) joined HBC at Sorel (1824-1831) for New Caledonia, he married a Pend D’Orielle woman and had a daughter 
    Catherine Hus Metis b-1837.

Jean Baptiste Jollibois (1796-1861) joined NWC 1813-1821) and HBC (1821-1852) and arrived New Caledonia 1824 then on to Columbia District and retirement at Victoria.  He might have been on the Pacific slope before 1824?  Jean Baptiste Jollibois appears to have had one wife, Susan (1820-1885), Tse-ka-ost aka Josette from the Nass area, as well as seven children: 
    unnamed  Jollibois Metis child d-1836), 
    Sophia Jollibois Metis b-1840
    Julia/Julian? Jollibois Metis (1842-1880), 
    Ester/Esther Jollibois Metis b-1845
    Catherine Jollibois Metis b-1848
    Jean Baptiste Jollibois Metis (1853-1855), 
    Edward Jollibois Metis bap.1855
    Susan Jollibois Metis d-1885) or she may be the same as Josette. His descendants could not be found in the 1881 or 1891 Censuses and may have moved from the area.

(II)-William Kittson Metis?(1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season (1824-25) he is second in command of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1856) Snake River Expedition, Columbia District.

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) is part of Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1827).

Henriette Longctain, Metis (1824-1913) daughter Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793/94-1879) and Nancy Okanagan: married Thomas Moison

F. P. Luetke of Russian noted that the liaisons between the Russian and the Kolosh women (Tlingit) and the new generation Creole (Metis) resulting from them, are also a vehicle which is growing stronger every day as the two groups come into closer contact.  The Creoles (offspring of Russian promyshlenniki and Alaska Natives) served the capitalistic ventures of the Russians as middlemen, Russian-American Company clerks, fur gatherers, wives, translators, seamen, and in many other roles. The Creoles, a class of subjects in the czarist regime, became a distinct people.

Adrienne Lucier, Metis, (1824-1919) born Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) daughter Etienne Lucer and Josephte Noutie (Wakashan Kwakiut); 1st married unknown, 2nd married Andre Lachapelle. 

(II)-Ranald MacDonald, Metis is born 1824 at Fort George (near Astoria, Oregon) son (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) and Kaole'xod daughter of Tillamook chief Comcomly.  He briefly joined HBC 1833 but prefered to travel the world.  He was the first person to teach English in Japan in 1848.

(I)-Charles McKay joined HBC (1816-1827) of which (1824-1827) in Columbia District.  He was an interpreter fluent in the Peigan language making one wonder if he was not Metis sent to Scotland for education?   He had the distinction of being an early non-native eyewitness to the Great Salt Lake as (II)-William Kittson Metis? (1792-1841) reported that Charles McKay on May 12, 1825 climbed to a high point on the Wasatch Moutains south of Logan, Utah and got a distant view of Great Salt Lake, several miles to the southwest

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) the new Chief Factor of the Columbia District had three objectives from the Hudson Bay Company:
            1st Dominate the fur trade business, this was largely successful as they were ordered to trap the region dry.
            2rd Maintain peace among the Indians, there were no Indian wars until after he resigned.
            3rd Prevent agricultural settlement, most Canadian Metis families ignored this ruling especially in the Willamette Valley (Oregon).

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) employed  NWC (1816-1821) and then HBC (1821-1845) is assigned as Chief Factor of the Columbia District out of Fort George.  His area of responsibility covered 600,000 sq miles from Mexican California to Russian America (Alaska) that included the Canadian territory called Columbia District.  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) was his assistant.  McLoughlin abandoned Fort George as not suitable and crossed the Columbia River to build Fort Vancouver which was completed March 19, 1825.  He married 1812 Marguerite Wadin, Metis (1775-1860) daughter Jean Eitenne Waddens and Indian Woman. Margaret Wadin (1775-1860) was the widow of Alexander MacKay, d-1811, the founder of Fort Astoria (Fort George).   McLoughlin's 1st wife was a Chippewa Woman native of Red River and they had one son 
    (IV)-Joseph McLoughlin Metis (1809/10-1848) who married 1839 Fort Vancouver, Victoria McMillian daughter James McMillen.  
McLoughlin’s second wife was Marguerite Wadin McKay Metis, widow of lexander McKay. Together they had 
     (IV)-John Jr. McLoughlin Metis (1812-1842), Joined HBC (1837-1842) Columbia District 
     (IV)-Marie Elizabeth [Eliza McLoughlin Metis b-1814 or some say b-1817 Fort William, married Fort Vancouver 1838, William Glen Rae and in 1850 married Daniel Harvey
     (IV)-Eloisa McLoughlin Metis (1817-1884)
     (IV)-David McLoughlin Metis (1821-1903).

(IV)-Joseph McLaughlin Metis (1809/10-1848) son (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) and Chippewa Woman who died giving Joseph birth.   He joined HBC (1827-1840) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1840.  He married a Victorie McMillan the daughter of James McMillan.

(IV)-Michael Ogden Metis b-1824 Spokane House son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1794-1854) and Julie Rivet a Spokane/Fathead; he joined HBC (1840-1861) New Caledonia, Columbia Department and retired Fort Connah (Montana) where he died.  He had two wives 1st untraced as were their children; 2nd wife Julia d-1886 widow of C. Bordeniun 

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) a violent man and (II)-William Kittson Metis? (1792-1841) were sent into the Snake River Country, south of the Columbia River to trap the country bare.  They had 58 men including Charles McKay, 10 engages, 53 Freemen, 30 wives and 35 children.  The reached as far south as the Great Salt Lake, Utah. 

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) expedition included 
1824-1825 Ogden led a fur brigade that expanded HBC's influence along the Snake River east to Montana’s Bitterroot River and south to the Bear River in modern Utah.  
    1825-26 Traveling south from the Columbia River to theDeschutes River in Oregon, Ogden then turned east and traveled through the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. 
    1826-27 From Walla Walla, in present-day Washington, this expedition also explored the Deschutes River, following it to Klamath Lake and an area near Mount Shasta in Northern California.. Ogden explored the Great Salt Lake and the Weber River drainage, where the Ogden River, and subsequently the current city of Ogden, Utah, is named for him. He explored areas of the Great Basin, following the Humboldt Tiver to its dry sink in modern-day Nevada. The party traveled through the Great Basin along the eastern Sierra Nevada, through the Mojave Desert of Mexican Alta California (present day California), and reaching the north shore of the Gulf of California in Baji California.  

    In 1830, Ogden was sent north to establish a new HBC post named Fort Simpson near the mouth of the Nass River in British Columbia. He also managed an outpost on the south coast of Alaska. He administered a fur post at Fort Vancouver throughout the 1840s. There Ogden fought successfully against American fur competition and successfully negotiated with local native tribes, including the Cayuse. 

    In 1847 Ogden averted an Indian war and successfully negotiated for the lives of 49 setters taken as slaves by the Cayuse and Umatilla Indians after the Whiteman massacre.

(I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) joined HBC (1818-1844) assigned (1818-1819) Norway House; (1819-1822) Lac La Pluie; (1822-1823) Thompson River; (1823-1824) Fort Alexander Bas de la Riviere District; (1814-1832) New Caledonia; 1832-1835) Athabasca; (1836-1837) Cumberland House, English River District; (1837-1838) Kootenay; (1838-1939) Cumberland Saskatchewan; 1839-1844) New Caledenia and Columbia District 
1st. married Saulteau Indian girl from Lac La Plue (Ontario)
    (II)-John Ross Metis (1822-1862) bapt 1837, he married Genevieve Plamondon Metis b-1836 , daughter of Simon Plamondon Metis (1802-1881) and Cowlitz woman d-1839.
    (II)-Walter Ross Metis (1823/27-1855) bapt 1837. He had a wife, two girls and a boy at Fort Victoria
2nd married Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885) daughter of Joseph Mainville and Josette, an Indian woman in Michilimackinac District;  In the Anglican records, he formalized his marriage to Isabella on October 11, 1838
    (II)-Elisabeth Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Charles Ross Jr. Metis bapt 1838 married but one wife, Catherine Tumalt (1834-1917) half Iroquois and half Nisqually,
    (II)-Catherine Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Alexander Ross Metis b-1838
    (II)-Francois Ross Metis (1837-1910) bapt 1838
    (II)-Mary Flora Amelia Ross Metis b-1840, bapt 1867
    (II)-Flora Ross Metis (1842-1897) maybe the same as above?
    (II)-Mary Amelia Ross Metis
    (II)-William Ross Metis    
Talking of wives, the wife of Mr. Ross, of this fort, [Fort McLoughlin], a half-breed [Isabella Mainville], lately displayed great courage. Some Indians, while trading, in her husband’s absence, with her son in the shop of the establishment, drew their knives upon the boy. On hearing this, the lady, pike in hand, chased the cowardly rascals from post to pillar, till she drove them out of the fort. “If such are the white women,” said the discomforted savages, “what must the white men be [like]?

Charles Tevanitagon Iroquois son Pierre Tevanitagon joined HBC (1824-1845) a freeman in Columbia District.

Ignace  Tevanitagon Iroquois son Pierre Tevanitagon joined HBC (1824-1825) a freeman in Columbia District.

John Work (1776-1871 is at Fort Langley, B.C.

(I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861) accompanied J. McMillan to Puget Sound and Fraser River (November 19-December 30, 1824)

Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) would become the main Hudson Bay Company transit point for furs collected down the Columbia River.

To avoid war with the British and United States, Russia dropped their claim to parts of Spanish California, Canadian Columbia District (Oregon/Washington Territory and Vancouver Island and B.C.)

February:   (II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. a free trader joins (I)-Alexander Ross's (1783-1856) Snake Country Expedition as head of the Fort des Prairies half-breeds.

March 18: Fort George, Columbia District, birth Dr. William (Billy) McKay Metis (1824-1895) son Thomas McKay and Chinook girl daughter of Chief Concomley.    Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857), taught him medicine.  William also studied at Willoughby Medical School in Upper New York State.  He joined HBC 1843 then moved to Umatilla Indian Reservation. He died at his home on the Umatilla Reservation. William C. McKay Metis had one wife and five Metis children, three sons and two daughter. 
On October 5, 1856, at the Dalls he married Margaret Campbell b-1833 Red River daughter Colin Campbell NWC (1804-1821) HBC (1821-1852) and (II)-Elizabeth McGillivray Metis daughter (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1821) and Cree woman, originally from Ontario region  but living Athabasca District
    Floria McKay Metis b-1858
    Thomas McKay Metis b-1829
    John McKay Metis b-1861
    James McKay Metis b-1863
    Delia McKay Metis b-1877

November, an expedition was sent out to explore the shore line of Puget Sound and the waters of the Fraser River. 

November: Fraser River, James McMillan a Chief Trader of the HBC, surveyed the lower Frazer Valley to locate good spots for trading posts.  One spot was near the Salmon River which in 1827 became Fort Langley.   

Work's list of those on the expedition

* Jas. Portneuf Abanaker
* Jos. Loui Abanaker
* Louis Anawano, Jr.
   Francis Noel Annance, Abenki Metis, b-1789, guide & interpreter
* Alexis Aubuchon
* Peo Bean (Islander)
* Cannon (American)
* Cawano, Jr.
* F.H. Condon
* Leo Depuis
* Joseph Despard
* Louis Diomilea
* J.B. Dubian
* Joseph Grey (Islander)
* Louis Hanatiohe, Jr.
   Iroquois (Mohawks),  Freehunter and guide
* Chas. Jaundeau
* Wm. Johnson (Englishman)
* Pierre Karagaragab, Jr.
* Pierre Karaguana, Jr.
* Andre Le Chappel
* Segwin le Deranti
   Michael Laframbois, interpeter
* Piere L'Etang
* Andre Lonctoin (Longton) (1793/94-1879) 
   Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849) , clerk
   James McMillan, chief trader and leader of the party
* Momonta (Islander)
* Ettuni Oniager
* Jacques Patvin
* Pierre Patvin
* Basil Pioner
* P.B. Proveau
* Chas. Rondeau
* Louis Shatakorata, Jr
* Louis Shorakorta (Islander)
* Thos. Toyanel (Islander)
* Pierre Villandri
* Louis Vivet (Sanschagrin) (1796-1844) NWC/HBC (1821-1842) Married Lisette Chinook/Commashiorra, 2 Metis kids Henriette b-1829, Narcise (1831-1870)
* Peter Wagner
   John Work, clerk 
* Thos. Zawaiton (Islander)

November:  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854), a violent trader, is ordered into the Columbia District ( Oregon Territory) to trap the region bare, to make a "fur desert" between the southern Columbia River drainage and the American territory to discourage American traders from coming into the area.  .  He was appointed leader of the Snake River Country a expedition by (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , to be Chief Factors at the Vancouver post.  Ogden is one of those traders who practiced serial marriages where he acquired a new wife when he moved.  The British Hudson Bay Company believed all lands south of the Columbia River would eventually go to the United States and didn't want them to have any furs.  This he did, and explored the Humboldt River, Great Salt Lake and the lower Colorado River.  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) married Princess Julia, alias Julia Rivet Metis, a Nez Perce step daughter of a French Canadian trapper.  They had 7 Metis children.  He had abandoned his 1st wife a Cree/Metis girl Marie Comtois with two children.  He sent for the two Metis boys and Julia raised them.  Other accounts suggest it was a boy and Girl and Peter abandoned them and the boy was sent to Red River for education.  In 1824/1825 (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) trapped and traded southeastern Idaho, northern Utah, including Cache Valley, Ogden Valley and Weber River Valley.

Thomas Ouamtany (Tomo the interpreter) and (One Arm Tomo) b-1824 Columbia Department son of an Iroquois or Metis father and a Chinook mother.  He was recruited in Red River, believed sent to Red River for education, joined HBC (1843-1858) Columbia District.  Some believe he might be the son of Old Michel Ouamtany (1775-1828) 

Charles Rondeau b-1793 Sorel, Quebec, employed HBC (1815-1833) worked the Columbia district (1822-1833) and was a member of the (III)-Peter Skene Ogden expedition (1824-1827), he settled and farmed the Willamette Valley in 1837

(IIa)-Thomas Taylor(2)Metis born 1797 Fort York, Rupert's Land died December 18, 1879 Pembroke, Ontario joined HBC (1815-1855) one trip Columbia District (1824-1825); married 1829/31 Mary Keith born January 1, 1814 died 1866 Fort Couley, Quebec (source (Nina Hurteau/D.T. Lahey) this is son (1a) George Taylor (1759-1838) and Jane Indian

Laurent Quintal (1799-1860) employed by NWC (1817-1821) HBC (1821-1836) was a member of the (III)-Peter Skene Ogden expedition (1824-1827).  He should not be confused with Laurent "that sly dog" under (I)-Alexander Ross (1783-1856) on the Snake River who was actually an Iroquois (Mohawks) named Laurent Karatohon who deserted with Lazard Kayenquaretcha.

Louis Rondeau b-1800 Berthier, Quebec employed NWC (1819-1821) in the Columbia District. is now employed HBC (1821-1833) in the Columbia District, he was part of the brigade Columbia-York Factory and the (III)-Peter Skene Ogden expedition (1824-1826).  He then went free trading (1828-1833) in the Snake Country and joined Southern parties (1833-1844) and finally settled down in Willamette Valley in 1844.  He is believed to have a wife and daughter, likely native? 

November 26:  John Work (1776-1871) came with Chief Factor James McMillan to locate the site for Fort Langley.  Twenty five men built a palisade 120 by 135 feet, including a dwelling and storehouse.

