THIS PERIOD COVERS 1870 TO 1872
ALBERTA HISTORY 1873-1874
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
"If you dance with a grizzly bear, you had better let him lead"
The vast majority of riverlots on both sides of the North Saskatchewan River
was occupied by Metis or Orkney married to Metis women during this
Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), marriage Peter Andrews, b-1842, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) son Baptiste Andrews and Catherine Gladu; married Adele Lechasseur (Etenisekwegen), b-1850, White Fish Lake, Athabasca daughter Nitaousiquayo Lechasseur a native and Marianne Calahaison.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Jean Baptiste Annass, Metis b-1836 Alberta married Catherine Metis b-1841, Alberta. two children are recorded, William b-1871 Alberta, and Milline b-1883 Alberta most likely Tail Creek.
Maggie Belcourt, Metis b-1870 Alberta living St. Albert 1901.
Narcisse Blandion, Metis, born April, 1870 son Alexander Blandion., Metis and Lalouse Courteoreille; married October 1895, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) Charlotte Courteoreille, Metis, born December, 1876, Peace River daughter Alexis Courteoreille, born December 1839, Victoria (Alberta) and Angelique Kes-guay-payees.
Elizabeth Boucher, Metis, b-1870 Fort Liard, daughter Francois Boucher Sr., b-1824 and Elizabeth Native; married Carlton (Saskatchewan) Roger LaFond, b-1853, Carlton (Saskatchewan)..
(II)-Arthur Frederick Camsell Metis (1870-1961) son (I)-Julien Stewart
Camsell aka Onion and Sarah Foulds (1849-1939), joined HBC (1887-1936) Mackenzie
River; married 1901 Margaret Sebbeston (1871-1904), 3 children recorded in 1903
(III)-Harry Camsell Metis
Ben Calf robe (Mekiapi, Red Old Man) (about1870-1970) a scout-interpreter for the NWMP, a member of the Calgary Stampede from 1912, but more importantly for his work in native youth education. The Calf Robe Bridge in Calgary is named in his honor.
Jean Baptiste Cardinal, b-1870 Peace River Landing son Louis Cardinal, born December 27, 1840 Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Marie Bisson, b-1840, Dunvegan, Athabasca; married June 1891, Fort Vermillion (Alberta) Elisabeth Beaulien, born February, 1867, Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake daughter Joseph King Beaulieu, b-1831 and Mary Anne Cayen, b-1841.
Bishop Clut and his unnamed assistant born 1844 arrived Fort Edmonton.
Charles Conrad an American whiskey trader, established a one room trading post at the mouth of the Little Bow on the Oldman River (Alberta). A group of North Peigan Indians took over the post at gunpoint demanding whiskey. The trader took refuge and was later rescued by Howell Harris. The shack was later abandoned and burned down by Blackfoot Indians. See 1871 for the rebuild
Jerimah Cook, Metis, b-1870 Red River son Mathew Cook, Metis b-1848 N.W.T. and Matilda McKenzie, Metis b-1849 Red River; family living Southern Alberta 1891..
Fort Edmonton: (II)-John Patrick Cunningham Metis (1818-1870) retired from the HBC after serving (1833-1870). This year he was a captain of one of the last buffalo (bison) hunts at Paint Creek, in the Edmonton Area and died of small pox.
Alexander Dennt, Metis b-1870 Alberta married about 1899 Alberta Florence Metis living Fort MacLeod, Alberta 1901.
Robert Donald, Metis b-1870 N.W.T. living Battle River, Alberta 1891 son George Donald (McDonald?), Metis b-1816 N.W.T. married to Elizabeth Metis b-1834 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
.Father Eynard was in charge of Chipewyan (Athabaska) from 1870-1880, when he drowned.
John Flett Metis joined HBC (1870-1880) Mckenzie River
Lafayette French established a trading post at Blackfoot Crossing, which he operated until after the arrival of the NWMP.
(I)-George Wishart Gairdner joined HBC (1868-1880) York, Norway House,
MacKenzie River (1870-1879) then Grand Rapids; married 1874 Fort Providence
Margaret Bouvier Metis daughter Joseph Bouvier Metis (1817-1877) and Catherine
Laurent Gagnon, Metis b-1870 N.W.T. son George Gagnon b-1833 Quebec and N. Metis b-1858 N.W.T.; living St. Albert, Alberta 1901.
(III)-John James Harper Metis b-1847 Red River son (II)-James Harper Metis (1813-1887; joined HBC (1870-1877) Athabasca
Sam Livingstone operated a trading post about 20 miles west of the present city of Calgary, Alberta.
Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Fort Kipp is constructed by Joe Kipp and Charles Thomas American whiskey traders, on the south side near the junction of the Belly and Oldman Rivers.
George Kippling (Kipling-Kiplen) Metis b-1820 joined HBC (1870-1875) to work the Saskatchewan District. possible son Peter Kippling (Kiplin) Metis b-1820, of HBC (1841-1847) McKenzie River retired Red River. Peter retired to Red River. George homesteaded river lots #19 & #20 in Strathcona. He was in Fort Edmonton 1869 and married 1872 Mary Luceille Gladu Indian/Metis b-1855 Fort Edmonton from the Papaschase Band member #25. Two children are recorded Willie and Elizabeth.
A second Fort Hamilton was built about 300 feet north of the original Fort Hamilton, built 1869. To build a strong fort John J. Healy and Alfred B. Hamilton hired a former HBC boatbuilder, William S. Gladstone, to do the job. The fort had a stockade, bastions, loop holes, ramparts and wide gates. It was the center of trading activity in southern Alberta and given the name Fort Whoop-up.
Roderick MacFarlane HBC reconstructed Fort Chipewyan.
H.B.C. built Fort McKay aka Old Red River House on the Athabasca River at the mouth of the McKay River.
M. J. Moberly HBC established Fort McMurray (1870-1898). The NWMP built a post here in 1914.
William Munro, Metis, born Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1854-1874) on the Saskatchewan River and was a Blackfoot interpreter (1870-1874) Rocky Mountain House. He was a free trader (1857-1870) likely on the Saskatchewan River.
The actual arrival of Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921), into the Fort Edmonton area is shrouded in mystery. It is known that he sold his property at Red River this year. He attended the baptism November 1, 1870 at St. Andrews Anglican Church, Red River. A search of Red River Church records fails to verify his script claim of living in Red River 1871 to 1874. It is highly unlikely he remained in Red River because of his involvement with Louis Riel, but he likely wintered in Tail Creek des Metis, departing after the baptism. During the Metis script application of 1900 and 1901, both he and his wife claimed to have arrived the summer (August) of 1875 at Strathcona (Alberta). It could be they didnít build their log house and actually qualify as a homestead until 1875. It was normal practice for Metis to use tents like the Indians and he likely spent half the year at Tail Creek des Metis. Their sons Louis (born 1872) and Edward (born 1874) are born during this period but on April 18, 1903 are disallowed Metis script because of failure to prove location of birth or baptism. The births/deaths/marriages at Tail Creek des Metis were not recorded as no religious or H.B.C. authority existed in the settlement. It is known that by September 24, 1876 the family changed from Anglican to Catholic and future children are baptized into that faith. On January 2, 1877, Bishop Grandin (1829-1902) visited the Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) Metis home. The other possibility is that they are wintering in another Alberta location or in the Dakota or Montana territories. A more likely scenario is that he quietly settled on the south side of the Saskatchewan, across river from Fort Edmonton among the numerous French Metis already settled in this region while spending his winters at Tail Creek des Metis. It is also possible he didn't actually claim his homestead until 1874 or 1875 to avoid the problems of other Metis settlers. The most commonly accepted settlement date in Strathcona (Alberta) is the summer of 1874 when he likely built his first log cabin vs. living out of a teepee. Other claims suggest he and (II)-Joseph (Joe) McDonald Metis (1837-1921) claimed their lands in 1872 or 1873. It's likely they knew each other in Red River and McDonald likely convinced Garneau to migrate to Fort Edmonton. It is noteworthy that most Metis at this time lived in a teepee in the summer due to its great mobility.
Alexander Gladue, Metis b-1870 Alberta married about 1895 likely Beaver Lake
Isabel Metis b-1869 Alberta.
(II)-John Guillion b-1879 B.C. likely son (I)-George Gullion b-1833? married about 1892 Alberta Margaret Metis b-1875 Alberta living Two Lakes, Alberta 1901.
George Hammond is working out of Fort Whoop-Up, Cyprus Hills and is married to Rosalie Wills b-1853, Metis of Red River daughter John Wills Jr. and Mary McKay b-1820. John Wills Jr. is the son John Wills Sr. and Josephite Grant (married September 6, 1842).
Eugene Hassan b-1855 Ireland married about 1882 Alberta Mary Metis b-1870 Alberta, living Lethbridge, Alberta 1901.
Joseph Laderoute, b-1871, St. Albert (Alberta) son Oliver Laderoute, b-1845, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Adelaide Dumont, Metis, born October 1852, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) daughter Jacques Dumont, Metis, b-1838, Rocky Mountain House (Alberta), Marianne Bruneau, b-1839 Lac La Biche (Alberta).
John Lee b-1849 Mexico married about 1886 Alberta Floria Metis b-1870 Alberta living Wetaskiwin, Alberta 1901.
Deom Leforna, Metis b-1870 Alberta married about 1892 Alberta Josie Metis b-1873 Alberta, living New Norway, Alberta 1901.
Adelide L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1875, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) son Euphrosine Beauregard, Metis, b-1851 and Magloire L'Hyrondelle, b-1850, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
George Livingstone, Metis b-1870 N.W.T., living Southern Alberta 1891.
John Mathews B-1870 Red River married about 1875 Alberta (wife? Mother?) Harriette Metis b-1840 Alberta living two Lakes, Alberta 1901.
(II)-Henry John Moberly (1835-1931) born Penetanguishene, Lake Huron (Ontario) son (I)-John Moberly b-1789 Russia, and Mary Fock from Russia, joined HBC 1853-1891) Lake Huron, Saskatchewan District, Athabasca and Ille-a-la Crosse, assigned Fort McMurray (1870-1879)
Mary Murphy b-1870 Red River, living Assiniboia West 1891. Assiniboia could refer to southern Alberta, or south west Saskatchewan, at this time.
William Murry b-1870 Red River, a lumberman, living Coalmine, Alberta 1891.
H. C. Norman b-1870 Red River, living Medicine Hat, Alberta 1891.
George Noyes, Metis b-1870 Alberta married about 1895 Alberta Clara Metis b-1876 Alberta living St. Pierre, Alberta 1901.
St. Albert, death by small pox, Angele Ouellette, Metis born 1861 Red River and St. Pierre Ouellette born June 29, 1869 on the plains on way to St. Albert, children of Jean Baptiste Ouellette.
Fred Parkin, Metis b-1870 N.W.T. living Assiniboia West, Southern Alberta 1891.
John Paupin b-1870 Red River, living Assiniboia West 1891. Assiniboia West could refer to southern Alberta, or south western Saskatchewan, at this time.
(II)-George Pendleton Metis b-1849 with dog team raced Don Noyes to Rocky Mountain House, won and secured most of the fur trade.
David Peppard b-1870 Red River, a carpenter, living High River, Southern Alberta 1891.
Alexander Prudin, Metis b-1870 Alberta married about 1891 Alberta Nancy Metis b-1867 Alberta living Saddle Lake, Alberta 1901.
Charlot Prudin, Metis b-1870 Alberta daughter Partick Prudin, Metis b-1843 and Elizabeth Metis b-1846 living Alberta 1870 to 1890, living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891.
(I)-Robert Ramsey b-1846 Scotland married about 1890 N.W.T. Bella Metis b-1870 N.W.T. living Battle River, Alberta 1891.
Moses Solomon a.k.a. Salomon & Soloman, b-1828 is trading out of Fort Whoop-Up Cyprus Hills 1870 to 1873. He is trading into Milk River and Oldman River.
William Roby Stone b-1870 Red River, living Calgary, Alberta 1891.
J.J. Headly of Fort Bentonite and Nick Sheron d-1882, both from America, crossed into Canada looking for gold. They found coal instead, and Nick Sheron stayed to found Lethbridge (Alberta). Alexander Galt gained control of the Sheron Coal mine in 1882.
The (II)-Reverend George McDougall (1821-1875) built a church and home outside the Fort at Edmonton. This is believed by some to be the first European inhabitable building outside the protection of Fort Edmonton's walls. Others suggest he built it in 1871 and they choose to ignore any Metis homes built outside the protection of the Fort. Rev. McDougall complained that the French Priests (Oblates) had a hatred for everything that bears the English name . The Metis' so called wintering or summer homes are not consider homes by the English folk and clergy. St. Albert population is 700, mostly being Metis. Some suggest the population is 1,000 but that 300 die of small pox this year. Father Vital Justin Grandin (1829-1902) estimated that 500 to 800 Metis occupy Blackfoot Crossing, Lake St. Anne and Deer Lake. Old employees of the Hudson Bay Company establish Fort Saint Anne this year. The Metis from the Lac Ste Anne and St. Albert Metis settlements often visited each other as they are mostly related. These include the Majeau, La Hirondelle, Belcourt, Gledus, Plante, Laderout and Gauthier. Charles Gauthier Metis, born 1841, arrived St. Albert, married 1866 Lesser Slave Lake Bella Andrews Mets b-1849 Lac Ste Anne and had one child by April census 1874. He made ox and horse harness, at this time, for the Hudson Bay Company. The Gauthier family would later join the Lawrence Garneau clan in marriage. Lac La Nonne (La Nun) trading post is established by the Hudson Bay Company on Lake La Nonne at the outlet to the Athabasca River. This post is abandoned before 1894. It is noteworthy that the Metis occupied the Lac La Nonne area, fishing and raising horses, for at least twenty years before this date.
East of present Red Deer City are long standing Metis wintering sites, the most famous being Tail Creek des Metis.
(I)-John Walter, the boat builder, is born Lesliewood, August 12, 1849 Scotland Orkney Islands, died December 25, 1920 Edmonton. He departed Stromness, Scotland July 1, 1870 taking eight weeks to arrive York Factory, Hudson Bay. He arrived with sixty others under a five-year indenture contract. HBC records list his employment as (1870-1880) He arrived at Fort Edmonton December 24, 1870 to build York Boats for the Hudson Bay Company. He would eventually claim land directly to the east of Laurent Garneau (1840-1921). There would be an ongoing debate about who built the first building in Strathcona (Alberta). (II)-William J. Christie Metis (1824-1899), Chief Factor of Fort Edmonton, reported to (II)-Richard Charles Hardisty, a Metis (1831-1889). (I)-Malcolm Groat, b-1839 arrived Fort Edmonton 1875, who married (II)-William Joseph Christie's Metis daughter (III)-Anne Margaret Metis b-1851,, reported to Christie and is responsible for the garden of potatoes, turnips, barley and wheat. Fort Edmonton had a stone mill within the Fort operated by horsepower. Fort Edmonton had a population of one hundred and fifty people and they were cultivating no more than thirty acres.
One of the first organized forms of Government in the North West Metis Nation were called hunting Captains, which were elected for each season. The Edmonton District Captains were: William Camion, Michael Arnot, Ed Boucher and Pierre Desault. Other Captains included Baptiste Vaness, Gabriel Dumont, Shoutoux, Ladoneur, Ed Bincer and Abraham Salors. Captains were elected to represent Big Lake, St. Albert, Lac Ste Anne, Lac La Biche, Edmonton and other smaller Metis settlements. All agreed the Metis were well organized and disciplined; being organized into Districts and units. The objectives of the Government were simple; kill as many bison (buffalo) as possible, dress the meat, pickle and cure a portion for summer and dispose of the hides to your best advantage. The hides made their way to Fort Edmonton, Fort Benson and Red River. The proceeds of the hunt were to be distributed to the weakest members of the community first with the best hunters being satisfied last. The best hunters were usually elected as captains on the next hunt. The captains provided the law and order for the community, based on traditional Canadian common law.
One of the first organized forms of Government in Fort Edmonton (Alberta), called a Board of Health, is created to deal with the smallpox epidemic. Members were: Father Leduc, Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916), (II)-Reverend George McDougall, (1821-1875), (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) and (II)-Richard Charles Hardisty, the only Metis (1831-1889) who was Chief Factor of Fort Edmonton. It is noteworthy that Father Lacombe (1827-1916) claimed to be Metis.
Many hundreds of Metis exit Red River for St. Laurent, Duck Lake and Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta). At Lac Ste Anne and St. Albert three hundred out of 700 Metis died of smallpox.
Tail Creek des Metis, the largest settlement west of Red River, is seriously expanded this year to more than 400 houses and countless tepees. The population exceeds 2,000 people. Tail Creek des Metis, like Red River, is more a region than a single town. It includes the settlements of Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta), Buffalo Tail Creek (Trail Creek). Grande Pointe, Boss hill and the Red Deers (Deer) River. The Indians also maintained a village on Tail Creek and Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta). Tepees were mostly used around Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) as it had the habit of rising and falling fairly rapidly depending on the rain fall. Rapid relocation was a prerequisite. (Buffalo) Tail Creek is north east of Delborne, south east of Alix, about 15 miles west of Stettler and 30 miles N.E. of Red Deer. What is considered the town proper is located on the north side of the Red Deers River and straddles the Buffalo Tail Creek. Tail Creek was an ideal location for free-traders as it was free from Hudson Bay Company rule, free from meddling religious and had access to the Montana markets as well as close proximity to Fort Edmonton. Buffalo Tail Creek, long used by the Indians, was called Kioocus or Enewoosuyyis. It is unknown when the first Metis used this location as their winter hunting ground but it is believed years past according to the old timers. It should be remembered that Edmonton at this time was a minor hamlet and even St Boniface only numbered some 750 people. The Metis used mule trains extending two miles in length were used to transport furs from Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) area to Fort Benton, Manitoba. The fact they were using mules suggests the trains were of United States origin. It is believed more furs were traded to the United States than the Hudson Bay Company by the Metis who dominated the North West.
The following trading posts are operating this year: Fort Ste Anne on Lake Ste Anne, thirty five miles west of Fort Edmonton; Lac La Nonne House (La Nun), seventy five miles north west of Fort Edmonton and Fort Victoria, seventy miles from Fort Edmonton on the North Saskatchewan River. The establishment of a post does not represent the start of a settlement as most preceded the addition of a post.
Some contend Edmonton is created this year with the transfer of Hudson Bay Company rights to the Dominion of Canada. At this time St. Albert and Lac St Anne had a much larger population than the greater Edmonton area. However, Tail Creek des Metis dwarfed all of these combined.
The Blackfoot attacked Fort Edmonton, intent on getting Takoots, a Cree half-breed (Metis), for murdering a Blackfoot across the river on the Pigeon Trail. Fortunately, the river was breaking up and the Blackfoot could not get across the Saskatchewan River.
Ten trading posts and four separate missions comprised Alberta resources, servicing an estimated population of six thousand Natives, more than two thousand Metis and a hand full of Europeans. The official Hudson Bay Company census, however, did not include towns like Tail Creek des Metis, four miles south of the present junction of highways 12 and 21, where highway 21 crosses the Red Deer River. In fact, the Hudson Bay Company census ignored those not directly engaged with the company, either as employees or in trading. Tail Creek des Metis was a Metis settlement from 1870 until about 1889 and had an estimated population of fifteen hundred to two thousand in some four hundred homes. Tail Creek is the staging area for Metis from as far north as Lac La Biche, Lac Ste Anne, Saint Albert, Edmonton, Batoche and other settlements along the Saskatchewan River. Tail Creek des Metis is involved in providing food, manufacturing harness, saddles, tents and providing meat and hides for Fort Edmonton. It has a community hall and timber works. It is also a major overland distribution terminal for free traders from the North West to Montana and Red River. All that remains of Tail Creek is a cemetery with about forty graves on the riverbank and the town of Content, Alberta.
The Touchwood Trail, a more conventional route, goes from Red River by the Touchwood hills on to fording the south branch of the Saskatchewan near the present site of the city of Saskatoon, then on to Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Fort Edmonton. The trail is being used by hundreds of Red River Carts in the employ of the free traders, the Hudson Bay Company, or to accommodate the first of a major wave of Metis settlers in the exodus from Red River. There is no security for the Metis, Natives or European settlers living along this Touchwood Trail. All they wanted is a clear title to their land and the assurance that there would be no taxes which they could not meet. Few cared about England or Canada. This was the Metis Nation, Indian Territory, the North West Territories.
St. Albert had an estimated
population of eight hundred with three hundred and twenty dieing in the colony
or out on the plains due to smallpox this last trading season.
The Oblate fathers established a mission in the French Metis settlement later called Rouleauville (Calgary). It is not know when the Metis settlement of Calgary was first established but people were living in and around Calgary from the early 1800ís. The Oblates named the mission Notre Dame De La Paix. The settlement was later named after Charles Bouromee Rouleau who arrived in the area in 1886. The French Metis settlement of Rouleauville is annexed into Calgary in 1907 and called the Mission District.
Blackjack a Metis and Frank Lemon departed Tobacco Plains, Montana to prospect for gold on the North Saskatchewan River. This mining expedition was led by La Nouse and a large Metis Band that was staked by LaFayette French, an old time trader and bison (buffalo) hunter. Lemon killed his partner Blackjack with an axe blow to the head. Some say over the lost lemon mine. William and Danial Bendow witnessed the murder and reported the event to Bearspaw at Morley. Lemon fled to Tobacco Plains and confessed to his priest who sent John McDougall to bury the body. This grew into a Legend which says that two miners Blackjack and Lemon were on their way from the North Saskatchewan River to Montana when the discovered a stash of gold. Some say gold mine. Overcome with greed Lemon killed Blackjack
The Hudson Bay Company reserved for itself 3,000 acres around Fort Edmonton and at the mouth of the Sturgeon River (Old Fort Saskatchewan area).
The Metis from Batoche, Fish Creek and Tail Creek often met in Saskatchewan at Roche Percee (Pierced Rock). It contained petroglyphs attesting to the Indian visitations. The Kootenny, Blackfoot and Cree considered it s sacred place and also held meetings in this location. A bolt of lightening shattered the rock in 1922.
The Battle River Settlement aka Nothiwin Seppe or Battle River was later called Battle River Crossing and in the 1880's known by some as Laboucan Settlement.
The Hudson Bay Company sent a train of bull teams loaded with furs to Fort Benton, Montana then down the Missouri. The Condar brothers, the I.G. Baker Company and the T.C. Power Company operated out of Fort Benton..
The Saskatchewan River flooded at Fort Edmonton but no buildings were in the flats so it was not recorded.
You often here the term 'old buffalo trail' that millions of buffalo (bison) used to traversed the Province of Alberta. It is a 686 km long trail running north and south through central Alberta. It starts at La Cory near Cold Lake, passes through Bonnyville, Elk Point, Vermillion, Wainwright, Czar, Consort, Oyen, crosses the Red Deer River, crosses the South Saskatchewan River, passes near Medicine Hat, Elkwater, and ends at Wild Horse near the USA border.
During the 1970's the Edmonton and Strathcona settlements were dominated by Metis and Indian who claimed the river lots on the south as well as the north side of the Saskatchewan River. In 1878 William F. King of the Dominion Land Survey of Edmonton noted a substantial Metis majority on both sides of the North Saskatchewan. By 1872 the entire north side between the Methodist mission and Riverdale was occupied in riverlots in the French-Metis system, they had a 220 yard river frontage. The HBC retained a 3,000 acre reserve arounf Fort Edmonton. .However by 1882 survey of Michael Deane's noted that indigenious Metis no longer outnumbered the White new comers. The Metis claim land in the Red River and French tradition of long narrow lands from rivers edge. River lots #1 to #23 in Sttrathcona in 1882 are of this nature. Indians were not allowed to have individual land ownership.
January 18: Battle River Settlement (Alberta), son John Cardinal, Metis, b-1839, Victoria (Alberta) and Angele Desjarlais; married Emilie Desjarlais, b-1876, Cypress Hills daughter Guillaume Desjarlais, b-1851, Lac La Biche (Alberta) and Marguerite Sauve, b-1857 Red Rivers.
February 15: Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), birth, John Gladu, son Moise Gladu, b-1841/48 and Madeleine Tonnure; married, May, 1892, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), Peggie Paul, Metis, born June, 1866, Fort Edmonton (Alberta), daughter Paul Ka-mi-you-ta-ko-ski-oo and Lisette Matchununooghkay Courte'oreille, b-1884, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta).
January 4: Lac La Biche, birth, Benjamin Cardinal, Metis, son Francois Cardinal, Metis, b-1831 Lac La Biche and Adele Abgele Desjarlais, b-1800; married 1893 Lac La Biche (Alberta) Siphie Ladoudre, Metis, b-1873, Baptiste River, daughter Abe Lapoudre, b-1853 on the plains and Catherine She-sha-we-kash Koet Bostonais Picote.
February 15: Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), birth John Gladu, son Moise Gladu b-1841 to 1848 and Madeleine Tonnure: married 1892 Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), Peggie Paul, born June 1866 Fort Edmonton, daughter Paul Ka-mi-you-ya-ko-ski-00 and Lisette Matchununooghkay Courte'oreille.
February 17: Victoria, Alberta, located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth Robert William Turner, son Joseph Alexander Turner, b-1838, Moose Factory and Jane Whitford, b-1846.
April 7: The French halfbreeds (Metis), about Fort Edmonton, numbered more than 40 well armed escorted the Blackfoot across the river onto the hill. The Cree attacked and the half-breeds (Metis) did nothing. They stood to one side and let the Stoneys, Cree and Blackfoot fight away. There was nearly 100 Stoneys and Crees and all sorts. They killed only 2 men, and three women and a child. The rest of the Blackfoot escaped, say 6 men and 3 women and 2 boys. There were 13 souls in all came here and 6 were killed, 7 escaping. William Francis Butler wrote: This guard, composed of French half-breeds (Metis) from St. Albert, opened up to the right and left when the attack commenced, and did nothing towards saving the lives of the Blackfoot, who were nearly all killed or wounded.
April 9: Father Lacombe (1827-1916) met the fleeing Blackfoot on his way from Rocky Mountain House to Fort Edmonton. He tended their wounds and fed them.
April 13: Lac Ste Anne (Alberta), birth Joseph Pierre Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis, died November 27, 1870, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) son Antoine Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis b-1820 Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) and Marie Julie Catherine Kakatow a Cree;
April 21: Men from Rocky Mountain House came in haste to Fort Edmonton to say a large group of Blackfoot are on their way to the fort in retaliation. They said they were nearly killed except for the intervention of some of the chiefs. At the same time the Blackfoot encountered the Reverend Peter Campbell and (II)-Rev. George McDougall's (1821-1875) trader son David, accompanied by William Rowland. The Blackfoot took all their possessions. Many others had their possessions taken by the Blackfoot. Fort Edmonton was fortified by the Saint Albert Metis. Some credit the lack of attack on the fort to Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) who pleaded with the Blackfoot in the dark not to attack the fort.
May: Red Deer River (Alberta), birth, Marie Cardinal, Metis, daughter Jacques Cardinal, b-1836 Big Lake (St. Albert, Alberta) and Marie Catherine Cardinal b-1800 Fort Edmonton.
August/September: Smallpox again swept through the prairies. It began at the United States trading posts on the Missouri and spread like a prairie fire all along the Saskatchewan. Bishop Grandin wrote: "My Lord, I am in the midst of the dead and dying, and am now hurrying to St. Albert where our own men are overcome by the disease. I fear there is not even one priest there able to assist the dying." Father Leduc, Father Bourgine and Brothers Doucet and Blanchet were down with the disease. St. Albert lost 300 out of 700 Metis to the disease. The bison (buffalo) hunt out of Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) say the Metis and Blackfoot arranged a temporary peace as the bison (buffalo) were 'far out'. Out on the hunt it was estimated by Father Fourmond that 300 Metis hunters died. At Lac Ste. Ann only forty had died of the disease. It was estimated that 1/2 the Indians in Alberta had died. The H.B.C. estimated that 2,686 Indians had died, 485 Cree and 373 half-breeds. The freight cart train to Fort Pitt lost 8 of their 14 freighters. Flora and Georgina McDougall as well as John McDougall's wife died.
August 24: Fort Edmonton, birth (II)-James Edward Guillion Metis, son (I)-George Gullion, b-1833 and Marguerite Julie Bradent Brazeau, Metis b-1848 Fort Edmonton; married January 8, 1895 Fort Edmonton Mary Berard.
December 23: Victoria, Alberta, located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, birth Elizabeth Spence, daughter, Andrew Spence Sr., b-1842 and Nancy Whitford, b-1850.
Joseph Anderson (Whiteman) married about 1871 Julie Beaudry, born January 29, 1864, St. Albert (Alberta) daughter Edouard Beaudry and Rosalie Dumont, born December 1844.
Elzear Arnault, Metis, b-1871 Lac La Nun (Alberta) married to Marie, Metis, b-1877 (Alberta), living Lac Ste Anne, Alberta 1901.
Country marriage, Michel Auger to Mary Anne Lechasseur, Metis, b-1852, Lac Poisson daughter Nitaousiquayo Lechasseur a native and Marianne Calahaison, who in 1850 are at White Fish Lake, Athabasca.
Silvestre Bourque, Metis b-1871 Alberta married about 1895 Alberta Margaret Metis b-1874 Alberta living Saddle Lake, Alberta 1901.
Floria Bull Metis b-1871 Alberta living Sturgeon, Alberta 1901.
Sylvester Burke, Metis b-1871 Alberta living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891.
Paul Chalifoux, Metis, b-1871 likely St. Albert (Alberta) son Joseph Chalifoux, Metis, b-1838, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), and Julie Campion, b-1841 Lake McLeod
Tail Creek des Metis, birth Vittal Couton Metis b-1871 Alberta likely Tail Creek married Merie Metis b-1875 Alberta also likely Tail Creek, married before 1901 census.
Francois Daniel, Metis b-1871 Alberta grandson Julia Daniel, Metis b-1817, Athabasca; married to Elizabeth Metis b-1871 Saskatchewan, living Strathcona, (Alberta) 1901.
Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps , b-1850 Red River, married 1871, Fort Edmonton (Alberta), Marguerite Berard, b-1856 Red River.
Saidora Gladas, Metis b-1871 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton (Alberta), 1891.
Lewis Gladu, Metis b-1871 N.W.T. living Battle River, (Alberta) 1891.
John Healy, Alfred Hamilton, Fred Kanouse teamed up at Fort Brenton and headed north to Fort Whoop-up. There they met a party of three white men and an Indian girl, likely Natawista Ikasana aka Sacred Snake Woman (1825-1895) who was married 1840 to Alexander Cubertson.
H. A. (Fred) Kanouse and party constructed a fort on the confluence of the Elbow and Bow Rivers future site of Fort Calgary.. It was constructed for Hamilton, Healy and party as an outpost of Fort Whoop-up and was forty feet by twenty feet with a palisade yard adjoining it to the north. H. A. (Fred) Kanouse aka 'Blood Indian Man' likely because he married Natawista Ikasana aka Sacred Snake Woman (1825-1895), a Blood Indian Woman. She was the epouse 1840 of Alexander Cubertson.
(I)-John F. Lennie joined HBC (1860-1876) various locations assigned Saskatchewan District and Fort Edmonton (1871-1876)
Peater (Peter) Loutit? b-1871, NWT son Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
The Bloods under White Eagle came to trade. In an argument a trader and an White Eagle where shot. A three day siege of the fort was stopped when help came from a whiskey post on the Highwood River. D.W Davis took charge of the fort until shortly before the arrival of the NWMP..
Athabaska District (Alberta) birth Patrice Lavallee, died November 1880 Lac La Biche Mission son Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
Xavier Letendre nicknamed Batoche, a chief trader, is credited with the founding of the old village of Batoche on the south fork of the Saskatchewan River. His home was furnished with Paris imports.
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Joseph Jacknife, Metis b-1863 Alberta married 1st unknown, 2nd marriage Vaviene Metis b-1873 Alberta, three children are recorded Peter b-1872, John b-1896, Helen b-1897 mostly likely all Tail Creek and John and Helen likely children of second marriage. One hired employee is noted William Phean b-1886, likely Metis of Tail Creek.
Lona L'Hirondelle b-1871 Alberta, living Calgary 1891.
Justine Lafontaine, Metis b-1871 N.W.T., living Southern Alberta 1891.
John A. MacDonald boasted to his friends, "We quietly, and almost without observation, annexed all the country between here and the Rocky Mountains". It did not go unnoticed by the Peoples of the North West.
Augusta McDougall, Metis b-1871 N.W.T. living Morley, Southern Alberta 1891.
George Millward McDougall (1821-1875) is stationed at the United Church (Wesleyan mission) at Fort Edmonton (1873-1875).
Henry Mever, Metis b-1871 Alberta married about 1893 Alberta Sarah J. Metis b-1870 Alberta living Strathcona, (Alberta), 1901.
Benjamin Munro Metis b-1871 N.W.T, brother Francis and Mary living Fort Edmonton 1891.
John Reid, Metis b-1871 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
St. Albert (Alberta), marriage Felix Pelletier, Metis, b-1855, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan son Francois Pelletier (1826-1871) and Marie Ninikikpaw; married Catherine Ayawasis Chastellain, b-1856, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan daughter Ayawasis and Louis Chastellain b-1808 Lachine.
Kinney Taylor b-1871 N.W.T., living Southern Alberta 1891.
Godin a Metis brutally killed his wife, who was the sister of the wife of Donald Todd Metis, on the south banks of the Saskatchewan River below Fort Edmonton. The matter was settled when Godin gave 6 horses to his wife's family.
(I)-John Walter (1849-1920) of Fort Edmonton, in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company, is working out of Norway House this season.
Stand Off, Alberta is named after a gang of whiskey traders. They stood off a United States Marshall who was trying to recover stolen whiskey.
Donald A. Smith wrote (II)-Richard Charles Hardisty, a Metis (1831-1889), that the trip of Adjutant General James Robertson Ross resulted in the formation of the Mounted Police for the protection of Western Canada.
Father Faraud would become Bishop of Athabasca-MacKenzie in 1871 with head quarters at Fort Chipewyan.
Fort Standoff was built at the junction of the Belly and Waterton Rivers. The fort was built by a party from Fort Benton (Montania) and included Dutch Fred Wachter, W. McLean, Mr. Juneau and John (Liver-eating) Johnson. The United States marshal, Charles D. Hard, caught up with the party at Milk River and ordered them back to Fort Benton for illicit whiskey for trading. They protested that they were in Canadian territory and he had no authority. They named the fort Standoff for standing off the marshal.
(II)-James Gibbons (1839-1928), the Metis, claimed to have free traded and freighted between St. Albert, Fort Edmonton and Fort Garry from 1871 to 1874. A large number of Metis followed this occupation and Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921) claims, in 1901, to be working the prairies during this period. This could be referring to this lucrative occupation of the bison (buffalo) hunt out of Tail Creek des Metis which included freight trains, not only to Red River, but on to St. Paul, Minnesota or south to Fort Benton, Montana. Some claim Kenneth McDonald claimed lot 20 at 82 street East Edmonton about this time but there is no other reference to his being in Edmonton at this time and he is listed as #20 on the 1882-85 Settlement survey, suggesting 19 river front settlers preceded him, so this is very questionable.
A fight between Cree and Blackfoot, across the river from Fort Edmonton, saw six Blackfoot killed.
Conrad's Post was built by I.G. Baker & Company at the confluence of the Belly and Oldman Rivers, three miles from Fort Kipp. This post was also known as Robbers Roost and Slough Bottom. It was a palisade structure about 30 x 50 feet, with a stone fireplace. The Blood Indians attacked this fort in the spring of 1873, burning it to the ground. The graves of three men can be seen a few yards from the remains of the fort. See 1870
The Metis exodus from Red River finds 2,000 or more settling into Tail Creek des Metis, located on Buffalo Tail Creek, which is fed by Buffalo Lake into the Red Deer River. It is about 15 miles west of Stettler, Alberta on the north side of Red Deer River. This became the new staging area for the fall bison (buffalo) hunt. This site was chosen because it was free from Hudson Bay Company influence; no trading forts existed in this region. It was free from religious influence and the bison (buffalo) were plentiful here. These Metis realized that the water ways were now the domain of Europeans, but the Red River cart and overland freighting was their domain. The original Tail Creek des Metis settlement extended across Buffalo Tail Creek, up along the side of the hill and across the flat above, towards the Tail Creek cemetery. Between Tail Creek cemetery and Buffalo Tail Creek is a deep gully once full of bison (buffalo) bones where the Metis hunters drove the bison (buffalo).
Fort Edmonton 1871
(I)-Malcalm Groat b-1839 joined HBC (1861-1875) on the Saskatchewan in Edmonton House (1867-1871) then at Egg Lake, he retired 1875 to river lot #1 west of Edmonton House, married Fort Edmonton (III)-Marguerite Christe Metis (b-1851) a daughter (II)-William J. Christie Metis (1824-1899), and Mary Anal Sinclair Metis bapt 1848.
Some claim that modern Edmonton began this year with (II)-Rev. George McDougall (1821-1875) building the first house (church?) outside the walls of Fort Edmonton.
This fall hunters from Fort Edmonton, Lac St. Anne, Lac La Biche, St. Albert, Big Lake, Batoche and smaller communities scattered along the Saskatchewan went to the Grande bison (buffalo) hunt at Tail Creek des Metis near Alix, Alberta, on the Red Deers (Deer) River. Each Metis District elected a Captain of 'The Hunt', as well as other officials, to organize the Red River carts, camp sites and others necessities. The Captains of 'The Hunt' were usually those who made the greatest number of kills the previous hunt. Some known Captains of the hunt included: Michel Arnot, Ed Bincer, Ed Boucher, William Camion, Pierre Desault, Gabriel Dumont, Ladoneur, Abraham Salois, Shoutoux, Jean Baptiste Vawess. The Rules of 'The Hunt' remained as they were established in Red River. Few disagreements were evident, as all participated in the hunt including women and children, with everyone knowing their roles and responsibilities. The women and children usually skinned the bison (buffalo) and sliced off long slices to be dried. The meat of the cows was preferred. The proceeds of the hunt were shared by everyone and no one went without.
