THIS PERIOD COVERS 1873 TO 1874
ALBERTA HISTORY 1875-1882
ALBERTA HISTORY Return to ALBERTA index
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index
Agustus Anelia, Metis b-1873 Alberta married about 1895 Alberta Emile Metis b-1877 Alberta living Tail Creek, Alberta 1901.
(II)-John Anderson (likely Metis) b-1873 N.W.T. son (I)-Gilbert Anderson b-1830 Scotland and Mary Ducharme (likely Metis) b-1839 Red River; married Sarah Metis b-1875 N.W.T. all living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Patrick Beaudry Metis b-1873 Alberta living Lakeland, eastern Alberta 1891.
Emilien Belcourt, b-1873, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) daughter Eswin Belcourt, b-1843, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Louise Paul b-1857, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Clarisse Belcourt, Metis, b-1873 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) daughter Benjamin Belcourt, Metis, b-1852 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Mary Betsy Native.
John Bourassa Metis son of Louis Bourassa Sr. in charge of HBC Fort
Dunvegan and Marguarite Nisandaway Lefleur b-1825 [He could be the son of
Louis Bourassa Metis Jr. and Rosalie Forcier??] ; joined HBC (1873-1888) Fort
Dunvegan, Fort Chipewayan and Fort Vermillion, married 1876 Lanciaoda St. Cyr
Julienne Bourasse b-1878 married Xavier Piche b-1878 might be their daughter rather than Louise's see Alberta 3a?
Garcilth Cardinal, Metis b-1873 Alberta living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891.
Gabriel Cardinal, b-1873, Stony Creek, son, Gabriel Cardinal dit Labatoche, b-1835 and Marie Bruneau, b-1837.
Betsey Donald Metis b-1873 daughter George Donald (McDonald?), Metis b-1816 N.W.T. married to Elizabeth Metis b-1834 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
John C. Dural,
Metis is trading Milk River (Alberta/Montana).
Leon Ferguson Metis b-1873 Grouard just west of Slave Lake, likely son John Ferguson aka Farquarhson Metis b-1841 likely Red River son John Ferguson aka Farquarhson (1809-1875) and likely Sophie Montour? He joined HBC 1894-1909) Peace River and Athabasca, married Marie Grawiniskan
Gilbert Gaddy, b-1873 Alberta son Alexander Gaddy, b-1834 and Margaret Kennedy; married Caroline Henry, b-1874
(I)-John Glenn born 1834 County Mayo, Ireland, died January 9, 1886 in Calgary, married St. Alberta, this year Adelaide Becourt Metis born Devils Lake (Lac Ste Anne, NWT) settled in the Calgary (Alberta) area at the confluence of Fish Creek and Bow River where they built a log cabin. They were at Fort Benton, Montana and headed north along the 'Whoop-up trail'. The arrived at the junction of Fish Creek and Bow River (Calgary). They built a log cabin and trading post near Fish Creek John died as a result of a 1885 fistfight near Calgary. Maureen Marchall adds "John Glenn actually died on January 9th, 1886 - this information is on his head stone in St Mary's pioneer cemetery in Calgary. In fact he did have a fist fight in December of 1885, however he died of pneumonia (no doubt as a result of this fight) in January." He claims to have traveled from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the Rio Grande to the Peace and found Calgary to be the best.
1873 Indian encampment
(II)-Richard Charles Hardisty (1831-1889) a Metis appears to have built a house outside Fort Edmonton prior to 1873. The photo is an Indian or Metis encampment with the Hardisty house in the background.
Cashine House (f) Metis b-1873 Alberta living Lakeland, (Alberta) 1891.
H.A. (Fred) Kanouse decided to get out of the Blackfoot territory and established a trading post at Waterton Lakes called Fort Warren.
William John Lambert Metis b-1850 Red River joined HBC (1870-1873) lower Fort Gary assigned (1873-1893) Athabasca.
George Larose, Metis b-1873 Alberta living Red Deer Lake, (Alberta) 1901.
Magloire L'Hyrondelle married St. Albert, Euphrosine Beauregard, b-1837, Fort Edmonton, daughter Charles Beauregard Sr., died 1885 and Josephte Kwarakwentha Callihoo L'Iroquois, b-1822.
Floria Larocque Metis b-1873 Metis daughter Louis Larocque Metis b-1850/52 Red River and Angelique Metis b-1851/52 N.W.T., living Edmonton 1891 and 1901.
Sam Livinhstone is trading and farming in Calgary (Alberta).
Florance Loutit? b-1873, NWT daughter Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Joseph McKay, Metis b-1873, living Southern (Alberta) 1891.
(III)-William McKay, Metis (1818-1883) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877) and Harriet Ballenden (1795/1800-1854) joined HBC (1837-1883) assigned Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan District (1873-1883)
Elie Mageau, Metis b-1873 (Alberta) married about 1895 Alberta Eva Metis b-1876 Alberta, living Lac Ste Anne, Alberta 1901.
Fort Slide-out consisted of little more than a group of trading shacks which were built on the Belly River between Fort Kipp and Fort Standoff. The unnamed post was operated by Mose Soloman and Miller. They were American whiskey-traders from Fort Benton. Miller was killed by Blood Indians. A Dutchman at the fort suggested they had better 'slide-out' and thus the name was given to the fort.
Michael Phillips made his way up the Elk River (Alberta) searching for gold and was disappointed in finding nothing but coal. His relatives claim he was the first European to visit the Crowsnest Pass.
Alexander Prudin, Metis b-1873 Alberta son Partick Prudin, Metis b-1843 and Elizabeth Metis b-1846 living Alberta 1873 to 1890, living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891.
Marie Rose Onellette, Metis, born December 23, 1873, Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta)(or Fort Edmonton), daughter Jean Baptiste Ouellette Sr., Metis, b-1837 and Cecile Courchene, b-1837.
Abraham Salois of St. Albert claimed during this years bison (buffalo) hunt out of Tail Creek des Metis he had killed 37 bison in one run.
Gabriel Salois, b-1873, Battle River Settlement (Alberta) son Toussaint Salois, b-1850 and Helene Breland, b-1850.
Lucille Savard, Metis b-1873 N.W.T. living Fort Edmonton 1891
Mary Watson b-1873 N.W.T. living Southern Alberta 1891.
St. Albert, marriage Felix Blandion, son Antoine Blandion Sr. and Marie Desjarlais; married 1873 St. Albert, Anne Whitford, born Fenruary 15, 1836 daughter Francois Whitford Sr. b-1835 and Jane Anderson, b-1845.
Surveyor W.S. Gore began laying out the three thousand acre Hudson Bay Reserve. The Hudson Bay Company entitlement is at Fort Edmonton, Victoria, Assiniboine, Rocky Mountain House, Lac La Nonne and six other sites. Once the Hudson Bay Company staked their claim, the other settlers felt they could safely make their claim to lands on the Saskatchewan River system. The (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) reported that it could take the better part of a day to cross the Saskatchewan River from Fort Edmonton, depending on the season. In his opinion, there is not a single settler south of the Saskatchewan River (the Metis had winter houses and summer teepees or log houses but the clergy did not consider them settlers). He also believed those horse thieves and scalp-takers (the Indians) might be expected at anytime. He reported that the Cree occupied the Red (Deers) River valley and spoke of the wild Blackfoot and the wilder long knives (United States traders) in these parts of the country. They ran into Mr. Davis, who later became one of the first representatives for Alberta in the Dominion House. He is running with the Whoop-Up boys, killing Indians. Harrison Young claimed to be the first white marriage in Fort Edmonton. The second is William Wood and the third Donald Ross, born 1841 (1840-1915), according to Ross's recollection. Ross is a miner who claims to have arrived August 20, 1872 at Fort Edmonton.