December:  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) with a brigade of 131, including women and children pushed south from Flathead House toward Utah.



HBC built Fort Colvile Columbia River (1825-1871)

Francois Noel Annance, Metis, b-1789 of the Abenaki tribe, employed HBC (1821-1833) Columbia District, worked Kamloops (1826-1827), Okanagan, Forts Langley and Fort Colvile (Kettle Falls), all Columbia District.  Fort Colvile was relocated to B.C. In 1853.

Amable Arquoitte (1798-1880) from Faubourg Saint Laurent, Montreal joined HBC (1825-1836) Columbia District settled Willamette 1836.  On January 28, 1839 he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Clacalam, Chinook, (1820-1870). Their children were:
    Amable Arquoitte Metis b-1831 
    Michel Arquoitte Metis (1834-1915) 
    Lisette Arquoitte Metis (1836-1897)
    Jean Arquoitte Metis b-1839
    Leon Arquoitte Metis b-1842
    Isaac Arquoitte Metis b-1843 
    Marguerite Arquoitte Metis (1846-1933)
    unnamed Arquoitte Metis daughter d-1848

James P. Beckworth an Irish-Mulatto (Black) man (1798-1867) from Fredericksburg, Virginia, was a free trader (1825-1828), he married a series of Blackfoot, Snake and Crow women but children are not recorded. 

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is back at Spokane House, Columbia District (1825-1826) and assigned Fort Covile (1825-1826)

Antoine Bonenfant b-1805 son Antoine Bonenfant and Marie Anne Pepin, employed NWC 1815? but conflicts with birth date, HBC (1821-1826).  In Columbia District (1825-1826) There is likely a mix-up between father and son.  Antoine Bonenfant had two or more wives and five children. He and his first wife, Marie Spokane or Marguerite, had children:
    Antoine Bonenfant Metis b-1831
    Martin Bonenfant Metis b-1829 
The fate of Marie or Marguerite is unknown. 
On January 10, 1842 at St. Paul, Oregon, he married Françoise Depati Metis b-1827, daughter of J. B. Depati and a Kalipouya woman.  Their children were:
    Marie Anne/Marianne Bonenfant Metis (1845-1850), 
    Charles Bonenfant Metis (1847-1850)
    Angelique Marguerite Bonenfant Metis b-1853.
He was recorded in Willamette in 1842

“Tête Jaune aka Pierre Bostonais, d-1827 and brother Baptiste arrived -- the Iroquois (Mohawks) all enjoyed themselves with a booze.” Tête Jaune and Baptiste appear in 1825, when the Hudson’s Bay Company required a guide over the Yellowhead Pass, then a little-known route. (There is no record that this pass was used by either company prior to 1824, when Chief Trader Joseph Felix LaRocque Metis Sr. b-1786/87 tried to establish a post at “Moose or Cranberry Lake.”)

Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) Metis dit La Malice Metis (1789-1826) born Mackinac joined HBC 1808; Joined HBC (1825-1826) New Caledonia.  or Paul Bouche (La Malice) Metis brother to Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) Metis   Eventually settling in Red River.  I think these two have been getting mixed up.

Charles Carpentier married a native girl about this time and they had two daughters:
    Sophie Carpenter Metis b-1826
    Angelique Carpentier Metis (1828-1859) married a Nigro, a Kanaka and had children by both, 
then married 1856 Charles J. Roe b-1806 who was a religious fanatic who killed her and was hanged.  Charles had also married 1837 Nancy McKay

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed HBC Columbia, District (1825-1826), 

Thomas Charles Metis (1825-1885) born Spirit Lake, N.W., died Victoria, B.C.  employed HBC (1844-1872)  In July, 1870 at Fort St. James, he married Anastasia Carrier  from Fort Babine. Three children were recorded
    Christine Charles Metis b-1853, 
    William Charles Metis b-1858
    Jennie Charles Metis b-1865.

William John (James) Connolly Metis Jr b-1807 son Willian Connolly Sr. (1786-1849) and Suzanne Pas-de-nom, cree d-1862, joined HBC (1825-1832) Columbia District.

Baptiste Dechamp Metis d-1828 joined HBC (1825-1828) Columbia District.

Fort Vancouver (1825-1860) is built this year (Washington) Columbia River.

(I)-David Douglas (1799-1834) son John Douglas and Jean Drummond, In (1825-1833) a botanist arrived Fort Vancouver traveled up the Willamette River, and covered the Pacific Coast and the interior.  It is noteworthy that the 'Douglas Fir' is named after him. 

Pierre Dubois dit Below b-1806 St. Cuthbert, joined HBC (1825-1845) settled Willamette 1845.  Pierre Dubois married Catherine Simipchinó [Spokane] on January 19, 1845, children not listed.

(III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger Ojibwa Metis (1798-1858) son (II)-Lawrence Edward Ermatinger (1767-1829) and Metis/Indian girl; employed HBC (1818-1853), Severn and Columbia ((1825-1846) then York, Athabasca (1847-1850) and Lake Superior (1852-1853),.retired St. Thomas, Ontario, a most despicable man, who left a trail of wives and children across the country.
            KNOW MARRIAGES
        1st Unknamed Indian Woman born Severn married (1818-1825) and had one known daughter (abandoned) who later married Severn 1841 David Bird
        2nd Cleopatra, a Okanagan Sushwap Woman married 1827 (1826 to 1831), one son 
            (IV)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828, Kamloops, sent east for education
            (IV)-daughter Ermatinger, Metis b-1831 died shortly after birth
        3rd Mary Three Dresses, a Flathead Woman, married 1834; 
            (IV)-son Ermatinger Metis b-1836 (Abandoned)
            (IV)-Mary Ermatinger Metis (1838-1840), (abandoned) married Peter Ashley of Montana
        4th Catherine Sinclair (1824-1876) bapt 1827, marriage August 10, 1842 daughter William Sinclair; 
            (IV)-Frances (Fanny) Maria Ermatinger, Metis:b-1843 married John Crawford of St. Thomas, Ontario
        5th Ermatinger filed for divorce from Catherine Sinclair in 1849 and retired to St. Thomas, Ontario, where he died.

(III)-Edward Ermatinger Metis (1797-1876) son (II)-Lawrence Edward Ermatinger (1767-1829) son (I)-Lawrence Laurenz Ermatinger (1736/43-1789) of Lison, Portugal, brother of (III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger (1798-1858), employed HBC (1818-1828)  assigned Island Lake, Red River, York then Thompson's River, coastal trade and Fraser River, Columbia.(1825-1828).  Married early 1830's Achsah Burnham daughter Zaccheus Burnham of Cobourg
    (IV)-Judge C. O. Ermatinger Metis, St Thomas, Ontario
    (IV)-Edward Ermatinger Metis

Dominique Fannons (1797-1860) employed NWC Athabasca (1817-1818), HBC Bow River and South Saskatchewan River (1818-1825). HBC Caldonia, Fort Vancouver (1825, 1843, settled Cowlitz 1842.   He formalized his marriage to Josephte, Clallam [Makak] (1813-Oct. 17, 1844) on February 11, 1839. The Fannon children were 
    Narcisse Fannons Metis b-1831, 
    Louise or Angelique Fannons Metis b-1832
    Amable Fannons Metis b-1834 
    Dominique Fannons Metis b-1835
    Elisabeth Fannons Metis b-1839 
    Rachel Fannons Metis b-1846

Peter Grant Metis (1806-1849) possible son (I)-William Grant and Margaret Laframboise? joined HBC (1825-1842) New Caledonia.  Peter Grant married Anne, of the Chaudières and together they had one recorded daughter, 
    Suzanne Grant Metis 
Suzanne later married a Frederick Griffin and then Adolphus Ferron.

(I)-John Greig (1825-1892) son Francois Greig and Amelia Gaudie of Orkney, joined HBC (1844-1851) Columbia District.  John Greig had one wife, Margaret Goudie (1835-1914/19) daughter (I)-James Goudie and Catherine Schwayipa (1819-1853), twelve children were recorded: 
    (II)-John Greig Metis (1853-1922), 
    (II)-Robert Wesley Greig Metis (1856-1940), 
    (II)-Margaret Greig Metis (1858-1940), 
    (II)-William Greig Metis (1861-1910), 
    (II)-Alice Amelia Greig Metis b-1863 
    (II)-James Greig Metis (1865-1948), 
    (II)-Mary Elizabeth Greig Metis (1866-1936), 
    (II)-Thomas Greig Metis (1868-1890), 
    (II)-Emily Jane Greig Metis (1871-1946), 
    (II)-George Greig Metis (1873-1900), 
    (II)-Francis Greig Metis (1876-1951) 
    (II)-Donald Greig Metis (1879-1928). 
Margaret [Goudie] Greig died December 30, 1914 in St. Joseph’s Hospital in Victoria.

Rosette Hehita Finley, Metis, (1825-1908) born Spokane, Columbia District ( Washington) son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Pend D'Oreille or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).

Pierre Kanatagonet Iroquois (Mohawks) (1795-1828) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined NWC 1814 at Fort William, 1821 in Athabasca, 1825 in Columbia District to 1828.

Catherine Longctain, Metis (1825-1858) daughter Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793/94-1879)  and Nancy Okanagan: married John Howard, a tavern keeper at Champoeg, who left before her child Catherine was born.

(I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) is among the party sent on the Rocky Mountain Expedition (1824-1825) out of Fort Edmonton.  He spent the remainder of his employment (1825-1858) in Columbia District and New Caledomia, finally retiring Champoeg, (Oregon) on the banks of the Willamette River in 1858. 

(I)-Miles (Archabald?) MacDonell in Columbia River District married Jane Klyne Metis, the daughter of Michael Klyne, postmaster at Jasper's House. She bore him 13 children.

(I)-Alexander Roderick McLeod (1782-1840) from Quebec employed NWC /HBC (1802-1824) Athabasca, Department.assigned (1809-1811) Rocky Mountain House (1825-1830), Columbia Department.  Then assigned 1830 Mackenzie River.  Alexander McLeod had one (?) wife, a woman of mixed descent, and nine children. Their children were: 
    (II)-Sarah McLeod Metis b-1818 married 1836, (II)-John Ballenden (1810/12-1856)
    (II)- John McLeod Metis b-1824
    (II)-Eliza McLeod Metis b-1828
    (II)-Emilia McLeod Metis b-1833
    (II)-Margaret McLeod Metis 
    (II)-Nancy McLeod Metis
    (II)-Alic McLeod Metis 
    (II)-Sally McLeod Metis 
    (II)-Roderick McLeod Metis 

Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857)  moved his headquarters to a new spot up the Columbia, River, naming it Fort Vancouver.  His daughter (IV)-Maria Eloisa McLoughlin, Metis (1817-1884) Fort William, traveled to Columbia District 1825 and married 1838 William Glen Rae, d-1846; two surviving children;
    Mrs. Theodore Wygant (Rae) Metis
    Mrs. Joseph Myrick (Rae) Metis
2nd marriage 1850 Daniel Harvey three children recorded 
    Daniel Harvey Metis d-1868
    James W. McLoughlin Harvey Metis
    Mrs. D. F. Leaby Harvey Metis

(I)-Donald Manson (1796/98-1880) joined HBC (1817-1857) arrived Fort Vancouver 1825, settled Wallamette Valley Oregon in 1858, he married October 1828 Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867), daughter of Etienne Lucier of French Prairie was with Pacific Fur Company 1813, and together they had eight children. Felicite died June 10, 1867. Their children were 
    (II)-William Manson Metis b-1829
    (II)-John Donald (Duncan) Manson Metis b-1840 who married Aurelia Yale daughter J.M. Yale.
    (II)-Anna Manson Metis b-1844, Anna or Anne married (IV)-Isaac Ogden Metis (1839-1869) and or Tremewan. 
    (II)-James Manson Metis b-1845
    (II)-George Manson Metis b-1847
    (II)-Stephen Manson Metis 
    (II)-Isabella Manson Metis b-1851
    (II)-Lizzie (Elizabeth) Manson Metis b-1857

(II)-Pierre Pambrun (1792-1841) son (I)-Andrew Dominique Pambrun and Angelique Hyracque joined NWC? (1812-1815), HBC (1815-1841) He served in the War of 1812 and reached the rank of lieutenant in the French Canadian Voltigeur regiment of the British army.
Served Red River, Cumberland House, York Factory, (1815-1822)
Bow River expedition (1822-1823)
Fort Edmonton 1823, Lesser Slave Lake (1823-1824), Fort Kilmaurs(1824-1825), Babine (1825-1830)
New Caledonia, Columbia District (1825-1841)   He had three wives the first being native women and children not identified ; 3rd wife married 1821, churched December 8, 1838 Fort Vancouver Catherine (Kitty) Horteuse Umfreville Metis daughter Thomas Umfreville and Anne Turner Cree/Metis (1805-1886)
He formalized his marriage 1838 to Catherine (Kitty) Humpherville, Metis b-1805 daughter of Thomas Humpherville b-1740 and Anna Turner Cree/Metis b-1785 Moose Factory, Their children were
    (III)-Andre (Andrew) Dominique Pambrun Metis b-1821 Cumberland House, d-1895, married Marie (Mary) Cook (1824-1912)
    (III)-Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun Metis Jr. b-1823 Fort Edmonton, d-1890/1902, he stayed in Manitoba and became involved in the Riel Rebellion, losing an arm in the process
    (III)-Marie Pambrun Metis (1826-1890), married (I)-Forbes Barely (1812-1873
    (III)-Alexander Pambrun Metis (1829-1912),
    (III)-Thomas Pambrun Metis (1832-1896), born Columbia District, married 1st. Shoshone, 2nd Jane Tenday Indian
    (III)-Jean Baptiste/John Pambrun Metis b-1839 
    (III)-Alexander Pambrun Metis  (1829-1912)
    (III)-Maria Pambrun Metis 
    (III)-Ada (Adele) Pambrun Metis b-1835
    (III)-Harriet Pambrun Metis (1837-1916)
    (III)-Sarah Pambrun Metis (1841-1844)

   Augustin Paul Roussil (Russie) Metis Jr. (1825-1855) son of Augustin Roussil Sr. b-1780 and Rose Chinook. HBC (1839-1844) settled Willamette.  He married April 29, 1844 Agnes (Anne Norwest) Tyikwaei, married William Tison after Augustin death
    Joseph Roussil Metis b-1844
    Augustin Roussil Metis b-1846
    Paul Marie Roussil  Metis (1849-1849) d-age 8 months
    Marie Angle Rousesil (1851-1852), 
    Marguerite Roussil Metis b-1853
    Hyacinthe Roussil Metis b-1855

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) recorded viewing Mt. Hood, Mt St. Helens and Mt Adam.

John Randal b-1801 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1825-1828) as boat builder at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon or B.C.).

Jean Baptiste Saurenrego Iroquois a free trader in Columbia recorded HBC (1824-1825)

John Spence b-1800 Orkney worked west Rockies (1825-1833) as boat builder and returned to British Isles.

Pierre Guillaume Sayer Metis (1796-1849) son John Sayer Metis (1750-1818) and Marie Bwaneguau a Dakota Sioux; married Josette Frobisher Metis b-1795 daughter Alexander Frobisher; joined NWC (1818-1821) Cumberland House, HBC (1825-1826) New Caledonia, and HBC (1826-1827) Columbia District,  HBC (1828-1832) Fort Pelly, settled Red River 1832.  Recorded children are:  
Edouard Sayer Metis  b-1823; 
Sayer Metis  b-1826;
Sayer Metis  (1827-1828) 
Sayer Metis (1832-1832) 
Sayer Metis  b-1834 
Sayer Metis b-1837 
Sayer Metis b-1838 
Sayer Metis b-1841 
Sayer Metis (1843-1843) 
Sayer Metis b-1843 
Sayer Metis b-1849 
Sayer Metis b-1853

Pierre Seutchineele Metis/Indian a free trader with William Ashley from St. Louis at Henry Forks (Wyoming).

