THE 1918 AMERICAN FLU KILLS MORE PEOPLE THAN WW I
It is estimated that 8.3 million died in the war.
It is estimated that over 40 to 100 million people died
of the flu, mostly the young and fit ages 25-34 years
THIS PERIOD COVERS 1918 TO 1921
ALBERTA HISTORY 1922-1932
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Archange Garneau Brady's (1876-1918) Metis children are sent to the convent in St. Albert except for (II)-Jim Brady Metis (1908-1967) who lived with Louis and Bessie Garneau. Archange had been the one holding the family together and (I)-Jim Brady (1875-1948) senior is unable to cope with the daily responsibility.
Manfred von Richthofen, "the Red Baron" of Germany, their top ace airman, is shot down by Roy A. Brown of Canada (1893-1944).
Edward Garneau Metis is farming NW 16-59-9-4, Louis Garneau Metis held SW 7-59-8-4, Alexander Garneau Metis held NE 2-59-9-4 and Laurent Garneau Metis SW 2-59-9-4.
Louis Garneau Metis son Louis b-1872 and Bessie says his grandfather Lawrence had a general store in St. Paul for years and had 75 quarter sections. His grandmother is called Miss Cameron and is a schoolish lady, who died in the 1918 flu.
The first Hutterite settled in Alberta and the men adopt the wives last name. The first air mail is delivered in the west between Calgary and Edmonton by Miss Stinson, on July 9, in her single engine Curtis Biplane with two hundred and fifty nine letters. Nine thousand Native people are living in Alberta.
Henry Marshall Jenkins opened a self-serve 'Groceteria' in Calgary the first in Alberta and possibly the first self-serve grocery store in Canada.
The war to end all wars, (WW-I) (1914-1918) saw 39,000 Albertans serve in the war and 6,000 Albertans lost their lives so we could remain free.
The H1N1 flu pandemic commonly called the Spanish flu or the swine flu or American flu during the period of (1918-1920) resulted in 20 to 100 million deaths world wide. Some fear it is returning in 2009.
In March of 1918 a new, virulent type of flu virus called H1N1appeared in the army training camps at Fort Riley and Camp Funston in Kansas, United States. The virus is a mutation that evolved in U.S. pigs and is considered the worst infectious disease episode ever. This American flu is a genetic cross between a human flu virus and a pig virus. The flu is believed to then spread to England, then to Spain. More recent research (2004) suggests the flu originated from the Chicken flu using mutated memagglutinin H1 receptors to jump to humans. Those who were immune to the flu produced B-cells which were very effective in killing the virus. This new strain of American flu virus is closely related to the swine flu and would claim more than twenty one million lives worldwide between 1918-20, 450,000 in Russia, 375,000 in Italy, 228,000 in Great Britain, 5,000,000 in India and 550,000 in United States. In Alberta the death rate was 4,300 and the Garneau clan was hard hit. The United States losses are more than ten times the American losses in battle during all of World War I. Soldiers from Kansas had carried the flu to the French front there and the American flu became renamed as the Spanish flu, probably to divert the blame of its origin. Mutations of the swine flu in two waves spread world wide as the Asian flu in 1957 and the Hong Kong flu in 1968 but none as devastating as the American flu of 1918.
John Oxford believes the predecessor of the 1918 flu originated in Etaples, Englind, the first case being Harry Underdown who contracted a flu in December 1916 and he died February 1917. It is believed the flu came from birds to pigs to soldiers. Many cases of flu erupted after this initial case.
The remedies for the flu included alcohol, opium and cocaine. Smoking was encouraged as it was believed to kill germs. Unfortunately prohibition was declared in 1916-1923 in Alberta and many blamed the high death rate on this law. Alberta had a population of 590,000 people and 38,000 came down with the flu and 4,300 died. The Flu weakened the immune system and most died from pneumonia. All attempts at quarantine, and isolation world wide failed and some speculated the disease is spread by the wealthy who were immune to the disease. The flu attacked young adults age 25 to 34 years of age and the children. Some believe the elderly were spared because they had an immunity to it from previous flu's.
The Spanish Flu (American flu) at Morinville hit the French very badly however the Austrian and German families seemed to have escaped.