Old Strathcona river lots were established on the Red River Metis principle of long and narrow, starting from the Saskatchewan River. These lots were staked out between 1870 to 1875 by the Metis. The difference between the 1882 survey map and the original settlement is European influence for strait property lines, oriented north south and east west.. The Metis often followed the contour of the land. The arguments between the Metis and surveyors must have been interesting. River lots #1 to #15 appear to be a compromise between the two systems, both sides compromising. In 1878 W. F. King (1854-1916) listed Old Strathcona land holders as John Ashen b-1850 (Lot #5 - 1874), Laurent Garneau (1840-1821) (Lot #7 - 1872/73), John Walter (Lot #9 - 1875), (II)-Joseph (Joe) McDonald Metis (1837-1921) of (Lot #11- 1872/73), Charles Gauthier Metis b-1841 (lot #15A & #17 north) and George Kipling (Kiplen) Metis b-1820 (Lot #19 & 21). Oliver's list shows; William Ward (Lot 15 & 17) is listed just west of Kiplen in place of William Mavor. Norman McKay (lot #13) is shown between Kiplen and Gauthier. By 1882 Norman McKay was replaced by Tom Anderson (Lot #13 & #15) or W.F. Braden. It is believed Garneau (1872/73) and McDonald (1872/73) preceded Walter (1874/75) by two years in staking homesteads. It is likely Walter clamed the whole flat and Garneau/McDonald compromised by giving Walter a slice of their land to conform to Metis land system reckoning. (III)-William Bird Metis (Lot 19 north) was established on Cloverdale Flats by 1878. He also established lot #23 south half, Strathcona in 1878.
Lawrence Garneau, a Metis (1840-1921), a freeman (non company person), Eleanor Thomas also a Metis (1852-1912) and their two Metis children; Victoria (1869-1899) and Louis (1874-1959), walked and rode their red river carts the one thousand, two hundred and twenty five miles from their Red River home. They arrived in Old Strathcona (Alberta) in 1873, possibly earlier, and it’s also possible they may have arrived as late as 1874, but I haven't found conclusive evidence to confirm either assumption. The history of Tail Creek des Metis strongly suggests they wintered there but their summer homestead is up for speculation. It is noteworthy that a homestead with a teepee as a residence is not considered a homestead by the English. Family tradition suggests they arrived with a string of ten horses, their piano and all other belongings on red river carts. One man could attend to four red river carts with ease but only two wagons. Others suggest the most experienced freighters could handle ten carts, providing they were in caravan. The average was six, with three being the minimum. It’s highly likely that being a free trader and freighter, the actual move covered more than one freighting season. This could account for the family confusion. Also some of the family goods would be stored at the Tail Creek des Metis log home. It is believed he didn't build a log house on river lot #7 until 1875. It is also know he experienced the floods at Red River so wouldn't build on the river flats. His neighbor John Walters would not knowing the risk.
Boucher, Jean Baptiste  (c. 1759 - 1824) (Undetermined origin) Birth: c. 1759
Death: Snake Country, Pacific Northwest - October 1824
Fur trade employee NWC Trapper, Spokane House
[Fort Spokane, Spokane Falls] (1821 - 1822); HBC Freeman, Spokane House [Fort
Spokane, Spokane Falls] (1822 - 1823); Interpreter, Fort George [Astoria] (1822
- 1823); Trapper, Snake Party (1824). Jean Baptiste Boucher appears to have been
more than fifty years of age when he came to Fort George [Astoria] as
interpreter for the NWC. Very little is known of his work but when he struck out
from Flathead Post on February 10, 1824 on Alexander Ross’ Expedition, the
sixty-five year old was one of four of thirty-four trappers deemed to be
"not worth equipping" (SnkCoPJ 1, fo. 1d). Seven months later in
September, on the expedition, Boucher became sick and had to be carried on
poles. As the men were not happy carrying him around in the sometimes rough
Snake Country, Boucher tried riding a horse, and soon after, on October 12,
1824, he died. Alexander Ross’ entry that day reflected some of Boucher’s
character. This morning, after an illness of 20 days, died Jean Baptiste
Boucher, aged 65 years, an honest and upright man (SnkCoPJ 1, fo53d).
According to Munnick, Jean Baptiste Boucher took Josephte Kanhopitsa (des Chaudières) for his wife after her abandonment by John Clarke. After Jean Baptiste died, Josephte married Joachim Hubert. (Josephete’s daughter Josephte, who married John McKay, went by the name of her step-father, Boucher ld build on the flats and got wiped out.
Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921) claimed a two hundred and sixty nine acre tract of land on the south side of the north Saskatchewan river, over looking Fort Edmonton, that was called lot number seven, in Old Strathcona. It would appear he was the seventh recognized settler in the Fort Edmonton area. This would also imply he had built the seventh log house in Edmonton to qualify as a homestead. The choice of lot seven is most logical as it is on high ground; away from flooding which was common on the Red River. It fronted on the shallows of the river where it was possible to cross with a wagon. It is fertile ground and more isolated than north side locations, therefore less likely to be claim jumped by Eastern Anglo-Saxon squatters like the Metis Red River lands were. Another compelling reason was that you didn't have to ford the river after the annual Bison (Buffalo) hunt at Tail Creek des Metis, which the Saint Albert, Big Lake and Lac Saint Anne Metis had to do, especially the fall hunt which could be close to freeze up. Free trading with the Cree, the Garneau Family returned to Fort Garry in 1874 with their furs for trade. They brought the balance of their possessions back to Old Strathcona. It is logical that the piano and other house hold effects would have arrived on the second trip, unless their Cree relative’s safeguarded their possessions in Old Strathcona on their Ellerslie Reserve. Eleanor Garneau, (1851-1912) also a Metis, could have stayed behind to ensure possession of their claim and belongings.
Their first task was to build a log house to replace their traveling tent (teepee) before winter, put up hay for the horses and clear land for a spring garden. Between these normal activities they had to make the two annual bison (buffalo) runs to ensure a winter supply of food and for trade at Fort Edmonton, Fort Benson or Red River. This rigorous annual schedule and seemingly arduous journey are an annual affair for the five to six thousand Metis on the Prairies. Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921) would recall these conditions and the bison (buffalo) hunts as the highlight of his life. He could talk for hours on the subject. Most Prairie Metis did not consider this hectic schedule a hardship.
Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921), however, knew that the bison (buffalo) hunts would not last and Tail Creek des Metis would likely become his last wintering house. It is noteworthy that a good Metis hunter would kill bison by the score and give them to those who were either unable to kill or had no bison (buffalo). Not until every poor member of the hunting party had his cart filled with meat would he begin to fill his own. They learned this principle from their Indian brothers. Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921), did not appear as a Captain of the hunt and therefore he was likely just an average hunter. It would appear he made most of his wealth freighting and free-trading.
The Metis of Cyprus Hills are running a Red River Cart Train to Fort Benton.
The Government Survey party is on North Saskatchewan River.
Simon Whiteford, Metis b-1849 Alberta son Samuel Whitford and Mary Henderson; married May 20, 1873 Victoria, Alberta ( about 1875 Alberta) Elizabeth Anderson, Metis b-1859 Alberta, living Pakan, Alberta 1901, daughter John Anderson Jr. b-1827 and Christie Whitford, b-1833.
Whiskey Gap (Alberta) is believed to have gotten it's name from whiskey traders who hid three barrels of whiskey on the south rim of the Gap to avoid the NWMP. Two miles east of Whiskey Gap is a ford over Milk River that was used by the Bull Team Freighters out of Fort Benton. Whiskey Gap (Alberta) was not officially recorded as such until 1913 then in 1918 it was officially called Fareham, Alberta. The NWMP camped at the Milk River ford but never found the whiskey stach.
March: Joseph Mahkass aka Noose or Ladouceur, son Joseph Mahkass and Veronique Batard, b-1844; married 1893 Lac La Biche (Alberta) Marguerite Lapoudre, b-1879, Lac La Biche, daughter, Henri Lapoudre, b-1851 on the Plains and Christine Carlouche Vivicr, b-1851.
March: Quite a large number of Metis and Indians had gathered south of the Red Deer River intending to visit one of the nearest trading posts south of the Bow River. At this time the only white men between Red Deer River and the Boundary Line where United States whiskey traders and wolfers. On the Southside of the Bow River is the Fort of Healy and Hamilton's (Fort Calgary). The commandant of the fort was a man called Davis. The fort had 6 employee's including an interpreter who was a Negro. The cook was a Spaniard. They traded mostly in whiskey but also carried guns and ammunitions. Their head office was Fort Whoop-Up to the east near Medicine Hat.
