EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to 2001 - 1001 BC INDEX
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
The mythical Biblical Abram alias Geb and Ibrahim (Abraham) of the book of Genesis the patriarch of the tribe of Abram (2107-1902) is claimed to be born either at Harran, Turkey or Ur, Iraq. Abram's father of the tribe of Terah (2107-1902) is claimed to have died in Harran being claimed to have lasted 145 to 205 years and the Abram clan being 75 years old when they departed Harran in 1,850 B.C. The long life of Terah probably covers more than one generation that used the same tribal name. The book of Genesis is basically a Egyptian mythology with Sumerian and Semitic belief value added over time. The different beliefs of Semitic-Israel alias Jacob and the Judian sects also contributed to the conflicting creation, God, flood and covenant stories in the mythological Torah.
The Roman historians suggest that Semitic-Israelites originated from Cananeo-Phoenician and Saninites speaking peoples about this time. Other accounts claim they originated from Egyptian ancestors. The Phoenicians according to Herodotus (about 480-430 B.C.) the Greek from Persian Halicarnassus originated from the Erythraean Sea (Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean). All Semite peoples claim a common ancestry to Noah alias Ut-Napishtim (3529-2579 B.C.). Semitic-Israelite tradition suggests their ancestors worshipped Mother Todess and other deities. Later after 1,000 B.C. the Semitic-Juda sect would intentionally eliminate any implications of a female deity or spirituality. The Middle East especially the Semitic-Israelites are dominated by Egyptian, Sumerian, Akkad and Babylon religious, cultural and political beliefs that have become entrenched over the past three thousand years. Many Semite peoples claimed to remained true to the God(s) of their fathers but also continued to worship Sumerian, Akkad and the Babylonian Gods.
Mang ruled China (1,924-1,906 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty. It is said he caught a big fish while sailing in the East China Sea.
Hammurabi (1728-1686 B.C.) or (1792-1750 B.C.) or (1950-1924 B.C.) of Babylon changed the status of the Judges of the Temples (High Priests) from servants of the Gods to servant of Hammurabi. He proclaimed the Babylon God of Marduk is subordinate to the Gods Anu and Enlil. Prayers and incantations previously only allowed in Sumerian can now also be said in Akkadian. Sumerian in the right ear of the bull and Akkadian in the left ear. The Law of Hammurabi is actually the Law of the Ancients, an important function of the King of Justice that is required of all Kings and it evolved over a long period of time. The 282 laws end with a call for divine punishment against whoever would deface or alter the just laws. The laws are carved in stone. It is noteworthy this ancient warning is carried into the modern Bible.
Hammurabi of Babylon (1728-1686 B.C.) or (1792-1750 B.C.) or (1950-1924 B.C.) son Sin-muballis (1923-1886) or (1812-1793 B.C.) assembled what some contend is an evil religious code that would dominate European belief systems for centuries. He followed the fundamental principle of an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth; punishments included whippings and maiming. Execution under his religious code included impaling, burning and drowning. This Code of Law would be incorporated into the Old Testament (Bible) and although explicitly eliminated by Jesus in the New Testament, this evil code of conduct would be incorporated into Roman Church tradition reaching its peak during the Inquisition age. Babylon also gave us a vision of the trinity, God the Father (Kumarbi), Goddess of the Sun (Chepat) and God of the Weather (Tesud). Not far removed from God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit of later theology. The Church, Crown and the Nobility own all the land. This pattern to be enforced by the Roman Church in Europe into the twentieth century. The Code of Law like the Jewish code of law Deuteronomy likely evolved over a long period of time, likely spanning a thousand years or more.
Samsu-Iluna a Semitic-Amorite (1923-1886 B.C.) is king of the Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770).
Babylon is attacked by a coalition of Elamites, Guti, Subarians (Assyrians) and people from Eshnunna.
The Kingdom of Mari, Syria (2550-1920 B.C.) appears to drops out of existence until 1830 B.C. During this period it is likely the Amorites (or Hanaeans being the tribes of Iaminites and Simalites) occupied this kingdom. The Iaminites are semi-nomads from west of Mari.
