ALBERTA HISTORY 1887-1898
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The Government of the Dominion of Canada wanted a war with the Metis and Indians
at all costs.
It was a deliberate act of attempted genocide.
The Government totally ignored petitions from 10 district of the North West Territories.
These petitions contained 847 men's signatures representing between 5,760 persons and 6,945 persons.
This was the majority of the population of the North West Territories.
The North West Territories had elected and established a provisional Government.
The petitions were dated between September 1874 to November 1883.
The league of dishonor belongs to the recipients of the petitions;
Governor General of Canada; Marquis of Lorne (1878-1883)
Prime Minister of Canada; John A. MacDonald (1878-1891)
Governor General of the North West Territories; Alexander Morris (1872-1876)
Governor General of the North West Territories; David Laird (1876-1881)
Governor General of the North West Territories; Edgar Dewdney (1881-1888)
The most evil man award however goes to;
( I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891), true to his nature, stated:
"Riel should hang... though every dog in Quebec bark in his favor".
Tail Creek des Metis, marriage Joseph Allor, Metis born 1849, Alberta married Lalouise born 1847, Alberta. Children include Felonine (F) b-1884 Alberta, Elizabeth b-1889 Alberta, Adolphos b-1891 Alberta likely all in Tail Creek.
(I)-Frances (Frank) Worth Beaton aka Beatton (1865-1945) joined HBC
(1883-1927) married Emma Shaw a Metis
(II)-James Beaton Metis (b. Lesser Slave Lake 5 April 1890, d. Febuary 1901);
(II)-Mary Beaton Metis (b. Trout Lake AB 22 May 1892) m. Ken Birley; Kenneth (b. Trout Lake 26 March 1894, d. 1 June 1915);
(II)-George Beaton Metis (b. Lesser Slave Lake, 31 August 1896, d. 3 June 1930);
(II)-John Beaton Metis (b. Trout Lake 14 February 1898, d. July 1980); HBC (1927-1936) Mackenzie River, Athabasca
(II)-Thomas Beaton Metis (b. Hudson's Hope 12 March 1899, d. 26 March 1899);
(II)-Margaret Beaton Metis (b. Lesser Slave Lake 15 June 1900, d. 15 May 1963);
(II)-Angus Beaton Metis (b. Fort St. John 25 August 1902, d. 12 September 1993);
(II)-Frank Beaton Metis (b. Fort St. John 9 May 1904, d. 1973);
(II)-Duncan Beaton Metis (b. Fort St. John 25 December 1905, d. 18 February 1995);
(II)-Fred Beaton Metis (b. Fort St. John 13 November 1907, d. 31 May 1987);
(II)-William McIntyre Beaton Metis (b. Fort St. John 12 June 1909, d. March 1988)
Jean Berland, b-1862, Carrot River (Saskatchewan), married, 1883, St. Albert (Alberta), Sara Parisien, b-1861, Fort Pitt (Saskatchewan).
Peter Turner Bone, a railway engineer arrived Calgary this year.
James Brass Metis joined HBC (1883-1891) Mackenzie River, he married likely Fort Providence.
Dr. Robert G. Brett (1851-1929) married 1878 Louise T. Hungerford and arrived Calgary (Alberta) about 1883. He then went on to siding 29 (Banff) about 1885. He applied for a hot springs lease with plans to open a European style spa of curing mineral waters.
G.C. King built a small trading post at Red Deer Crossing which was the safest spot all year long on the Indian route from Dog Pound to Lone Pine. It was also the most common crossing on the Montana-Calgary-Edmonton Trail. The crossing is located about 7 kilometers upstream from Red Deer, Alberta. The Cree called the river Waskasoo Seepee (Elk River) and a British (some say Scottish) fur trader thought the elk were a type of European Deer so he called it Red Deer River and it stuck. King sold out to Rev. Leonard Gaetz (1841-1907) in 1884.
Tail Creek des Metis, (Alberta) marriage Alex Cardnell, Metis b-1861 Alberta married Isabell Metis b-1864 Alberta. Two children are recorded Ann b-1884 Alberta and Theris (F) b-1885 Alberta most likely Tail Creek.
Augustus Peter Warren Clarke Metis born 1867 Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, possible son Lawrence Clarke (1831-1890) and Cree woman, joined HBC (1883-1930) Athabasca District. married after 1892 but by 1916 had 10 children
Tsaac S. Greeze, a pioneer grocer, arrived Calgary this year.
Fort Edmonton Chief Factor, (II)-Richard Hardisty Metis (1831-1889), moved to Fort Calgary to become Inspector Chief Factor. He remained in this position until 1885 and he died in 1889.
Fort MacLeod, birth James Gladstone son William Gladstone Jr., (1845-1891), and Marie Samat Vandal, b-1855.
(II)-Elizabeth Glen, Metis, b-1883, Fish Creek (Calgary, Alberta), died 1883, son (I)-John Glenn, born 1833 and Adelaide Belcourt, Metis born August, 1851.
James Larocque Metis b-1883 Metis son Louis Larocque Metis b-1850/52 Red River and Angelique Metis b-1851/52 N.W.T., living Edmonton 1891 and 1901.
Henry L'Hirondelle, Metis b-1883, Lac La Nun ( Alberta), son Augustin L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1849, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Nancy Bellerose, b-1857.
Simon Loagen Metis b-1883 N.W.T. son Norma(e) Loagin (Logen), Metis b-1864 N.W.T. living Fort Edmonton 1891.
Marie (Magdeleine) Villeneuve Jr. Metis b-1883-84 Lac La Biche, Alberta, son Edward Villeneuve Sr., and Adelaide Decoine, Metis, b-1860, Lac La Biche.
Marie Vitaline Leblanc, b-1883, Fort MacLeod daughter Cornelious Leblanc Sr., b-1850, Fort Edmonton and Mary Favel, b-1858, Fort Edmonton.
Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, continued his editorial, ethnic attack on the Cree, south of Edmonton, saying that having the band close to white folks would make them poor farmers, and that they were not really Indians anyway. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) and Oliver are friends, but agreed to disagree about the Cree issue and other issues. Oliver for his anti-Indian stand is appointed a member of the North-West Council (1883-1885) for Fort Edmonton.
Edmonton, birth, (II)-Donald Ross Jr. son (I)-Donald Ross (1840-1915) and (II)-Olive Blewitt born 1850.
Abraham Salois an early settler to the settlement, is a cattle rancher, and is running a ferry operation.
L. Sands Lumber Co. was active in the Cypress Hills.
Captain J. M. Smith built the S.S. Grahame at Fort Chipewayn. It was the first steamer used in the North. It was 135 ft. long, had a 24 foot beam, and carried 90 tons of cargo. It took 30 hours to go to Fort McMurray and 15 hours to return.
Fort Edmonton, birth Adelaide Vandal, Metis, daughter Norman Vandal, Metis, b-1857 and Julie Munroe, Metis, b-1859.
Fort Calgary. The following people claim to be in Calgary at about this time: Thomas B. Braden, Dr. R.G Brett, Simon J. Clarke, J.W. Costellor, A.E. Cross, (III)-David McDougall (brother (III)-Rev John the Methodist Minister), J.J. McHugh, George Murdock, Williasm Pearce, James Reilly, T.J.S. Skinner, James (Cappy) Smart, and James Walker to name a few of the original 75 who claimed to be early settlers. Simon J. Clarke, however claimed to have preceded the 75 into Calgary. It is noteworthy that no Indians, Metis or French are listed. James Walker is likely Metis a descended of (I)-James Walker and Indian Woman who lived Fort Prince of Wales in 1750.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) reached the newly established community of Maple Creek. This led to an influx of farmers, ranchers and homesteaders. Fort Walsh was abandoned and the NWMP established detachments at Maple Creek and Medicine Hat. A number of outposts remained active in the Cypress Hills.
A Canadian Pacific Railway crew, drilling for water at Langevin siding, aka Langevin Siding, and Carlstadt and Alderson 35 miles west of Medicine Hat, Alberta, struck natural gas at a depth of 1,155 feet (325 meters). The standing joke was; he's so stupid he thinks Medicine Hat is a cure for head lice. This is the first natural gas well in Alberta and the true start of the petroleum industry. In 1884 a second gas well was drilled and by the 1890's several more wells drilled.
The Battle River Metis settlement contained 70 families who engaged in farming, freighting, fishing and hunting. This community had a threshing machine at this time, brought in from Fort Edmonton.
Twenty five RCMP men deserted, and many more are clamoring to buy their way out of the service.
A child drown in the Cascade River near Anthracite (1886-1904) north east of Banff (Alberta).
The first election to take place in Edmonton was restricted to whites only, over twenty one years age, having lived a full year in the electoral district and who hadn't sold his favors to any candidate. Metis were not considered white. Only 252 men of Edmonton, Old Strathcona, St. Albert and Fort Saskatchewan qualified. Frank Oliver received 154 votes, Francois Lamoureaux received 94 votes and Stuart D. Mulkins received 4 votes. Frank Oliver, a Liberal was defeated by the Conservatives in 1885.