April 25: St. Alberta (Alberta), birth Rev. Patrice Beaudry son Narcisse Beaudry, b-1845 and Lucie Breland, born February 22, 1848 Red River
May: Red Deer, Alberta, birth, Augustin Hamelin, son Augustin Hamelin "Azure", b-1840, Red River and Marie Desjarlais, 1824, Lac La Biche; married April 16, 1895, Bear Hills, Emelia Vanesse dit Anas, born January 1, 1877, Calgary.
May 16: Fort Vermillion (Alberta), birth Alexandre Cardinal, Metis, son, Louis Cardinal, b-1840, Fort Edmonton (Alberta), and Marie Bison, b-1840, Dunvegan, Athabasca (Alberta); married August 6, 1895, Fort Chipewyan, Christine MacDonald, b-1873, Fort Chipewyan daughter Daniel (Donald) McDonald, b-1848 and Catherine Tourangeau, b-1943.
June 5: Fort Edmonton, (Alberta), birth Thomas Berard, son Eustache Berard, b-1829 Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Marguerite Primeau b-1836; married Marie, b-1872.
October 12: St. Albert (Alberta), birth Roger Berard son John Roger Berard, b-1852 and Rosa Archange Belcourt, b-1859; married LaLouise Marrow, b-1880, Fort Pitt (Saskatchewan).
October 12: Cypress Hills (Alberta/Saskatchewan), birth Josephine Gariepy, daughter, Jean Baptiste Gariepy, b-1832 Red River and Julia Judith Cardinal, b-1827; married 1898, Gabriel Salois, b-1879, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) son Gabriel Salois, b-1852 and Elizabeth McGillis, b-1853.
November: Mary Jane Savard, b-1873, Egg Lake (Alberta), daughter, Antoine Savard, b-1825 and Marguerite Bisson, b-1831.
November: Morleyville Farm on the Boy River; The (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) and his brother David arrived Morley November 1873 with some fifty head of horses and cattle making him the first Alberta cattle ranchers. In 1875 he would again venture to Fort Benton, Montana, driving back another hundred head of steers and breeding stock. Others suggest the McDougall brothers brought a dozen head of cattle (11 cows and one bull) from Fort Edmonton to Calgary to establish a herd at the Methodist mission west of Calgary. If this be true then the first cattle in Alberta would be into Fort Edmonton. The earliest cattle into Fort Edmonton that I have seen reference to was in 1879, 52 head via the Northcote steamship. The Metis were bringing horses into Fort Edmonton area but no mention of cattle. I think buffalo (bison) was too plentiful to have any interest in cattle and/or any reference to cattle.
A cairn was erected in 1953 in the Edmonton Garneau District located at Saskatchewan Drive and 111 Avenue, it states "This part of the city (Garneau River Lot 7) was named after Laurent (Larry) Garneau, (1840-1921) a Metis, farmer, community organizer and musician who acquired the property in 1874. His original home was on the lane at the rear of 11108 90th Avenue. A maple tree planted by him still grows there". Laurent Garneau (1840-1921) was a Metis and he died at St. Paul des Metis, Alberta..
Charles Adams HBC (1866-1882) assigned Lake St. Anns, Saskatchewan District (1874-1875), then Victoria, Edmonton District (1875-1876)
John Ashen possible son James Isham??. claimed river lot #5 west of Garneau river lot #7. This likely suggests Garneau settled first followed by Ashen who married Mary Foley likely daughter John Foley b-1826 who was in Edmonton 1860 & again in 1873.. They sold the property in 1882 to A. Patton. It's possible he was in Edmonton 1870 but never staked a land claim until 1874.
(I?)-John Ashen b-1850 claimed to be white but this is questionable, he also
claimed to be in Fort Edmonton in 1870 but he more likely staked his claim on
river lot #5 in 1874, married by 1885 Mary Fowley (Foley) b-1852/58 Metis
daughter John Foley Sr. who arrived Edmonton 1860 and Eugenie Nankisik of the
Papaschase band. This was Mary's 2nd marriage first was 1872 to John
Sabiston. The family moved to Great Falls, Montana in 1889 having sold
river lot #5 in 1882 to A. Patton
James Ashen Metis b-1884
Alexander Ashen Metis b-1884
John Barad Metis b-1874 N.W.T. son Eustas (Eustace) Barard (Birard), Metis b-1831 Fort Edmonton, N.W.T. son Louis Birard and Catherine Niyhes, married about 1862 N.W.T. Margaret Metis b-1841 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Joseph Beauchamp, Metis b-1874 Alberta living St. Albert, (Alberta) 1901.
Johnoy Belcourt, Metis b-1874 Alberta living St. Albert, (Alberta) 1901.
Joseph Belcourt, b-1874, Lac St. Anne (Alberta), son, Jean Baptiste Belcourt, born January 20, 1849, Devil Lake (Lac Ste Anne, Alberta) and Isabelle Adam, born July, 1858 Lac La Biche; married Louise Gladu, b-1880, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) daughter, Celestin Gladu and Marguerite Callio.
Victoria Belcourt, daughter Alexis Belcourt b-1826 and Nancy Rowland, b-1832 Lesser Slave Lake; recalls her first bison (buffalo) hunt this year, she married Louis Jerome Callihoo aka Callio, Metis, born January 21, 1858 son Jean Baptiste Callio, Metis b-1832 and Angelique Metis , b-1835
Mary Elizabeth Blandion, Metis, b-1874 St. Albert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
Raphael Blandion, Metis, b-1874 St. Albert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
(III)-John Bunn Metis (1832-1878) HBC (1867-1878) assigned Victoria (Alberta) (1874-1875),
Joseph Campbell, Metis, b-1874 N.W.T. son Nancy Campbell, Metis b-1856 N.W.T. Married about 1873 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Isidore Cardinal, b-1874, Lac La Biche (Alberta) son Dominique Cardinal, Metis, b-1845, Floating Stone Lake (Alberta) and Marie Anne Desjarlais; married Bethay Desjarlais, b-April 11, 1880 Lac La Biche (Alberta).
Louis Cardinal, Metis b-1874, Alberta, married about 1899, Alberta, Sarah Metis b-1880, Alberta, living Wetaskiwan, (Alberta) 1901.
Caroline Crasmus, Metis b-1874, Alberta, daughter Peter Crasmus, Metis b-1833, living, Alberta, 1874 to 1888, living Lakeland, (Alberta) 1891.
David Marie Daigneault Metis claimed in 1874 the Cloverdale Flats of River lot #17 belonging to Charles Gauthier Metis b-1841 son Isaac Daigneault b-1807 of the Papaschase Band roll #47 and Julie Laurance Metis. Charles Gladu Quinn Bateau also laid claim to the flat of Lot #17 in 1877. This likely set the president for John Walters to claim the flat lands of Lot #7 and #11 and work out a compromise with Garneau and McDonald. for a new Lot #9.
Mary Anne Rabasca Deschamps, b-1874, Pidgeon Lake (Alberta), daughter Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
Joseph Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis, b-1874, Lac St Anne (Alberta), died May 8, 1874, Lac St Anne (Alberta), son, Antoine Wabamun Desjarlais, Metis b-1820 Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) and Marie Julie Catherine Kakatow a Cree;
Charles Descheneaux, Metis, b-1852, married 1874 St. Albert, (Alberta), Anne Tanner, Metis b-1857.
Father Doucet stated at the Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) Metis Settlement in Alberta "They built their little winter houses in the woods right next to the beautiful Buffalo Lake."
Flora Eneas b-1874 N.W.T., a domestic, living Calgary (Alberta), 1891.
Edward Garneau, Metis, is born November 12, 1874 at Old Strathcona, North West Territories, d-1959 son Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas (1852-1912). His actual birth location has not been verified. The Garneau family had not yet converted to the Roman Church. His descendents claim he is born 1872 in Red River but other evidence discounts this claim. It is possible he is born on a freighting or hunting trip possibly into the United States or Red River. Many early pioneers made light of the fact that their first bath is in the bread-pan that is a hollowed out log about two feet long or that the laundry is done in the soup pot.
(II)-Patrick Glenn, Metis, b-1874 Lac Ste Anne, Alberta son (I)-John Glenn (1834-1886) and Adelaide Belcourt, Metis, married about 1897 likely Calgary (Alberta), Lucy Metis b-1876 Alberta.