A doctor declares Philip Salzl dead of the Flu. His mother refused to accept the prognosis and continued to bath his body with cold water. He revived and lived a normal life.
October 19: The worldwide Spanish (American) influenza epidemic struck Edmonton. Schools, churches and theatres were closed as word spread. Temporary flu wards were established across the city.
October 21: Fifty-seven members of the Allied Expedition to Siberia were taken from the train and quarantined in Strathconia. Nothing helped as the flu spread to every sector of Canada.
November 11: In Edmonton, two hundred and sixty two people died from the American Flu. Schools, churches and public buildings were closed from October 18 yet the infection spread. At St. Paul de Metis, thirty, out of a population of five hundred, died. Alexander Garneau Metis (1880-1918), wife Marie Maimie Acherblade d-1818 and their daughter, Charlotte Garneau Metis, (1910-1818) died in the same week. The whole family was sick and a Mrs. Balcaen came over and nursed them back to health but the father, mother and one child died. Mrs Balcaen likely realized she was putting her own life at risk but this was the values of that time. Archange Garneau Metis (1876-1918) and Chilie Garneau Metis (1883-1918) also died this year as a result of the flu. Alexander Garneau Metis (1880-1918) had a machine shop in Vegreville, Alberta. The lawyer looking after the affairs sold the shop. He absconded with the money leaving the orphans without any means of support. The children are spread among the Garneau family. Harold Garneau Metis (1908-1999) was taken in by Louis Garneau Metis b-1872 and his wife Elizabeth La Velee. Joseph Alexander Henry Garneau Metis (1914-1998) was taken in by John Garneau Metis (1885-1949) and his wife Alexazina Gauthier (1888-1980). This incident is, most likely, one of the factors for an inherent distrust of the legal profession by many family members.
December: John Garneau Metis (1885-1949) and family returned from Oregon to St. Paul de Metis due to the many deaths in the family. They stayed above Lawrence Garneau's Sash and Door Factory located north of Saint Paul des Metis in Garneau Village.
The Coal Branch that lies about forty miles east of Hinton, Alberta is almost abandoned except for the fire that never dies. In the coal mines near Cadomin, fire broke out and the Canadian Dominion Development Company could not extinguish it. You can still see green grass in December above the area of the fire that never dies. Nearby are the famous Cadomin Caves discovered by the miners.
The Alberta Tar Sands again hit the news when Gordon Smith of Queen's
University proclaimed they were the greatest known oil reserves on the face of the
earth, able to supply the whole world for the next two thousand years.
15 people died when 8.5 million hectares were consumed by fire between Lac La Biche, Alberta and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.
Edmonton Judge Mitchell issued 20 lashes along with penitentiary terms.
E. O. Garneau of Wainwright, Alberta registered an Alberta horse and cattle brand for the right rear of an 'O reverse E' over a half circle. Possibly Edward Garneau Metis (1874-1959)?
Robert Garneau Metis (1909-1997) recalled hearing his first radio in the Lavoy Hotel in St. Paul des Metis. The radio is a single tube crystal radio.
Oscar Savard, husband of Millicent (Melicie) Garneau Metis b-1889 of Saint Paul des Metis, took advantage of the first St. Paul des Metis to Edmonton train ride, offered free on October 22, 1920. He died on the train before reaching Edmonton. Oscar Savard owned the barbershop and pool hall and was considered quite the gambler in his day.
Few Albertans are aware of the emergence of the Alberta Ku Klux Klan this decade as an offshoot of the Ontario Orange Order. The Ontario Orange Order was a offshoot of the Protestant Orange Order of Ireland founded in 1795. The original mandate was to further Protestantism and loyalty to the English Crown. The Canadian version targeted the Indians, Metis, French, Catholics and, in general, the suppression of non Anglo-Saxon immigration into Canada. The American version targeted the Blacks. Other groups affiliated with or supportive of the KKK ideals were the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire. This Red Necked view of Canada was encouraged and fueled by George Exton Lloyd, the Anglican Bishop, who worried about the Mongrelization of Canada and urged to keep Western Canada British.