James Hector was exploring the mountain pass near Canmore, (Alberta) and named the mountains 'The Three Nuns' because he woke up after a heavy snow and it looked like a white veil was on the mountains. These mountains were later renamed 'The Three Sisters'. It is noteworthy that Canmore, (Alberta) is established this year for its coal deposits to supply the railway.
CPR constructed a station in Calgary where the Calgary Tower now stands.
Banff, (Alberta) is started this year and is called CPR Siding #29.
A story circulated that a child drowned in Cascade River and was buried in the future Anthracite town area (1886-1904) of Banff
A Stoney Indian in 1882 showed Joe Healey a silver ore sample he found near Castle Mountain 20 miles west of Banff. The CPR reached this area that started a 'silver rush' and created Silver City with a population of 2,000 people. Little silver was found and the town was abandoned by 1884.
William (Billy) McCardell, Tom McCardell and Frank McCabe are believed to be the first Europeans to have seen the hot springs rising out of Sulphur Mountain in Banff. Frank McCabe claimed he alone discovered the hot spring and attempted to sell the rights but was prevented by James Laugheed a lawyer in Calgary.
Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta), the Clover Bar Colonization Company (Edmonton and Saskatchewan Land Co) took land and built a store, boarding house and a large storage barn.
The CPR was looking for schemes to promote traffic along the railway so they spread rumors of silver and gold across the Bow River from Castle Mountain. This fraudulent rumor attracted 3,000 miners and Silver City was born. No schools, no churches, no dance halls and no drinking establishments were built and the town soon was abandoned.
After a lightning strike at Imperial Oil Company, London, Ontario refinery, Imperial moves operations to Petrolia, Ontario.
Fort MacLeod was relocated two and a half miles west of its original location to higher ground due to flooding.
The Dominion Government of Canada finally after four years of lobying spent $60 thousand to improve the Saskatchewan River steamboat channels. The crew of the North West steamer filed this report; "the alleged river improvements were little if any improvement. Instead of the actual boat channel being cleared a great deal of money was expended in many new channels which, owing to adverse currents, cannot be used and in some cases rocks or pieces of rocks taken from the proposed impractical channel have been dropped in the actual channel therby impeding instead of assisting navigation".
The steamboat called the Lily was sunk on the South Saskatchewan River when she struck a rock, they were testing the navigability of that river.
January 27: THE GARNEAU ESTATES STRATHCONA (EDMONTON, ALBERTA)
Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) sold four chains of the east frontage of his estate to the Roman Catholic Church, giving them a total of ten chains, as six chains were previously donated to the Church. No value is mentioned in the transaction. It is noteworthy that the estate also included frontage on the Saskatchewan River. The river is lowest at this point and is the historic Metis and Indian crossing, especially for the annual bison (buffalo) hunt.
February 24: Other communities of the North West Territories are setting up Vigilance Committees, based on the Edmonton experience, to protect their land claims.
March 19: St. Albert (Alberta) Brother Leonard Van Tigham (1851-1917) is ordained a priest.
March 31: It was recorded that the Papastayo Cree band, numbering 199, is paid one thousand and fifty dollar's treaty money. The band, located two miles south of Fort Edmonton, is reported to have two oxen, four cows and ten horses, and had thirty-two acres under cultivation.
April 4: Lac La Biche (Alberta), birth, Eulalie Johnson, daughter Charles Johnson, b-1829 Red River and Agathe Anger, b-1848, Fort Vermilion, Peace River District (Alberta) daughter Baptiste Auger, b-1827 and Josephte Chalioux,
May: Fort Calgary, an attempt was made to establish a Maspnic Lodge in with the following Mason's, George Murdoch, E. Nelson Brown, A, McNeil, George Monilaws, P.C. Robison, James Walker, John A Walker and N.J. Lindsay.
May 9, Fort Edmonton, birth Andrew Whitford, son Francois Whitford Sr., b-1835 and Jane Anderson, b-1845.
June: This year there was no June rising of the Saskatchewan River as it was a cold year and little snow melt in the Rocky Mountains so steam boating was curtailed.
June 10: The main line of the Canadian Pacific railway was at Dunmore and Medicine Hat but there was no mad inrush of settlers.
July: The first mail service between Calgary and Edmonton started with a wagon making fortnightly trips to carry light freight, Royal Mail and passengers. The first stage-coach passenger service started in August of this year, making the trip in five days each way..
July 21: Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) took out naturalization papers, having been born 1840 Bay Mills in what became the United States. He was concerned that his land claims would be disputed if he was considered a United States citizen. Colonel Richardson swears him in. A railway station is built in Calgary and the first train pulled in, August 12. This year the District of Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria, who is married to the Marquees of Lorne- Canada's Governor General, from 1878 to 1883.
August 28: Lac La Biche Mission District (Alberta) birth Alfred Napoleon Lavallee, son Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
August 31: Calgary, Alberta: The Calgary Herald, Mining and Ranche Advocate and General Advertiser newspaper started today. George Rouleau, Andrew Armour and Thomas Braden were founders and Thomas Clarke helped set type.
August 31: Calgary, first railway engine arrives Calgary.
October: James (Cappy) Smart b-1865, arrived Calgary and would become Calgary's first fire chief.
October 3: Fort Edmonton Walter Scott Robinson arrived Fort Edmonton from Winnipeg. Fort Edmonton had about 200-300 people. Some lived south of the Saskatchewan River, some north of Rat Creek, and some along the banks of the River called the Lower Settlement. Robinson built his house where the MacDonald Hotel now stands. The McDougall Hill was then known as MacCauley Hill named after its first settler.
October 22: Fish Creek, birth, Charles Pruden son Charles Pruden Sr., b-1857, and, Rosalie Vandal, b-1859.
November 12: Old Strathcona, (Alberta), birth, Agatha (Chile) Garneau, Metis is born November 12, 1883 Old Strathcona, District of Alberta, died 1918, daughter Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis (1850/52-1912). Agatha claimed a birth date of December 30, 1885, Old Strathcona.
November 12: Old Strathcona (Alberta) Jean Marie Garneau, Metis claims this as his birth date others claim (1885-1949) son Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis (1850/52-1912).
November 18: The first European immigrant child born in Calgary is born to Sara and William Costello. Fort MacLeod is relocated to higher ground due to threat of flooding. Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, became Alberta's first elected representative to the Northwest Council at Regina.
November 19: Petition from William Bremmer, dated St. Louis de Langevin and other Metis concerning land claims which the government ignored.
William Bremner Jun L. L. Letendre
Maxime Lepine Wm. Letendre
Octive Regnier Wm. Swain
Baptiste Boucher Elzear Swain
William Bremner Willie Bruce
Chs. Lavallee Isadore Boyer
Isadore Dumas Solomon Boucher
James Short J. B. Boucher jun
Eugene Boucher Jos. Dumas
Henry Smith Modeste Laviolette
Chs. Nolin Moise Bremner
Norbert Turcotte Jonas Laviolette
Solomon Turcotte Alex Bremner
December 12: At Langevin, 4th siding west of Medicine Hat (Alberta) a well-borer reached 1,120 feet searching for water and struck natural gas, "a rather singular phenomenon had presented itself. The well-borers have reached a depth of 1,120 feet without finding water, but a gas which rushes out of the tube, which, on taking fire emits a flame sufficient to light up the surrounding country. They still purpose going deeper for the water, but have given up working at night, not considering it safe."
Jean Marie Adam, Metis, b-1884, St Albert, (Alberta), son Clarisse Paul, Metis, b-1857 and Ambroise Adam aka Fagnant b-1856.
Sophy Boucher, Metis, b-1884, likely Lac La Biche (Alberta) daughter Narcisse Boucher Jr., b-1864 Athabasca District and Caroline Ladouceur, b-1862 Fort Pitt (Saskatchewan).
John (Jean) Baptiste Bouvier, b-1855, Fort Simpson, N.W. son Joseph Bouver, Metis (1817/23-1877) bapt 1830? and Catherine Beaulieu Metis; married 1884, Fort Providence (Alberta), Marie Laferte, Metis, b-1879, Fort Rae, daughter Louison Laferte, Metis, b-1822 and Marie LesPerance, b-1829.
Flora Brayson b-1884 Saskatchewan daughter James Brayson b-1851 Saskatchewan, an interpreter and Louisa b-1858 Saskatchewan, all living Calgary 1891.
Francois Joseph Burns, b-1884 Fort MacLeod (Alberta) son Thomas Burns and Marie Rose Racette, b-1866.
Samuel Emerson b-1853 Red River, joined HBC (1884-1898) Mackenzie River and Athabasca.