(II)-Bella Gonan, Metis b-1868, Alberta, daughter (I)-William Gonan b-1823 Orkney Island and Sara Metis b-1833 Red River, living Lakeland, (Alberta), 1891.
Donald Graham departed Fort Edmonton (Alberta), for Fort Breton, Montana, then on to Oregon and he finally settled down in the Okanogan Valley of British Columbia.
Alfred Gray, Metis b-1874, Alberta, married about 1900 Alberta Nancy Metis b-1880 Alberta living Ste Emerence, (Alberta) 1901.
(I)-George Gullion b-1833 joined HBC 1849-1874) is a freeman on the North Saskatchewan River likely out of Fort Edmonton (1874-1877)
(I)-James Gullion (1839-1902) joined HBC (1855-1874) of Eday, Orkney Islands, worked out of Fort Edmonton as freighter and boat builder and is likely the brother of (I)- George Gullion (HBC 1849-1874)
(I)-Thomas Hourston (1854-1905)
arrived Fort Edmonton about this time (1874/1875) and possibly may have arrived Canada 1871,
1st married Sarah Donald Metis b-1856 daughter George Donald Metis b-1816 Red
River and Elizabeth (Betsy) Brass Indian b-1836, Sarah espouse 1886 Corbette
Dagneau; The Donald family and Hourston likely traveled Red River to Strathcona
together, settling as neighbors. 2nd married 1881? or before 1885?
Strathcona ? (III)-Maria Annal Metis b-1861 Red River, daughter
(II)-John Annal Metis b-1828 and Mary Brown son (I)-Peter Annal and Metis
woman; they had 2
children one died young, served Edmonton town council (1896-1898), died Guelph,
Ontario but was buried in Edmonton. (III)-Maria was in Strathcona before
(II)-William Edward Carey Hourston Metis b-1893 Fort Edmonton
Lac La Biche, marriage, Francois Cardinal, Moise, Metis b-1844-53 son Jean Baptiste (Kakakekamik) Moise b-1827 and Charlotte Wapisiokowan; 2nd married 1856 Madeleine Abraham; married 1874 Lac La Biche Caroline Johnson b-1855 Lac La Biche.
The (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) and his brother David who arrived Morley November 1873 is credited with constructing the northern half of the Calgary-Edmonton Trail this year. They made a cart road from Fort Edmonton to Morley. It followed an old Indian trail past Bear Hills, across the Red Deer River (at Red Deer Crossing) down to Morley. The ancient Calgary/Edmonton Trail had may names; Wolf Trail, Blackfoot Trail, Old North Trail to name a few. The brothers are also credited with establishing the first school in Alberta and the first teacher was Andrew Sibbald.
The NWMP are said to have brought 235 head of cattle into Alberta from the east..
Kenneth McKenzie is said brought up a large herd of cattle into Alberta from Montana this year.
Dr. Richard B. Nevitt arrives in Southern Alberta and helps build Alberta's first hospital at Fort MacLeod.
Fort Bond is operating in Pine Coulee, southwest of present day Nanton, Alberta. William Bond and Harry (Kamoose) Taylor operate the facility. Sgt. Antrobus visited Fort Bond in 1875 and stated "The fort is about three miles from where we came into the gully, and is built in the mouth of a beautiful canyon. Our fort (Macleod) cannot compare with the one, ours being built of cottonwood, this of fine large pine and the roof as close as if made of boards."
Peter Hodgson recorded that his father and family spent three winters at a camp on a piece of land in the northeast angle of Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) that is almost 35 miles north east of the mouth of Buffalo Tail Creek that would be called the Peninsula. They built a good log cabin as others did for winter quarters. They had horses and hunted, using flat sleighs instead of Red River carts, which they used later on, and had tepees of bison (buffalo) hides. He said that there were many houses at Tail Creek but not as many as on the Peninsula. They usually traveled there and camped soon as it started to get cold. This would imply that the Peninsula was a summer home and Tail Creek the winter home for this family. This would also imply a larger peak population of much more than 2,000 people. He remembers seeing a whipsaw mill upon a bank in Tail Creek. He noted that a priest had a cabin in their camp (Tail Creek?) that would imply a much later date than 1874. He also noted that Metis hunters from Fort Edmonton, Fort St. Albert, Big Lake and Lac St. Anne went out on the hunt making Tail Creek their head quarters. It is noteworthy that to my knowledge no forts were built at St. Albert, and it was never referred to as Fort St. Albert. Maybe he was thinking of another place?
Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914) of the Mounted Police considered selecting the University area next to the Garneau homestead but changed his mind for the mouth of the Sturgeon River (Fort Saskatchewan). This is interesting given all this land in Edmonton or Strathcona is occupied.
Henry Lee, Metis b-1874 Alberta married about 1897 Alberta Mary Metis b-1880 Alberta, living Livingston, Alberta 1901.
Samuel Livingston (1831-1897) settled on the Bow River (Calgary) that is now flooded by the Glenmore Dam. This is after a career of prospecting for gold and trading in bison (buffalo) skins. The Sarcee were hostile to his presence and threatened to shoot him if he crossed his fence. They called him the Big White Devil. Some consider him one of the earliest settlers of Calgary. He was noted for his agricultural achievements, the regions first dairy herd, first pigs, first threshing machine, first bonder and first cultivation of fruit trees.
John McDonald Metis b-1854 son John McDonald Metis b-1825 and Elizabeth Tait
Metis b-1832 joined HBC (1874-1889) Athabasca was at Fort McMurrat 1877,
Fort Vermilion 1880, Winnipeg 1885, Fort Chipewyan 1886, he had a wife and 7
children while in the employ
Marianne McDonald Metis b-1851
John McDonald Metis b-1854
Donald McDonald Metis b-1855
Hanna McDonald Metis b-1857
Martha McDonald Metis b-1859
Sarah McDonald Metis b-1861
Margaret McDonald Metis b-1863
Elizabeth J. McDonald Metis b-1865
Catherine McDonald Metis b-1867
About this time Fort Pend d'Oreille is built, small log building 16 X 14 X 9 feet with a 40 foot square coral, on the Milk River south of Pakowki Lake by the NWMP. A second NWMP outpost is built near Milk River (1887-1918), established to stop the whiskey trade from Fort Benton, Montana.
(III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) reported there was a large band of Metis and Indian wintering at Tail Creek, Buffalo Lake. It is noteworthy that Tail Creek on the north side of the Red Deer river, west of present day Stettler, Alberta contained 2,000 Metis and 400 houses. Some said; Why in God's name wouldn't Rev. John McDougall say there was a sizable Metis settlement at Tail Creek. (He in fact did report it) It is fairly obvious that McDougall requested the Mounted Police visit this settlement assuming illicit acts are being conducted.
May McMullen, Metis b-1874 N.W.T. living Southern Alberta 1891.
Arthur Plante b-1874, St. Albert (Alberta) son Michel Plante, b-1851, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan and Juliet Nault, b-1848, Fort Edmonton.
Donald Ross (1840-1915) (the ex-miner), who claimed to have arrived Fort Edmonton 1874, suggested he started to build the first hotel in Edmonton this year. The 1874/1875 season, based upon Hudson Bay Company records, state that Donald Ross is assigned to Athabasca, Donald Ross? to Fort Dunvegan, and Roderick Ross to Norway House, therefore it must have been Donald Ross the miner?? Some claim Ross created the Edmonton Hotel and feed stables in 1867 but Ross claimed he arrived Fort Edmonton as a miner in August 20, 1872. Ross is noted for the telling of tall tales.
Margaret Jane Spence, b-1874, Victoria, Alberta, located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, died 1896, Victoria, Alberta, daughter, Andrew Spence Sr., b-1842 and Nancy Whitford, b-1850. .
(I)-Sam Steel (1849-1919) joined the NWMP on the western column from Fort Garry to Fort Edmonton this year.
Alexander Quintal, Metis b-1874 Alberta married about 1892 Alberta Margaret Metis b-1875 Alberta, living Lac La Biche, Alberta 1901.
Archibald Whitford, Metis b-1874 Alberta married about 1896 Alberta Harriet Metis b-1876 Alberta living Wetaskiwan, Alberta 1901.
Roderick Whitford, Metis, b-1874, Victoria, Alberta located 90 km NE Fort Edmonton, son Simon Whiteford, Metis b-1849 Alberta and Elizabeth Anderson, Metis b-1859 Alberta, living Pakan, Alberta 1901, daughter John Anderson Jr. b-1827 and Christie Whitford, b-1833.
Don Whitford, Scotch Cree, Metis married the daughter of Chief Samson of Hobbema. Don lived on Boss Hill (near Tail Creek). One of his daughters told how they killed bison (buffalo) during the late summer, cut it into large flat pieces and dried it on the ground or across poles. They made drums and some clothes from the hides. Several old timers confirmed that there was a splendid settlement around Boss Hill. The number of log cabins was never counted.
Benjamin Wioshart b-1874 Red River, a rancher, living Gleichen, Alberta 1891.
Emma Trayer doubts if there was 400 cabins in Tail Creek unless it included some along a lake west of Pete Adams. This unnamed village was located on the south end of the Peninsula and just north of Boss Hill. In 1902 the remains of the settlement still existed including the remains of very large copper pots used to render the bison (buffalo), which some called 'ten skin kettles' because they cost ten bison (buffalo) skins each. We know the Indians were also here because many dead trees had the outer bark removed in order to collect popular sap that was used to prevent scurvy. This assumes the Metis didn't also adopt this winter tradition. Hearonemus also discovered an old cross cut saw pit where logs had been squared and rough lumber made. They assumed there must have been white men in the village as no Indian would bother to saw lumber. It is noteworthy that this account had no room for a Metis person, neither white nor Indian. Philip Whitford, a Metis who spent time there in his younger days, confirmed it was a trading post where Indians gathered to spend the winter. In reality, most in this settlement were Metis, and it would appear Philip is worried that he might possibly be identified as an Indian. Rather than being identified as half-breed, the polite society usually said he had a bit of French in him.
John Evans and Harry (Kamose) Taylor, traders of Fort Whoop-Up, Cyprus Hills, were trading guns to the Indians at Fort Spitzee near High River, Alberta. J. J. Healy is also trading guns.
The 'A' division of the RCMP arrived Fort Edmonton, from Red River, some say in October of this year. The were only able to travel about 5 miles a day and were considered a pathetic lot. Some historians called it an 'epic journey' but the Metis often made two trips of this nature a year in-between making hay, planting crops, and fur trading.
The known Land holders in Old Strathcona (Alberta) this year are: (III)-William Bird, a Metis, who had established a saw mill east of Mill Creek in 1874 for HBC . David Daignault had the land west of Mill Creek to the Saskatchewan River (this is later acquired by Donald Ross) and the site of the first commercial coal mine in Edmonton. On the plateau south of Mill Creek Valley and fronting on the Saskatchewan River is the farms of Charles Gauthier b-1841 (Lot 15A & 17 north), George Kipling b-1820 Metis (HBC 1870-1875), William Maver, Joseph MacDonald Metis b-1839, Lawrence Garneau, a Metis, (1840-1921) and John Ashen b-1850 (Lot #5 - 1874), on the future university site (this is later acquired by A. Patton). (I)-John Walter (1849-1920) would later (1880) occupied the flood plain that is called Walterdale Flats), and George Donald (HBC 1850-1875) lived and farmed in the Bonnie Doon District.
The following land holders in Old Strathcona are not included in the April census and must have been off hunting or freighting: David Daignault, George Kipling Metis b-1820 (HBC 1870-1875), William Maver, Joseph MacDonald, Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921), John Ashen b-1850 and George Donald (HBC 1850-1875). The Land holders in Edmonton, running easterly from the fort, were: (I)-Colin Fraser (HBC 1807-1867), (a one time postmaster at Fort Edmonton (1853-1854)), John Sinclair, Donald McLeod (the bachelor who claimed to have built the first house outside the fort), James Rowand (a Metis), (I)-William Rowand (HBC 1820-1871)* (a Metis?), (I)-Kenneth MacDonald (HBC 1850-1874), (I)-James Kirkness (HBC 1864-1882), (II)-John Fraser Metis (HBC 1862-1869), (I)-James Gullion (1839-1902) (HBC 1855-1874) and brother (I)-George Gullion b-1833 (HBC 1849-1874), all ex-Hudson Bay Company men. The Gullion brothers owned the Highland District. In front of the Methodist Mission, on the flats, is Donald Ross, a miner from the Omenica Gold Fields, not to be confused with the Donald Ross of Lesliewood, Orkney of the Hudson Bay Company. (I)-Malcolm Groat b-1839, ex-Hudson Bay Company employee, owned the land just west of the Hudson Bay Reserve, next to him was John Norris' trading store with his son-in-law R. Loge, both were ex-Hudson Bay Company men. The Walter Sprole farm is owned by Big Majeau, and George Gagnon owned the Dunvegan yards. Edmund Juneau, Harnols brothers, Dan Noyes, Pascal Marichal are all ex-miners from across the mountains. * two William Rowlands married Betsey Ballendine, a native of Hudson Bay, William A January 9, 1825 Moose Lake and William B (1802-1875) on August 21, 1838 married Norway House, Betsey Ballendine, of Norway House, William B died Fort Edmonton 1875. Betsey had a son (II)-William Rowland Metis.
None of the ex-miners are included in the April census, which could imply they arrived after April. Not included, however, is John Norris and R. Loge, who may be considered as part of the St. Albert census. If they were not being considered as part of Edmonton then this would give more credibility to Malcolm Norris and Ed Carney's claim as having the first store, in Edmonton, outside the fort.
However Colin Fraser, John Sinclair, James Rowand, Kenneth MacDonald, James Kirkness, John Fraser and (I)-James Gullion (1839-1902), all ex-Hudson Bay men, were also not included in the April census.
The April 1874 census of Fort Edmonton and neighborhood is as follows:
MEN WOMEN CHILDREN MEN WOMEN CHILDREN MEN
44 2 4 186 34 90 6
It is noteworthy that of the 44 men considered, white 36 are listed in the census but of the 186 men considered Metis only 14 are listed in the census. This consistent bias has been noted in most historical documents, making it very difficult to determine the real truth. The fact that the 1882 land survey follows the French/Metis convention clearly indicates they dominated the early Edmonton Settlement and surrounding area and not the British as many would like us to believe.
The following people are living in Fort Edmonton April 1874, Bernard Ticknatauly, Native; the following men are classified as Metis: Charles Adams, (a Clerk until 1878 assigned Lake Saint Anne), Eustace Bernard, (III)-William Bird Metis, Isaac Darjneau, N. Demond, John Frager, (II)-Richard Hardisty, Metis (1831-1889) (Chief Factor), Joseph Rowand, Frederick Rowand, Alexander Rowand, William Rowand, L. Sarogue, W-Joe, Philip Whitford;
The following men are classified as white: J. Adams, Filbert Anderson, John Bain, Jean-Baptiste Beaupre, John Burk, Jas Burleigh, John Coutts, William Dixon, O. Fowler, Lowry Fullerton, Charles Gauthier Metis b-1841, (I)-Malcolm Groat b-1839, Thomas Harper, Joseph Henderson, John Holland, (I)-Thomas Hourston (1854-1905), Jim Irvine, Joseph Kirkness, Bazzille Labear, Moses Lenny, Joseph Lang, Frank Lamoureux, Joseph Lamoureux, Rev. MacDougall, K. McKay, McLeod, Malcolm McLeod, K. (Kenneth) McDonald, Donald McLeod, William Mourgan, Ponquitte (possible Metis), Joseph Reid, Thomas Robinson, Donald Ross (Chief Factor Athabasca to 1875), Charles Simpson (Clerk at Carlton House to 1879), John Walker, William L. Wood (Clerk to 1876). The two women who declared themselves as white are the wife of (II)-Richard Hardisty, Metis (1831-1889) and (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) . Twenty-two married men, twenty-six men without women and fifty-six children appeared to be living at the Fort. The 1873 trade year on the Saskatchewan had resulted in a fifty-five thousand-dollar loss including a steamship loss and a fire at Fort Francois. Some of this loss is attributed to the free traders.
(II)-Richard Hardisty Metis (1831-1889), knowing that business is not good, immediately started the construction of Big House to replace the three-story house called Rowand's Folly within the Fort. He had been living in Rowand's Folly for two years and he knew if he didn't replace it now it could be deferred for many years. Big House would burn down in 1906.
Some contend that Tail Creek des Metis is occupied by four Mounted Police, one being called Buffalo Slayer, residing in a Fort consisting of three log buildings with a pole roof covered with hay and earth. The fort is surrounded by stockades of tall stakes. This is likely an error and should be applied to 1875 or later.
Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914) and Sam Steele (1849-1919) of the Mounted police departed Fort Edmonton with twelve men by dog team and ponies in -42 to -52 F temperatures, the worst in 30 years, taking 15 days to reach Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta) on a complaint of illicit whiskey.
The first ferry service in the North West Territories began operations at Batoche at the old Saskatchewan River crossing of the Carlton Trail. The Carlton trail ran from Red River to Fort Edmonton. Batoche is basically a Metis town.
The 1874/75 period recorded a poor harvest of hay resulting in a large livestock loss at St. Albert (Alberta).
The Hutterites immigrated to the United States from Russia between 1874 and 1879 to the Dakota Territories and would later in 1918, due to a tragic incidence in which two members died at the hands of the US military, most Hutterites emigrated to Canada.. Today almost 75% of all Hutterites live in Canada. Bon Homme Colony is located near Yankton South Dakota, on the banks of the Missouri River, and is still inhabited today. Wolf Creek Colony near Olivet South Dakota was established in 1875. The Wolf Creek colony was sold in 1930 when the Dariusleut migrated to Alberta, Canada. Elm Spring Colony near Ethan South Dakota was established in 1877. After selling this colony site in 1929, the Lehrerleut migrated to Canada, settling in Alberta.
The annual Edmonton Bison (Buffalo) Hunt to Tail Creek was hit by an early ‘grand snowstorm’ that caught many Metis hunters out on the plains. Many hunters from Lac Saint Anne, Saint Albert, Edmonton and Old Strathcona had to partially winter at Tail Creek. Those who made it back to Fort Edmonton had to dodge drift ice crossing the Saskatchewan below the fort. Those who remained in the field underwent great suffering, as they didn't have wood cut or sufficient shelter.
Ironically, after George French and Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894)
of the Mounted Police
got lost near Cypress Hills while looking for Fort Whoop-up, they went to
Fort Benton, Montana. This is the headquarters for the whiskey trade
and the home of the Indian women and child killers. They went there
for supplies and are fortunate to recruit Jerry Pott, the Metis, as a guide,
interpreter and general advisor for the next twenty-two years.
Fort Whoop-up was empty when the Mounted Police arrived, just as Jerry Pott had predicted. Dave Akers, an old-timer in the area, was the only person at Fort Whoop-up when the Police arrived, the others had fled. Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894) tried to buy Fort Whoop-up for $10,000 but couldn't afford the twenty-five thousand-dollar price tag. It was Jerry Pott who selected de Ole Man's River, a semi-island site (Fort MacLeod), for the Mounted Police headquarters in October. Harry Kamoose Taylor, a whisky trader, is at the Fort MacLeod site when the Mounted Police arrive. Kamoose, means wife-stealer; he stole an Indian girl after her father refused Taylor's offer of a horse and two blankets for her. He went on to build the MacLeod Hotel. MacLeod's fumbling start culminated with Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfoot saying that Major MacLeod was a brave man and that the law of the Great White Mother must be good when she has sons like MacLeod. We will obey the law. Crowfoot kept his promise. Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894) was a thinking man but paid only the minimum necessary attention to Father Albert Lacombe's (1827-1916) or (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall's (1842-1917) advice. He liked both men and trusted them, but they provided conflicting advice.
February: Bear Hills, Alberta, birth Cornelious Leblanc aka White Jr., son Cornelious Leblanc Sr., b-1850, Fort Edmonton and Mary Favel, b-1858, Fort Edmonton.
March: Jean D'Artique from Fort Edmonton visited, in Buffalo Lake (west Stettler, Alberta), a village of Indians and Metis but finds that the greater part of the bison (buffalo) herd is in the Valley of Red Deer, 60 miles further south. It is noteworthy that European settlers often called Metis, Indians, especially if they lived in tepees. It is assumed he visited Tail Creek des Metis but given the fact he did not mention the violin music, the community hall or the lumber works it makes this unlikely. He wrote of being royally entertained, great meals and a Pam Pam, which up north is called a Pow-wow. He said they used a type of tambourine or drum, with sticks. He was offered tea called Mushakee. It felt like fire and was brewed tobacco. Jean almost ended up with an Indian bride, or squaw as he called her. He froze his ears and is cured by a medicine man with a root that resembles a beet. It is called akentormoo. It grows in marshy places and tastes like carrot.
March 23: Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) birth Samuel Nooskeyah or Brilliant, son Joseph Nooskeyah or Brilliant and Madeleine Surprenant; married, August 1891, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) Margaret Muskegan, born July 29, 1876, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta.
March 28: Deputy Surveyor Gore's report stated the dissatisfaction among the French and English halfbreeds arising out of the recent surveys of land claimed by the Hudson Bay Company at their posts which you state in many cases interfere with the lands occupied by the settlers. Gore says the halfbreeds have no just cause of complaint in connection with the survey in question.
March 28: Alan Morris writes: "I also beg to enclose an extract from a private letter , which was communicated to me confidentially, from an entirely reliable source, as to an attempt on the part of the French Metis, on the River Saskatchewan, to organize a local government, but which the English refused to concur in." The Dominion Government was well aware that the French Metis had formed a Provisional Government for the Territories which was within their right but not in the interest of the Hudson Bay Company or the Churches.
Alan Morris when on to to advise 'extreme caution' the Canadian Government not to inflame the situation over French and English Metis land claims being over ridden by the Hudson Bay Company are sanctioned, and that investigation should be made in every case as to whether lands are occupied by settlers or not. This questions at Fort Francis affects the UIndians, and at Prince Albert, and elsewhere the settlers. I advised the late government of the unwillingness manifested by French Metis at Qu'Appelle to allow strangers to come into the country. The question of convincing the Metis that they will be dealt fairly with will require prompt, firm and dedicate handling or there may be trouble with the scattered Metis population of the North West Territory. Allen Morrfis was am obedient servant or government spy working Belly River Region.
April 15: The Metis complained that the Hudson Bay Company surveys in the North West Territories interfere with the settlers land claims. The HBC says the settlers have no claims at Qu'Appelle or Prince Albert but admits that some survey lines cross existing fences of the settlers. McBeath claims are consider as just a grumbler. Lieut. Col, J.S. Dennis the Surveyor General says the Metis are just jealous of the success of the Company (HBC).
May: Peace River Landing (Alberta), birth John Gladu son Jean Baptiste Gladu and Louisa Cartier; married 1893, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta), Marie Carifelle, bprn November 2, 1879, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) daughter Augustin Carifelle, b01854, Lessere Slave Lake (Alberta) and Caroline Nooskeyah or Brillant, born May 1, 1863, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta).
May: Peace River Landing, Alberta), birth John Gladu, son, Jean Baptiste Gladu, b-1851, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Louisa Cartier, b-1854, Wabiscaw District, Athabasca; married Marie Carifelle Metis, born November 2, 1879, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) daughter Augustin Carifelle, Metis, b-1854, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) and Cadolinenooskeyah or Brilliant.
May 19: The French Metis are all out after them (the bison) what hunt they will make we cannot say. The had called council among themselves about forming a government of their own. I received a letter from their President Garbriel Dumont or Aespos Lou and Alexander Beauleiu, Baptiste and Pierre Gardippis, jean and Osadore Dumont, Abraham Montour. Baptiste Beauleiu, Moyse Ouillet have been elected members of the Council. They wanted their English friends as they said to join them with a friendly hand to uphold their Councils, to which we could not adher, only in regarding the buffalo (bison) hunt that we should go together with them in this.