Fort Hamilton, that was built in 1867, and preceded Fort Whoop-up was burned to the ground and a sick Indian woman found in the fort was killed. The United States traders however had abandoned the fort before the attack.
The Metis are located near Buffalo Boss Hill (Buffalo Lake) and at the mouth of Tail Creek.
January 20: St. Albert, birth (III)-Jamuel Cunningham Jr Metis. son (II)-John Cunningham Sr., b-1815 and Rosalie L'Hyrondelle, b-1829, Lesser Slave Lake. John died 1870 on a buffalo hunt?
February 17: St. Albert (Alberta), birth Hippolite Beaudry son Narcisse Beaudry, b-1845 and Lucie Breland, born February 22, 1848 Red River; married Melanie Falcon, born July 28, 1850, Red River.
April 2: The population of the west is: B.C. 36,247, Manitoba 10,000.
April 13: Chief Sweet Grass and a delegation of plains Cree from the Edmonton and Carton House District came in stately procession to (II)-William J. Christie Metis (1824-1899), Chief Factor at Fort Edmonton, protesting the illegal sale of their lands. The Metis of the Edmonton area requested, through Bishop Vital Grandin (1829-1902), the Government House in Fort Garry give them clarification of the their ownership rights and Metis Reserves. Bishop Grandin (1829-1902) left the meeting with the clear impression that no Metis Reserves would be allowed and that nothing would prevent Eastern squatters from occupying Metis or Native lands on the Saskatchewan River as they had done in Red River in Manitoba.
July 22: Dunvegan, Athabasca (Alberta), birth, Albert McKay, Metis, son Isidore Flamand (McKay), b-1842 Red River and Charlotte Bourassa, Metis, b-1850 Dunvegan, Athabasca (Alberta).
September: Birch Lake, Alberta, birth Mary Cardinal daughter Francois Cardinal, Metis, b-1831 Lac La Biche and Adele (Angele) Desjallais, Metis b-1820; married Edward Villeneuve.
September: Fort Edmonton (Alberta), birth Soloman Salois, son Toussaint Salois, b-1850 and Helene Breland, b-1850.
October 19: St. Albert, (Alberta), birth Marie Rose Cardinal, Metis, daughter Andre Cardinal Sr., Metis, b-1835, Jasper House (Alberta) and Rosalie Berland, Metis b-1835 Jasper House, (Alberta); married 1897, Pincher Creek, (Alberta), James Buckman.
November 13: Lac St Anne (Alberta), birth Isabella Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis, died November 1888, St. Albvert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis b-1820 Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) and Marie Julie Catherine Kakatow a Cree; .
White Mud River (Peace River Country), marriage Moise Adam, Metis, b-1849, Red River son Baptiste Adam, Metis, b-1820 and Marie Boyer, Metis, b-1825; married Marie Leveille Otikanang (nee Charlot), b-1851 daughter Charlot and Besonne Clairmont.
John Anderson, Metis b-1872 Alberta married to Marie L. Metis b-1872 Alberta living Lac Ste Anne, Alberta 1901.
Moise Auger, Metis, b-1872, Trout Lake (Alberta) son Joseph Auger and Marie Camyuwattumagyu; married 1889, Trout Lake (Alberta), Margaret Muskwah.
Elzear Auger, Metis, b-1872, Lesser Slave Lake son William Auger, b-1836, Trout Lake (Alberta) and Marie Nipissing; married 1895 Athabasca Landing, Catherine Cardinal, Metis, b-1880 Buck Lake (Alberta), daughter, Joseph dit Mustatip Cardinal, Metis, b-1838, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Marie Neyomonpekinam a Cree.
Thomas Barad Metis b-1872 N.W.T. son Eustas (Eustace) Barard (Birard), Metis b-1831 Fort Edmonton, N.W.T. son Louis Birard and Catherine Niyhes, married about 1862 N.W.T. Margaret Metis b-1841 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Charles Napier Bell from Ontario traveled west with young Sam Steele, and spent a year (1872-1873) hunting and trading along the North Saskatchewan River.
Dick Berry started to construct a trading post on the Elbow River near the Kanouse's post but was driven off by Indians. He moved westward and constructed a post about 20 miles upriver from Kanouse. Dick Berry was later killed by a Blood Indian named Old Woman's Child.
Nancy Blandion, b-1872, Battle River Settlement (Alberta) likely the daughter of William Blandion and Rosalie Malaterre, born September 18, 1840.
Narcisse Belcourt, b-1872, Battle River Metis Settlement (Alberta) son Jean Baptiste Belcourt, born January 20, 1849, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Isabelle Adam, born July, 1858, Lac La Biche (Alberta); married Emilie Madeleine Gladu, b-1882, St. Albert (Alberta) daughter Celestin Gladu, b-1859, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Marguerite Callio, b-1856, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
John Roger Berard Sr., b-1852, married 1872 St. Albert, (Alberta), Rosa Archange Belcourt, b-1859 Lac Ste Anne;
Augustin Berard, Metis, b-1852 Red River son Eustache Berard, Metis, b-1829/31 and Marguerite Primeau, b-1836; married 1872 St. Albert (Alberta), Jeannette Delorme, b-1858 on the Plains, daughter Pierriche Delorme, b-1813 White Mud (Alberta) and Angele Bourassa, b-1805, St. Albert (Alberta).
Jean Baptiste Barbet Boucher, Metis, b-1872, Athabasca District, died June 9, 1892, Muskeg Lake (Saskatchewan) son Frances Boucher, b-1824 and Elizabeth Native.
George Washington Brazeau, Metis, b-1845 son Joseph Edward Brazeau Metis and unknown St Louis woman; married 1879, Fort Saskatchewan (Alberta) Adelaide Ward, 2nd marriage 1881, Lac Ste Anne, Louise Belcourt, Metis, b-1864, Lac Ste Anne daughter Alexis Belcourt, b-1826 and Nancy Rowand, Metis, b-1832 Lesser Slave Lake, (Alberta).
Lac La Biche, marriage, 1872/77, Joseph dit Mustatip Cardinal, Metis b-1838 Lac Ste Anne son Jacques Cardinal and Josephite Ticikak, married Angelique (Kakakekamik) Moise, Metis b-1857 daughter Jean Baptiste (Kakakekamik) Moise b-1827 and Charlotte Wapisiokowan; 2nd married 1856 Madeleine Abraham; married 1868 Lac La Biche John Longmore Sr. b-1849/50 Fort Pitt son William Longmore and a Metis mother
Angele Cardinal, Metis, b-1872, Lac La Biche (Alberta), daughter Dominique Cardinal, Metis, b-1845, Floating Stone Lake (Alberta) and Marie Anne Desjarlais.
Edward Cardinal, Metis, b-1872, Lac La Biche, son, Francois Cardinal, Metis, b-1831, Lac La Biche (Alberta) and Adele Angele Desjarlais, b-1820; married, 1892, Calling Lake, Athabasca, Josephte (Suzette) Gladu, Metis, b-1872, Calling Lake, Athabasca, daughter Toussaint Gladu (1843-1898) and Angelique A-ton-ka-pow a Cree, b-1839, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta)
John Clawson, Metis b-1872 Alberta married about 1900 Burnt Lake Huldrid b-1883 England.