William Sherley Williams (Old Bill) (1787-1849) is at the mouth of the Columbia River.  He explored from the Mexican border to the Canadian border from 1803 to this time.  He mostly explored and traded on his own and was considered the most fearless of the Mountain Men.  He married at least three wives, had two daughters Sarah William, Metis and Mary William, Metis, and a son named Jose, William, Metis, b-1834. 

More than 170 ships a year (1785-1825) essentially trapped out the sea otter.

Emigrant James Nesmith:
"Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , from his own private resources, rendered the new settlers much valuable aid by furnishing the destitute with food, clothing and seed, waiting for his pay until they had a surplus to dispose of."

"Well received by Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) ,  who charged nothing for the boat sent up for us, nor for the provisions; but not satisfied with that, sent us plenty of salmon and potatoes, furnished us house, room and wood free of charge, and was very anxious that all should get through safe."

The Russo-American Treaty removed all Russian claims below 54° 40 '' latitude.  War was the only other option.

March 19: Fort Vancouver, (Washington) (1825-1856) near (Portland Oregon) is built this year on the north bank of the Columbia River, just up river from the mouth of the Willamette River, (Oregon Territory).  Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , was the first chief factor being transferred from Fort George at the south side of the Columbia River.   His territory was from the Russian Alaska boundary to the Republic of Mexico ( California) boundary.  He was ordered to discourage settlers.

Fort Colville (1825-1871) This post replaced Spokane House in 1825. It was located just above Kettle Falls on the Columbia River, Columbia District ( Oregon Territory).  It had 300 acres of land under cultivation, a gist mill and a sawmill nearby Myer's Falls.  This area was likely chosen because a number of Metis families had been settled in the Coville Valley before 1811.  The Coville Valley stretches from Idaho to eastern Washington.  

A volcano at Mount Rainier, Washington erupted this year.

March 19:  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, only stood 5' 6" was characterized as 'ruthless and insensitive' but was governor of Hudson Bay Company (1821-1856) and officially baptized Fort Vancouver, (Portland Oregon) this year.

May:  (II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. son (I)-Nicholas Montour Sr. d-1808 a shareholder in the NWC, (II)-Nicolas deserts (III)-Peter Skeene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1827).

May 5:  (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and his crew reached Bear River and pressed on to Mountain Green where he encountered a party of 15 Canadians and Spaniards led by Etienne Provost, an American working out of Santa Fe, Mexico.  Shortly thereafter he encountered a party of 25-30 Americans of the John Weber's brigade headed by Johnson Graner.  Graner began to bully (III)-Peter Ogden (1790/94-1854) trying to run him off what he considered American Territory.  They almost came to blows.  Ironically they were not in Oregon Territory which was in dispute but in Mexican Territory.



Desportes Camp is established this year (in southern Oregon)

Alexis Aubichon b-1791 Berthier, Quebec, employed HBC (1821-1841) but was employed prior to this with NWC.  He accompanied Chief Trader Alexander Roderick McLeod, (1782-1840) from Quebec, on his expedition to the Umpqua Country (1826-1827).  Alexis did several fur trading expeditions in the Columbia District (Oregon Territory) before settling at Willamette, Columbia District (Oregon) in 1841.

James Baker b-1804 Orkney worked H.B.C. west Rockies (1826-1840) as a steward, settled in Willamette Valley, Oregon.

(I)-John James Bell Sr. (1799-1863) Joined NWC (1818-1824) and HBC (1821-1824) Mackenzie River, married Chenalis Woman
    (II)-John Bell Jr. Metis (1826-1857) joined HBC (1838-1857) married 1856 Fort Langley Nathalle Quyilen (Kwanthan)
        (III)-John Bell Metis (1848-1854)
    (II?)-John Bell Metis possible the son of a son of (I)-John joined HBC (1887-1895) Mackenzie River, married (III)-Mary Knight Metis daughter Thomas Knight (1761-1797) and Sarah Martin Metis (1756-1816)
        Christine Bell married (I)-Angustus Richard Peers b-1853
        Floria Bell married (II)-Joseph Finlayson Metis (1830-1901)

(II)-John Bell Metis (1826-1857) born Fort Vancouver son (I)-John James Bell and Chehalis woman, joined HBC (1838-1857) Columbia District, married July 21, 1856 Fort Langley, Nathalle Quyilen (Kwanthan) they had one son;
    (III)-John Bell Metis (1848-1854)

In early November 1826, Pierre Bostonais dit Tête Jaune Metis and Jean Baptiste Bostonias Metis and families arrived at Fort St James.  In 1827  Connolly wrote "they are such notorious rascals that no dependence whatever Can be placed in them.”  That fall, the brothers were at Bear Lake. “I am glad this district is rid of them,”  “They are brothers who seldom do any good. And very frequently do Mischief.”

Olivier Bouchard aka Oliver or Jean Baptiste, (1794-1850) likely employed with NWC (1816-1821), likely Fort Chipewan, Athabasca District, came from Montreal as Company boatman in 1818 and listed as Canadian Servant, employed HBC (1821-1842) worked Athabasca (1821-1826) then to Columbia District (1826-1842) then settled Cowlitz, married
1st Louise Techelis (Chehalin) b-1822 bapt & married 1839 Fort Vancouver, d-1840, daughter Owyhee and Chinook mother
    Jean Baptiste Bouchard Metis b-1831, bapt 1843 married Harriet Provo (Prevost)
2nd marriage 1842 Fort Vancouver Angelique Okanaya daughter of Hawaiian father and a Chinook woman.
    Cyprien Bouchard Metis b-1844
    Oliver Bouchard Metis 

Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis b-1826 son Jean Baptiste Bouche Metis (1789-1850) and Nancy McDougal Metis; joined HBC (1841-1844) Fort Colvile.

Jean Marie Bouche (Boucher) Metis b-1826 Fort St. James, New Caledonia, joined HBC (1844-1878) New Caledonia, settled east of Rockies.  On June 11, 1850, he formally married Caroline Tatatz. In 1870 he married Julie Hinnatchu b-1845, daughter of Castay, at St. Joseph’s Church, Fort George. Still, on February 17, 1874, a Jean Marie Boucher married Sophie Natai (c.1854-?) at Fort St. James. To complicate matters further, on June 16, 1876, a Jean Boucher married, claiming his father was Jean Marie and mother, Nana, a native woman of Stella, B. C.  The Bouche (Boucher) clan to say the least is complicated.

Jean Marie Boucher Metis born 1826 or 1830 Fort St. James, New Caledonia son Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1849) and Nancy McDougal Metis, employed HBC (1844-1878).  On June 11, 1850, he formally married Caroline Tatatz. In 1870 he married Julie Hinnatchu b-1845, daughter of Castay, at St. Joseph’s Church, Fort George. Still, on February 17, 1874, a Jean Marie Boucher married Sophie Natai b-1854 at Fort St. James. To complicate matters further, on June 16, 1876, a Jean Boucher married, claiming his father was Jean Marie and mother, Nana, a native woman of Stella, B.C.

Olivier Bouchard aka Oliver or Jean Baptiste, likely employed with NWC (1816-1821), came from Montreal as Company boatman in 1818 and listed as Canadian Servant, employed HBC (1821-1842), posted to Columbia District 1826-1842) retired to Cowlitz (1842); married about 1830 Louise Tchelis (1822-1840) baptized January 21, 1839, age stated as 17, died October 5, 1840.
churched February 4, 1839, Fort Vancouver, some dates are not right
        One child is born Jean Baptiste Bouchard, Metis, b-1831, baptized January 29, 1843, Cowlitz,  married Harriet Provo (Prevost.
Angelique Okanaya, daughter Owyhee father and Chinook mother, married June 7, 1842, Fort Vancouver,  
        One child is recorded Cyprian, Metis b-January 27, 1844 Cowlitz 

Jean Baptiste Brulez b-1809 joined HBC (1831-1844) retired Willamette 1844.  He claimed to have arrived Columbia District 1826.  On February 11, 1838 at Fort Vancouver, he married the widow of Jacques Iroquois (Mohawks), Marguerite, Sook [T’Sou-ke], a person skilled at the native bone game. Jean Baptiste inherited a step-son 
    Joseph Thomas Brulez Metis (1831-60), who acquired the Brulez name. 
Stepson Joseph married Mary Ann Maranda b-1832 (daughter of Iroquois (Mohawks) Louis Shaegoskatsta/Maranda, dit Le Frise [b-1796] and a Kalapooya woman) in Oregon in 1848, had three daughters but, according to one account, was shot dead at the age of twenty-nine in Oregon (1858 in Victoria Catholic Records? according to Sooke Story). After Joseph’s death Mary Ann Maranda Brule married Jean Baptiste Vautrin.

Cadrette a freeman hunter arrived 1826 Fort Vancouver.

Peter (Pierre) Calder (1799-1852) a native or Metis employed HBC (1826-1852) Columbia District worked on coastal shipping for nine years married Marguerite Chinook Kaiseno daughter Chief Kaiseno (Cassino) and had one son 
    Pierre Calder Metis b-1835 who was baptized 1838 by her 2nd husband Oliver Couturier.  Peter Calder abandoned his first wife to marry Louise Gadbois dit Bousquet, baptised July 1845 at Fort Prairie, 
    William Calder Metis bapt-1845 Fort des Prairie
married 3rd wife May 2, 1845 Fort des Prairies Isabelle Lussier (1828-pre-1885) had two children 
    Iaabelle Calder Metis b-1848, 
    Emelie Calder Metis b-1850.

Duncan Campbell Metis joined HBC (1826-1831) coastal shipping.

Francois Clairmont Metis (1803/06-1829) likely son Francois (Sauge) Clairmount Metis and (VI)-Ludivine Doucet Metis, joined HBC (1826-1829) Pacific Slopes.

Christopher Huston (Kit) Carson (1809-1868) son Lindsay Carson and Rebecca Robinson of Richmond, Kenticky, traded/worked Columbia District (1826-1842).  Kit Carson’s family life is unclear but he appears to have had several successive wives. First wife was Waa-Nibw died 1838-1840,  then married 1842 Cheyenne woman she left him and went with her own people; third marriage 1843 wife was Josefa Jararmillo b-1828 a Taos and they had 8 kids
    Adeline Carson Metis daughter Waa-Nibe
    unnamed Carson Metis daughter Waa-Nibe
    Josefa Jaramillo b-1828 children are 
    Charles Carson Metis  (1849-51), 
    William (Julian) Carson Metis  b-1852
    Teresina Carson Metis b-1855
    Christopher Carson Metis b-1858, 
    Charles Carson Metis b-1861, 
    Rebecca Carson Metis b-1864 
    Estanfanita Carson Metis b-1866 
    Josefita Carson Metis b-1868.

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed HBC Umqua Snake Expedition, Columbia, District (1826-1827), 

Joseph Cornoyer b-1803 likely Sorel, Quebec, joined NWC 1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca and HBC (1826-11842) New Caledonia and Columbia District ,   free trader 1832, settled Willamette 1842, he married Thérèse Spokane/quilqual/Sehan , widow of Joseph Massa Grenier (1796-1930)who had been drowned at the Dalles in 1830. The recorded Cornoyer children were 
    Victoire Cornoyer Metis b-1831    
    Joseph Cornoyer Metis b-1838. 
She had other children: 
    Martial Lavalee Metis b-1818 
    Pierre Lavalee Metis (1821-1844) 
    Marie Anne Grenier Metis (1830-1850).

(I)-James Douglas (1803-1877) a mixed blood Metis or Mulatto as some called them, son of a Scotch and Creole (some say Russian-Eskimo) woman married Amelia Connolly, Metis daughter Chief Factor William Connolly and an Indian woman.  He was a hot tempered, heavy handed man who ruled the Hudson Bay Company West Coast as an Emperor.  He was obsessed with power, ritual and penny pinching.  He was eventually made governor of both Vancouver Island and Main Land B.C. joined NWC  (1819-1821), HBC (1821-1827)  Arrived Fort Vancouver 1826.  In 1840 he was Chief Factor over British Columbia, Washington and Oregon or from Alaska to California (Columbia District)   He retired in 1859 and was inaugurated Governor of the British Columbia colony with the capital at New Westminster put he remained on Vancouver Island over which he was still Governor.  He again retired 1863.  
On February 28, 1837 under Reverend Beaver at Fort Vancouver, he married Amelie Connolly Metis (1812-1890), daughter of William Connolly, although he had gone through the ceremony ten years earlier at Fort St. John. Ten of the thirteen Douglas children were: 
    (II)-Cecilia Douglas Metis (1834-1865), 
    (II)-Ellen Douglas Metis (1836-1837), 
    (II)-Alexander Douglas Metis , 
    (II)-Jane Douglas Metis (1839-1909), 
    (II)-Agnes Douglas Metis (1841-1928), 
    (II)-Alice Douglas Metis (1844-1928), 
    (II)-Marguerite Douglas Metis (1846-1848), 
    (II)-Rebecca Douglas Metis (1849-1849), 
    (II)-James William Douglas Metis (1851-1883) 
    (II)-Martha/Marthe Douglas Metis (1854-1933).

David Douglas, a Scottish botanist observed the Kalapuya Indians of the Willamette Valley were burning the upper valley.  Early Metis settlers noted the valley was well groomed as the native people used slash and burn farming practices for centuries.

Dominique Farron aka Frarron b-1795/1798 employed HBC (1815-1840) assigned Fort Langley, Columbia (1826-1834), married 1839 Josephte Tlalam native d-1844, five children are recorded:
    Narcisse Farron Metis b-1832
    Louise Farron Metis b-1833
    Amable Farron Metis b-1834
    Dominique Farron Metis b-1837
    Elizabeth Farron Metis b-1839

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791, working Columbia District (1806-1842) assigned Umpqua, Columbia District.

(III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger Metis (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853) assigned Kamloops, Columbia.(1826-1829) married during this period wife #2 Cleopatra an Okanagan Woman and had one son (IV)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828.  (III)-Francis had abandoned wife #1 and a child in Severn. 

(III)-Edward Ermatinger Metis (1797-1876) employed HBC (1818-1828) brother of (III)-Fransis (Frank) Ermatinger Metis (1798-1858) assigned Costal trade and shipping, Columbia.(1826-1827) 

Louis Gagnon (1798-1861) joined HBC (1826-1844) settled Willamette 1843:  He appears to have had one wife, Marie  and one recorded son, 
    Antoine Joseph Gagnon Metis b-1840

(II)-William Kittson Metis? (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season (1826-1829) Kooteney House, Columbia District.

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) is part of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1827).

Joseph Sebastien (Delix) Larocque b-1802 son Joseph Felix Larocque Metis b-1786/87;  joined NWC (1819-1821) to work the Northwest and HBC (1821-1825) to work Athabasca and Lesser Slave Lake.  HBC (1826-1846) to work Columbia District and settled Willamette 1846.  On May 20, 1845 at St. Paul, Oregon, he formalized his marriage to Marie Anne, Flathead (Cayuse) b-1818. Their recorded children were 
    Marie Larocque Metis 
    Etienne Bietnis Larocque Metis
    Angelique Larocque Metis, married 1853 Martin Bonenfant
    Joseph Olivier Larocque Metis b-1843 
    Basile Larocque Metis b-1847
    Genevieve Larocque Metis (1849-1851) 
    Pierre Larocque Metis b-1852/55

John McLeod (1788-1849) arrived Kamloops, B.C. from Fort Edmonton (Alberta).

Anawiseum (Annawiskum) (Wiscum) McDonald Metis b-1803 York Factory, son of McDonald and Muskegon, joined HBC (1826-1842) Columbia District settled Cowlitz.  He formalized his marriage to Elizabeth Pe’ky, Semas on January 30, 1843 at Fort Vancouver. Their children were 
    François McDonald Metis b-1831
    Cetty/Catherine McDonald Metis b-1834 
    John .McDonald Metis b-1837
    Alexandre McDonald Metis b-1840
    Marie Louise McDonald Metis b-1842

Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) brought apple seeds from England. 

Michel (Little) Oteakorie likely Iroquois joined HBC (1826=1827 as a member of McLeods Umpqua expedition with Michel Otoetanie an Iroquois (1792-1833) who was in Columbia District since 1821 

(I)-Aemilius Simpson (1793-1831) joined HBC (1826-1831) one children is recorded by Margaret McLennan 
    (II)-Horatio Nelson Simpson Metis?

(I)-Thomas Sinclair b-1791 joined HBC (1824-1826) York Factory, (1826-1834) Columbia District but because of a drinking problem sent back to England 1833/34.  According to the obituary of the husband of Mary [Sinclair] Weston, Thomas had a daughter 
    (II)-Mary Sinclair Metis (1833-1884) by an unnamed Clatsop-Chinook woman, daughter of Chief Cowhicalas.

Oxford House, birth (II)-James William Sinclair, Metis (1806-1856) son (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; James W. Sinclair joined HBC 1826 trip to Columbia District returned to Red River as a freeman, HBC 1841 trip to Columbia District & (1854-1855) Columbia District and he had three successive wives and eleven children. 
In December, 1829 at Red River, he married Elizabeth Bird (1811-1845) and together they had 
     (III)-Elizabeth Sinclair Metis d-1834), 
     (III)-Alexander Sinclair Metis (1833-1834), 
     (III)-Harriet Sinclair Metis b-1832 
     (III)-Emma Sinclair Metis d-1843), 
     (III)-Louise Sinclair Metis (1841-1843)
     (III)-unnamed Sinclair Metis child b-1845
After Elizabeth’s death in 1845, he had a daughter, named 
     (III)-Mary Sinclair Metis bap.1848, by Jane Whitford.
 He then married Mary Campbell Metis b-1826 (daughter of Colin Campbell and a Cree woman) and together they had
     (III)-Mary/Maria Sinclair Metis d-1855 or 1856), 
     (III)-Jane Sinclair Metis b-1851
     (III)-Agnes Sinclair Metis  
     (III)-unnamed Sinclair Metis boyb-1856
After the death of James, Mary Campbell Sinclair married an Indian Agent, Nathen Olney. They lived together one week and divorced one year later.

(I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) Joined HBC (1806-1857) Chief trader Columbia District (1826-1827); married 1823 Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Margaret Nahoway; Recorded children are:  In 1845 at Fort George he had 11 children.
    (II)-Edward Spenser Metis b-1821 York Factory
    (II)-William Spenser Metis b-1822 York Factory married (III)-Caroline Small Metis b-1827
    (II)-John Robert Spenser Metis (1831-1893) married Ann Jane
    (II)-Rupert Spenser Metis (1836-1915) born Eastman, Ruperts River, married 1864 Mary Ann Ross 
    (II)-Mary Spenser Metis b-1837 married John Garton
    (II)-Miles Spenser Metis (1839-1919) born Nichiquon, Ruperts River, married Edith McLaren 
    (II)-Charles A. Spenser Metis (1845-1872) married Sarah Truthwaite

(II)-William Spenser Metis b-1822 Hudson Bay, son (I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) Joined HBC (1838-1875) assigned (1842-1844) Fort Vancouver; (1846-1848) Lesser Slave Lake; (1848-1849) Rockey Mountain House; (1849-1956) Fort Carlton; married (III)-Caroline Small Metis b-1827, one child is recorded:
    (III)-Arthur Spenser Metis baptised May 27, 1860 

(Ia)-(II)-Peter Taylor Metis born after 1790 died December 12, 1837 or 1838? source Zelia Chevalier, see baptism 1836?  (Nina Hurteau suggests he joined HBC (1826-1837) assigned (1826-1831) Columbia District Vancouver and coastal service he is son  George Taylor (1759-1838) and Jane Indian and starved to death on Arctic discovery expedition with Dease & Simpson of 1839.) 1737/8 death is based on George Simpson account, the 1839 date is based on HBC achieves which contains a different account of his death.

(I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861) this summer is on a horse trading expedition to the Nez Perces and to Flathead and Kootenay.

Fort Vancouver, Columbia District, marriage Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) and Indian woman d-1843

(I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot,, a bigamist, fathered five known children on his travels and took a fifth known wife, Margaret Taylor, a Metis, this year and had 2 children.  He would later put her and her children aside, return to England and returned with a sixth  bride, 18 year old Francis, who soon returned 1845 to England.  It is interesting he held both Indians and Metis women in contempt but used them for sex then set them aside.

Tête Jaune probably spent the winter of 1825-26 at Fort Alexandria, for in early May 1826, just before the departure of the brigade from Fort St. James for Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Connolly received word about the “Iroquois (Mohawks) guide who remains sick at Alexandria.” In early November 1826, Tête Jaune and Baptiste arrived at Fort St James. “In the evening that old rogue Tête Jaune, and his brother, arrived from below, dread of the Carriers who threaten vengeance for the death of their relatives, is the cause of their coming this way. These people brought nearly one Pack of Beaver between them.”

A 60 ton schooner was built at Fort Vancouver, Columbia District but had to wait two years for completion of her deck and caulking to be completed.

HBC abandoned Spokane House on April 7, 1826, and (II)-Jacques Raphael Finlay Metis (1768-1828) and large Metis family remained there as free traders.

September:  (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) and 23 men, women and children departed Fort Kamploops to explore the Thompson River to its forks with the Fraser River.  He reports to Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) but doesn't tell him he and his men took their families on the expedition.

September 26:   (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854), exploring the Cascade Mountains of Oregon,  reached the River of the Falls where the Indians had built a bridge, but he lost five horses through the bridge.  Historians refused to believe the Indians were capable of building a bridge to support a horse, let alone a number of horses.  John Y Todd said "It is difficult to believe that there could have been much of a bridge there when (III)-Peter Skene Ogden crossed it.  It seems as if Ogden must have been blinded by the snow, because it is hard to think the Indians could possibly have built a structure that would support a horse."  There was a settlement of 20 Indian families, at Sherar's Bridge, Oregon, at this time.  It is noteworthy that the place was not named Indian Bridge, Oregon.



HBC built Connolly post (1827-1892), New Caledonia this year.  They also built the first saw mill near Fort Vancouver (Washington).  

Ashista b-1827 B.C. and wife Matemama b-1827 B.C. are living Skeena in 1901 census

Alexis Aubichon who helped establish Fort Langley, (B.C.) this year is married to Marie Anne Chinook (1820-1880) daughter of As-kal-wilsh and they were with Laframboise in Republic of Mexico (California) in the 1830's.  Fort Langley was described as "Dull and monotonous--everything has a wintery appearance," fort journal of December 8, 1827.

Pierre Boucher (1793-1828) NWC (1810-1828) HBC (1821-1828) in Columbia in 1827

William Cannon, aka Canning & Cannon (1763-1854), employed HBC at Fort Vancouver (1827-1837)

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed HBC Fort Langley, Columbia, District (1827-1833), 

Edward Driver of Orkney, killed 1827 Vancouver (Portland Oregon) only worked this year for H.B.C. as a seaman.

(III)-Edward Ermatinger Metis (1797-1876) employed HBC (1818-1828) assigned Fraser River at Fort Langley, Columbia River (1825-1826) 

Michel Fallardeau (1806-1855) joined HBC (1827-1852) mostly out Fort Thompson.  Most likely when he was in the Thompson River area, he married Jenny Lucy Shuswap. On June 30, 1856, when Jenny was at Fort Langley, daughter 
Angelique Fallardeau Metis b-1848 was baptised. 
Louis Fallardeau Metis maybe another son

Little Ignace an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Quebec d-1827 joined HBC (1826-1827) Columbia District with his family.

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) is part of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1828).

Jean Baptiste Gagnier b-1801/02, Lachine, Quebec, employed HBC (1830-1851) appears to be involved in the (1824-1827) Ogden's Snake Country Expedition..

Michel Fallardeau Metis (1806/07-1855) joined HBC (1827-1851) Columbia and New Caledonia, He was believed beaten to death by Paul Fraser likely at Thompson River, he married Jenny Lucy Shuswap
    Angelique Fallardeau Metis bapt 1848
    Louis Fallardeau Metis
    Unnamed son?
(I)-Colin Fraser (1806-1867) joined HBC (1827-1867) in Fort Vancouver (1827-1828) spent most of his time in the Saskatchewan River District.  Married Nancy Beaudry dit Gandry a Cree and their recorded children are
    (II)-Colin Fraser Jr. Metis b-1819
    (II)-Simon Fraser Metis
    (II)-Norquay Fraser Metis
    Three girls were reported in 1838
    (II)-John Fraser Metis b-1841/42 Rocky Mountain House
    (II)-Floria Fraser Metis b-1845

Gideon Gravelle (1827-1883) son Vincent Gravelle and Adelaide Bellaire Metis daughter Registre Bellaire free trader of Columbia District  of Montreal, joined HBC (1841-1844) Columbia District.  On February 1, 1847 he took Nancy PinMetis b-1830 (daughter of Joseph Pin (1795-1841)  and Marguerite, Chaudiere Kwe'he'assest Pend d'Oreille as his wife. There they had children 
    Marie Anne Gravelle Metis b-1848 
    Aloys Gravelle Metis b-1849
    Celestin Gravelle Metis b-1851, 
    Julie Gravelle Metis b-1854
    Gedeon Gravelle Metis b-1855 
Sometime before 1870 they moved with daughter Julie to the Frenchtown (Lowden), Willanette. He died in 1883 and was buried October 19, 1883 in the Walla Walla(?) cemetery.

Pierre Charles dit Langlois, Abenki Metis, from Montreal is at Fort Langley, Columbia District (1827-1830) and married Louise Tialum.

Joseph Lapierre aka Old Stone joined HBC (1827-1833) Columbia District and married Susanne Okanogan and had one daughter;
    Josephte Lapierre Metis b-1831
He deserted his wife and child and returned to Montreal.  Susanne married Jacques Iroquois (Mohawks) and later Pierre Delard.

Louis Leblanc Metis born on the prairies joined HBC (1827-1830) Columbia District, listed as native, married 1835 Fort Edmonton Angelique Vallee Metis b-1820 Fort Edmonton daughter Antoine Vallee and Susanne Lefebvre, recorded children are:
    Louis Lablanc Metis b-1834
    Harriet (Heneiette) Lablanc Metis b-1835, Fort Edmonton
    Cornelious Leblanc Metis b-1850 Fort Edmonton 

Francois Le Cuyer b-1798 from Beauhamois, Quebec joined HBC (1825-1827) to work Thompson River and Red River HBC (1827-1851) to work Columbia District.  François Lecuyer had two or more wives and eight recorded children. On September 26, 1849, a daughter baptised and might be a child of Thompson or Red River assignment.
    Maria Le Cuyer Metis -baptised 1849. 
April 29, 1850 in the Victoria area, François married Marie, of a northern native origin, but it was noted that there was an attempt to stop it from Oregon City as they were related on the father’s side. Most likely the newly married couple headed south in 1851 to the Fort Vancouver/Willamette Valley area for a on September 20, 1851, a François Le Cuyer and wife Marie buried a child, 
    Joseph Le Cuyer Metis d-1851), at St. Paul, Oregon. 
Another child, under the surname Lequier, appears to have been Marie. On May 2, 1852, a François Le Cuyer appeared at Fort Vancouver as godparent to a child along with a Julia Le Cuyer, his new wife. It is assumed that he had six children with Julia Clallam (1833-1881). Together in the Victoria area they had 
    Genevieve Le Cuyer Metis -bap.1853
    Euphrosine Le Cuyer Metis -bap.1856 or1858 
    Elisabeth Le Cuyer Metis b-1858
    Lambert Le Cuyer Metis -bap.1861 
    Charles Le Cuyer Metis -bap.1867
    Mary Anne Le Cuyer Metis (1869-1870). 
Wife Julie Clallam died and was buried in the Victoria area on January 18, 1881.

John Low of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1827-1830) as seaman/cook, returned to British Isles

James MacMillan at Fort Langley salted and barreled salmon for the Hudson Bay.  It was not tasty so had a very limited market.  This however is believed the first commercial venture by the eastern men.

Jean Baptiste Obichon (1794-1879) from Sorel, Quebec (likely the same man as Alexis Aubichon possible son Louis Obichon who wintered Pacific Slopes NWC (1818-1819); joined NWC (1816-1819) east of Rockies, also worked as a freeman off and on, HBC (1821-1827) east of Rockies and HBC (1827-1841) Columbia District, settled Fort Vancouver then Willamette.  On May 13, 1839, he married Marie, Tsalile [Chinook] b-1814 at Fort Vancouver. By 1847, Marie had died and on November 27, 1847 in St. Louis, Oregon, he married Isabelle (1827-1854) from a “tribe of the south.” Together they had 
    Jean Baptiste Obichon Metis b-1849
    Marie Obichon Metis b-1850 
    Antoine Obichon Metis (1852-1854). 
Isabelle died on March 8, 1854 at the age of twenty-six. Jean Baptiste did not appear to remarry

Columbia District, birth Marie Anne Ouvre, Metis, baptized July 27, 1843, daughter Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) and Indian Woman.

Etienne Pepin (1798/99-1874) Yamaska employed HBC (1820-1853) first at Fort Vancouver then in 1827 Fort Langley, Columbia District as a blacksmith.  On January 8, 1844, at St. Paul, (Oregon), he married Susanne Gaudritch/Goodrich, mixed descent, and lame daughter of John Goodrich d-1830 and Nancy Dobin Twinishe of Wenaske. Some suggest he may have had 2-3 wives.  Their children were 
    Alfred Pepin Metis b-1842
    Pierre II (Pepin Metis b-1845 
    Julien Pepin Metis b-1846
    Julie Pepin Metis b-1848
    Marie Pepin Metis b-1851 
    Joseph Pepin Metis b-1853
    Celeste Pepin Metis b-1854
    Clementine Pepin Metis b-1856
    Adolphine Pepin Metis b-1858
    Delmer Jeanne Pepin Metis b-1860
    unnamed Pepin Metis twin (1867-1867), 
    Thomas Pepin Metis b-1867
    Ele’onore  (Pepin Metis (1868-1870), 
    Marcelline Pepin Metis (1871-1872)
    Narcisse Pepin Metis b-1873.

Louis Vandalle aka Vandal, Vandale, Vendal (1800-1862) NWC/HBC (1815-1842) deserted 1827 to live among the natives and married Catherine Porteuse/Nakaselias, Carrier (1801-1866)

    Louis Vandalle, Metis (1834-1852)
    Genevieve Vandalle Metis b-1839
    Marie Vandalle Metis b-1842
    Cecile Vandalle Metis b-1844
    Catherine Vandalle Metis b-1847

William Wilson of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1827-1830) as seaman returned to British Isles.