Reverend Dr. Leonard Gaetz (1841-1907) was a native of Nova Scotia and a retired minister of the Methodist Church, purchased the Old Red Deer Crossing, 7 kilometers upstream from Red Deer, Alberta, from G.C. King. Gaetz decided to homestead on the west half of a section on the Red Deer River, and one of his sons, Halley Gaetz, took up the other half section. Leonard Gaetz acted as the local land agent for the Saskatchewan Colonization Company and purchased parts of three other sections from his employers.
F.W.G. Haultain (1857-1942) arrived in the west and settled Fort Macleod, he was elected to the North West Council in 1887. It was called the Northwest Legislative Assembly in 1888.
St. Paul (Menoomen) Cardinal, a Metis and soldier of the Red River resistance movement, settled in St. Paul. Saint Paul is named after him, as the early Metis that wintered there began calling it 'St. Paul's place', and Father Lacombe (1827-1916) would later adopt the name. Others suggest he first wintered here this year.
Louison Thomas Cardinal b-1859, Athabasca River, married 1884, Fort St. John, Charlotte Taskawitch, b-1864, Dunvegan, Athabasca.
Nancy Courteoreille, Metis born February 15, 1884, Alberta daughter Louis Courteoreille, Metis born August 16, 1849 Alberta, married about 1877 Alberta most likely Lac Sainte Anne, Sophie Metis born May 19, 1849, Alberta, living La Sainte Anne 1901.
Pierre V. Gavreau, born 1855 Rimouski, Quebec, died May 8, 1891 Edmonton and is appointed Land Agent in Edmonton.
(II)-Edward Glen, Metis, b-1884, Fish Creek (Calgary, Alberta), son (I)-John Glenn, born 1833 and Adelaide Belcourt, Metis born August, 1851.
Jim House, a Metis, ran a boarding house at Tail Creek des Metis. He was likely married to Esabill House, Metis b-1848 Alberta.
Olive L'Hirondelle, Metis b-1884, Lac La Nun ( Alberta), daughter Augustin L'Hyrondelle, Metis, b-1849, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Nancy Bellerose, b-1857.
Adelaide L'Hyrondelle, Metiis, b-1884 St. Alberta (Alberta) daughter John L'Hyrondelle, b-1851 St. Albert (Alberta) and Angelique Callion, Metis, b-1865 Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Louron Majilvery? b-1884 N.W.T. daughter Isabel Majilvery? b-1835 N.W.T, 1891 census Edmonton
Dr. L.J. Munro is practicing medicine in Edmonton.
John Munroe, b-1862, Lac Ste Anne, son John William Munroe, Metis b-1831 and Isabelle Lussier aka Isabelle Francois; married, 1884, Fort Macleod, Elizabeth Ann Whitford, born August 13, 1865, Victoria, Alberta.
Joseph Paul Metis b-1884 N.W.T. son John Paul, Metis b-1842 N.W.T. married about 1882, N.W.T. Philomine Metis b-1851 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton (Alberta), 1891 census.
Herve Plante b-1884, St. Albert (Alberta) son Michel Plante, b-1851, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan and Juliet Nault, b-1848, Fort Edmonton.
Floria Rowland b-1884 N.W.T daughter Fredrick Rowland b-1844 N.W.T. and Adaline b-1856 N.W.T. 1891 census Edmonton
Alexander Tourangeau alias Shemaganis, b-1861, Touchwood Hills, Saskatchewan son Alexis Tourangeau, b-1842 Fort Chipewyan and Mary Kewetenock Thomas b-1838 Noreay House' married 1884 Fort Edmonton, Lalouise Beaudry, Metis born March 1, 1865, St. Albert (Alberta) daughter Alexandre Beaudry b-1842 and Marianne Berland, Metis, b-1844, epouse August 26, 1867 St. Albert, Jacques Dumont, b-1838, Rocky Mountains.
Louis Sam a young Sumas Indian was murdered by a United States lynch mob who entered Canada and with blackened faces with red stripes painted around their eyes took Louis from the custody of a Canadian constable J.C. Steele and hung the poor fellow. They believed Louis had murdered a James Bell, a Nootsack Crossing merchant as he was seen in the vicinity on the day of the murder. Others suggest the killer of Bell was a United States telegraph linesman who had been seen galloping madly from the murder scene. The hoof prints at Bells store were from a shod horse and the lineman was the only one riding a shod horse. The lynch mob numbered about 60 men and were branded as lawless men who were cowardly and guilty of foul murder. These United States vigilante murderers from Lynden, Hogg's Prairie and Nootsack were known and they were bragging of their exploits. One old man was proud that his son had led the murderous group. Thousands of armed warriors poured into the reserve from all directions to wage war on the United States. Patrick McTiernam convinced the Indians to allow justice to prevail and bring the United States citizens to justice. The known murderers were never brought to justice..
Fighting Joe Wylie was at Medicine Hat according to Gabriel Lavallie. Ed Rowe was there selling whiskey at 50˘ a cup. Jack Boudoin was there to race his horse for a $25 prize. A bunch of Frenchmen, limber jacks, from the east were in the crowd.
The first Fete Nationale was organized this year in honor of the seasonal bison (buffalo) hunts. It was a summer Festival a Sports Day that took place on La Belle Prairie, a flatland half-a-mile from Batoche. Often as many as 3.000 attended the event,
Richard Secord is hired to teach school in Edmonton at a salary of $800.00 a year. He would later become a fur trading partner with John A, McDougall.
Mary Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., daughter William Scullen (Whiteman) Sr., b-1878, Marguerite Ward b-1859 Red River.
Joseph B. Tyrrell (1858-1957) discovered, while looking for coal seams, Albertosaurus a dinosaur near Drumheller (Alberta). He also discovered the largest coal mine in Canada in the same area. It is noteworthy the natives were aware of these dinosaur remains and this area (Dinosaur Provincial Park) in Alberta has the highest overall species diversity of any dinosaur site in the world.
Old Strathcona Plaindealer newspaper is started this year in Old Strathcona (Edmonton). Other suggest it was started 1894. Strathcona is named after Lord Strathcona alias (I)-Donald Alexander Smith (1820-1914) a Scot who arrived Canada 1838 as a HBC man. However the name was not fully adopted until it was made a town in 1899.
Eleven RCMP men deserted Fort MacLeod in one month. One writer suggested the RCMP were a disparate - if not a desperate - lot, including broken down gentlemen, Canadian bucolics and peradoes, old soldiers, cowboys, sailors and hell rake adventurers. He also said they were making rather free with the native women, and were much addicted to alcohol. The venereal disease rate among the RCMP supports this belief.
Bishop Grandin wrote John A. MacDonald: "I blame the Metis and I have not spared them reproaches. But I will permit myself to say to you Honour with all possible respect, that the Canadian Government is itself not free of blame." He wrote to Hector Langevin: "Once pushed to the limit, neither pastor nor bishop can make them listen to reason, and they may proceed to acts of extreme violence. I beg you then to instantly employ all your influence to secure for them whatever is just in their demands." The concern was that Alberta contained 5,000 whites where as the Indians numbered 8,000 and the Metis some 1,500 mostly along the Saskatchewan River. It was believed the Metis at Lac Ste Anne, St. Albert, and Lac La Biche are well under the thumb of the Catholic missionaries and therefore likely to stay clear if trouble comes. The settlements around Buffalo Lake are pretty well dispersed, but they had moved to a new colony along the Battle River.
Calgary's first school is built at 9 Ave and 5 St. E.
Due to lack of profits and low river levels only the North West steamer plied the Saskatchewan River.
January 16: 35 miles West of Medicine Hat Alberta) "ACCIDENT. - On Tuesday of last week, an accident occurred at Langevin, fourth siding west of Medicine Hat, by the taking fire of the gas escaping from the bore of the artesian well at that place. The frame building surrounding the engine was in a few moments destroyed, and the men at work were in eminent peril of their lives. A man named Haines, had his leg severely fractured, and another whose name we did not learn, was badly burnt about the face and arms. Dr. Henderson left on Thursday morning to attend the injured men."
January 25: Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) played the violin to one hundred people at the annual bachelor's ball, which went all night and was a great success.
February 1: Medicine Hat, birth, Minnie Poitras, married 1905 Glasgon, Montana, William D. Young, b-1884, Rock Island, Illinois.
March 12: Calgary, the police raided a house occupied by ladies (?) fair, they were sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment with hard labor. The sentence, however, is not to come into effect until after the departure of the next train east, thus giving them a chance to escape and amend their lives. A man found in the house was fined $10.00 and sentenced to 10 days of hard labor.
March 15: Fort Edmonton, marriage Frank Greenwood and Lottee Whitford, b-1865, Red River, daughter Francois Whitford, b-1835 and Jane Anderson, b-1845 Red River.