Robert Crasmus, Metis b-1872 Alberta son Peter Crasmus, Metis b-1833, living Alberta 1872 to 1888, living Lakeland, Alberta 1891.
Batice Demerce, Metis b-1872 Alberta, married about 1893 Alberta Mary Metis b-1872 Alberta, living Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta 1901.
Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1872, St. Albert, (Alberta), son Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
Kate Faver, Metis b-1872 N.W.T. living Battle River, (Alberta), 1891.
Louis Fiddler b-1872 N.W.T. living Mountain Mill, (Alberta), 1901.
George Fraser, Metis b-1872 Alberta living Strathcona, (Alberta), 1901.
Galarnaut, a servant from New Caledonia district, arrived at Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and eventually settled St. Albert (Alberta).
Clarisse Gaucher, b-1872, Jasper House (Alberta) son Michel Gaucher, b-1829 and Marie Karaconti, b-1846.
Calling Lake, Athabaska, birth Josephte (Suzette) Gladu, Metis, b-1872 son Toussaint Gladu b-1843, d-1898 Calling Lake, and Angelique Atonkapow Cree daughter Iitowkapow Cree and Marie Rose Noglas; married 1872 Calling Lake, Athabasca, Edward Cardinal b-1872/73 Lac La Biche son Francois Cardinal and Adele (Angele) Desjarlais.
(II)-Jarmina Gonan, Metis b-1868 Alberta daughter (I)-William Gonan b-1823 Orkney Island and Sara Metis b-1833 Red River, living Lakeland, Alberta 1891.
Donald Graham of the Wolseley Expedition to Red River arrived Fort Edmonton. Later this year he was taken by Donald Todd a Metis and his wife on the bison (buffalo) hunt south of Tail Creek des Metis on the Red Deer River.
(II)-Richard Hardisty (1831-1889), Metis is promoted to Chief Factor at Edmonton House.
Thomas Loutit? b-1872, NWT son Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Fred Kanouse shot and killed Jim Nabors over an argument over a horse. He claimed it was self defense but when a order for his arrest is issued at Fort Brenton, he fled north. He disassociated himself from the Whoop-up gang and built a trading post near the future Fort McLeod area. The Bloods killed another trader Dick Berry and Fred felt the areas was too hot so he moved to the Oldman River to establish another trading post.
Clarisse Karacounti, b-1872 Peace Hills (Alberta), daughter Alexander (Alide) Karaconti, b-1845 Rocky Mountain House and Mooshwan Rosalie Letendre b-1848 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta), living Lac Ste Anne 1901.
Dieudonne Karacounti, b-1872 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta), son Alexander (Alide) Karaconti, b-1845 Rocky Mountain House and Mooshwan Rosalie Letendre b-1848 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta), living Lac Ste Anne 1901.
Joseph Laderoute, Metis b-1872 Alberta married about 1893 Alberta Josephine Metis b-1873 Alberta living Ste Emerence, Alberta 1901.
(V)-Caroline Lafleur, Metis b-1872, Fort Edmonton, (Alberta), daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste LaFleur, Metis b-1811 (Saskatchewan) and Angelique Jourdain; married 1890, Joseph Bouvier, b-1872 (Saskatchewan).
Joseph Lafontaine b-1872 N.W.T., living Medicine Hat 1891.
Francois and Joseph Lamoureux are believed to have settled on the north side of the North Saskatchewan River, across the River from from the future town of Fort Saskatchewan this year.
W. H. Lee established a trading post 15 miles southwest of Cardston, Alberta. V. Shaw who arrived in the area in 1885 says the old Lee cabins were still standing. Lee is believed to have moved to the Pincher Creek area, built a post n the Oldman River, on the south side near the mouth of Pincher Creek. It is said Lee arrived in canada in 1872 and remained at Fort Whoop-up for a short time.
Louis Lepoint, Metis b-1872 Alberta married to Julia Metis b-1871 Alberta living Wetaskiwan, Alberta 1901.
(I)-John Macaulay (Mcaulay) joined HBC (1856-1887) assigned Saskatchewan District (1857-1871) assigned Athabasca District (1872-1887)
(II)-Joseph (Joe) McDonald (1737-1921) son (I)-Donald McDonald (1792-1876) and Jeanne Beaudry Metis; married Margaret or Margurite Gaudry dit Beaudry daughter Joseph Gaudry dit Beaudry and Lisette Chatelin. It is believed Joseph arrived with Lawrence Garneau Metis (1840-1921) in 1872/73 and homesteaded river lots #7 and #11 as neighbors.
Edward McKay. Metis son John Richards McKay and Harriet Ballenden Metis established a trading post at Cyprus Hills in 1872.
Narisse Mercredi, Metis, b-1872, Athabasca District son Abraham Mercredi, b-1824 and Charlotte Peapierous a Cree: married Elizabeth Beaulieu, b-1881, Athabasca District daughter Alphonse Bealieu and Delphine Tourangeau.
Charles Monlman, Metis b-1872 Alberta married to Louisa Metis b-1875 Saskatchewan living Whitford, Alberta 1901.
(I)-Donald Ross born June 17, 1840, died December 20, 1915 Edmonton, a miner by profession, claims to have arrived Fort Edmonton August 20, 1872 and stayed. It is highly unlikely that he could have resisted the pull of the second Edmonton gold rush. Most early settlers in the Edmonton area were in the habit of coming and going, especially during the various seasons, before they established themselves sufficiently enough to sustain themselves.
Nicholas Sheran d-1882, arrived Belly River (Oldman River, Alberta) and began quarrying coal about 1874 selling it to the whisky traders and the NWMP. The traders bought coal for $5 a ton and sold it Fort Benton for $25 a ton. A post was built at Belly River located on the north side of Belly River just west of Mami Creek. A miners shack, trading post or NWMP outpost?
Tail Creek des Metis birth Marie Suchrown, Metis b-1872 Alberta likely Tail Creek, married before 1895 and this is likely her married name. Two children are recorded William b-1895 Alberta and Hackland H. b-1898 Alberta most likely Tail Creek.
Tennyson writing about Alberta said "from the glaciers and ice valleys. Innumerable streams descend into the plains . . wonder . . through groves and glades then . . . gather up many a wandering rill, and start eastward upon a long journey."
Donald Todd, a Metis departed Fort Edmonton for the Alberta plains to hunt bison (buffalo), in the fall and winter of this year. His wife was a consumptive and was hoping that wintering on the plains would cure her. She was a full sister of a Metis called Godin, who brutally murdered his wife in 1871 on the banks of the Saskatchewan River below Fort Edmonton. The matter was settled by giving the father of his murdered wife six horses as compensation.
Philip Richard Turner, b-1872, Victoria, Alberta located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, son Joseph Alexander Turner, b-1838, Moose Factory and Jane Whitford, b-1846; married Mary Margaret Coutts, born August 27, 1883, Fort Saskatchewan.
George Verey who came from London to Calgary and St. Albert practiced medicine, pharmacy and is a teacher in Fort Edmonton from 1872 until his death in November 1881. The Land Act stated that any head of family over twenty-one years of age could apply for a quarter section (160 acres) and obtain title after three years of improvements (build a house, clear some land) at a cost of ten dollars.
Dunvegan, Athabasca, marriage, Jean Baptiste Waniyande, born 1838 Jasper House son Jean Baptiste Waniyande, born 1821 Jasper House, and Isabelkle Karaconti, b-1820 Jasper House, died 1888 Jasper House daughter Ignace Karaconti L'Iroquoise, (1880-1890) and Anne otf the Sekanaise tribe (Montiagnais nation) Sekana; married 1872 Dunvegan, Athabasca, Isabelle Laurion, Metis, b-1840 Rocky Mountains of B.C. side, daughter Thomas Lauron and Angelique Metis.