Famine drives the Asiatic Semitic from Sichem (Saudi Arabia) into Egypt.
The Kassites (Sumerians), a inferior and semi-barbaric Aryan (Arya) people are organizing into a nation of warriors behind the Zagros range. Arya means noble people. They attacked the Babylon Empire in 1,740 and are defeated by Samsu-iluma (1923-1886).
Zie ruled China (1,906-1,890 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty.
The Assyria trade route under King Erishum (1906-1867 B.C.) carried cloth from Assur, tin from across the Tigris to Kanish, Anatolia for bronze a trade route of over 1,500 kilometers. The Assyrians Sargon I (ac. 1900 B.C.) or earlier established trading colonies at Boghazkoy (future capital of the Hittites) and Kultepe (Kanesh) near the town Kayseri in Cappadocia. Clay tablets found at the site are written in a form of Akkadian. Anatolia is divided into ten small kingdoms that obey one ruler called the Prince of Princes. The people are a mix of Hattian and Hittites (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite). This population mix eventually became known as Hittite.
Troy (I) in present day Turkey is leveled by an earthquake and pillaged by surrounding tribes. This is a common practice, as the people believed that natural calamities represent the Gods displeasure with the people. If one attacked such people in the time of their weakness then you are acting with the Gods as your ally. This belief can be traced to ancient Sumerian times.
The Sumerian culture almost slipped into oblivion as their language and customs faded away. There is no indication that they were killed or died out. This culture had wheeled transport, astronomy, mathematics, commercial enterprise, large-scale brickwork and writing.
During this century the Egyptian Delta contained many foreign enclaves of settlers who are at peace with the Egyptians. All indications suggest the Egyptians are basically a peace loving people.
During the next 100 years many Semitic nomads from southern Iraq migrated into the Jordan Valley, pasturing their sheep outside the Semitic-Canaanite towns. It is believed they had been passing through this region for centuries and intermarried with the Canaanites. The Egyptians made no distinction between Canaanite and Habiru (Hebrew?) until about 1207 B.C.
Others contend the Habiru and Hebrew have nothing in common except the name. Both however are nomads, in the interior of Syria and Palestine, are war like, are considered Asiatic by the Egyptians and are therefore culturally similar (the same). They called them Hyksos and Asiatic or the people with the bow or the people beyond the sands (Sinai). Archaeologically there is no distinction as the wandering Semitic adopted or sprang from the Canaanite culture.
Reign King Senwosret or Sesostris II (Khakheperre) (ca. 1897-1878 B.C.) Dynasty 12 of Egypt. He conducted a military campaign into Syria.
Mashkan-shapir, in southern Iraq mysteriously burnt and is never settled again. The city more than half mile in diameter is known to have been populated with judges and lawyers who worshipped Nergal. Nergal, King of the Underworld is considered to be the prototype of the grim reaper and Lucifer.
Bu Jiang ruled China (1,890-1,831 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty. He is considered one of the wisest Kings of the Xia Dynasty.
The mythical Biblical Abraham (Abram) (1918-1733 B.C.) after being in Canaan 10 years married Sarah alias Sarai (1908-1781 B.C.).
Abi-Eshuh (1885-1858 B.C.) is king of the Semetic Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770).
The Semitic-Amorite army attempted to take Babylon and are defeated by the Amorite King Samsu-iluna (1749-1712 B.C.) or (1923-1886 B.C.) of Babylon. The Empire of Amorite-Babylon had shrunk back to it original boundaries of the Kingdom of Akkad.
Reign King Senwosret or Sesostris III (Khakaure) (meaning man of power)(ca. 1878-1843/1841 B.C.) Dynasty 12 of Egypt. The Egyptian King secured the southern boundary from the powerful Nubians by building a series of defensive forts. He captured their women, cattle and grain and burnt their fields. Palestine and Syria at this time are under Egyptian influence of trade.