March 29: Calgary, (Alberta), the North West Mounted Police reported the hanging of Williams a Blackman, likely Dan Williams aka Nigger Dan, the first Black Man in the north. However the Edmonton Bulletin, January 9, 1887 reported: "A party of nine came into the upper Peace River last fall from Calgary by way of British Columbia. Three named respectively Jas. Christie, Lowe and Wright, wintered above the Rocky Mountain portage, about 20 miles above Hudson's Hope, H.B. Post. The other six included Dan Williams, "Nigger Dan", went up the Finlay branch of the Peace. They had some disagreements and Dan and another separated from the rest and came down to the mouth of the Finlay where they built a cabin in which to winter. Dan took sick in the fall and gradually wasted away until he died about the middle of February. His death was not heard of until ice broke up and his companion came down to Christie's camp."
April 7: Fort Calgary (Alberta), A.R. Dyre a North West Mounted Police Constable wrote: Two years ago I joined the Mounted Police and in that time have saved only $100.00. The nigger was strung up here on the 29th of last month and died game. I heard lately that Ella Lees at MacLeod was going to be married, but could not find out who to.
April 28: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Elizabeth L'Hyrondelle, Metis, daughter Jean Baptiste L'Hrondelle, Metis b-1854 and Elizabeth Beaudry, b-1861.
May: George Duck took statements from Metis living along the Saskatchewan. Philip Garnot, one of Riel's councilors in 1885 at Batoche, paid Charles Nolin $500.00 for 160 acres.
June 9: The delegation that went to Montana
to persuade Louis Riel to come to the aide of the North West Metis consisted of
Gabriel Dumont, James Isbester, Moise Ouellette and Michel Dumas. Other
names involved that came out of the trial were; Trial
testimony of George Kerr from Batoche depicts that he was taken to the house of
Ludger Gareau, a French Canadian, after his store was raided by Riel for guns,
ammunition and supplies. Other names mentioned by Kerr were :
Louis Riel; M. Vandal; M. Norbert Delorme; Jean Baptiste Vandal; Joseph
Vandal; Pellar; Madame Venn (where
he was living); Garnot; Solomon
Boucher; Modeste Rocheleau; Ludger Gareau, a French Canadian; Norbert Delorme;
Charles Nolin; Boyer (not William, Jean Baptiste or Joseph); Gabriel Dumont;
Philippe Garnot; Delorme and Dumont; Baptiste Boyer.
To summarize Kerr’s testimony: Riel
came to Batoche in November 1884, and stayed until the Rebellion;
there were several public meetings, but Kerr only attended the dinner one
at the home of Baptiste Boyer; about 150 people were present;
he donated a dollar to the Riel support contributions; his store was
raided by Riel on the 18th ; he was arrested by Solomon
Boucher and Modeste Rocheleau and taken to the home of Ludger Gareau;
Riel let him go if he promised not to go anywhere; he stayed with Madame
Venn on the 19th . From the testimony of Hillyard Mitchell the
following names were extracted: Charles
Nolin; Philippe Gardupuy; a small
August 5: Anne Deschamps, b-1884, Black Mud (Alberta), daughter Jean Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, b-1850 and Marguerite Berard, b-1856.
August 9: Mr. A. W. Burgess, Deputy Minister of the Interior, states that half breeds (Metis) are entitled to free homesteads the same as White-men are and no more, regardless of what the Government has said previously. The editorial conclusion was that might is right, and the weak must go to the wall. The Burger commission concluded that the discontent at St. Laurent and Prince Albert did not amount to much.
October 29: "LANGEVIN.(Alberta) - The gas from the well is being utilized for fuel. Pipes have been run from the well to the section house, into both cooking and heating stoves, no other fuel being required for either."
November 17: Calgary becomes a town, and Wesley Fletcher Orr becomes the first mayor. Welsley Fletcher was mayor in 1894. Others suggest the first mayor was George Murdoch, and that Murdoch, Saddlemaker, Police Chief John Ingram and Alderman Simon J. Clarke were involved in the protection rackets. Police Chief John Ingram says bribes were necessary for protection and early warning of planned raids. The population of Calgary was only 428, making it more like a hamlet.
December 19: marriage Henry Charles Whitford, b-1869 to Catherine Collins, b-1864, St. Albert, daughter, Joseph Collin and Sophie Loyer, b-1840, Lesser Slave Lake.
December 27: Lac La Biche, marriage Jamuel Whitford, born February 27, 1856, married Mary Jane Pruden, B-1866 Lac La Biche, daughter Patrick Pruden, Sr. born January 17, 1842 and Elizabeth (Isabelle) Bruneau, b-1847 Buffalo Lake.
Some suggest Nels Bebeari arrived prior to 1885 and was one of the original settlers of Fish Creek south of Fort Calgary.
E.A. Braithwaite (1862-1949), a sergeant, attached to Col. A.G. Irvine's column, as a medical attendant, cared for the wounded from Duck Lake and Batoche during the Riel Rebellion.
Marie Rose Dumont, Metis, b-1885, Calgary, (Alberta) daughter Jean Baptiste Dumont Jr. Metis, born June, 1852, Slave Lake and Philomene Vanesse, Metis born October 1856.
Elliot Galt's North Western Coal and Navigation Co. built a narrow-gauge railway to take coal from Lethbridge to the C.P.R.'s main line near Medicine Hat. A second line was built to the United States border to deliver coal to Montana.
John Jean Marie Garneau, Metis is born December 30, 1885 Old Strathcona, District of Alberta son Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) and Eleanor Thomas, Metis (1850/52-1912). In attendance are Mary MaCalay with midwife Uiut Jacais according to Metis script application testimony. Mary MaCalay says she remembers it well because it is the year of the rebellion. John is baptized January 10, 1886 by Reverend H. Grandin, sponsors being A.F. Gagne and Mrs. J. Kelly at St. Joachim Church.
Elizabeth Mary Hudson, a widow with 8-9 children homesteaded a quarter section of land near Midnapore (Alberta) and by 1890 she had proved up the homestead.
Clara Larocque Metis b-1885 Metis daughter Louis Larocque Metis b-1850/52 Red River and Angelique Metis b-1851/52 N.W.T., living Edmonton 1891 and 1901.
Katherin Loutit? b-1885, NWT daughter Ellen Loutit? b-1853 N.W.T widow married about 1870, 1891 census Edmonton
Surgeon-Major George S. Riverson- used the first red cross symbol in Canada during the rebellion for his hospital wagon.
Joseph Mercredi Metis/Indian joined HBC
Joseph Mercredi Metis/Indian joined HBC (1885-1888) Athabasca
Valentine Mercredi Metis/Indian joined HBC (1885-1887) Athabasca
George Roy (1844/46-1932) and wife Marjorie Langevin arrived Fort Edmonton. George was the first civil servant at Fort Edmonton and was listed as register.
Vern Shaw who settled in the Cardston district of Alberta recorded seeing a trading post of Abe Farwell on the St. Mary River a well known stopping place between Fort Benton and Fort Whoop-up. He said it was on the old Whiskey Gap trail and had been long abandoned when he arrived. The old log building was still standing with its huge stone fireplace.
Fort Edmonton, birth Louise Vandal, Metis, daughter Norman Vandal, Metis, b-1857 and Julie Munroe, Metis, b-1859.
Father Leonard Van Tigham (1851-1917) is servicing Fort MacLeod, Pincher Creek and Lethbridge.
Moise Villeneuve, Metis b-1885 Lac La Biche, Alberta, son Edward Villeneuve Sr., and Adelaide Decoine, Metis, b-1860, Lac La Biche.
Billy Welsh a Latino d-1902 nick named 'Billy the Kid' arrived this year in the Pincher Creek area (Alberta), working for McCaren Ranch of Mountain Mill and 1901-1902 for Garnett Ranch north of the river. He homesteaded SW 1/4 30-6-1 W5th about 1/2 mile north of Castle River Canyon and married a girl from Medicine Hat and had three children.
R.J. Whitla a merchant from Red River visited the future town site of Whitla (Alberta) 20 miles south west of Medicine Hat, that really didn't start until 1908 and was abandoned by the 1940's
The Roman Catholic Priests are recording the names of 'problematic half-breed infidels' as they call the politically active Metis. The half-breeds in Edmonton are organizing secret meetings to plan action of some kind. The call to arms had gone out throughout the North West. It is noteworthy that the Battle River Metis settlement would provided 42 men to Louis Riel and only 8-10 men remained behind to look after the women and children.
The Oblates said they refused to take sides in the land complaints but threatened excommunication to any Metis who joined Riel. They claimed Riel was a false prophet. The Oblates viewed Riel as the most fiendish of Satan's instruments.
G.A. Simpson, although not a candidate, stated he did not agree with replacing appointed members of Council with elected members of Council. It is noteworthy that the Roman Catholic Church opposed elected officials and democracy in general. Father Hippolyte Leduc, of the Catholic Missions, called William Perce, of the Dominion Lands Board from Ottawa, a racist, saying that he used anti-French bias in the settling of thirty disputed property claims in the Edmonton Area. William Perce responded that the white people in Edmonton are about the worst class one can meet with on the Canadian soil.
Then come a blow that directed Garneau's life back towards the Native side of his nature. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis is barred from candidacy because of his association with Louis Riel, twenty-four years before, in Red River, which is based of some obscure legal technicality, likely fabricated for the moment.
Walter Scott Robertson had a piano shipped into Fort Edmonton. Some claimed it was the first one in the area. The Garneau family always contended they brought their piano with them when they moved from Red River to Fort Edmonton. I believe the Robertson claim was first in Fort Edmonton, as south of the Saskatchewan River was called Old Strathcona and not considered part of Fort Edmonton at this time. Many of the Red River Metis, forced from their home by claim jumpers, now lived on the banks of the Saskatchewan River. Surveyors again appear on the Indian and Metis lands. To the Metis, these surveyors symbolized European arrogance and brutality and the Metis again feared for the titles to their lands. They continuously petitioned Ottawa, which brought little response. Mismanagement by the Interior Department and Department of Indian affairs had stirred up discontent among all classes: breech-clothed Indian to hardworking farmer. They are not alone. The well to do merchant or professional man, even the peaceful settlers of Edmonton, had grievances against the Government. In frustration and desperation they had sent for Riel; they wanted a catalyst. The plains Natives, tied by blood to the Metis, shared their confusion and fears. This was to become their last-ditch defense of land, rights, liberty and culture. The Metis had the sympathy of most peoples in the North West. However, the French in Quebec; the Orangemen of Ontario, wanted the Indian and Metis annihilated and removed from the lands, once and for all.
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis shared with his fellow Metis Loyalists, the disillusionment and demoralization that is the aftermath of the 1869 freedom movement. Lawrence sympathized with the Metis of Saskatchewan, even though his land claims in the Northwest Territories (Alberta) were never questioned( to my knowledge). Lawrence, however, had first hand knowledge of the exploitation and slow genocide process of the expanding Europeans and now trusted to the slow and painful pseudo-legal process.
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis and his associates didn't take up arms with Riel against the English this time, however, he couldn't resist taking up his gun one night and having a little fun, at the expense of the people who had crowded into Fort Edmonton in fear of a native uprising. Most of the European families had moved into the Fort Edmonton, Saskatchewan or to the St. Albert mission for refuge, and for one week, a state of panic prevailed at the Forts. The Olivers, Robertsons, Camerons and (II)-Matt McCauley (1850-1930) were reported to never sought protection in Fort Edmonton. They considered the Indians a fine lot It is noteworthy that no one locked their doors during this period except the Fort. It is also noteworthy that no one in the Fort knew how to load and fire a canon. When it was test fired after things calmed down they nearly blew up the fort.
Only 125 people could claim to being white in Edmonton at this time. Being surrounded by some 2,000 to 3,000 Natives and Metis, their fear and apprehension are understandable. Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, wrote: When the Indians around Edmonton will rise appears now to be only a question of days. What they will do in that case, or what numbers they will be joined by, is something that can be better decided after the event. Lawrence's shots in the dark got things buzzing all right. Some of the refugees thought the hour of attack had come at last. Lawrence thought it was a towering joke but the potties in the Fort didn't appreciate his sense of humor. His good friends Father Lacombe (1827-1916) and Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, were probably upset with his imprudence, however, Lawrence is extremely constrained, given his Red River and Minnesota experience.
The 65th Battalion of 327 men is dispatched from Montreal to Fort Calgary. The Winnipeg Light Infantry with 340 men arrived from Manitoba. Alberta Mounted Rifles mustered 150 men of which 40 joined Maj. S.B. Steele's Scout Cavalry of 20 North-West Mounted Police..
Riel's appeal is to all Metis based on their old loyalties: "Gentlemen, please do not remain neutral, for the love of God, help us to save Saskatchewan. A strong union between the French and English Half-breeds is the only guarantee that there will be no bloodshed". On the strength of Pierre Saint Germane's forced confession, Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis is arrested, and both men held for trial. They are taken to Fort Saskatchewan on the flatboats on May 13, 1882. Riel's appeals met with little success in Alberta, basically because the Metis land claims are not being threatened in any wholesale manner. Father Lacombe (1827-1916), for one, had traveled far and wide attempting to keep the peace.
(II)-James Brady, Metis claims those arrested were Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis and Benjamin Vandal, another Metis from the Red River resistance of 1870, who was homesteading at White Mud Creek a few miles up river, and that the reason for internment was failure to abandon their farms when ordered to do so. This, and some of his supporting arguments, do not agree with the recollection of other members of the family: nor the accounts of Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, of the Edmonton Bulletin. He may, however, be confusing this with another incident of less seriousness. (However this needs more research before discarding. Also Reference The Wisdom of Papaschase, A Cree Medicine Man by J.P. Brady, Glenbow archives).
There were several sharp and bitter clashes at Duck Lake, Frog Lake and Batoche. The Metis, in the last battle at Batoche Saskatchewan, although greatly outnumbered by Government troops who are using cannon and gattling gun (the first machine gun), held out for four days. Running out of ammunition, they used stones, nails, bits of metal and metal buttons, shaped to size between their teeth. All that remains of the last Metis capital of independence is a battle scarred priest's house and the little church of St. Antoine de Padoue, at Batoche, Saskatchewan. After the battle was lost, the Ontario troops stormed the church of St Antoine de Padoue at Batoche, stealing the the bell from the steeple as a war trophy. The silver bell ended up in the Royal Canadian Legion Hall in Millbrook, Ontario. In 1991 it was again stolen and is now believed to reside in the Legion Hall in Winnipeg.
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis is court marshaled and sentenced to death, but due to the intervention of prominent white citizens like Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, Bishop Grandin (1829-1902) and the threatened action by the Natives, his sentence is commuted to imprisonment, which he served. Other accounts suggest he spent a month in jail awaiting trial and three months later, when prosecution failed to appear, the charges of treason are dismissed. The Edmonton Bulletin reported Pierre St. Germane and Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, who were arrested nearly six weeks ago on a charge of being concerned in Riel's rebellion, as released on their own recognizance, to appear and answer to the charges at the next sittings of the Saskatchewan District Court. As the court was indefinitely postponed, further detention of the prisoners without trial was not justifiable. By the time he emerged, the tension is gone and the people, who hadn't been able to see the joke in April, could now understand the dark humor of it and Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, is welcomed home. At St. Albert guest speakers at St. Jean Baptiste day, June 24, were: Father Letang, Colonel Oumit, Captain Ethier, A. Forget, J. Gauvreau, Captain Doherty and others.
About 150 ranchers in the Fort MacLeod District formed the Rocky Mountain Rangers for their mutual protection, in April and May, during the North West Rebellion. John George Kootenais Brown (1839-1916) of Waterton Lakes became their chief scout Later this year he opened a store on Jasper Avenue, Fort Edmonton.
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, plied a rousing fiddle at hundreds of dances. He was a one man band, and his rhythm section was in the great heavy shoe that he pounded hour after hour on the creaky floors of his day. The hall that reverberated to most of Lawrence's pounding was Ross Hall, on White Avenue, and in spite of the pounding it took, was still standing in 1963. Family tradition has it that one of Lawrence's violins was a Stradivarius (1644-1737), which, as family tradition has it, moved to the deep south with a fellow named Inkster under mysterious circumstances, upon his death in 1921. Another of his standard violins is in the possession of his great grand son Greg Garneau. Stradivarius or not it was a fine old instrument. The present value of a Stradivarius is $2 million.
Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis is welcomed back into the local Liberal action group, headed by Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, who are Liberal: not because they agreed with Liberal policy, but because Liberal policy concurred with theirs.
After the bullets began to fly, the Government recommended the issue of script for 160 acres to the head of each Metis family, and 140 acres to each child born before 1870. Forgotten are Metis children born between 1870 to 1885.
The first bridge to cross the South Saskatchewan River is built by the Canadian Pacific Railway at Medicine Hat, Assiniboine, and North West Territories. Strange bubbles in the river at this crossing would lead to the discovery of natural gas.
Europeans first found fossilized dinosaurs in the Red Deer Valley (Drumheller Badlands) this year. The Blackfoot called the dinosaurs the great grand fathers of the bison (buffalo). Systematic collecting, however, would not start until 1912.
The first nine entries of land to be issued for the Edmonton District, prior to being transfer to Canada, are as follows.
#1-Joseph Herbert (must represent Hudson Bay Company) no acres recorded, but is 346 acres #2-(I)-Malcom Alexander Groat b-1839 at 654 acres including 9 acres donated to the Bishop of Saskatchewan, #3-Allan Oman at 271 acres, #4-Donald Ross at 65 acres, #5 Isaac Simpson at 258 acres, #6-Methodist Church at 68 acres, #7-Laurent Garneau (1840-1821) at 234 acres including 2 acres Roman Catholic Church of St. Albert, #8-(III)-David McDougall at 48 acres, #9-(I)-John Walter (1849-1920) at 170 acres, #10 S. Prichard, #11 Joseph McDonald, #12 W.S. Robertson, #13 Thomas A. Anderson, #14 Donald McCloud.
Lawrence Garneau, Metis (1840-1921) claimed on November 9, 1901 to have received script this year.
Banff is made a National Park this year.
James Brady relates the 1885 story as follows: During the 1885 rebellion, Canadian Government troops arrived at Fort Edmonton and declared martial law. All local residents were ordered to retire within the fort. But, my grandfather and another French Metis, Benjamin Vandal, ignored the order to abandon their farms, as they felt that they were in no danger from the Indians. Vandel, who lived on the White Mud Creek about eight miles above Edmonton, has also (like Garneau) been a soldier in the Manitoba Metis army of 1870. They were arrested and taken before a military court, given a summary trial, and sentenced to death for disobeying a military order under conditions of martial law... Riel and his council had sent letters to my grandfather and Vandal inquiring as to the local situation and the degree of support that could be expected from local Metis. My grandfather kept this letter to read to some of the Metis sympathizers who were illiterate. My grandmother was in the kitchen when sergeant and four constables of the North West Mounted Police galloped into the yard... (They had a warrant for Laurent Garneau's (1840-1921) arrest and a search warrant for the premises). The sergeant bounded up the stairs to place my grandfather under arrest. The other police immediately ransacked the house. One policeman went to the actual spot where the letter had been hidden. It was evident they were acting on information from an informer. But they found nothing. My grandmother had acted with great presence of mind. She had been laundering when they came into the yard, and she reached up, placed the letter and other incriminating material in the wash tub, and calmly destroyed them by rubbing them on the washboard until they were completely disintegrated.
St. Mary's girl school, a two story log cabin, is opened this year in Calgary.
The North West Mounted Police built an outpost near Writing-on-Stone (Provincial Park) and you can still see their graffiti among the Indian writings on the wall.
This year the Batoche area was established as the parish of St. Antoine de Padoue by Father Vegreville. The name Batoche however stuck. Prominent members of the town were Xavier Letendre, William Venne and Charles Nolin and most farmers, hunters and trappers were Metis. A fun-loving, jovial people who could turn a simple event into a celebration. Festivities included story telling, feasting, dancing especially the Red River jig and the singing of French folks songs. The Indians Indians from the nearby reservations were always invited.
Samuel Benfield Steel of the Northwest Mounted Police and his vigilante force are guilty of atrocities and were never taken to justice. Steel's Scouts wounded and captured Memnook, they tied his hands, tied a rope around his neck and dragged him through the bush and meadows until his skin had worn off and the rope cut into his neck, resulting in his death. They then indiscriminately fired into the Cree Camps killing women, children and captives. They shot down the women and children fleeing the scene. Elizabeth McLean fleeing the slaughter had an infant shot in her arms and the Mounties did not stop shooting until she removed her bonnet and they saw her blond hair. After the Metis resistance war was ended the Mounties visited another village and massacred the people and buried them in a common grave.
Most Canadians don't realize that Canada's national railway could never have been realized if it wasn't for the Chinese workers. About 17,000 Chinese workers were hired so the railway could be completed on time. They were assigned the dirtiest, most dangerous tasks, and they received half the wages of white laborers. They were denied the food and lodging provided to their white counterparts. Hundreds of Chinese laborers lost their lives as construction pushed through the treacherous mountains of British Columbia. For those who survived, prospects did not improve after the railroad's completion in 1885 due to poverty and the introduction of the head tax which kept families apart. A Head Tax of $50,00 per person was imposed on Chinese people. This racist law would not be repealed until 1967.
A. R. Dyre said two toughs from Calgary were lynched by cowboys in Montana, for horse stealing.
The N.W.M.P. constructed Fort Normandeau near the old Red Deer Crossing about 7 kilometers upstream from Red Deer, Alberta. The N.W.M.P. used the fort until 1893 when it was abandoned.
The first survey of the Calgary/Edmonton Trail was completed this year. The surveyor said " Great traffic and immense travel some day may be done this way".
Ponoka (Fort Ostell) and Peace Hills (Fort Ethier) established on the Samuel Lucas farm during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. Various buildings on this Indian Agent's farm were used as barracks or stables, but the only original building left is the two-story Blockhouse which took ten days to build..
Fort Ostell aka Fort Ethier was built just north of Wetaskiwin, with a blockhouse containing twelve loopholes for riflemen to hold off an enemy attack, and including a moat with a moveable bridges by Capt. John B. Ostell and Capt. L. Joseph Ethier of the 65th Mounted Royal Rifles at Battle River Crossing by modifying the H.B.C. post. It was built to defend the Calgary/Edmonton Trail. There seems to be some confusion of these two forts; (Fort Ostell) at Ponoka and (Fort Ethier) at Peace Hills north of Wetaskiwin established on the Samuel Lucas farm during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. Various buildings on this Indian Agent's farm were used as barracks or stables, but the only original building left is the two-story Blockhouse which took ten days to build..
The Northwest was suffering a severe drought that slowed settlement.
Pincher Creek at this time was a center of French Canadian and French Metis ranchers.
January: The machinery, used to develop the petroleum springs near Calgary, was shipped from Brantford, Ontario. The property is owned by the The Winnipeg and N.W. Petroleum Co. of Minneapolis, and states that the tests that were made were very fine samples.
January: Sergeant Major Sam Steele (1849-1919) of the RCMP, led a detachment to raid Tail Creek des Metis settlement after malicious gossip circulated among the whites at Fort Edmonton. They were saying that the Metis were involved in the United States whiskey trade. It should be noted that they were involved in trading to Fort Benson, Montana, thereby bypassing the H.B.C in trade. This, however, is the first recorded encounter with any European type authority since its creation. He is the person responsible for counting 2,000 Metis and 400 houses in Tail Creek proper. This did not include those on Buffalo Lake, along the Red Deer River.
January: The machinery needed to develop the petroleum springs near Calgary was shipped from Brantford, Ontario. The property is owned by the The Winnipeg and N.W. Petroleum Co. of Minneapolis, and states that the tests made were very fine samples.
January 3: Alex Taylor (1853-1916) tested the first northern Alberta's telephone line from Edmonton to St. Albert. Two English-made sets made of Spanish mahogany—arrived in December 1884 and on 3 January 1885, Edmonton telegrapher Alex Taylor and St. Albert storeowner H.W. McKenney would test the newly completed line between the two communities. Taylor spoke the following words to the Oblate missionary, Reverend Father Hippolyte Leduc: "We wish you all a very happy new year." Taylor continued with his telephone company, which over 17 years would grow to 400 customers. Illness forced him to sell his telephone company to Edmonton in 1904 for $17,000. The new company, City Telephones, was taken over on January 1, 1905.
January 3: The construction of Edmonton's first school house is completed, with 25 boys and 3 girls attending. The school house doubled as the District Court House.
January 17: Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis grew high in the councils of Old Strathcona and in 1884 received nomination for the assembly of the North West Territories. At the January 17, 1885, political meeting at Fort Saskatchewan, Mr. G. A. Simpson of the Colonization Company, with holdings at Clover Bar, violently attacked his neighbor Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, calling him a rabbit farmer, pig headed and a non resident settler. Dr. Wilson, a member of Council, accused Mr. Simpson of dirty tricks and personal spite; of which he would have no part.
January 27: At a political meeting in St. Albert, Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, challenged Frank Oliver, (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, saying that Oliver did not believe in Colonization Societies, but is pursuing the same course in holding land for speculation without settling on it. He went on to say, that land speculation is here by Acts of the Federal Government, and he didn't see the value of fighting it, and Oliver should have attempted to secure representation for Fort McLeod, Medicine Hat and Battleford. This would imply more elected members, to oppose unjust territorial actions. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), the Metis, is fully aware that non whites can not be legally counted to form an Electoral District. Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, had also opposed the right of men to brew their own beer and, although Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis was also opposed to trafficking in spirituous liquors, he believed men had the right to brew their own beer. (II)-Matt McCauley (1850-1930), at the same meeting, suggested Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, was a socialist, as he appeared to oppose all authority.
February: At the February meeting for the North West Council, the declared candidates are: Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield, (incumbent), (II)-Matt McCauley (1850-1930), D. Maloney, J. Lamoureux and Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis. Garneau spoke for the rights of Half Breeds. He also objected to the Fence Law, which has the support of Frank Oliver (1853-1933), son Allen Bowsfield. He specifically objected to the clause allowing natural boundaries to be considered a lawful fence, as he thought this would provoke quarrels between neighbor's.
February: Fort MacLeod, birth George Gladstone son William Gladstone Jr., (1845-1891), and Marie Samat Vandal, b-1855.
February 12: Battle River Settlement, birth, Caroline Pruden daughter Charles Pruden Sr., b-1857, and, Rosalie Vandal, b-1859.
March 10: Lac La Biche (Alberta) birth Napoleon Boucher, Metis, son Narcisse Boucher Jr., b-1864 Athabasca District and Caroline Ladouceur, b-1862 Fort Pitt (Saskatchewan).
March 27: The telegraph message wrote: "Metis attacked at Duck Lake yesterday, ten police killed. Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont victorious." Father Vegreville being hostile towards the Metis and Fathers Fourmond and Touze were arrested and forced to sign a pledge of neutrality.
March 31: The Edmonton Volunteer Infantry was hastily formed at Fort Edmonton with 68 members to defend against possible attack by the Indians. William Stiff of the Bulletin newspaper was elected captain, Bill Ibbotson a hardware man was elected lieutenant, John Mitchell Indian Agent was elected ensign. John Belden, Joe Hayes and J.B. Henderson were sergeants. Bill Connors of Conners Hill, Charles Strange and Alex Taylor were members and the balance were not listed.
April: One dark April night in1885, Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis stood out in front of his house and began cracking rifle shots into the air- whooping it up- just to get things buzzing among the nervous residents of the Fort across the Saskatchewan River. The Fort, located just below where the Provincial Parliament buildings now stand, is north of the Garneau Estate. Some claimed his shots ricocheted off the rocks as they ran for the Fort, but this was their overactive imagination. The Edmonton Home Guard was organized to provide night patrols near the Fort, to strengthen the south wall and test the cannon.
April 2: Big Bear's Cree wiped out the hamlet of Frog Lake in northern Alberta. They killed nine men including Fathers Leon Adelaird Fafard and Father Felix Marchand who are eventually buried in Saint Albert. Also killed was Indian Agent Thomas Quinn, Farm Instructor John Delaney, John Alexander Gowanlock, William Campbell Gilchrist, George Dill, Charles Gouin, John Williscroft. Mrs. Theresa Delaney and Mrs. Theresa Gowanlock were taken prisioner. Previously the Big Bear's band had many complaints about the treatment from the Indian Agency. Eight Indians were hanged for their part in the killings.
April 9: Fort Edmonton Johnnie and all the merchants here expect to lose all their goods and household effects. There were 75 women and children in the fort and 65 men were under arms..
April 11: The weekend of April 11, 1885 saw unmistakable panic grip Edmonton town as people stampeded to the Fort. People deserted their homes, turning stock loose and suffering great personal loss. This overreaction is triggered by exaggerated reports from Captain Griesbach. His dispatch arrived Saturday; stating that the Whitefish, Lac La Biche and Egg Lake bands are joining with the Bear for the purpose of rising, and that the Blackfoot had torn up the railway track. His erroneous report is not found inaccurate until reliable news arrived late Sunday.
April 20: The Alberta Field Force, including 175 wagons and carts moved out of Fort Calgary for Fort Edmonton. Stops were made to establish Fort Normandeau, Fort Ostell and Fort Ethier.
April 29: "What a beautiful country! It's as hot as July in Quebec, but the climate is dry and much nicer. We can see the Rocky Mountains. The Bow River is nearby and we took a good bath in it, a luxury unavailable to our friends in Quebec at this time of year. There are a lot of Metis and Blackfoot Indians here. They have the most pleasant disposition." George Beauregald, b-1867 a volunteer of the Quebec Voltigeurs, 9th Battalion.
May 1: The Alberta Field Force arrived Fort Edmonton and Fort Saskatchewan.
May 10: Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) said mass and preached a good sermon. Everyone is fond of Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916). His zeal for the good of those in his care, his limitless charity and his indefatigable ardor for missionary work evoke admiration from all. Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) often dines on things the poorest residents of our socalled civilived towns distain. This saintly missionary doesn't understand why anyone is astonished at what he considers to be nothing more than the strict carrying out of his duties. George Beauregald, b-1867 a volunteer of the Quebec Voltigeurs, 9th Battalion.
May 11: A Metis named Pierre Saint Germane, a Metis farmer living near Battle River, arrived at the south side of the river with a horse and buckboard. He is discovered by Adjutant Constantine, arrested on suspicion of being a Riel emissary and threatened with execution. Fearing for his life, he confessed to being an emissary of Riel and implicated others in the neighborhood. Late one evening, shortly thereafter, while Eleanor (Thomas) Garneau (1852-1912), Metis is doing the dishes, the authorities from Fort Edmonton came for Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis. Eleanor, fearing for Lawrence's life, snatched a conspicuous letter, no doubt from Riel or for Riel's cause, and hid it in her dishwater. Some family members claim it was in her wash water. Some claim Riel taught Garneau the power to write or be written, to claim who you are and where you stand. This is incorrect. Garneau's mother, Archange Cadotte, Metis was literate, and Garneau attended school in Sault St. Marie. It is also noteworthy that Garneau was involved in the Minnesota-Dakota resistance movement before he met Riel. It is more likely that Garneau taught Riel to claim who you are and where to make a stand. He was one of the founders of the Vigilance Committee of Edmonton and at St. Paul des Metis.
May 14: Five scows were loaded at Fort Edmonton, with supplies for men and horses, a nine-pounder field gun, and infantry to man the gun, to begin a downriver trip..
May 21: The Edmonton Volunteer Infantry was disbanded when the regulars arrived.
May 25: Mrs. Saint Germane arrived, stating her husband had sold a horse and was in Edmonton to buy supplies, and that she knew nothing of correspondence with Riel. His arrest had left her destitute. Her son is at the point of death with consumption. She said that during the Red River rebellion, Riel imprisoned her husband because he wouldn't take part in that affair. She was in town to see her husband and to procure assistance for her family. The white settlers, some still huddling in Fort Edmonton on the north side of the Saskatchewan River, occasionally sent inquiries to Eleanor Garneau (1852-1912), Metis, on the south side of the river, to see if she was in need of anything. Naturally, being a Swampy Cree Metis, and because the Garneau's had a close and friendly relationship with Chief Papaschase and his band of Cree, she and her eight children are well cared for and in no need of assistance. Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921), Metis, in the future, would repay the kindness that was extended to his family by Chief Papaschase and his band.
May27: Retired Major General Thomas Bland Strange (1831-1925) was raising horses near Calgary when the call came to organize Alberta Mounted Rifles and others including three infantry units, 65th battalion of Montreal, Winnipeg Light infantry and two units of NWMP, plus cowboys and settlers numbering about 1,000 of men. The Cree led by Big Bear after scouting Stranges army burnt Fort Pitt and retreated to Frenchmen's Butte, where they dug in.
May 28: The battle of Frenchman's Butte began, Cree warriors divided into two groups. Wandering Spirit, the Cree war chief, led some 200 warriors to positions in the trenches and rifle pits, to confront the 1000 Strange Army, while Little Poplar remained with a second group to protect the camp, some two miles away. General Strange arrived opposite the Cree position at six in the morning and opened fire with a piece of artillery. The Cree war chief Wandering Spirit responded, opening fire on Strange's units. Strange pulled his forces back and deployed them along the bottom of the valley. The two units of NWMP formed the left flank. To their right was the 65th battalion and the Light Infantry in the center, while the right flank was formed by the Alberta Mounted Rifles. The two sides exchanged fire for three hours and some of Strange's unit were wounded. General Strange ordered Major Sam Steel (1849-1919) a distinguished soldier and NWMP to lead the NWMP north and outflank the Cree. The Cree saw this, and War Chief Wandering Spirit led a group of warriors along the tops of the hills, parallel to Steele, and occasionally opened fire. This caused the NWMP to believe that the Cree's lines were much longer than they actually were, so Steele turned back. Cree warriors managed to outflank the Alberta Mounted Rifles and almost captured the supply train. Afraid of being attacked from behind, General Strange ordered his force in full retreat to Fort Pitt. The Cree slipped away later that day, as more than 1,000 men searched the woods for Big Bear's band.
May 29: Near Frenchman's Butte, Major Inspector Sam B. Steele (1849-1919) of the NWMP made contact with an Indian scouting party. Steele's scouts called out to the party and were fired upon. Steele's troops returned fire and killed the first Indian casualty of the war. "His body was stripped of all clothing with the rope (cut short to about one yard in length) still around his neck, which had cut into his jaw. He was a huge fine looking Indian , 'Ma-me-nook' by name. The scout who had captured his mount (a swift-footed black stallion belonging to the HBCo) had galloped around the prairie with the rope attached to his saddle pommel, trailing the body in the grass in circles, the trails of which were still visible. He had thus been left exposed for days before being buried; and his body from the intense heat, was huge in size when I saw him. I requested to have him buried. " H.A. MacKay, memories, HBCo archives and Glenbow Archives.
May 29: Calgary area; "The colonel (Guillaume Amyot) wants a list of the men who, once the current trouble is over, would be disposed to remain garrisoned in the North-West. Not a man among us would consent to do such a stupid thing" George Beauregald, b-1867 a volunteer of the Quebec Voltigeurs, 9th Battalion.