Few Europeans ventured out on the prairies this year with out a Metis guide.
|Trading Post||French half-breed||English half-breed||White||Native|
|Lac La Biche||360||0||11||206|
|Lake St. Anne||154||0||0||182|
|Lesser Slave Lake||0||0||0||784|
|Rocky Mtn. House||0||0||0||3,350|
|White Fish Lake||0||25||0||225|
|Charles Dumuis||Edward Boucher||Pierre Boucher|
|Alexia Braneau||Francois Braneau||Teidore Braneau|
|George Chulifour||Louis Courterielle||Joseph Deschump|
|Pierre Deloume||Felix Dummond||Antoine Godin|
|Pierre Le Duan||Alexander L Hirondelle||Joseph L Hirondelle|
|Pierre Nadue||Michael Nippisangue||Louis Rouselle|
|Alexander Savard||Antoine Shaw||Joseph Sandable|
|Basil La Runse|
This list of bad debt could represent a shift of trade from the Fort to the free traders. Many of these freemen made annual trips to Fort Garry to make trades with the St. Paul Metis people who traded to St. Paul, Minnesota. Others traded down to Fort Benson, Montana.
A second gold rush hit Fort Edmonton and all horses, mules and rolling stock of the Hudson Bay Company disappeared, heading for the Crowsnest Pass and Wild-horse country where gold is reported. Excluding the Blackfoot, who was notorious horse thieves, these were probably the first rustlers recorded in Alberta.
Lawrence Garneau Metis (1840-1921) wintered at Tail Creek des Metis, Strathcona, Saint Albert, Lac Saint Anne or along the Saskatchewan this year. His location this year has not been confirmed. There are reports that a few Metis people squatted from 1869 to 1874 on land near the Saskatchewan River at Edmonton, both opposite the fort across the river and in the lower settlement, East of the Hudson Bay Reserve. Also mentioned are James Inkster and William Inkster, some of the Rowand's and Galleon's from the lower settlement. The St. Albert Metis recorded that they forded the Saskatchewan below Fort Edmonton where the High Level Bridge (Edmonton) now stands, when going to or from the Prairie Buffalo Hunt at Tail Creek des Metis this year. The Garneau Estate would be established at this historic crossing place.
Alexis Cardinal built a cabin 25 miles west of the mouth of the Elbow River and the Bow River. Father Scollen, born 1841 Ireland, wanted the cabin in 1873 so Cardinal went on to build another cabin at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers. His first cabin is considered the first church in southern Alberta. Father Leon Doucet would later claim this second cabin before being displaced by the RCMP to the Fort Calgary site. Alexis Cardinal suffered from religious mania becoming more unbalanced as time passed.
Bishop Clut and an unnamed Oblate assistant, born 1844, arrived Fort Edmonton 1870 and departed Fort Good Hope for Fort Yukon (1872-74), being guided by two Indians. The Bishop returned but the unnamed priest went on to San Francisco before returning.
It was claimed that Donald MacLeod, a man who never married, built the first house outside Fort Edmonton this year, having joined the Hudson Bay Company in 1869, he arrived at Fort Edmonton in 1870 and free traded in 1871. He left in 1875 to freight from Winnipeg to Edmonton until 1895. The normal indenture to the Hudson Bay Company, at this time, is a five-year contract, so it is unlikely he free-traded in 1871 and improbable he built a house until 1874 or later. (I)-John Walter (1849-1920) on April 2 is stationed at Fort Pitt. He and a number of fellow servants of the Hudson Bay Company requested an accounting of what they owed.
It is believed that the Metis are farming the Sturgeon Creek aka Fort Saskatchewan and Fort Edmonton District, including White Mud Creek (Alberta), about this time.
The Metis brigades of Red River Carts on the Carlton Trail this year are making over 40 miles a day. Normally 30 miles a day is considered average. These would be those carting for the Company vs. the Free-traders.
The population of Lac La Biche (Alberta) believed occupied pre 1770 is more than 15 times the population of Fort Edmonton (Alberta).
Some contend Francois and Joseph Lamoureux settled on the river bank opposite to the present town of Fort Saskatchewan to become the first permanent settlers. This is hard to believe as four or more forts/trading posts were recorded at this site and Birch Hill as it was called was a canoe manufacturing site for hundreds of years. It wasn't until the arrival of the NWMP in 1875 that Sturgeon Creek Post aka Fort Saskatchewan was truly established. The few European farmers in the district went out to their farms by day, but returned to the Sturgeon Creek Fort for protection each night.
Sandford Fleming (1827-1915) created a survey party to chart routes to the Pacific Ocean between 1872 to 1881 for the Canadian Pacific Railway. Others involved were George Monro Grant (1835-1902), John Macoun (1838-1900), Charles George Horetzky (Horetsky) a Scot from a Ukrainian Family. Horetzky & Macoun began touting the Peace River Country as "veritable garden of Eden".
January 11: Government House at Fort Garry attempted to clarify or compromise the difference of opinion between Bishop Grandin's Metis and the Government, concerning the Metis land claims on the Saskatchewan River. The only half-breed claim for Reserves is created by the Act of Manitoba and that is confined to Manitoba. The Government promised to recognize the claims of actual settlers to an amount of land sufficient to make a farm for each head of family. No title to land is promised in the near term. Those living in tents or engaged in hunting, trapping or freighting are not considered settlers. The majority of Metis lived in tents on their summer homesteads where they cleared the land, planted the crops and made hay. The Winter homes were made of logs with fire places but were not used as homesteads. A significant number at Tail Creek des Metis used this settlement as both their winter and summer homesteads but they usually claimed lands a distance from the town site. The Government and clergy just did not understand the culture of the People or choose to ignore it to their advantage.
March 20: Donald Smith is considering a request from Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) for land at Saint Paul to be used for a mission, which would include an establishment. But this is not the way to make a profit. He said that this was too important for a quick answer and that he would think about it.
May 19: Edward McKay, Metis, and his wife Caroline Cook established a trading post and farm just south of the later Fort Walsh site in Cyprus Hills. They had horses and cows and grew potatoes and barley. They had two sons and two daughters, Jemina married John Henery Grisham Brady NWMP d-1884 and Emma married Peter O'Hare RCMP. It is noteworthy that cows played different roles than today, they pulled ploughs and carts and provided milk and meat.
June 1: Fort Chipewyan District (Alberta) birth Marguerite Lavallee, d-1956, Lac La Biche daughter Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846: married May 22, 1894 Lac La Biche Mission George Sylvester Bourke aka George Bourque, (1871-1956) Lac La Biche
August 26 Fort Edmonton, birth Cecile Vandel, Metis daughter Francois Vandel, Metis, b-1850 and Isabelle Deschamps, Metis, b-1855.
September 7: Robertson-Ross and William Munroe (b-1851), alias Piscan meaning bison (buffalo) jump, left Fort Edmonton for Kootenais or St. Claire Pass for British Columbia. He spoke Cree, Blackfoot, French and a bit of English. His father, Old Man Monroe- Hugh Monroe (1784-1892) had arrived at Fort Edmonton in1802.
December: Howell Harris and Asa Sample built a trading post in the same area as Fort Spitzee built 1869, this post was abandoned 1873 but was re-opened the next spring.
December 3: Red Lake (Saskatchewan), birth Marie Cardinal daughter Dominique Cardinal, Metis, b-1845, Floating Stone Lake (Alberta) and Marie Anne Desjarlais; married Anfrew Quintal, Metis, b-1865, Lac La Biche (Alberta) son St. Pierre b-1844, White Fish Lake, Athabasca and Marie Oka-ee-ma-00-wasis, b-1846 Rivere La Biche.
ALBERTA HISTORY 1873-1874
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