Few Albertans are aware of the emergence of the United Farm Women in Alberta in 1916, led by Irene Parley who guided its policies and direction. In 1921 they had 4,536 members and stood for the 'Rights of the family' and 'Equality for women', provided they were not poor, sick, a visible minority or feeble-minded, who should be sterilized. Irene Parley moved on to the Alberta Government and to the University of Alberta Board of Governors to spread her beliefs supporting eugenics and sterilization. She is one of the infamous five who campaigned vigorously for eugenics and sterilization in Alberta.
Oil is discovered at Fort Norman near Great Bear Lake, North West Territories. This year Alberta took the first steps to study the Athabasca Oil Sands at Fort McMurray by forming the Alberta Research Council and hiring a young scientist, Karl Clark. The Alberta Government reports the discovery of mineral fields in the Fort McMurray District. At a depth of 650 feet they showed 30 feet of pure salt.
During the 1920's the Aleco Coal Company developed a mine and a town called Alexo, Alberta between Nordegg and Rocy Mountain House, near Shunda Creek. It was abandoned in 1955.
The Norway rat that arrived in North America 1775 arrived at the eastern boundaries of Saskatchewan this decade.
January 13: (I)-James Brady (1875-1948) is involved in real estate, insurance and the lending of money in St. Paul des Metis according to newspaper ads..
January 13: Lawrence Garneau Metis (1840-1921) an old-timer for some 50 years (1870) is recovering from his illness at St. Paul des Metis, that persisted over the winter.
January 13: (I)-James Brady (1875-1948) of St. Paul Des Metis is in Edmonton to interview Public Utilities Commission regarding a hospital for St. Paul Des Metis.
October 28: The railway finally arrives at St. Paul de Metis. The population is five hundred with another six hundred farming nearby. (I)-James Brady (1875-1948) is still the town secretary and treasurer but most of the Garneau clan had departed the vicinity due to the bad blood with the French Roman Catholic Church.
November 13: Lawrence Garneau Metis (1840-1921) revised his last will and testimony.
November 18: Another lot of big bones from Red Deer Fossil Beds of Alberta are shipped to the Royal Ontario Museum.
December; Vancouver, B.C. oil prospectors are considering a scheme to use a long distance airplane to fly to Fort Norman Oil Fields and back to the coast.
December: Large high grade salt is discovered at Fort McMurray in northern Alberta at a depth of 650 feet when the drill sunk through 30 feet of pure salt.
December: Premier Charles Stewart of Alberta appealed to Ottawa to transfer natural resource to the Province. It should be noted that when British Columbia joined confederation they did not relinquish ownership of natural resources.
December 9: (I)-James Brady (1875-1948) is involved in real estate, insurance and money lending in St. Paul des Metis.
December 9: Drillers at Fort McMurray, Alberta struck pure salt at 650 feet, the seam was 30 feet thick.
December 19; The first passenger train arrived St. Paul des Metis.
December 23: It is reported that Imperial Oil Ltd. struck oil 40 miles upstream from Fort Norman on the Mackenzie River. Well #1 was compared to the lighter oil found in Okotoks District, Alberta, that the Norman Wells find is light in gasoline.
December 6: Peace River, oil is claimed to be discovered on the other side of the river. The well is claimed to be capped and is guarded.
December 10: DEATH OF LAWRENCE GARNEAU
As reported: The Saint Paul Star, at St, Paul des Metis, Alberta
Death of Lawrence Garneau, Wednesday December 1921
" There passed away at the family homestead in Garneau, one of the
oldest and most widely known and respected citizen of Northern Alberta, on
December 10th, in the person of Lawrence Garneau in his 82nd year.
The deceased was born in Michigan in 1838 of a staunch Eastern Canadian Family. Mr. Garneau married Helena Andrew Thomas of Scotch ancestry, of Lord Selkirk's colony on the banks of the Red River at Little Britain, where Selkirk now stands.
As a young man the late Mr. Garneau came with his family in a Red River cart from Selkirk, Manitoba well over 45 years ago to Les Fort des Prairies (now Edmonton) and homesteaded a half section where the University of Alberta now stands, and this land is still known as the Garneau sub-division.
He gave 100 acres thereof to the church. A few years ago he sold a quarter section for $70,000.00. These negotiations led to protracted litigation, where Mr Garneau was successful in both Supreme and Appellate division of the Supreme Court of this province. These decisions were reversed on appeal to the Supreme Court at Ottawa. The case has been carried to the Privy Council in England.