May 19: I John Wells (Metis) of Headingly sworn making oath say: I have been on the prairies for fourteen years (since 1860) and wintered for the past two years in Cypress Mountains (Hills). There were that I know of five American forts on the Cypress Mountains (Hills) and three on the Belly River, of these two were fortified Posts but these were burned by the Assiniboines after some of their people were killed last spring. The other three are trading posts composed of four houses in a square blockaded at each corner. They deal largely in liquor. I saw wine large purchase and ten kegs brought in at our trip for sale to the Indians. I have heard that there are two strong American forts higher up on the Belly River near the forks towards the Rocky Mountains but I have not been there. One party of seven traders were doing nothing but poisoning wolves and they brought in five hundred at our trip. The Americans kill great numbers of Buffalos (Bison). I was at Cypress Hills about five miles from the place where the Indians were killed last year, at the time. It was about the month of April last year. My knowledge of the facts I obtained in part from Louison Gagnon an interpreter and Pelit Lounger who were employed by the American traders and were they said present when the Indians were killed. The chief of the American party was one Farewell, and after the killing was over he rode to my camp to trade, and to hire fifty carts to take his goods to Fort Benton. He told me the Assiniboine had commenced the affair, that they had stolen three of their horses and two days after they brought back one horse for which they asked to be paid in liquor and Farewell said he gave them two gallons. The Assiniboines had been camped outside the Fort and had been trading and drinking before this. After the two gallons were drunk the Indians were back for more, but one of the men refused to give it and the Indian pulled out his gun and the American shot him down. Then the Assiniboine who were drunk ran for their arms. The Americans and the Assiniboines commenced fighting, but the Indians were drunk and could not fight well. I heard the same story from three Assiniboines. I saw the dead bodies two months afterward, and Farewell and his halfbreeds also told me they had killed twenty six Indians. I saw a woman also, who had received a ball under her arm. One John Joe was there and took part in the fight. I learned that there were ten Americans in the fort and ten more had just arrived from Fort Benton. There was an interpreter, La Louis Barbe, but I heard he took no part. I heard the other two Metis did, but I do not know it. Some two months afterward I heard from the halfbreeds that the Americans had abused the body of the dead Assiniboine chief ands I went over to see the body and found that a sharpened stick had been driven through the body up to the head, which was then placed in a sitting posture, the stick being in the ground. The name of the chief was Manitou-potte after this was over the Americans went off to (Fort) Benton with their trade and furs. The Assininboines after they left burned the Fort. I heard there was one American killed in the fight. I have told all I know about this Affair. There was another fight between the halfbreeds and the Americans before the fight with the Assiniboines. I was told by an American connected with one of the posts who said he was there, a partner of John Joe's. The Blackfeet were were traders at one post on the Belly River and a dispute arose about price of trade and a Blackfoot shot an American when the American shot four blackfeet. The Blackfeet then stole seven of their horses. The Americans collected from the other forts in force and carried off the horses and furs of the Blackfoot. The Americans told of it and showed me the horses. I think there were over one hundred fifty men in the post I spoke of. signed with an "X" John Wells It is interesting that he used the term halfbreed and Metis. Halfbreed usually refers to English mixed blood and Metis refers to French or eastern Canadian mixed bloods.
May 24: Archibald McDonald entered into an agreement between the Hudson Bay Company and the North West Mounted Police representative Albert Thurtcliff, to lease land for posts. Actual locations are not known at this time. The July district meeting of the Hudson Bay Company proposed staff cut backs and only twenty-seven men would be paid wintering allowances this coming winter. The surplus men would have to be shipped out or encouraged to take up homesteads in the area. (II)-Richard Hardisty, Metis (1831-1889) is criticized for allowing William Groat b-1839, an employee, to traffic in bison (buffalo) tongues and orders him to stop this illegal practice. Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921), listed as a farmer, planted a Manitoba maple in 1874 at the front door of his house which is now located behind 11108 - 90 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta. It is still growing and is the oldest tree in the Garneau district in the 1990's. That Garneau brought a Red River maple tree to Edmonton places more credibility that he had been freighting between these two locations for the past 4 years as well as hunting bison (buffalo) out of Tail Creek des Metis.
June, St. Albert, (Alberta), birth, Genevieve Berrard, died April 1896 daughter John Roger Berard Sr., b-1852, married 1872 St. Albert, (Alberta), Rosa Archange Belcourt, b-1859 Lac Ste Anne; married to a man named Whitford.
July: Fort Edmonton, birth Veronica Vandel, Metis daughter Francois Vandel, Metis, b-1850 and Isabelle Deschamps, Metis, b-1855.
July 9: From Sam Steele NWMP records: It was about two and a half miles in length (the column) when closed up...and...must have presented a curious appearance with its motley string of ox-carts, ox-waggons, cattle for slaughter, cows, calves, mowing machines, etc This would suggest that cattle likely entered Alberta following the Metis Red River cart columns if we can believe Sam Steele see July 21.
July 10: Colonel French of the Mounted Police left Fort Garry for the Saskatchewan, expecting to reach the Bow River in two months but many experienced plain's hunters say that the Ontario police horses are too weak to reach the Saskatchewan River this fall. They offered to sell them prairie horses but the police refused the offer. By July 27 the Hudson Bay at Fort Garry still had no word whether the North West Police were going to establish on the Bow River. However, reports circulated that many Ontario horses had died. Some of the police claimed they had been over driven. The Metis warning was proving true. Lawrence Garneau, Metis, (1840-1921), over the next few years, besides working his land claim, bison (buffalo) hunting and trading, is claimed to be employed, part time, as a charcoal burner by the Hudson Bay Company. I could find no records to support the charcoal burner claim. This is not to say his wife or kids might not have been involved in the business. The blacksmiths at Edmonton House are English and used charcoal for blacksmithing. They did not care to convert to coal, the coal in which Edmonton was so proud. Lawrence would also freight to Athabasca on contract, and things ran fairly smoothly, relatively speaking, for about ten years.
July 21: From Sam Steele NWMP records: "This swarm (locust) destroyed the crops of the majority of the settlers in the province, and seed grain had to be distributed for the next season's crop." Now wait a minute no province until 1905?
July 26: From Sam Steele NWMP records: 24 waggons,
55 ox-carts with 12 drivers, 62 oxen, 50 cows and 50 calves to help us on to
August: The Mounted Police, under command of George Arthur French and second in command Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894), planned to capture Fort Whoop-up but they became lost and had no idea where they were or where the fort was located. These foolish men had hired guides who had never been into Alberta. The Mounted Police had lost most of their horses and oxen, despite being warned that the Ontario horses were not suited to prairie travel. They were also low on provisions. It is also noteworthy that they didn't know how to procure food for themselves; such was their lack of preparation. Fortunately their guides knew where Fort Benton, Montana was located and a detachment was sent to obtain provisions and replacement horses.
August 4: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Our little force to make 8 miles a day, and the cows and the calves became so footsore that they would lie down every few yards unless a goad were constantly applied.
August 4: Lac La Biche Mission District (Alberta) birth Marie Pauline Lavallee, d-1875 St Boniface, daughter Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
August 11: From Sam Steele NWMP records: We drove the herd of cows and calves before us. The country over which we passed, now covered with fine farms and comfortable homes, was gently undulating and luxuriant with grass, which caused our horses and cattle to show signs of returning vigour.
August 14/15: From Sam Steele NWMP records: We reached Fort Ellice. The valley, which is more than a mile wide, was very pretty, partly timbered, and there were occasional grassy bottoms on which large herds of ponies, many of them pintos (piebald), and numbers of cattle were grazing. Further proof that cattle were evident in Alberta prior to 1874 and surely before 1773, if we believe Sam Steele?
August 16: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Our horses and cattle were turned out on the flats, and as there were quicksands in different places we had a good deal of practice hauling them out of those death traps, which the Indian ponies knew enough to avoid.
August 26: From Sam Steele NWMP records: The Hudson's Bay Company had no jurisdiction now, with the lamentable result that people had become careless. Travellers left their fires burning, tenderfeet threw matches into the grass after lighting their pipes, Indians and the Metis buffalo hunters wilfully set the prairies on fire so that the bison would come to their part of the country to get the rich, green grass which would follow in the spring.
September: (III)-Rev. John Chantler McDougall (1842-1917) reported in September that the Mounted Police would not reach the Bow River country until next year. He requested that something be done about the freight problem, as the Canadian route cost a thirteen dollar premium over the United States route and that ,lately, fifty thousand bison (buffalo) robes were sent by way of the United States route out of Tail Creek des Metis. This would clearly indicate that the Metis had established their own trade routes to Fort Benson, Montana. Members of the Mounted Police Force in the North West Territories had to serve three years, receiving seventy-five cents per day plus room and provisions . Upon completing their three years they received one hundred and sixty acres of land with right of choice. Most served five years before selecting their acreage. It is not known if this right of choice could claim jump a Metis land claim.
September: The Mounted Police made their first wise decision while at Fort Benton, Montana by hiring the Metis (I)-Jerry Potts b-1844 (1840-1896) as their chief guide, who effectively and efficiently managed the Mounted Police. Potts made all the major decisions, facilitated the interface between the Police and the Natives. The police would not travel without him leading the way. All agreed that without him they would have achieved very little due to their lack of experience.
September: The steamboat Northcote on her maiden voyage reached Carlton House on the Saskatchewan River of this year, dispatching her cargo and immediately returned down river experiencing some difficulty with low water in the rapids.
September 2: From Sam Steele NWMP records: On the Salt Plain we met several brigades of carts driven by hunters, freighters and traders with packs of buffalo robes, dried meat and pemmican.
September 5: St. Albert (Alberta), birth Arthur Dion Blandion, son, John Blandion and Olive L'Hyrondelle, b-1855 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
September 6: From Sam Steele NWMP records: It (the pemmican) was cooked in two ways in the west; one a stew of pemmican, water, flour and, if they could be secured, wild onions or preserved potatoes. This was called "rubaboo"; the other was called by the plain hunters a " rechaud." It was cooked in a frying-pan with onions and potatoes or alone. Some persons ate pemmican raw, but I must say that I never had a taste for it that way.
September 7: From Sam Steele NWMP records: The day was spent crossing the south branch of the Saskatchewan (River) aided by a cable ferry which was already established there. The cattle had to swim across.
September 11: Petition from Augustine Brabant and others Metis at Lake Qu'Appelle concerning Metis land claims goes unanswered by the government:
Baptiste Davis Alex Fisher
Michel Desjarlias Alex Swain
Michael Klyne Francois Seignoir
Antoine Larocque Patrice Monet
Francis St. Denis Moise Ouellette
Norbert Delorme Joseph McKay
Thomas Kavenaugh Joseph Poitras
Michel Desmarais Antoine Flavin
Simon Blondeau Antoine Hamelin
Joseph Peltier Andre Flammand
September 12: From Sam Steele NWMP records: After eight long weeks of weary days we reached Fort Carlton (on the North Saskatchewan River).
September 24: French, of the RCMP, reported that the state of affairs on the Bow and Belly River has been greatly exaggerated. The reports of 500 lawless United States people in the vicinity had no substance. The very rational for the RCMP presence was in question.
September 23: From Sam Steele NWMP records: having pulled out of Carlton on the 19th, Game was very plentiful, and the cranes, white wild geese or wavies were in profusion, with considerable numbers of the grey Canadian goose. Our guns and rifles were kept busy during each halt, Corporal Carr on one occasion shooting eleven wild geese with one barrel.
September 26: From Sam Steele NWMP records: The evenings were fine, and the Métis drivers had great fun after supper. One of them had a violin, and to its music the remainder in turn danced a Red River Jig on a door which they carried in their carts for the purpose.
September 27: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Tired of ducks, geese, prairie chickens and pemmican, the Métis caught skunks, boiled them in three waters and then roasted them, thinking them preferable to any other food!
October Father Lestanc arrived St. Albert.
October: About 150 North West Mounted Police under command of Col. James F. Macleod, established Fort Macleod on an Island in the Oldman River (Napi River). Annual flooding force a move by 1884 to a new location.
October 15: The Indians and Metis from distant places began arriving Tail Creek des Metis for the fall bison (buffalo) hunt. Most old Metis families had winter cabins to repair ,and new arrivals built log cabins with chimneys constructed of either unburned bricks, hay and clay, or rocks. The windows were of skins or hides of animals, while doors were of slabs of split or sawed wood and fastened with thongs of raw hide. The crevices were filled with clay. Some cabins boasted floors of sawed lumber. Tail Creek des Metis resounded in Pow-wow festivals with the screech of the Metis violins to the foot stomping and merriment of the Red River jig in the community hall or outdoors weather permitting.
October 19: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Reached the Victoria Settlement (established 1862) The noes are full of stories about their horses. The horses of the NWMP couldn't cope with the rigors of the Prairies. The NWMP were told this in Red River by the Metis but they wouldn't listen. There was a mission founded by the Rev. George McDougall, one of the pioneers of the Methodist church, and round the fort and on the river bank clustered the thatched log houses of the Scotch and English Métis who had followed him to the place. The Métis here made a living by hunting buffalo, fishing and freighting. They sowed their crops in the spring, and never saw them again until harvest. If the crops failed it did not matter, for the distance to the herds of buffalo was not far, and the numerous lakes of white fish were near at hand, Whitefish Lake Mission being located about 60 miles north of Victoria. Before we left Victoria we made arrangements to leave the cows, calves and weak oxen there for the winter months, under a contract with one of the settlers at 15 dollars a head for oxen and cows and 10 dollars each for calves.
October 20: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Our progress from here (Victoria) to (Fort) Edmonton was slow and the going very difficult. Our loose horses very often fell, one fine animal being lifted bodily by Carr, the shoeingsmith, and myself at least a dozen times by means of a pole.
October 22: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Gagnon went ahead with the yoke oxen and was soon out of sight and I pushed on with the horse teams and had the hardest trek that I have yet undertaken. The trail was worse than any we had encountered. It was knee-deep in black mud, sloughs crossed it every few hundred yards, and the waggons had to be unloaded and dragged through them by hand.
October 24: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Many small ponds covered with a thin coating of ice lined the sides of the trail, and gave us much trouble while we were engaged in unloading the waggons. The poor animals, crazed with thirst and feverish because of their privations, would rush to the ponds to drink, often falling and having to be dragged out with ropes from where they fell.
October 28: From Sam Steele NWMP records: This struggle to obey orders continued until five o'clock the following morning, when we arrived at Rat Creek, a small stream about 4 miles from Edmonton. Gagnon was there with the two ox teams which, of course, walked through the sloughs without much difficulty. I informed him that it was useless to continue, the men and horses having been constantly on the move for at least 21 hours, exclusive of the noonday halt, and they all needed rest. They appeared to have reached the limit of their endurance.
November 1: From Sam Steele NWMP records: Arrived Fort Edmonton. The distance covered by the division since it left Fort Garry amounted to 1,255 miles
December: Brought the first Mounted Police to Fort Edmonton with twenty Metis wagon drivers and guides where they wintered. It had been a difficult six-month trek from Red River due to their inexperience. (II)-James Gibbons (1839-1928), the Metis, passed them on the trail to Fort Edmonton and reported that their eastern horses played out, not like his Cayuses horses which gained weight on the trip. The Metis bison (buffalo) men had told them at Fort Garry that they were poorly equipped and didn't expect them to make Fort Edmonton this year, so they did good. The Mounted Police, wintering at Fort Edmonton, included: Colonel William Jarvis (1834-1914), who is in command, Captain Guion is second in command, and Sam Steele (1849-1919), part of the rank and file, did the work.
December: The first Mounted Police of the North West arrived at Fort MacLeod in Alberta. As one United States whiskey trader put it, if we had only been allowed to carry on the business in our own way for another two years, you Canadians would have no trouble feeding the natives, there would be none left to feed. Whiskey, pistols, strychnine and other like processes would have effectively cleared away those wretched natives. Many Canadian pioneers are also conducting less than ethical trapping and trading practices, not just the United States traders. The Mounted Police force is sadly crippled, the remaining horses are dying, the men's clothing is worn out and they are dressed in Bison (buffalo) skins and too much military and not enough practical had caused the delay, so says the Metis. It was reported that they were a sorry looking lot.
December 4: Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894) of the RCMP took credit for stopping the United States whisky trade, drunken riots, and establishing law and order, whereas he had none absolutely nothing. French, of the RCMP, said there was no such disorder.
December 15: Col. James Farquarson MacLeod (1836-1894) of the RCMP was being sold Spanish ponies by the very same United States whisky traders he was sent to stop. The nice whisky traders told MacLeod that the ponies were a terror for chasing the whisky traders. The gullible MacLeod believed these inferior ponies were as the whisky traders claimed.
ALBERTA HISTORY 1875-1882
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