A male Egyptian's will could transfer property to his wife with the right to transfer property to any one of their children. It is noteworthy however that a friend is appointed as his son's guardian. Immigrants into Egypt include the Asiatic with Semitic-Amorite names. This would eventually lead to the Eastern Delta becoming a Semitic Kingship Dynasty 16, the Hyksos (1674-1558 B.C.).
King Senwosret or Sesostris III (Khakaure) (1878-1843/1841 B.C.) Dynasty 12 rules Egypt and immense fortresses are built on the banks of the Nile, as if the entire country has come under siege. It is believed the Semitic-Hyksos is making offensive incursions into Egypt. Some contend that this reign is fairly well date fixed by astronomical data as year 7 of his reign.
The Hittites (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite) drove the
Semites and Indo-European speaking peoples and some Aegeans southward.
These people entered the Egyptian Delta en masse and are called the Semitic-Hyksos
people. These invading Semitic-Hyksos are accused of all manner of
crime and left a bitter memory in Egypt. Egypt is invaded by the
Hyksos who used horses and chariots to invade and form a ruling elite in
Upper Egypt. Hyksos are descendants of Churrit (Asianic-Hurrians)
and Semite tribes from Auaris in the east. The Hyksos worshipped
the Asiatic storm God as did the Assyrian (Sumerians) and Persian people.
The Hurrian is neither Semitic nor Indo-European but rather an Asiatic-speaking
people. They also appear to be closely related to the people of the
country Urartu (Armenia). Some suggest the Asiatic Semitic-Habiru
(Hebrew?) Joseph is believed associated with these invading Hyksos.
The mythical Biblical Joseph (ca.
1730-1620) however has not been verified as a historic person outside the bible.
The Semitic Hyksos-Habiru stayed in Egypt like mice in the wheat. They pillaged towns, murdering and enslaving. These Asiatic Habiru including the Canaanites is considered an infestation of Egypt by plague-ridden, unclean and leprous peoples. It is noteworthy that being unclean or leprous is justification in the future for the expulsion from Egypt of those people associated with the Exodus.
Ammi-Ditana (1857-1821 B.C.) is the Semite king of the Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770).
The Pelasgi from Anatolia (Greece) and the aborigines the Umbrians, Etruscans and Oscans integrated forming the Latin Sanskrit speaking Peoples and spread out to possess the southern part of Europe. Etruscan trade goods are found in Celtic burial sites. Much of the future Roman culture is based upon the Etruscan culture.
The Jewish historian Flavious Josephus quotes the Egyptian historian Manetho who contends the Shepherd Kings (Hycsos) or Phoenicians (Canaaniters) are driven out of Egypt (37 years before Abraham is alleged to have came out of Haran) after living there for 511 years. This Exodus is almost 1,000 years before the siege of Troy according to Josephus. Manetho says about 240,000 Hycsos are driven out of Egypt to Syria where they built a city called Jerusalem in Judea. It is noteworthy that Manetho the Egyptian demonstrated a single God philosophy at this time. The Hycsos rulers of Egypt according to Manetho are, Timaus lost Egyptian rule to Salatis who ruled Egypt for 13 years, then Beon for 44 years, Apachnas for 36 years, then Apophis for 61 years, then Jonias for 50 years, then Assis for 49 years and their descendents. This is according to the Egyptian sacred records. Manetho noted that this nation called Shepherds (Hycsos) was also called Captives in their sacred books. Josephus believed these Shepherds are Hebrew not Phoenician-Canaanites. Others believe the invaders are Semitic-Arab out of the eastern parts. It is noteworthy that 240,000 men invaded Egypt and 240,000 men departed according to Exodus. Tacitus the Roman historian at the time of Josephus writings (75-100) writes that the history of the Jews are they originated from Crete and settled on the coast of Libya. Others say they were numerous in Egypt under the reign of Isis; and sent them into adjacent countries under their captain Hierosolymus and Judas. Tacitus says the greater number say the Jews originated from the Ethiopians and changed their habitation in the reign of King Cepheus. Others say they were Assyrians who wanted land and obtained part of Egypt and later settled in the land of Palestine and Syria. The most compelling argument is that they are rejected Egyptians who fabricated a history based on distorted Egyptian mythologies. The Exodus however did not occur until centuries later.
Tethmosis the King of Egypt ruled for 25 years and is responsible for driving the Hycsos out of Egypt. Tethmosis had a son Chebron who ruled for 13 years, then Amenophis for 20 years, then his sister Amesses for 21 years, then Mephres for 12 years, then Mephramuthosis for 25 years, then Tethmosis for 9 years, Amenophis for 30 years, then Orus for 36 years then his daughter Acenchres for 12 years, then her brother Rathotis for 9 years, then Acencheres for 12 years, then another Acencheres for 12 years, then Armais for 4 years, then Rameeses for 1 year, then Armesses Miammoun for 60 years, then Amenophis for 19 years, then came Sethosis and Ramesses who had an army of horses and naval forces. Sethosis alias Egyptus killed Ramesses and led an army against Cyprus and Phoenicia, and against the Assyrians and the Medes. He subdued them all, some by his arms, some without fighting, and some by terror.
Historians place this as the latest likely date that the mythical Abraham (2500-2000 B.C.) of the book of Genesis departed Ur (Iraq) for Hebron (Canaan) via Harran. This however does not account for the family having settled in Harran where his father Terah died. An earlier departure of Abram's family from Ur assumes his family settled at Harran (Harranu, Turkey) on the upper Euphrates River where they settled for over two hundred years. Abram however is reported as being 75 years old when he departed Turkey for the land of the Semitic-Canaanites. It is noteworthy that many of the Canaanites spoke Habiru (Hebrew?) and some even suggest this is the origin of the language. The clan of the mythical Abram a Semitic people is believed descended from the Moabites, Semitic-Ammonites and Harans. The Egyptian-Iarael sect likely retrofit the Sumerian tradition of creation and the great flood into the Israel tradition. The God of Abraham, (Canaan-Israel) is called El possibly (possibly related to the king-god Sumu-La-El (2036-2001 B.C.) later translated in 550 B.C. to Elohim meaning all the Gods. Others suggest he is the Egyptian God Re. The Abraham sect followed the Sumerian city state philosophy of creating their own personal God concept. This is not unusual as most peoples of the world considered themselves as the Chosen People and believed in a Great Spirit. It is suggested the Sumerian-Habiru (Hebrew?) adopted from the Semitic-Canaanite the custom of an aversion to pig meat that tended in these regions to be laden with parasites making the people lethally ill.
Other Semitic migrating tribes who also settled in the land of Canaan
include Abiru, Apiru, and Habiru (Hebrew?).
The Assyrian king Puzur-Ashur II (ca. 1850 B.C.) ended a dynasty and Syria would be under foreign rule for the next 500 years (1362 B.C.). Assyria historians would fabricate a 500-year systemic to correlate a link to old Assyran tradition to provide political and religious authority much like the Habiru (Hebrew?) Book of Kings.
The Canaanites (Palestines) occupied Canaan and the city of Shekelon of 15,000 people where they built the oldest arched gateway ever found.
Ipiq-Adad II, the enlarger of Eshnunna began restoring the city after itís sacking and burning by the King of Der (Badrah).
The Canaanites (Palestine) occupied Canaan and Ashkelon a seaport city on the Mediterranean Sea with a population of 15,000 people. This city existed since 3,500 B.C. They built the first known arched gateway ever found. The city's walls were 50 feet high and 150 feet thick at the base. The Canaanites would increase the wall height another 100 feet. They exported wine, olive oil, wheat and livestock. Some believe the Canaanites originated in Syria. They had master craftsmen and a clear Idea of what they wanted to build, big fortified cities. Evidence suggests a very cosmopolitan culture. The Bible suggests the Canaanites are a brutish (dullest enemies of art and knowledge). The facts however suggest the Israelites were making crude , unadorned pottery, the Canaanites (Philistines) during the same time period were decorating theirs in sophisticated styles resembling those of the Mycenaean Greeks.
An Egyptian papyrus records a method to prevent pregnancy.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to 2001 - 1001 BC INDEX