The Late Mr. Garneau (1840-1921) and his family are the founders of the trading post of St. Paul des Metis, coming here some 26 years ago (1895) with the late Mr. Poitras, being followed by friends and relatives -- (I)-Jas. Brady (1875-1948), P. Lacombe (b-1858), Arthur Poirier (b-1875) and many others to Father Lacombe's reserve, which was finally thrown open for settlement.
More than other single factors, perhaps, Mr. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) was instrumental in the development of this district. His large farming, ranching and timber interests necessitated the employment of many men. As a result the new settlers were provided with a means of livelihood while proving up their homesteads.
The deceased's first wife died a number of years ago (1911), but he is survived by a second, Mrs. Eulalie Hamelin Garneau (b-1862).
There were 15 members of the family of whom Louis (1872), Ned (1874-1959), John (1885-1949) and Melicie (b-1888) survive.
The whole town and district of St. Paul attended the funeral obsequies, when a solemn requiem mass was celebrated, the church being draped for the occasion. The pall-bearers were H. Tessier, E. Meunier, J.A. Delisle, Corbett Ross, Donat Girard and B. Racicot. At the graveside Rev. Fr. Simond spoke words of sympathy for the bereaved family and referred to the many sterling qualities of the deceased and as an eminent benefactor of the church.
So another land mark in the history of the northwest has passed away, who was an able, intelligent and educated business man, active as a trader, lumberman and farmer. He was a candidate for St. Paul constituency until a few years ago, when ill health compelled him to retire and leave the administration of his estate to his representatives."
Lawrence Garneau Metis (1840-1921) is reported to have sold a steam engine from his dismantled saw mill to Mr. Boudreau for setting up a power plant that will provide Saint Paul des Metis with electricity. Mr. Boudreau bought a steam boiler from Mr. Garneau to generate power for St. Paul Des Metis. The Garneau's had been using it in one of their saw mills. It's not clear if Lawrence sold it or one of his sons sold it due to his poor health?
After a lengthy illness, of which the last two years were spent in bed, Lawrence Garneau Metis born 1840, died December 10, 1921 at St. Paul de Metis. Lawrence had acquired and disposed of considerable assets during his lifetime. The assembly of assets was acquired in a unique way. Lawrence would acquire a piece of land and then secure a tenant homesteader who could not afford setup costs. The deal was that Lawrence would receive a portion of the proceeds off the land and in exchange he would sign over half the land to the tenant. This signing over starts with an understanding that upon Lawrence's death the deal is concluded and the tenant retains his land free and clear. This sounds like a modified version of the early French Seigniorial land system.
A list of known family lands held prior to 1921 but not included in probate:
Lawrence Garneau aka Laurent
(1840-1921) also called Larry
SW 6-59-8-W4 and filed by Francis Mongrain for the late Laurent Garneau
SE 6-60-9-W4 and Thomas Bernard
E 1/2 of NE 7-58-9-W4 and Thomas Bernard
W 1/2 of NW 35-58-9-W4 and filed by Andrew Morgan Garneau for the late Lawrence Garneau
Portions LS 11 of 15-58-10-W4
Portions LS 14 of 15-58-10-W4
FR SW LS 14 of 52-24-W4
S 1/2 LS1 of 5-60-18-W4 and filed by Clarence L. Calvert for the late Lawrence Garneau
Laurent Garneau aka Lawrence
(1840-1921) also called Larry
Lots 7 of the (Strathcona) Edmonton Settlement volume 47 folio 95
LS2 of 9-58-9-W4
LS7 of 9-58-9-W4
N1/2 LS7 of -58-9-W4
W1/2 of NE of 9-58-9-W4
W 1/2 of NE 9-58-9-W4
W 1/2 LS7 of 9-58-9-W4
W 1/2 of LS2 of 9-58-9-W4
FR SW 29-52-24-W4
Alexander Garneau (1880-1918) son Lawrence (1840-1921) however some could be grand son?
W 1/2 of SE 7-58-9-W4
Edward O, Garneau
(1874-1959) son Lawrence (1840-1921) however some could be grand son?
W 1/2 of NE 7-58-9-W4
NW 16-45-5-W4 likely an error of above?