June 8, 1885: Fort Calgary, birth Clara Greenwood daughter Frank Greenwood and Lottie Whitford.
June 11: A Metis named Primeau who had refused to join the insurrection. Having gone north to be with his wife and children, he found nothing but the ruins of his house. His wife and children had been massacred. To avoid their fate, he fled to Calgary. The Metis and whites who do not want to be mixed up in the rebellion are treated as though they were enemy." George Beauregald, b-1867 a volunteer of the Quebec Voltigeurs, 9th Battalion.
June 24: Faora Ann Mary Bird, Metis, b-1885, Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta), died 1886, daughter William Robert Bird, Metis, b-1826 and Fanny Shirt, Metis, b-1856.
June 26: Fort Normandeau was completed at Red Deer by Lieutenant Normandeau and 20 men from the 65th Mount Royal Rifles to guard the settlers and the Red Deer Crossing. This fort, had a building 14 by 28 feet, surrounded by a high log fence, with two tower lookouts on front and back and also had a moat.
July: The defeat of the Metis at the Battle of Batoche left no alternative but for the Cree-Assiniboine army to surrender. The rebellion was over. Big Bear was captured and imprisoned. Wandering Spirit was executed along with seven others. General Strange retired back to his ranch and the Alberta Field Force disbanded.
July 5: Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta) A mare belonging to L. Garneau (1840-1921), Metis committed suicide on Wednesday last. She had been suffering from the epizootic for some time and, on this occasion, walked deliberately into the river, which is very swift and deep, and was carried away without making the least effort to save herself. Her colt followed, but as it had no suicidal intention, soon struck for shore and got out safely.
July 5: Old Strathcona (Edmonton, Alberta), birth Caroline Daigneaut, daughter, Elie Daigneault, b-1867, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) and Eleonore Cardinal, born June 26, 1860, Lac La Biche (Alberta).
July 22: Laurent Garneau (1840-1921), Metis made a Statutory Declaration stating: born Pentangueshene, Michigan (Bay Mills), age 43 married, with three (eventually eight living) children, came to Manitoba from Michigan 1861, to Edmonton 1875 (1874). Occupation: trader, cooper, farmer, and herdsmen for the H.B.C. (freetrader & freighter). First settled on homestead claim in 1876 (1874), lived continually on claim since then, done some freighting for Indian Dept. Owns a 20' x 16' log house, thatched roof, worth $150. Has 25-30 acres broken and cropped, 6 acres broken per year byre and stable $100, fencing $200, 7 horses, including colts, 3 cows, 5 head of yearlings. It is noteworthy to remember that some believed that land claims on non-surveyed land (prior to 1881) were not entitled to title. It is unknown why he would only claim three children unless this represents only those presently living at home. It is understandable that he didn’t claim any free trading and freighting or military engagements with Riel. He also knew living in a tent or tipi does not qualify for homesteading.
November: Banff National Park aka Rocky Mountains Park is the first national park in Canada. It had an area of ten square miles surrounding the Hot Springs. It was not officially recorded until June 23, 1887 as Rocky Mountains Park.
November 16: The Metis across Canada no longer introduced themselves to the Catholic missionaries when they met and were going out of their way to avoid meeting the clergy. The Metis of Lesser Slave Lake even accused Father Lacombe the Oblate of selling their lands to the government.
Decemeber: St. Albert (Alberta), birth, Christine Belcourt, daughter Eswin Belcourt, b-1843, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta) and Louise Paul b-1857, Lac Ste Anne (Alberta).
Catherine Blandion, Metis, b-1886 St. Albert (Alberta), daughter Antoine Blandion, b-1833 and Josephte Klyne, b-1855, Red River.
Rhrophile Boucher, b-1866 son Narcisse Boucher Sr., b-1827 Quebec and Judith McCarthy, b-1835 Athabasca; married 1886 Lac La Biche (Alberta), Elisabeth Cardinal daughter Louison Cardinal, b-1840 Whitfish Lake, Athabasca and Marguerite LaRocque, Metis b-1847 Norway House.
Simon J. Clarke, a former member of the Canadian Mounties, was jailed just before the elections for interfering with a police raid on his saloon.
Betsy Courteoreille, Metis born September 25, 1886, Alberta daughter Louis Courteoreille, Metis born August 16, 1849 Alberta, married about 1877 Alberta most likely Lac Sainte Anne, Sophie Metis born May 19, 1849, Alberta, living La Sainte Anne 1901.
Deerfoot (his publicity name) aka Api-kai-ees meaning Scabby Dried Meet d-1897, in a police infirmary. He was 6 foot tall Blackfoot Indian who was a long distance runner. He ran in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba around 1886. World class runners came to the Canadian Prairies to run against him. He was known to yell an Indian war whoops as he ran to victory. Legends say he could out run a horse or a deer. Deerfoot Trail in Calgary is named after this remarkable man.
Ludger Gareau born November 29, 1855 Saint Jacques de I'Achigan, Quebec, son Antoine Gareau (1818-1890) and Marie Louise Robichaux; married Madeleine Delorme. Ludger was at Batoche (Saskatchewan) in 1878 and at Pincher Creek (Alberta) this year
Laurent Garneau, Metis (1840-1821) submitted a claim for compensation for false arrest by General Strange of Fort Saskatchewan (Alberta).
Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916) is posted to Dunbow (Alberta)
Ha Link a CPR cook on a bet climbed Chinaman's Peak near Canmore and returned to camp to prepare supper. He left his jacket on the peak as proof, they named the peak after him.
John Leod McDonald joined the community of Stony Region west of Fort Edmonton and selected a homestead near Atim Ozwe Sipi (Dog Rump Creek), later known as the town of Stony Plain.
George Murdock became mayor of Calgary, but it was reported he had tampered with the voting list and was part of the Whiskey Ring that demanded bribes from saloon keepers. Judge Jerry Travis thereby disqualified Murdock and two of his councilors and appointed James Reilly as mayor. This resulted in two mayors and councils, neither of which could be effective until the next election.
Chief Papaschase, also known as John Gladu-Quinn, declared himself Metis, and on July 31, 1886 received 160 dollars script. This year the Indian Reserve south of the Garneau Estates is deserted. The good people of Edmonton have achieved their goal. Government records suggest the Papaschase Reserve as allotted by treat was surrendered for a cash settlement.
Annie Quigley claims to live in Cochrane, (Alberta) area at this time.
Marriage, Theodore Savard, b-1864 St. Albert, son Alexander Savard Sr., b-1831, Slave Lake and Therese Bisson, b-1830 Peace River; married 1886 Emmerance Savard, born July 1869.
A fire in the town of Calgary destroyed 18 businesses, warehouses and homes in the down town area. This forced the merchants to make their buildings out of sandstone.
The Fort MacLeod Gazette, the 2nd Alberta Newspaper is first published this year. The Indians provided the manpower to work the printing press.
The Canadian Anthracite Co. opened a coal mine a few km. east of Banff, (Alberta) and named it Anthracite and it operate 1886-1904. It's population was 300 in 1887 and was considered a hot spot for prostitution and drinking. It was populated by eastern Americans..
The Calgary Exhibition and Stampede began as a simple agricultural fair in 1886, but by 1908, Calgary's Dominion Exhibition staged what was touted as the greatest exhibition in the west with a total of $100,000 in funding from municipal, provincial, and federal levels of government.
Transportation by York boats basically ended.
February 8: Egg Lake (Alberta), birth Lucy L'Hyrondelle, Metis, daughter Jean Baptiste L'Hrondelle, Metis b-1854 and Elizabeth Beaudry, b-1861.
March 16: Fort Edmonton, the population of the Edmonton Division is 5,616 people, including 2,000 Indians.
May 26; Dr. George M. Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada wrote about the Medicine Hat (Alberta) gas finds; "... The wells at this place did not yield any sufficient quantity of good water, though small flows were met with at several levels. They have, however, demonstrated the very important fact that a large supply of natural combustible gas exists in this district, at depths of 900 feet and over, in the sandy layers of the 'Lower Dark shales.' In consequence of the generally horizontal position and widespread uniformity in the character of the rocks, it is probable that a similar supply will be met with over a great area of this part of the Northwest, and that it may become in the near future a factor of economic importance."
August 16: Lac La Biche Mission District (Alberta) birth Celestine Lavallee, daughter Louis Martin dit Petit Louis Martin Lavallee b-1840 and Catherine L'Esperance b-1846
December 21: Lac La Biche (Alberta, birth Elizabeth Johnson, daughter Charles Johnson, b-1829 Red River and Agathe Anger, b-1848, Fort Vermilion, Peace River District (Alberta) daughter Baptiste Auger, b-1827 and Josephte Chalioux,
ALBERTA HISTORY 1887-1898