Men attached to the Fraser River 1827/30 include:

(I)-Archabald McDonald (1790-1853), Chief Trader, with wife Jane Klyne, Metis, and 3 children
Francois Noel Annance, Abenaki Metis b-1789, interpreter and guide, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman and 3 children
James M. Yale (1776-1871), clerk, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
James MacMillion Fort Langlay
Donald Manson Fort Langlay
James Barnston Fort Langlay
Amable Arquoitte Fort Langlay
(I)-James Baker of Orkney at Fort Langlay
Louis Roisvert Fort Langlay
Oliver Bouchard Fort Langlay
Pierre Charles an Abenaquois Indian Fort Langlay 
Jean Baptist Dubois Fort Langlay
Jean Baptiste Ettue Fort Langlay
Pierre Charles, beaver hunter, guide, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Charles Charpentier (1796-1834), cook and middleman, no wife but one child Sophia Charpentier Metis b-1830.
Como, Sandwich Islander, at Fort Langlay, middleman and sawyer with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Louis Delonais, steersman, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Dominique Farron,  Fort Langlay, middelman, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
(II)-John Kennedy Metis, d-1830 (1859?), Fort Langlay, middleman, and interpreter, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Anawiskum McDonald Metis, Fort Langlay, born York Factory, foreman and cooper, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Louis Olson, middleman, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Etienne Oniaze, middleman,  with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Pecopeeoh, Sandwich Islander, middleman and sawyer,  with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Peopeoh Sandwich Islander Fort Langlay
Francois Faniant dit Pritte (Piettedit Faniant), Fort Langlay, mechanic,  with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Simon Piemondo (Plomondeau), Fort Langlay, foreman and beaver hunter, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Louis Satakarata dit Rabaska, Iroquois, Fort Langlay, middleman, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Laurent Sauve dit La Plante, Fort Langlay
Francois Xavier Tarihonga, Fort Langlay
Etienne Papin, blaclsmith, with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Pierre Therrin, middleman,  with wife most likely a Coast Salish Woman
Antoine Pierrault Metis Fort Langlay
Jacques Pierrault Fort Langlay
Abraham Vincent, Fort Langlay

Joseph Rocquebrune b-1803 Rigaud, Quebec joined HBC (1827-1841) Columbia District, settling Willamette. Joseph Rocquebrune had two successive wives and ten or eleven children. On April 8, 1839, he married Lisette Walla Walla and together they had 
    Joseph Rocquebrune Metis b-1839 married Victoire Charlesbois
    Marie Celeste Rocquebrune Metis b-1837, married 1849 Thomas Liard 
    Bellane Rocquebrune Metis bap.1837
    Veronique Rocquebrune Metis married 1860 Cyrile Richter
    Olivier Rocquebrune Metis (1843-1849), 
    Helene Rocquebrune Metis b-1848 married William Duke 
    Roch Rocquebrune Metis (1852-1857). 
When wife Lisette died, Rocquebrune married Marguerite Souilliere  likely Metis daughter Francois Soulliere b-1809 Fort Vancouver HBC (1832-1833), and the widow of David Dompierre, and had sons 
    Olivier Rocquebrune Metis b-1857
    Jean (John) Julien Rocquebrune Metis (1859-1881).  
    François Rocquebrune Metis b-confirmed 1860 

(II)-John Simpson Metis (1808-1842) Joined HBC (1827-1842) Columbia District. Likely son  (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree 

(I)-Dr. William Todd (1784-1851) joined HBC (1816-1827) prairies HBC (1827-1829) Columbia District (1829-1851) Prairies.  William Todd had two wives and twelve/thirteen children. 
He married Marianne Ballentyne Metis between 1830-1835 and had three children. 
    (II)-William Todd Metis bapt 1823 ,d-1871) married 1849 Sarah Jane Johnstone, married 1868 Fanny Anne Hourie b-1842
    (II)-Anne Todd Metis bapt 1830, d-1843
    (II)-Robert Todd Metis b-1831
On August 20, 1839, he married Elizabeth Dennet Metis d-1844) and together they had ten children. He worked steadily at a variety of posts until he was granted furlough in 1851, dying on December 22 of that year. Four of their children were 
    (II)-Elizabeth (Isabella) Todd Metis bapt 1839, d-1845 married 1839
    (II)-Albert Todd Metis ??
    (II)-James Todd Metis bapt 1825
    (II)-Samuel Todd Metis bapt 1827, d-1827
    (II)-Robert Todd Metis bapt 1832
    (II)-John Todd Metis bapt 1834
    (II)-Margaret Todd Metis bapt 1839
    (II)-Donald Todd Metis bapt 1839
    (II)-Mary Todd Metis bapt 1839
    (II)-Elizabeth Todd Metis bapt 1844

It was noted that those who took country wives were more inclined to stay in the employ of the company.

Fort Langley (1827-1896) is established on the Fraser River 20 miles east of Vancouver, B.C.  It was abandoned in 1839 and relocated 22 miles upstream, it burned in 1840 and was rebuilt.  This fort was eventually abandoned in 1886.

January:  Louis Ossin arrived Fort Langley from Fort Vancouver. 

June 27:  A group of 25 men again under the command of Chief Trader McMillan left for the Fraser River from Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon), a new post situated about 90 miles up the Columbia. McMillan was again accompanied by Clerk, guide and interpreter Francois Noel Annance, Abenaki Metis, b-1789 (B.C.). He also had two new clerks--(I)-George Barnston(1800-1882) and (I)-Donald Manson (1800-1867). The other 21 men were:--

Anawiskum MacDonald, 
Amable Arquoith (Arquoitte) (1798-1880), 
James Baker, Louis Boisvert, 
Oliver Bouchard, 
Pierre Charles, beaver hunter and guide
Como, middleman and sawyer
Joseph Cornoyer, 
Jean Baptiste Dubois, 
Jean Baptiste Ettiers (Ettue), 
Dominique Faron, 
(II)-John Kennedy Metis , d-1830 (1859?), middleman and interpreter
Peeoh Peeoh, 
Antoine Pierrault, 
Jacques Peirrault, 
Francois Piette (Pritte) dit Faniant, mechanic
Simon Pomondean (Plamondon), (1796/1800-1900)
Louis Satakarata Junior (dit Rabaska), middleman
Laurent Sauve dit LaPlante, 
Francois Xavier Tarihonya (Tarihonhga), 
Abraham Vincent. McMillan, 
Annacis, and Barnston Islands, all located in the Lower Fraser River, and Manson Mountain near Hope, are named in honour of the Chief Trader and his Clerks.

August 1:  Chief Factor James McMillan (MacMillan) when he sailed up the Fraser River of  H.B.C. built Fort Langley on the Frazer River, B.C.  The fort contained French Metis, Scottish Metis, Hawaiian, Iroquois Metis and Coast Salish.  Most married Coast Salish wives.  McMillan's party consisted of over 30 men. His three clerks were Francois Noel Annance, Abenaki Metis b-1789, Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849) , son Marguerite McKay, Ojibwa Metis (1775-1860) and step-son of Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , from the Columbia, and John Work. The interpreter was Michel LaFrambois. 
The men were: -- 
Louis Anawano Junior, 
Alexis Aubuchon, 
Peo Bean, 
Cawano Junior, 
F.H. Condon, 
Leo Depuis, 
Segwin le Deranti, 
Joseph Despard, 
Louis Diomelea (Diomilea), 
J.B. Dubian, 
Joseph Grey, 
Louis Hanatiohee Junior, 
Charles Jaundeau, 
William Johnston, 
Pierre Karagaragab Junior, 
Pierre Karaguana Junior, 
Andre Le Chappel, 
Pierre L'Etang, 
Andre Lonctoin (Longtain) 1793/94-1879), 
Joseph Louis (Abanaker), 
Momonta, Ettuni Oniager, 
Jacques Patvin, 
Pierre Patvin, 
Basil Pioner, 
James Portneuf (Abanaker), 
Jean Baptiste (or P.B.) Proveau, 
Charles Rondeau, 
Louis Satakarata Junior (alias Rabiska), middleman
Louis Satakarata Senior (Shorakorta), 
Thomas Toyanel, 
Pierre Villandri, 
Louis Vivet, 
Pierre Walker (Wagner), 
Thomas Zawaiton. 
While Louis and Portneuf were Abenaki Indians, Cannon was an American, and William Johnson was an Englishman, the rest of the party consisted of French-Canadians or Metis and Hawaiians.

August 1: The first stick for Fort Langley was cut, said James McMillan in a letter to a friend, John McLeod.  Fort Langley was named after Thomas Langley

November 30:  A guide Pierre Charles, and beaver hunter, a French-Canadian, is living with the Indians near Tumwater Lake joined the McMillan expedition.  Jean Baptiste Proveau, one of the party who had descended the river with Fraser in 1808 instantly recognized the mountains to the north (Golden Ears). The party proceeded upriver to seek out a suitable location for a fort and to get acquainted with the Indians. .

December 24:  It was the guard on the gallery who first spotted company on Christmas Eve. Out on the river an Indian ran on the ice toward the fort waving a note at the guard. McMillan met him, read the note, and then sounded the alarm that Chief Trader Alexander McKenzie and four men from Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) were dangerously situated among the Musqueams near the river's mouth.  Within a few moments (I)-Donald Manson (1796-1880) and Francois Noel Annance, Abenaki Metis b-1789 had enlisted an armed party and were headed downriver to the rescue. They soon found McKenzie. He had been forced to land among the Indians due to ice on the river. Although he had been threatened and robbed his party was otherwise all right. McKenzie had been fortunate enough to have a Kwantlen carry a message to Fort Langley for help.

December 25:  Fort Colvile, baptized,  (II)-Jane Work, Metis, daughter, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married (I)-William Fraser Tolomie (1812-1886) 

December 26:  On Boxing Day, Francois Noel Annance, Abenaki Metis b-1789 took an armed party to the Musqueam Village and recovered the goods which had been stolen from McKenzie.

December 24: Etienne Pepin alias Etienne Maille aka Etienne Magice (1799-1874) son Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec arrived Fort Langley from Fort Vancouver.  He arrived with Alexander McKenzie and Louis Ossin.  Etienne Pepin alias Etienne Maille aka Etienne Magice (1799-1874) son Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec: married Isabelle Kwantlen his last wife but also married Uiskiwin Woman his second wife and Quyslen Woman his first wife in Fort Vancouver.  It appears he married Quyslen in Fort  Vancouver.  and had one child Simon Pepin Metis b1835 but more likely pre 1827.  It was not uncommon for Indian wives not to want to leave their families.



James M. Bates b-1809 was working the Pacific coast in 1828 settled (Oregon) 1837 and married 1847 a Mrs. Margaret Caldwell d-1882 and had one recorded daughter 
    Julia Bates who married Eli Vaughin

Edouard Berland, Metis (1800-1853) was working the Saskatchewan District (1827-1828 and the Columbia District and Kootenay as an independent (1828-1835).  He joined HBC (1835-1853) Fort Colvile/Fort Kootenay, Edward Berland’s family life is not entirely clear and it is not certain how many wives or children he had. On July 20, 1845 he formally married Louisa [Aloysia] Findlay Metis b-1815 daughter of James Finlay, Metis. 
    She brought to the marriage Joanna Findley, Metis b-1834 
    He brought to the marriage Merrianne Berland Metis b-1835
    Together they had 
    Alexander Berland Metis (1843-1874) and 
    Lucy Berland Metis b-1846. 
    Another child appears to have been John Berland, Metis.

Jean Baptiste Bernard b-1793, a French Canadian voyager joined NWC 1811 HBC 1821-1847) who is considered the best canoe man in America heads up the first descent of the Fraser River.   (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, and company portaged many of the rapids as Bernard and crew ran them.  They had paddled 3,181 miles in 65 days setting a record.  Simpson was not an explorer or a brave man.

(I)-James Birnie born Calcutta, India (1799-1864) employed NWC 1818-1820 and HBC 1846.  Married about this time or earlier to Charlotte Beaulieu Metis (1805-1878) of Red River, they were churched November 8, 1838 Fort George, Columbia District.   They had 13 children:
    (II)-Elizabeth Birnie Metis married May 1837 (I)-Alexander Canfield Anderson (1814-1884) employed HBC 1832-1854) New Caledonia and Columbia District and had 9 children.
    (II)-Suzanne Birnie Metis (1828-1854)
    (II)-Robert Birnie Metis baptised 1837
    (II)-Charlotte Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-James Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-Amelie Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-Victoria Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-Lakse Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-Marie A,  Birnie Metis baptised 1838
    (II)-Alexander Birnie Metis (1842-1922)
    (II)-Caroline Birnie Metis b-1844
    (II)-Archibald Birnie Metis (1847-1850)
    (II)-Thomas Lowe Birnie Metris (1851-1883)

William Bouche (Bouchard) Metis (1828-1924) son Jean Baptiste Bouchard (Waccan) Metis (1789-1849/50) and (II)-Nancy McDougal daughter (I)-James McDougal, HBC (1858-1867) Columbia, married 1864 Lizette Allard Metis (1842-1938) daughter Joseph Allard
    Elizabeth Bouche Metis b-1866
    Edward Bouche Metis b-1868
    Casimir Bouche Metis b-1869
    William Bouche Metis b-1870
    Cecilia Bouche Metis b-1871
    Charles Bouche Metis (1873-1918)
    Louise Bouche Metis 
    Morris Bouche Metis 
    Amelia Bouche Metis b-1880
    Sophie Bouche Metis b-1883
    James Bouche Metis b-1872/91
    Peter Bouche Metis b-1881
    Joseph Bouche Metis (1888-1966)

Joseph Brunel (1798-1870) son Louis Brunel and Francoise Bellerose of Berther, Quebec, joined HBC (1828-1845) New Caledonia & Columbia District, settled Willamette 1843.  He married (churched) June 26, 1843 at Vancouver Susanne Cayuse b-1817 and in 1834 he had a son, 
    Louis Brunel Metis,b-1834 or earlier

Francois Paschal Caille (Biscornet) likely a Metis (1794-1854) Trading in the North West in 1820's, joined HBC (1828-1845) Columbia District.  The family records of Paschal Caillé are somewhat confusing as he had one or two wives and eight children. According to the Catholic Records, he and Louise Cowichan, also called Clallam (1809-1875) of the Fraser River had the following children;
    Francoise Caille Metis b-1832/1833
    Henriette Caille Metis b-1835
    Rose Caille Metis b-1837/1838
    Sophie (cCaille Metis b-1840
    Moyse Caille Metis (1841-1844)
    Adelaide Caille Metis (.1843-1852), 
    Joseph Caille Metis (1848-1883).
Their country marriage was legitimized on February 11, 1839 and Louise died on December 24, 1875 at St. Louis, Oregon. However, on the Herbert Beaver records, Pachal Caille Metis Jr bap.1837 and Henriette Caille Metis  were the children of Paschal and wife Henriette, Aliscuant. There may be an error in the Beaver records. As well, at his death, on December 22, 1854 at St. Paul, apparently age sixty-three by the Catholic records, rather than fifty-four by the HBC records, the name Biscornet was used rather than Caillé.

Joseph Clairmont Metis (1811-1837) likely son Francois (Sauge) Clairmount Metis and (VI)-Ludivine Doucet Metis, joined HBC (1828-1837) Pacific Slopes.