NW 5-51-24-W2 filed by Delia Garneau for the late Edmond O Garneau
NE 18-8-21-W3 with Edward Elkin and Stefan Kapacz
John Garneau (1885-1949) son Lawrence
Pt=E 1/2 part of SE 7-58-9-W4
W 1/2 LS3 of 23-58-9-W4
W 1/2 LS4 of 23-58-9-W4
W 1/2 LS5 of 23-58-9-W4
W 1/2 LS6 of 23-58-9-W4
Louis Garneau (b-1872) son Lawrence (1840-1921) however could be grand son?
William Garneau unknown however could be grand son? but more likely the Legal Garneau's
Alphonse Garneau unknown however could be grand son? but more likely the
Seraphin Garneau (b-1868) wife of Zenoia Garneau b-1864 Quebec the Legal
Other Western Land Grants 1870-1930 issued to Garneau
Ulderic Garneau NW 1-6-10-W1
Arsine Garneau NW 34-4-9-W1
George Garneau NE 20-14-30-W1
Adjutor Garneau NW 24-2-9-W2
Zeb Garneau SE 22-9-17-W2
Euzebe Garneau PT SW 11-18-range?-ECM
Amedee Garneau SW 10-24-15-W1
Joseph Michel Garneau SW 25-46-27-W2
The estate is complex and the settlement is complicated by the existence of two last will and testimonies. The family wouldn't talk about the problems with the estate and it appears to have fractured the family. The following is based upon surviving family records that are obtained from Mary Alexazina Gauthier in the early 1960's.
On the basis of documents from Rutherford and Jamieson and Grant, Solicitors,
the following is the un-probated Garneau estate at the time of death:
thirteen land holdings
$23,210 $24,870 some land holding were not
filed and were filed after his death.
two homes 6,200 6,200
thirteen mortgages 17,043 12,948 some land was signed over to occupants with verbal promise to pay
promissory notes 5,095
misc. assets 1,100 1,100 most of the cash, live stock and grains disappeared upon his death.
Total Assets $47,553 50,213
mortgages 16,644 16,644
Total Debts $33,578 33,578
Net Worth $13,975 16,635
The thirteen land holdings at the time of death were:
LOCATION LOW HIGH
Parts of 9-58- 9-W4 title 41-B-17
S. W. 2-59- 9-W4 Homestead 1,800.00 2,000.00
W 9-59- 9-W4 3,600.00 3,600.00
W1/2 SE 1/4 10-58- 9-W4 1,100.00 1,600.00
N. W. 1/2 21-59- 9-W4 (1) 800.00 800.00
N. E. 22-59- 9-W4 700.00 800.00
S.W. 20-60- 7-W4 800.00 800.00
N.W. 16-54- 7-W4 1,500.00 1,800.00
N.W. 1/4 21-58-11-W4 1,100.00 1,500.00
W 1/2 NW 1/4 15-58- 9-W4 800.00 960.00
Part section 27-58- 9-W4 C of T 196-I-23 560.00 560.00
Lots 35-36, block 182, plan 443X Edmonton 8,000.00 8,000.00
lots 8 & 9 block 101 Edmonton 200.00 200.00
TOTAL VALUE OF PROPERTY $23,210.00 $24,870.00
(1) N.E. 22-59-9-W4 was listed in 1920 for $1,400.00
Edmonton Drilling Company - Robert Ritchie $5,312.15
Royal Trust Company 4,035.54
Imperial Bank of Canada 1,732.14
Banque d'hochelaga 2,753.04
MacDonald Limited 2,811.20
TOTAL ENCUMBRANCES $16,644.07
Moneys secured by Mortgages
S.E. 4-54- 3-W4
Frank Syako N.W. 18-59- 8-W4 1,620.00
Plevenay Destrube S.W. 12-60- 8-W4 500.00
Pierre Charron parts N.E. 31 & 32
57-9-4-W4 & S.E. 6-58- 9-W4 1,800.00
William M. Ross S.E. 12-59- 9-W4 900.00
Mildred Frome S.E. 20-59- 9-W4 2,000.00
Arthur Martin S.E. 29-59- 9-W4 1,101.60
Alfred Robitalle N.W. 6-60- 9-W4 734.72
Joseph Belzel N.W. 15-58-10-W4 1,300.00
Jas. Robert Wright S.W. 22-61-10-W4 600.00
Fred Poirer S.E. 18-60-11-W4 772.29
Hector-Harts Therieu 36-57-10-W4 --
TOTAL SECURED BY MORTGAGE $12,948.61
Promissory notes owing recoverable
Francis Mongrain, deceased ? 471.08
Andre Mongrain, deceased 1,400.00 400.00 An Andrew Morgan Garneau filed land for the late Lawrence Garneau?