Richard Cook Metis (1806-1839) employed HBC (1828-1837) Columbia District.  Married Margaret likely Indian or Metis and had two children, between 1834-1836 he was too ill to fulfill his work obligation and received only partial wages. This illness probably led to his death but, before he died, he did manage to raise a family however his illness might have contributed to the early death of his children?   
    Mary Cook Metis (1832-38) 
    Jane Cook Metis (1836-37); both children were baptised and buried by Reverend Beaver at Fort Vancouver.

Antoine Desjarlais Metis joined HBC (1828-1829) as interpreter Columbia District, might be from Lac La Biche? 

Pierre Desrivieres Metis b-1797/98 Assiniboia, likely of the Trottier DesRivieres (Beaubieu) clan of traders, joined HBC (1828-1845) Columbia District.   On October 28, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Marie Manon b-1813. The Desrivieres children were 
    Marie Louise Desrivieres Metis b-1834     
    Angelique Desrivieres Metis b-1837
    Marguerite Desrivieres Metis b-1840 
    Josette Desrivieres Metis b-1842
    Isabelle Desrivieres Metis b-1845

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791, working Columbia District (1806-1842) assigned to the Southern Expedition (1828-1830), Columbia District.

Tete Jaune aka Pierre Bostonais (Bostonnais) a Iroquois Metis d-1828. his brother Jean Baptiste Bostonais d-1828, their wives and children were killed at the headwaters of the Smoky River, B.C. by the Beaver Indians for encroachment into their hunting territory.  Others say they were killed Finlay River?  Tete was a free agent who at times worked both the Hudson Bay Company and the North West Company as guide during 1816-1827.  The Yellowhead Pass (Tête Jaune Cache) was named after him.

(I)- James Douglas (1803-1877), a Scottish Metis (mixed-blood) (black), illegitimate child slave, son John Douglas and Marthe Ritchie, married 1828 Fort St. James, in country style, to Amelia Connolly (1812-1890), Metis, daughter of William Connolly and Miyo Nipiy (Suzanne Cree) of Fort Churchill.  They had 13 children of which only 6 lived to adulthood.   She was the first woman in Columbia District to be called 'Ladt' Douglas.  On April 27, 1828, she married her one and only husband, James Douglas, at Stuart Lake (Fort St. James) and reconfirmed the marriage in 1837 with the Reverend Herbert Beaver at Fort Vancouver. The Douglas children were 
    Cecilia Douglas Metis 
    Ellen Douglas Metis 
    Alexander Douglas Metis 
    Jane Douglas Metis b-1839 
    Agnes Douglas Metis  
    Alice (Douglas Metis b-1844
    MargueriteDouglas Metis  (1846-1848), 
    Rebecca Douglas Metis b-1849
    Martha Douglas Metis 

George Wood Ebbert (1810-1890) from Augusta, Kentuckey joined a part of 50 men with the Rocky Mountain Fur  Company to the Columbia District.  Jedediah Smith, Joseph Gale, Robert Newell and Joseph L. Meek were in this group.  Ebbert joined HBC (1833-1836), Ebbert married Fanny a Nez Perces girl had three Metis children and settled Willamette

John Favel Metis b-1815, joined HBC (1820-1828) Beaver Creek, HBC (1828-1839) Columbia District.

(II)-Old Jacques (Jacko) Raphael Finlay, Ojibwa Metis (1768-1828), a Sauteur died Spokane House, Columbia District (Washington) son (I)-James Finlay d-1797 and Christiana Youel, Indian..

(III)-Augustin Yoostah Finlay Metis (1800-1883) born Rocky Mountain House, died Flathead Reservation, Montana, son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay Metis (1768-1828) and Chippewa Girl; He was a free trader like his father for HBC (1828-1842) but he came and went as he pleased.  In 1842 and 1844 he was at Port d'Enfer (Hellgate, Montana) with some of his sisters and brothers.  In 1847 he was in colville Vally near Fort Colvile.  In August 1840, he married Clemence Cah-Le-Moss (1816/20-1909), Flathead, daughter of Thérèse. Clemence died Flathead Reservation.  Their children were 
    (IV)-Susanne Finlay Metis
    (IV)-Louis Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-David Finlay Metis d-1849 joined HBC (1843-1849) Fort Covile
    (IV)-Thérèse Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Marie LaRose Finlay Metis b-1851
    (IV)-LaLouise Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Felicite Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Vincent Finlay Metis
    (IV)-Marie Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Agatha Finlay Metis b-1849 
    (IV)-Philomene Finlay Metis b-1853
    (IV)-Rose Finlay Metis
    (IV)-Margaret Finlay Metis b-1858

(III)-Francois Benetsee/Penetzi/Penache/Penasta Finlay Metis (1805-1873), born Fort Edmonton or Rocky Mountain House but raised Spokane House son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay Metis (1768-1828) and Chippewa girl; joined HBC (1828-1842) Fort Colvile, married Susan /Dew-see-mah/Pen-na-ma b-1835 daughter of Old Ignatius Chaves and Louise Ta-yoo-sah-mah.  
    (IV)-Sophia Finlay Metis b-1842
    (IV)-Isadore Finlay Metis b-1847
    (IV)-Caroline Finlay Metis b-1854
    (IV)-Rosette Finlay Metis b-1857

(I)-Thomas Fitzpatrick (1799-1854)  In 1815 he was free trading the mid-West.  He was with William H. Ashley early on and was with William Sublette in 1826-1827 attending most of the Rendezvous' from 1827. By 1828 successful HBC trapping of the Flatheads area forced Fitzpatrick the following year to trap in other areas along with David Jackson, Sublette and Joseph L. Meek. At the 1830 Rendezvous, Smith, Jackson and Sublette sold their mountain trapping interests to Fitzpatrick and his partners James Bridger, Milton Sublette, Henry Fraeb and Jean B. Gervais, known under the name Rocky Mountain Fur Company.  Thomas Fitzpatrick had one wife and two children. He married Margaret Poisal, daughter of French Canadian trapper, John Poisal. Their children were 
    (II)-Andrew Jackson
Fitzpatrick Metis 
    (II)-Virginia Thomasine
Fitzpatrick Metis  

(III)-Miaquam Finlay, (Miquam, Mi’Kwam, Jacob, Malcom, Nequam, Michquam, Misquotham, Migwam, Wikwam, Wikuam) Finely b-1820 son (II)-Jacques Raphael (Jocko) Finlay (1768-1828) and Chippewa Girl [date of birth is problematic and could be from wife #2 or #3].  Joined HBC (1828-1842) Columbia District as free trader, In 1857-1858, Miaquam Finlay and his family were already settled north of the Flathead Lake, on the future Flathead Reservation.  Miaquam Finlay had two or more wives and twelve or more children.
His first wife was Agnes Paul (1820-?), daughter of Aeneas "Big Knife" (Iroquois) Paul and Mary "Ukupa" One Hoof. Their children were: 
    (IV)-John Finlay Metis b-1844
    (IV)-Julia Finlay Metis b-1844
    (IV)-Joseph Finlay Metis b-1847
    (IV)-David Finlay Metis b-1849
    (IV)-Augustin Finlay Metis b-1852
    (IV)-Adolph "Corto" Finlay Metis b-1856
    (IV)-Eleanor/Leonore Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Mary Elizabeth/Betsy Finlay Metis 
    (IV)-Angelic/Caroline Finlay Metis
Another wife was Betsey Ashley/Asselin, daughter of Jean Pierre Asselin and Rosalie. Their daughter was 
    (IV)-Jane/Jeanette Finlay Metis
Two other children who can’t be placed with their mothers are 
    (IV)-Tinum (Tanum-Anthony) Finlay Metis b-1830
    (IV)-Cecille. Finlay Metis

Louis Forcier b-1808 joined HBC (1828-1836) Columbia District.  He settled Willamette 1836.  His first wife an unknown girl by whom he had 
    Louis Forcier Metis b-1832
    Olive Forcier Metis (1834-1863) married Jean Gingra
    Dominique Forcier Metis b-1836
On January 28, 1839 he married Catherine, Canaman d-1848 a Chinook woman. With Catherine he had five children: 
    Alice Forcier Metis
    Rose Forcier Metis (1840-1850), 
    Alexis Forcier Metis b-1843 
    Gedeon Forcier Metis b-1844
    unnamed daughter Forcier Metis (1845-1847)
    François Forcier Metis (1847-1848). 

(I)-Colin Fraser (1807-1867) joined HBC (1827-1867) York Factory and Churchill married Nancy Gandry Metis and they had 11 children on the Saskatchewan.  Piper to Governor Simpson (1828-1829) to Fort Vancouver.
    (II)-Colin Fraser Metis
    (II)-Simon Fraser Metis
    (II)-John Fraser Metis 

Luc Gagnon (1805-1872) from Berthier, Quebec, joined HBC (1828-1842) New Caledonia, retired Willamette, married 1841, Julie Gregoire Metis  (1814-11877) daughter Etienne Gregoire and Marguarite Souchenabe
Hélène Emelie Gagnon Metis, married Louis Lemery, 11 July 1858; 
    Antoine; Ann Gagnon Metis, married Pierre Beleque, 5 March 1869; 
    Marie Olive Gagnon Metis,
    Sophie Gagnon Metis,(died as an infant); 
    Emérence Gagnon Metis, married Hubert Petit; 
    Marguerite Gagnon Metis, married Antoine Moray, 29 September 1856 (

Joseph Gagnon (1797-1849) son Louison Gagnon and Babe Caron of St. Cuthbert, joined HBC (1828-1842) New Caledonia & Columbia District, settled Willamette 1842.  On July 18, 1842, at the St. Paul Church in the Willamette, he married Marguerite Desjarlais Metis b-1824, daughter of Thomas Desjarlais and Marguerite Maskgonne.  Together, they had an 
    unnamed daughter 
    (Felicite? Gagnon Metis) b-1845
    Joseph Gagnon Metis b-1847 
    Emerance Gagnon Metis (1849-1850).

Luc Gagnon (1804/5-1872) joined HBC (1828-1841) New Caledonia and Columbia District, settled Willamette 1841.  Married August 2, 1841 Julie Gregoire Metis (1814-1877) daughter Etienne Gregoirie Metis (1793-1867) and Marguerite Souchenabe, Kamloops
    Emerence  (Emerener) Gagnon Metis b-1836 married married Hubert Petit
    Helene Emelie Gagnon Metis b-1840 married 1858 Louis Lemary
    Marguerite Gagnon Metis b-1840 married 1856 Antony (Antoine) Moray
    Sophie Gagnon Metis (1853-1655)
    Antoine Gagnon Metis 
    Mary (Marie) Olive Gagnon Metis b-1856
    Ann Gagnon Metis   married 1869 Pierre Beleque;  Ann Gagnon Metis was reportedly his child, but she was not recorded in the Catholic Records. 

Joseph Grenier dit Massa (1797-1830) employed HBC (1815-1830) in Columbia District son Joseph Grenier and (married February 9, 1795, Maskinonge, Quebec) Marie Greinier of Ruisseau des Chenes: married about 1828 Columbia District Therese Spokane, Indian and after Joseph death in 1830 drowned in Columbia River married Joseph Cournoille.

David Guthrie of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1828) as boatswain and is believed to have returned to British Isles.

(I)-John Edward Harriott (1797-1866) joined HBC (1809-1828) east of the Rockies; HBC (1828-1832) Columbia Dostrict; HBC (1832-1855) again east of Rockies, retired 1855 to Red River.  John Edward Harriot appears to have had three successive wives and seven or more children. The names of his first wife and children have not been traced. 
On September 18, 1838, while the Catholic priests were at Fort Edmonton, Harriott and Nancy Rowand Metis (1818?-51), daughter of Chief Factor John Rowand and Louise (Lisette) Umphreville Indian/metis, had their marriage formalized. Two of their daughters were:
    (II)-Christine Harriott Metis b-1836 
    (II)-Flora Harriott Metis b-(1837. After Nancy/Anne’s death in 1851, Harriot married Francis Bunn Bunn b-1810 of the Red River Settlement daughter Thomas Bunn (1765-1853) and Phoebe Sinclair Metis (1792-1848). According to a will dated June 25, 1858 his children by Frances were 
    (II)-Margaret Harriott Metis  
    (II)-Rachel Harriott Metis 
    (II)-John Edward Harriott Metis  
    (II)-Victoria Harriott Metis  
    (II)-Alexander Harriott Metis 

Bonne Helm (1828-1864), of Kentucky came from a family where all five brothers died a violent death, he left a bloody trail throughout the north west US and B.C. of murder, cannibalism and violence. 

Antoine Hoole Metis b-1808 joined HBC (1824-1828) east of Rockies, HBC (1828-1834) Columbia District.

(IV)-Joachim Lafleur Metis (1806-1860+) Athabasca likely son (III)-Jean Baptiste Lafleur (1785-1875) and joined HBC (1828-1855) Columbia District, retired 1854 to Colvile, he was murdered near Walla Walla.  He had one wife, the sister of an Okanagan chief and four children. He and wife Margarite or Lapetite, Okanogan, had 
    Julie Lafleur Metis b-1836
    Joseph Lafleur Metis b-1837
    Michel Lafleur Metis b-1839 
    Esther Lafleur Metis 

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) is part of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Expedition (1824-1827).

(I)-Colin Fraser (1807-1867) employed (HBC 1827-1867), accompanied Governor Simpson from York Factory to Fort Vancouver Columbia District.

Michel Plante Metis d-1832 joined HBC (1828-1832) a free trapper Columbia District, married Charlotte Chinook, one child recorded;
    Antoine Plante Metis b-1832

(III)-Thomas Posk Kipling, Metis b-1800, Hudson Bay, died after 1870, son (II)-John Kipling, Metis, (1781-1849) and Nancy Saulteuse (1778-1840/43); married 1st Nancy Indian b-1810 Dakota, died after 1870, 2nd married about 1843, Sophia.  Still living with Nancy Indian in 1870.  Joined HBC (1821-1822) IIe a la Crosse, (1823-1825) Red River, (1828-1860) Columbia District  Living at Cape Disappointment with family in 1846 adjoing Peter Skene Ogden's property.

(II)-Joseph Klyne Metis (1816-1849) son (I)-Michel Klyne b-1781 a Dutchman from Red River and Susan Lafrance Metis b-1790 Red River.  Joseph grew up in Jasper House and was hired by HBC 1828 and listed as a native apprentice.  It is noteworthy that his sister (II)-Jane Klyne Metis b-1810 Red River married 1825 Fort George, Columbia District, (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853).  It's noteworthy that (II)-Michel Klyne Metis was born 1811 Fort Edemonton, (II)-Madeline Klyne Metis b-1808 N.W.T. but some claim her parents married Red River 1808. and Jean Baptiste Klyne Metis b-1817 N.W.T. 
(II)-Joseph joined HBC (1828-1843) Columbia District and settled Willamette 1843.  In 1835 he returned to Red River to marry and returned to settle in Willamette.
(II)-Joseph Klyne Metis had one wife, Louise Brasconnier b-1820 and two recorded children, 
    Joseph Klyne Metis (1846-1850) 
    Blandine Klyne Metis b-1848. 
After his death, Louise Brasconnier married Charles Demers.

(I)-Kenneth McKay b-1808 Orkney, killed August 15, 1840 Columbia River, joined worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1828-1840)  His wife was named Isabella Chlintodelchlaa but the Catholic baptismal records name her as Elizabeth (and still later as Nancy). Whatever the case may be, McKay and Elizabeth (Nancy), Chinook (1819-1844) are recorded as having had two daughters - 
    Elizabeth/Betsy McKay Metis (1836-1848)
    Marguerite McKay Metis b-1837

(I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) Chief Factor Fort Langley, B.C. (1828-1833) married about 4/5 times, possibly bigamist relationships?:
    1823 daughter d-1824, of, Whattlekainum of the Kwantien tribe, others suggest married daughter Comcomly of Chinook tribe, one son (II)-Ronald MacDonald Metis, b-1824
    1825 Jane Klyne daughter Mocheal Kyne (Katzie) of Jasper House of Alberta, they had 13 children 
    ?? daughter Pal-hai-lak of Thompson tribe
    ?? daughter T'soschia of Cowichan Confederacy

Pierre Martineau Metis d-1842 joined HBC (1828-1842) Columbia District.  His wife was Louise (Lisette) Canote Humpherville (1819-1849) and together they had four recorded children; 
    Pierre Martineau Metis b-1836
    Louise Martineau Metis b-1836? baptised?
    Genevieve Martineau Metis b-1839 
    Francois Xavier Martineau Metis  married 1866
When Pierre died, Louise married George Montour.

Jean Baptite Oniaze Metis b-1828 Columbia District, son Etienne Oniaze (1789-1850) Metis or Iroquois and Kwoithe native; joined  HBC (1845-1856 Columbia District. 

Thomas Petit b-1797 Yamaska died Red River.  He joined HBC (1817 or 1820-1825) east of Rockies and (1828-1830) Columbia District, retied 1835 Red River.  He married May 31, 1835 Ile a Crosse, English River, Saskatchewan, Jeune Vieve an adopted daughter Lawrence Cadotte, they had a boy and girl under 16 yrs old.

William Pion Metis b-1815/16 son Louis Pion and Margaret Sukomelk joined HBC (1828-1842) Columbia District.  

Antoine Ploiffe Metis (1808/09-1836) brother Joseph Plouffe (1808/09-1849) and like father Joseph Plouff d-1849? joined HBC (1828-1836) Columbia District.  He was drowned in the Flathead river and most likely along with his wife?  H married Angelique Stawa and they had two children:
    Rosalie Plouffe Metis b-1834 who was raised by her uncle Joseph Plouffe (1808/09-1849) after her dad died
    Charlotte Plouffe Metis b-1836 who must have died as she was not recorded as raised by Joseph Plouffe (1808/09-1849)

Louis Proveau (1804-1846) from Yamaska joined HBC (1828-1846) married Julie woman of the Lakes
    Victoire Proveau Metis 1840 Fort Colvile, Columbia District 

(I)-William Swain of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. in 1828 as seaman, returned to British Isles.

Antoine Plante Metis (1812-1890)  son Antoine Plante and Flathead woman; joined HBC (1828-1943) Columbia Districe,  Antoine Plante had two wives and three children. In 1834 he married Mary Thérèse, Pend Orielle. Their children were 
    Julia Plante Metis  b-1836
    François Plante Metis  b-1838
After Antoine and Mary Thérèse separated, Mary Thérèse married Thomas Stensgar. Plante then married Mary a Flathead native and they had one son, 
    Charles Plante Metis 

Jean (John) Pierre Alexander Saunders (1800-1874/76) from Montreal joined HBC (1828-1841) Columbia District, mostly Fort Vancouver, settled Willamette.  John Saunders appears to have had three successive wives and twelve recorded children. His first wife was Catherine Chinook d-1836. His daughters by Catherine were 
    Marie Anne, Saunders Metis b-1831 married Moise Lord
    Marie Sophie Saunders Metis (1834-1872) married Andre Plourde. 
On December 29, 1838 after the apparent death or departure of Catherine, he married Susanne (Veronica?) Gameville/Yamhill Tkope’/Klou (1821-1942). His children by Susanne were 
    Marguerite Saunders Metis b-1837 married Basile Dubois
    André Saunders Metis b-1839
    Veronica Saunders Metis b-1840 married Felix Lambert
On May 23, 1842, two months after the death of Susanne on March 22, 1842, he married a fifteen year old Lisette (1827-1863) from above the Grand Dalles. Their children were 
    Jean Baptiste Saunders Metis b-1845
    Marie Christine Saunders Metis b-1847 
    Elizabeth Saunders Metis (1849-1850), 
    Joseph Saunders Metis (1853-1858), 
    François Saunders Metis b-1856 
    Elizabeth Saunders Metis b-1858 
    Esther Saunders Metis b-1861

Thomas Smith Metis b-1808 son Mr Smith and Cree Woman. Joined HBC (1828-1844) Columbia District.  On January 29, 1844, at Fort Vancouver he married Marguerite, Nisqually b-1827. If his wife was also Marguerite, Walla Walla, their recorded child was 
    Marie Smith Metis b-1845

F.P. Wrangle reported the Koliuzh no longer attack the Russians out of fear.  This likely assumes the Russians made a major attack on these People.

YALE, B.C. FRAZER RIVER Frazer River near Yale, B.C.
Governor  (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) a Scot, Chief Factor Archibald McDonald (1790-1853), James Murray Yale (1796-1871) in two canoes descended the Frazer River to determine if it was a good trade route, which it wasn't.  This painting is near Yale, B.C. that was named after James Yale (1776-1871).
(I)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763/64-1820)  15 years earlier decided it will never be used as a trade route.

James Murray Yale (1796-1871) arrived Fort Langley and this year married his Kwantien woman, daughter Talphe.  She had previously married Carrier Tzeeaze.  Tzeeaze continued to have a sexual relationship with Yales wife especially when he was away.  Joseph Beignoit, an interpreter threatened to tell Yale of this affair.  Tzeeaze threatened to kill Beignoit if he told.  After a few years Yale's wife left him and returned to her father leaving Yale with two girls Aurelia Yale, Metis and Bella Yalr, Metis.  He looked after the girls not sure if they were his and it is said he spent most of the rest of his life in seclusion.  It was said he was a small man in stature but courageous with a big heart.  

It's ironic that Mary Julia Mechtler pened this letter to  James Murray Yale (1796-1871) as follows:  "Continue to keep your good resolutions of not taking an Indian wife, on account of yourself as well as of the dreadful fate that generally awaits the Bois Brule offspring of such a connection.  Reflect what every man owes himself.  What apology can a white man make to his children for mixing and polluting his pure blood with that of a savage.  How dare such a person pretend to principle and feeling!  Fie upon him for a selfish monster!  I hope, my dear James, you will never have such a reproach to make to your conscience."

From this year onward, the Hudson's Bay Company operated yearly round-trip caravans from Ft. Vancouver (Portland Oregon) to the Snake River country, to Republic of Mexico ( California), to Montreal, and to New Caledonia (Ft. Alexandra, Canada). 

Chief Trader Alexander McKenzie and four men from Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) were killed at Point Roberts.  It was decided that a punitive expedition, consisting of 60 men, would seek out the killers of McKenzie and make them pay with their lives. Two families of Clallams were encountered and wiped out. Two men, two women, and four children had been killed. It was never ascertained if they knew anything about the killing of McKenzie.  The guns of the Cadboro were brought to bear upon the huts of the Indians. The cannon roared and the flimsy cedar houses splintered and collapsed. The Hudson Bay Company men then landed and put the torch to any huts left standing. They then destroyed 40 canoes that were drawn up on the beach. A count revealed that 17 Clallams had been killed.   McKenzie's death had been avenged.  James Murray Yale (1776-1871) was part of the punitive expedition.

Archibald McDonald (1790-1853)  second Chief Factor in charge of  Fort Langley with 17 men and 'Little Yale' (James Murray Yale (1776-1871)) as second in command (Yale was less than 5 feet tall).

January 3: Mr. McMillan, messrs McKenzie and Allance departed Fort Langley for Fort Vancouver.

January 3:  Jean Baptiste Bouisseau (1793-1828) was among a party of 5 men out of Fort Langley who were killed by Clallam Indians.   Alexander McKenzie was among the dead.   That summer: An 'unauthorized punitive expedition' led by Chief Factor Alexander McLeod set out from Fort Vancouver to avenge the murders and they killed 22 Clallam Natives and burned their village.  They recovered a native wife of one of the dead men who had been part of the original HBC party.  The ship Cadboro bombarded a Clallam village killing many, so its hard to justify saying it was 'unauthorized'.

January 3:  Alexander McKenzie, Antoine Pierrault, Francois Xavier Tarrhonga (Tarihinga), Cartoer and Jean Baptiste Boiseau (1793-1828) are killed at Whidby Island by the Clallam People on their way to Fort Vancouver from Fort Langley.




(I)-Robert Allen (Allan) (1800-1845) joined HBC (1829-1844) London-Columbia ship wrecked at mouth of Columbia River no loss of life or cargo.  Back and forth to London until 1835 stayed in costal shipping.  Married (II)-Charlotte Searborough Metis (1834?-1930) daughter (I)-James Allen Scarborough (1805-1855) and Paley TemaiKamae/Ann Elizabeth (1812-1852) a Chinook, 
    (II)-Mary Anne Allen Metis (1840?-1930) bapt 1846 Fort Dunvegan, died Victoria Cementery near Stonewall, Manitoba, both parents died when she was very young and her guardian was Capt Scarborough and she recalls other brothers and sisters in Oregon, 
1st married 1857 (II)-William Lucas Hardisty Metis (1824-1881) son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) and Margaret Sutherland Metis (1802-1876)
    Richard Dick Hardisty Metis (1862-1885)
    Isabella Hardisty Metis b-1864
    Frank Allan Hardisty Metis b-1866
    Mary Louisa Hardisty Metis  
    Thomas Alexander Hardisty Metis  (Anderson was a trustee of (I)-Roberta's will.
    David Alexander Hardisty Metis  
    Lucas Hardisty Metis  
2nd married 1883 Winnipeg Edwin Dtewart Thomas (1850-1932) son Harriet Stewart Thomas (1818/19-1910)
    Edwain James Allen Thomas (1888/89-1898

John (Jack) Calder Metis b-1819 joined HBC (1829-1846) coastal seaman settled Cowlitz, married Mary b-1815
    Edward Calder Metis b-1846
    Mary Calder Metis b-1848

HBC built Fort Chilcotin (1829-1844), New Caledonia this year.

(I)-Robert Allen (1800-1845) joined HBC (1829-1844) settled Chinook Store 1845, he married a native girl and only one child was recorded:
    (II)-Marie Anne Allen Metis (1834-1930)

James Anderson, b-1798 Orkney, died of fever December 25, 1830, Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) and worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1830) as a ships carpenter.

Charles Arahota Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined HBC (1829-1844) New Caledonia and Columbia District.

Pierre Badayac aka LaPlant likely metis b-1808 St. Michel de Yamaska, Quebec, joined HBC (1829-1841) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1841.  His first marriage April 19, 1839 was to a somewhat frail seventeen year old named Lisette Coutenoir/Cognoir (1822-1842) daughter of Michel Cognoir and a Chehalis woman.  she succumbed on February 20, 1842. He later married Catherine and had two children,  (Lewis County Census).
    Catherine LaPlant Metis 
    Joseph LaPlant Metis

(I)-James Baker b-1804 employed HBC (1826-1840) settled in French Prairie (Willamette) with wife and children.  He and wife Betsy (?-?) Cascades/Chinook aka Pepispa produced three children 
    (II)-James Baker Metis (?-bap.1836-?),
    (II)- John Baker Metis (1839-?) 
    (II)-Guillaume Baker Metis (1842-?).

Joseph Bastien likely Metis? b-1803 Maskinonee, Quebec joined HBC (1829-1832) and married Louise Saste and had a daughter Mary Ann Bastien Metis who was placed in the Methodist Willamette mission, she married Jean Gingros.

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Vancouver (1829-1831) 

Joseph Bourgeau (1807-1849) brother of Silvan and son Joseph Bourgeau and Angelique of Montreal, joined HBC (1829-1843) Columbia & New Caledonia,  retired 1843 Willamette and died in the gold fields of California.  HBC (1829-1844) Columbia District, Joseph Bourgeau married Angele Lafantasie (1817-1867) Metis, daughter of Jacques Lafantasie aka (Lafontasie. Lafanteisse, Lafantesie, Lafantiessie and Lafantasie) (1788-1827) of NWC and Susanne Okanagon:  Upon his death, his widow, Angele, married Theodore Gervais. 
    Four children are recorded: 
    Rose Bourgeau Metis, 
    Joseph Bourgeau Metis b-1844
    Marie Anne Bourgeau Metis b-1841, likely died young
    Marie Anne Bourgeau Metis (1848-1849). 

Silvan Bourgeau (1811-1871) brother of Joseph and son Joseph Bourgeau and Angelique of Montreal, joined HBC (1829-1841) Columbia, retired 1841 Willamette, 
1st married 1839 Josephte (Josette Sok a Chinook (1815-1857)
    Betsy (Elizabeth) Bourgeau Metis b-1833
    Helene Bourgeau Metis
    Jean Baptiste Bourgeau Metis b-1838
    Marie Bourgeau Metis
    Madelaine Bourgeau Metis d-1845
    Unnamed son d-1849
    Louis Bourgeau Metis b-1850
2nd marriage 1857 Angele Chehalis (Tichailis) b-1803 epouse 1839 Jean Baptiste Perrault (1797-1857)
    no children recorded

Jean Baptiste Dalcourt (Champagne) (1804-1856), a freeman who lived Wallace Prairie (near Salem, Oregon) about 1829.  Jean Baptiste Dalcourt was married to Agathe Cayuse (1813-1853) who had an earlier child, 
    Cecile McDonald Metis b-1826 daughter of Allan Mcdonald. 
The recorded Dalcourt children were:
    Esther Delcourt Metis (1830-1884), 
    Ambroise  Delcourt Metis b-1835 
    Thérèse  Delcourt Metis (1837-1855), 
    Pierre  Delcourt Metis (1840-1842), 
    Joseph  Delcourt Metis (1842-1845)
    Louis  Delcourt Metis b-1846. 

(III)-Francois (Frank) Ermatinger Metis (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853) assigned Thompson's River, Columbia.(1829-1831) 

Alexander Fisher (1783-1847) employed NWC (1820-1821) Montreal District; employed HBC (1821-1845) assigned (1829-1839) as Chief Trader Fort Alexandria, New Caledonia (1829-1839) suffered the wrath of (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, who wrote: A trifling thoughtless superficial lying creature, who has no Steadiness or consistency, full of plans which are more changeable than the wind: has sufficient address to pass himself off as a sharp fellow with a stranger, but is entirely an Eye Servant and cannot be entrusted with any business requiring the least management unless closely Watched.  Can make himself agreeable to Indians until they discover his falsehood which very soon be the case, as he is totally regardless of truth, in fact, a habitual Liar without conduct or principle, and was becoming so much addicted to Liquor that I hound it necessary to remove him a few years ago to one of our most Sober Stations
The name of Fisher’s wife has not been traced but his children were: 
    Charlotte Fisher Metis 
    John Fisher Metis , 
    Innrace Fisher Metis 
    Jauco Fisher Metis , 
    Mary Fisher Metis 
    Donald Fisher Metis .

(III)-Alexander Fisher Jr.(1783-1847) son (II)-Judge Alexander Fisher of Adolphustown, Upper Canada and Miriam Bower a Dutch woman d-1806 who were both slave owners; joined NWC (1820-1821) Lake of Two Mountains, HBC (1821-1842), assigned Lake of Two Mountains (1821-1819), Fort Alexander, New Caledonia (1829-1839), Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River, retired to Montreal 1845, NWC listed him as 'unfit', HBC a superficial lying creature, a habitual Liar without conduct or principles and much addicted to Liquor, married but wife not listed, likely Metis or Indian
    (IV)-Charlotte Fisher Metis
    (IV)-John Fisher Metis
    (IV)-Innrace Fisher Metis
    (IV)-Jauco Fisher Metis
    (IV)-Mary Fisher Metis
    (IV)-Donald Fisher Metis

(I)-George Folster b-1803 Orkney, died 1850 Fort Vancouver,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1828-1848) as blacksmith.  He married Julia a native and had one child:
    (II)-Jean Folster Metis baptised January 15, 1837
He then appears to have lived with He’lene (1820-1844), Chinook who died on August 14, 1844 and was buried the following day. 
He then married Marguerite Wascopam of the Dalles and together they had: 
    (II)-Alexander Folster Metis b-1847
    (II)-William Folster Metis b-1849

Thomas Frobisher (Forbisher or Forbister) Metis? Jr. joined HBC (1828-1835) Columbia District. 

Antoine Gagnon (1805-1865) joined HBC (1829-1865) Columbia District.  In 1852, he took a leave and withdrew two of his children who were at the Catholic Mission in the Willamette. He died at Victoria in 1865.  His family record is somewhat confusing and as such it is not certain how many wives or children he had over three decades. 
On April 1, 1850 at Victoria, he married native Rosalie "Tsamus" and together they had 
    André Gagnon Metis (1853-53), 
    Moise Gagnon Metis bap.1854
    Charles Gagnon Metis bap.1858
    Catherine Gagnon Metis bap.1863. 
A three children are attributed to Antoine
    MarieGagnon Metis bap.1861
    "Julie" Gagnon Metis  of unknown origin. 
    "François Gagnon" Metis (Antoine child?)  
"François Gagnon" and a "Marie" had a daughter 
    Agace Gagnon Metis bap.1851

Arrived York Factory, May 5  (I)-James Goudie, born September 18, 1809 Orkney, died April 23, 1887, Victoria, B.C., joined H.B.C. (1828-1851) wintered Peace River Fort and spent the rest of his career in Columbia District. mostly Fort Colvile.

Marie Anne Grenier, Metis b-1829, died March 25, 1850, daughter Joseph Grenier dit Massa (197-1830) employed HBC (1815-1830) in Columbia District son Joseph Grenier and (married February 9, 1795, Maskinonge, Quebec) Marie Greinier of Ruisseau des Chenes: married February 22, 1843 Gedeon Senecal

(I)-Francois Heron (1794-1840) Irish, Joined HBC (1812-1839) York Factory, assigned Cumberland, then Edmonton House (1817-1821), on Bow River 1822-23), MacKenzie River 1823, Red River (1824-1829), Columbia (1829-1835).  Had a least three wives, a wife in Londonderry, married 1835 Red River Isabella Chalifoux and Josephte Clark dit Boucher.  Some or all of the children are likely Metis
    (II)-Edward Heron 
    (II)-Jane Mary Heron 
    (II)-Frances Heron 
    (II)-Jemima Heron 
    (II)-Catherine Heron 
    (II)-George Heron 

Louis Jironeway (1791-1845) an Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1829-1844) Columbia District.

(I)-James D. Johnson b-1795 Orkney, employed HBC (1829-1836) as a seaman on the West Coast of Columbia District, in such ports as Vancouver, Dryad, Cadboro, and Ganymede.  

(II)-Dr. John Frederick Kennedy Metis (1805-1859) son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Agatha aka Mary Isbister Bear (1782-1863) joined HBC (1829-1853).  John Frederick Kennedy the Metis had one wife, Fanny Indian (1818-1858), daughter of Gispaxlots Chief Legaic, and several children. Their seven children were 
    (III)-Elizabeth Kennedy Metis (1835-1850), 
    (III)-John George Kennedy Metis bap.1850
    (III)-John Philip Kennedy Metis bap.1852
    (III)-Mary Caroline Kennedy Metis  bap.1852
    (III)-Frederick Kennedy Metis  
    (III)-James Kennedy Metis 
    (III)-Alexander Augustus Kennedy Metis 
Fanny Kennedy? had a slave who was induced by a Sabassa native to desert at Fort Simpson on October 14, 1841. Wife Fanny died February 6, 1858 at the Kennedy residence at "Burnside", Victoria, B. C.

(II)-William Kittson Metis? (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season (1829-1831) Flathead Post, Columbia District.

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) is postmaster at Fort Vancouver, Columbia District.

Martial Lavalle Metis joined HBC (1829-1848) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1841 & retired 1848.

Joseph Lefevre (1807-1853) from Point Claire, Quebec joined HBC (1829-1853) New Caledonia.  He married there and had at least one son. In 1853 one son was living on Vancouver Island but as his birth was considered illegitimate, he had no claim to the estate. According to James Douglas’ instructions of April 12, 1854, his widow had to produce a wedding certificate of a legitimate marriage to make claims on the estate

(I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) is at Fort Vancouver (1829-1831)

(II)-William Manson Metis b-1829 Fort Vancouver, son (I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) and Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867), joined HBC (1848-1872) Red River, Lac La Pluie, Columbia, New Caledonia, Thompson River, Fort Simpson 
1st married 1856 Elizabeth McLean from Kamloops
    (III)-Donald Manson Metis (1857-1930)
2nd marriage Adelaid 
    (III)-Lizzie Manson Metis
    (III)-William Manson Metis
    (III)-Martha Manson Metis
    (III)-Peter O. Manson Metis
    (III)-Sarah Manson Metis
    (III)-Margaret Manson Metis


(III)-Duncan McGillivray Metis Jr. joined HBC (1829-1835) Columbia District is likely the son (II)-Duncan McGillivray Sr. Metis (1770-1808) son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian  (I think this is another family)

(I)-John McKay (called Rouge McKay because of his flaming red hair)  (1810/11-1888) joined HBC (1829/30-1847) Columbia District settled Willamette; John McKay had one wife and nine recorded children. On November 1, 1838 and again on May 20, 1849, he formalized his marriage to Josephte Clarke Boucher Metis (1818-1879) daughter John Clarke (1781-1858) and Josephte Kanhopitsa (des Chaudières) . Their children were 
    (II)-Isabelle McKay Metis b-1837
     (II)-William McKay Metis b-1838
     (II)-John McKay Metis b-1839     
     (II)-Alexander McKay Metis b-1848
     (II)-Charles McKay Metis b-1850
     (II)-Marie McKay Metis b-1852
     (II)-Felicite Marie Magdelain McKay Metis b-1855
     (II)-Josephine McKay Metis b-1857 
     (II)-Samuel McKay Metis b-1859.

Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , of the H.B.C. employed Etienne Lucier and a work party to build a log store-house and three cabins at the Falls of the Willamette, the first construction at the future site of Oregon City. Indians burned Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , cabins and the pile of logs meant for construction of a mill.  McLoughlin would later buy this property from the HBC.

Dr. McLoughlin permits the Hudson’s Bay French Canadian trappers to take land and farm on the banks of the Willamette at Champoeg. It is here that Andre Longtain (1793/94-1879) quit trapping for the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1827 and decided to settle down with his family. He had, in fact, purchased his land for 100 bushels of wheat from George Ebbert in about 1834, long before the donation land claim act of 1850 was established. When he actually did apply for the donation land claim in 1852, Longtain stated under oath that he had occupied the tract in question continuously since November 30, 1834, his 40th birthday.

McCuras (MeCuras) b-1802 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1832) as seaman returned to British Isles.

Joseph Lafayette Meek (1810-1875) a Mountain Man from Virgonia joined the American Fur Company (1829-1840) on the Pacific slopes, he settled Willamette 1840 with friends George Ebbert and Robert Newell.  Joseph LaFayette Meek had three successive wives and seven children. The first wife, a native, was killed in a battle with the Bannocks. The second left him to return to her tribe, leaving him with a daughter, 
    Helen Mar Meek Metis (1838-1847) placed with the Whitmans in October 1840, was there during the Whitman massacre.. 
The third was Virginia b-1824 a Nez Perce. Together they had son 
    Courtney N. Meek Metis b-1839
    Hiram C. Meek Metis b-1841
    Olivia Meek Metis b-1843, 
    Josephine Meek Metis b-1845
    Atchinson (c.Meek Metis b-1847
    Mary S. Meek Metis b-1849

(II)-John Mongle (1801-1830) was born Maskinonge, Quebec and joined HBC and is assigned to Fort Colvile, Columbia (1829-1930) and drowned in the Columbia River October 25, 1830.  Married 1st. Marie Caret or Comerate; 2nd marriage 1827 Marie St. Germain

Joseph Monique Mohawk/Iroquois or Metis from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined HBC (1829-1845) Columbia District.  In September, 1837, John McLoughlin heard that Monique had planned to run off with Francois St. Pierre’s wife at Colvile, meet her at Okanagan and take her to Vancouver; he warned other officers not to let this happen.

(II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. is at Kooteney Post, Columbia District (1829-1831)

(I)-Amable Petit (1797/1803-1867) Berthier, France, employed HBC (1829-1842) Fort Vancouver, Columbia District.  Amable Petit likely had two wives and eleven children. He appears to have come west in 1829, leaving a wife, Marianne Boudrie/Beaudry and two sons, 
    Amable Petit b-1822
    Hubert Petit married 1849 in Yamaska, Canada. 
However, on March 27, 1837, (I)-Amable Petit and Susanne Tawakon d-1878) were married by Herbert Beaver; additionally, on December 27, 1838 their marriage was reconfirmed in the Catholic faith by a Catholic Priest. He and second wife Susanne had nine children: 
    (II)-Charles Petit Metis (1837-1873), 
    (II)-Henri Petit Metis b-1837
    (II)-Marie Petit Metis (1838-1873), married Regis Picard (1781-1846) son Andre Picard (1781-1848)
    (II)-Celeste Petit Metis (1842-1858), 
    (II)-Pierre (Petit Metis b-1845
    (II)-François Petit Metis b-1850 
    (II)-Louis Petit Metis (1853-1854), 
    (II)-Louisa Philomene Petit Metis b-1855
    (II)-Flavie Petit Metis (1857-1878).

John Goodrich (not his real name) aka Giles or Bache d-1830 an American trader (1829-1830) Columbia District encountered a wounded Frenchman and a native woman named Nancy Twinishe of Wenaske d-1850 became his wife, epouse Jean Baptiste Dobin d-1849
    Susane or Louisa Gaudriche Metis married Pierre Pepin dit LaChance b-1828 joined HBC (1838-1842) Columbia District 

David Robertson b-1804 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C (1829-1832) as seaman returned to British Isles.

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) led a Hudson Bay Company trading expedition (1829-1830) from the mouth of the Columbia River down the entire length of Republic of Mexico ( California) to the head of the Gulf of California.  

(I)-James Allan Scarborough (1805-1855) joined HBC (1829-1850) Columbia District.  On October 30, 1843, Scarborough formalized his marriage to Paley TemaiKamae/Ann Elizabeth (1812-1852), a native Chinook, at Fort Fort Vancouver. His farm, a conspicuous landmark for approaching vessels, consisted of fruit trees and a large herd of cattle and was reputedly cultivated by his wife.  Their recorded children were 
    (II)-Charlotte Scarborough Metis a possible daughter of Capt Scarborough married (I)-Robert Allen (1800-1845) 
    (II)-Mary Anne Allen Metis (1840-1930) daughter (II)-Charlotte Scarborough Metis and (I)-Robert Allen (1800-1845) , (I)-James was her guardian as both parents where dead by 1845.  She recalls other brothers and sisters.
    (II)-James Scarborough  Metis b-1842
    (II)-John Scarborough Metis  b-1843 
    (II)-Charles Scarborough Metis  (1845-1849), 
    (II)-Xavier Scarborough Metis  b-1846
    (II)-Edwin Scarborough Metis  b-1847 sent to live with James Birnie 1852
    (II)-Robert Scarborough Metis  b-1851 sent to live with James Birnie 1852

Joseph Spence b-1804 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1836) as seaman/carpenter likely went to Hawaii

(II)-John Tait Metis (1810-1835) , died of consumption January 17, 1835 at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon), worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1835) as boat builder.  (II)-John Tait Metis son (I)-John Tait (1777-1851) died Vancouver and indian girl;  His sister (II)-Jeanette Tait Metis married Alexander Berston

Thomas Tenonwatase (1789-1837) Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louise, Quebec joined HBC (1829-1837) Columbia District.

James Wilson of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1834) as seaman returned to British Isles.

Francois Faniant dit Pritte, mechanic,  Louis Ossin, middleman and Louis Delonie turned out 15 barrels in 3 weeks at Fort Langley, without a cooper.

Malaria 1829 to 1833 killed 150,000 aboriginal North Americans in the Pacific Northwest.

The term 'black ice' first appeared in  Canadian dictionaries to refer to new ice on bodies of water.  B.C. later became the first Province to apply the term to a winter road hazard and it quickly speaed across Canada.

Boston merchant trader, Captain John Dominus (Dominis) d-1846, sailed his ship, The Owyhee, into Scappoose Bay and brought the deadly plague to "gravelly plains". With little natural resistance, the Indians died in large numbers. Within four years 30,000 Indians had die from the plague.  Chief Casino survived and succeeded Chief Concomley as the highest-ranking chief of the Chinook tribes.  Dominus had threatened to visit a new sickness upon those who don't trade with him, an unknown fever ravages the Columbia River.  It would appear John Dominus knew what he was doing.  He died in 1846, being lost at sea on a trip to China.  His son John Owen Dominis died August 1891 married Kamakaaeha Paki heir to the Hawaii throne.

Etienne Lucier also founded his own farm on the plains of Champoeg aka Walama (later called French Prairie) and then Wallamette (Willamette) Valley. Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) , of the H.B.C. used the case of Etienne Lucier (who was a Canadian citizen but not officially assigned to the HBC), to set a new policy. Previous company rules ordered that retired employees return east to the place where they signed up for service (for terms of two to 10 years). Etienne Lucier, and other retirees who followed, wished to stay in the Willamette Valley with their half-Indian (Metis) families. Dr John McLoughlin (1784-1857), encouraged settlement, so long as it was restricted to the Valley, by providing supplies and a pair of cattle (to be returned when the settler founded his own herd).

New England Captain John Dominis d-1846 sailed to Oregon on the ship Owyhee with plans to found a fishery. The brig ran aground at Deer Island in the Columbia River. Dr John McLoughlin (1784-1857), of the Hudsons Bay Company dispatched a crew of French Canadians and Hawaiians to help. After the Owyhee was floated, it sailed up the Willamette River, the first ocean-going ship to do so, and anchored at the Clackamas Rapids.

A rendezvous is held at Pierre's Hole (Teton Basin, Idaho), where hundreds of Mountain Men and Voyagers congregated.   Pierre's Valley is the meeting place of Owners and Traders, Voyagers and Mountain men to exchange furs for new supplies.  This makes us appreciate how many unknown, unrecorded men are working the Oregon Territory and Pacific Northwest.

July 9:  A Japanese junk is stranded on the coast of Kamtchatka.  The crew is killed by the Kossacks (Cossack) except for two who escaped and made their way to St. Petersburg.

October 31;  (I)-Robert Allen  (1800-1845) joined the HBC (1829-1844) and was ship wrecked May 30, 1652, at the mouth of the Columbia River.  He married a native or mixed descent wife and had several children. One daughter, (II)-Mary Anne Allen, Metis (c.1834-1930), became the future progenitor of a future premier of the Province of Alberta.  He retired to the Chinook area.

November:  Fort Colvile, baptized, (II)-Sarah Work, Metis, daughter, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892) employed HBC (1838-1872)

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