Thomas Berard, deceased ? 1,715.66
Alfred Belland 100.00
Lawrence Miller 704.80
Joseph Boudreau 704.30
TOTAL OWING AND RECOVERABLE $4,095.68
SCHEDULE OF DEBTS
Revillon Wholesale Co. Ltd.
Rutherford Jamison & Grant (Legal fees) 3,000.00
C. H. Grant (Do saler Judgement)(Legal) 1,490.26
Cockshutt Plow Company 2,162.15
Gainers Limited 1,241.80
Omar Massicote 1,139.52
A MacDonald Co. Ltd. 774.46
International Harvester 481.61
Peter Lacombe 419.00
Bank d'Mo chelaga 250.00
Dr Blain 150.00
Charles Gordon 80.62
United Editors 56.00
F Inkster 33.78
TOTAL DEBT $16,934.03
The first Will distributed the estate on an equal basis to all Lawrence's children naming John Garneau Metis (1885-1949) executor of the estate and (I)-James Brady (1875-1948) represented that position. The second will favor Louis Garneau Metis, the first-born male, and Louis Garneau Metis. Gilbert La Rue and (I)-James Brady are named as executors.
Some members of the family contend that Lawrence Garneau's violin was a Stradivari and was stolen upon his death. Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) of Cremona, Italy made the violin of which 650 are known to have survived. Thousands of copies were however made containing a Stradivaria label.
Royalite Oil Company is incorporated as a subsidiary of Imperial Oil Limited. They bought the controlling interest in Calgary Petroleum Products Company Limited. This sets the stage for the creation of ESSO Resources Canada Limited in 1978.
This year C. J. Hammond, a partner of the California syndicates, holds six thousand acres of tar sands six miles below Fort McMurray on the east bank of the Athabasca River. He is returning to California with 1,000 pounds of tar sands for testing in their Santa Marie refinery. Hammond says removing the overburden is the biggest economical problem.
Herbert Greenfield, United Farmers of Alberta, is elected Premier of Alberta 1921-1925.
Some say the first automobile arrived in Myrnam this year.
Guy Weadick this summer convinced local cattle barons to use the Calgary exhibition grounds for a week-long "Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth"
Luscar, Alberta is a coal mining town 7 miles north west of Cadomin, Alberta, about 1970 Luscar Inc. started open pit mining and the old town no longer exists.
14: The population of St. Paul des Metis is 800.
Imperial Oil Ltd. acquired an all metal airplane called a Larsen for the run between Edmonton and Fort Norman.
March 28: Two planes, the Vic and Rene, left Edmonton heading for the Imperial Oil Limited oil well sixty miles from Fort Norman. It is a historic mission claimed to be the first sub-arctic flight ever attempted in Canada. After many problems, the Vic and Elmar Fullerton arrived June 2, 1921 at Fort Norman (Wells). Mrs C. Hamer Jackson will be the first woman at Fort Norman. Jackson is a journalist of Edmonton representing a number of British papers and the New York times. This reminds me of a story as told by an early flight to Norman Wells. The usual method was to follow the MacKenzie River and you can't go wrong. The pilot on his first trip said this was his first trip to Norman Wells and does anyone know the way. The unanimous reply was just follow the river.
June 1: The population of the west is: Saskatchewan 757,510, Manitoba 610,118, Alberta 588,454, B.C. 524,582, NWT 7,988 and Yukon 4,157.
July 18: The United Farmers of Alberta, (UFA) unhappy with the past 17 years of Liberal Government decided to run 45 in 61 ridings in the election and won 38 seats to form the government. Herbert Greenfield became the first UFA premier and Irene Parlay the first cabinet minister in Canada. The UFA remained in power until 1935.
ALBERTA HISTORY 1922-1932
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA index