EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to 2001 - 1001 BC INDEX
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Reign King Amenemhet or Amunemhet III (Nimaatre) (ca. 1844/1842-1797 B.C.) Dynasty 12 of Egypt. He married Aat who died age 35 and is buried at Dashur near the King.
The Elamite kingís Ward-Sin and Rim-Sin ruled Larsa yet bear Semitic and not Elamite names. They built temples just like the Semites and are likely culturally aligned and intermarrying.
The mythical Biblical Ishmael (1832-1695 B.C.) is born in Canaan son Abraham (1918-1733 B.C.) and Hager an Egyptian slave girl. Abramham alias Abram had acquired the Egyptian slave girl when he went down to Egypt during a great famine in Canaan. Egypt is considered to be the image of heaven, intrinsically holy, the temple of the whole world. Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian states that Abram ventured to Egypt to partake of their plenty and to become an auditor of their priests and to understand their Gods (Philosophy). He decided to adopt any notions of God that are better than the Canaan-Sumerian notions. This is possible where the One God concept is adopted by the Abraham sect. Abram claimed to have introduced arithmetic and astronomy to Egypt, which is a most absurd notion. The Greek world and Roman world freely admitted that the Egyptians are the first peoples to organize formal religious cults.
Muslims would later believe the mythical Ishmael (1832-1695 B.C.) the
Egyptian-Canaanite from whom they descend is the son that God commanded
Abraham to sacrifice. The Jews later would believe it is Isaac their
Egyptian mythical biblical father.
1,830 B.C. The Hyksos, the Palestine King, who worship the God Seth, are now well established in the Egyptian Delta. The Hyksos had absorbed many Hurrian, Semites and other Palestine people basically changing their nomad roots. They conquered Egypt without a battle. They ruled Egypt savagely, meaning they showed little respect for Egyptian temples and religious philosophy. They built a fortified city called Avis with some 240,000 warriors extract tribute from Egypt. This Hyksos rule of Egypt (1,900-1,730 B.C.) or (1674-1558) became a great humiliation to the Egyptian people.
Jiong ruled China (1,831-1,810 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty.
Ammi-Saduqa (1820-1800 B.C.) is king of the Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770).
The mythical Biblical Abraham (1918-1733 B.C.) is claimed to have entered into a covenant with the Gods El Rol and El Shaddai and circumcision is introduced. It is noteworthy the circumcision was first practiced among the Egyptians. The God El warned Abraham that the Amorites would enslave his descendents for the next 400 years. The mythical Biblical Isaac (1818-1638 B.C.) is born in Canaan son Abraham (Abram) (1918-1733 B.C.) and Sarah alias Sarai (1908-1781 B.C.) the Egyptian. Future Hebrews believe Ishmael from whom they descend is the son that God EI commanded Abraham to sacrifice. The Muslims believe it is Ishmael their biblical father. The Egyptian-Hebrew Ishmael (1832-1695 B.C.) and his mother are abandoned by Abraham. His other concubines and their children are also driven to the east country. Ishmael (1832-1695 B.C.) would marry an Egyptian girl. Abraham also married Keturah. Ishmael (1832-1695 B.C.) returned after the death of Abraham but eventually relocated east of Egypt.
The mythical Abraham made a covenant with the Abimelech and Phicol for the Philistines before God EI that he would not trick nor bring harm to his descendents and would show the same kindness to the Palestines and their land as the Palestines showed to Abraham as a guest in this land. Abraham it is claimed stayed a long time in the land of Palestine.
The Shang Dynasty (1,500-1,000) or (1766-1122) or (1816-1172) depending on the source begins in Northern China. The preceding dynasty is refereed to as the Longshan age.
The mythical Israel alias Jacob grandson of Abraham settled in Sechem (Nablus) on the West Bank of Palestine in Canaan. Jacob, an Aramaean, it is believed established the mythical twelve tribes of Semitic-Israelite Sect, some of who later also migrated to Egypt. Jacob however is a mythical biblical character and has not yet been verified as a historical figure.
Jin ruled China aka Yinjia (1,810-1,789 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty.
King Shamshi-Adad I (1809-1776 B.C.) an Amorite of Babylonia created a fictional genealogy back to the ancestors of Puzur-Assur I (ca. 1975) to strengthen his legitimacy at Assur. The use of a created genealogy to establish fictional authority would become a Semitic tradition.
A serious drought occurred in China
Hsia Dynasty (1,800-1,500) begins in China. Some believe it includes Manchuria to Canton. The Chinese from earliest times practiced exogamy; no man could marry a woman of his own paternal lineage, however remote. He must marry from another clan. It is noteworthy that the North American Indian also adopted this practice. The Chinese also believed one must learn how to serve his fellow man before he can serve God. It should be noted that China at this time did not have a homogenous culture. There is evidence of a southern, northern and Mongolian culture existing at this time. Hsia belief introduced hereditary monarchy to replace the succession of sages who showed wisdom and good judgment and who had been chosen without regard to relationship. It is of interest to note that the North American tradition retained the Sage leadership concept until the nineteenth century. The Hsia Dynasty also embraced slavery of war captives that appears to be a part of a very ancient belief system. Some speculate the advent of slavery is linked to agricultural development and land ownership. Slavery appears more likely related to the establishment of temple worship.
Hittite (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite) an Indo-European invaders from Asia swept into Turkey to create a long lasting Empire. The Hurrian (Asian) speaking people occupied the Syrian town of Alalah, between Aleppo and Antioch. A century later they would effectively possess northern Iraq. The Semitic-Hyksos (Bikau or Kbasut) is firmly established in Syria and Palestine. These people used fortified cities and introduced the horse and chariot into the Middle East. The Semitic-Hyksos is presently penetrating into Egypt from the sands of the Sinai. The Kassites (Sumerians) also of the Mongrel horde from the north and east are penetrating Mesopotamia. The Egyptians write these Semite-Canannite's (Phoenicians) is like mice in the wheat, pillaging towns, murdering and enslaving. They are plague-ridden, unclean and leprous people. The Greek scribes including Herodotus between 484-425 B.C. writes the people of Lebanon and Canaan descended to the Nile. Among them is Io who married the reigning Pharaoh. His great great grandson Danaos slew the son of his brother Aegyptos and fled to Anatolia (Greek) coastal city of Argos.
At Loulan, Xinjiang, China a Indio-European woman named Kiruran Guzali died at age 40 years. Another nearby mummy dates to 4,000 B.C.
Some suggest that the Asiatic Semitic migration to Egypt commenced 1,800 lasting to 1,532 B.C. The Hyksos invaded Egypt during this general southerly migration. It is significant that the Palestine (Philistine) culture controlled Egypt until 1,710 (1730 or 1558) B.C. The early Egyptian records donít display any sign of animosity toward the Asiatic or any other foreign peoples in general. Kashtiliash I the Kassite Aryan (Arya) became King of Hana and Kassite are penetrating Babtlonia as agricultural workers.
Between 1800 B.C. to 200 A.D. in the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Uyghur in North West China mummies were not Chinese but had blond and red hair, likely from Indo-European. Wheat, goats, chariot wheels and bronze artifacts support that theory. They trade in jade and silk with the Chinese to the east.
Samau-Ditana (1800-1770 B.C.) is king of the Amorite-Babylon Dynasty
The Hurrian an Asiatic people formed the majority of the population of the Syrian town of Alalah between Aleppo and Antioch. A century later they possessed northern Iraq.
The Tailueann Games of Ireland (1,800 - 1180 B.C.) are claimed to originate about this time.
Bahrain alias Dilmum also known as Tylos by the Greeks is an archipelago of 33 small islands in the Arabian Gulf midway between the Qatar Peninsula and Saudi Arabia. From 1,800 to 1,600 B.C. Dilmum was a major trading post with the Indus Valley.
Reign King Amenemhet or Amunemhet IV (Maakherure) (ca. 1799/1798-1790/1787 B.C.) Dynasty 12 of Egypt. Egypt is receiving tribute from Byblos, Syria and other lands during his brief reign.
Kong Jia ruled China (1,789-1,758 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty. He only cared for wine, women and song. The power of the Xia Dynasty started to decline.
Reign Queen Nefrusobk (Sebekkare) or Sobkkare Sobknofru (ca. 1789/1787-1786/1783 B.C.) Dynasty 12 of Egypt.
Reign King Dudimose (Tutimaios) (ca. 1654-1633 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt. The Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) retold a Manetho tradition tells that during Tutimaios reign in Egypt a blast of God smote us, from the East invaders of a obscure race marched against our land. They seized the land without striking a blow, overpowering the rulers of the land, they burned our cities, razed the temples of the Gods and treated the people with cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. They appointed their own King named Salitis in Memphis (Egypt) levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt. These belt wearers (Greeks) will destroy themselves, for they are followers of Typhon.
The Dynasty 13 (ca. 1786-1633 B.C.) lists some 50-60 rulers. The Western Delta seceded from the control of the rulers of dynasty 13, likely (1715-1650 B.C.). The kingship changed at a rapid pace or the Dynasty period is incorrect.
King Wegaf (Khutawyre) (1) (1783-1779 B.C.) Dynasty
13 of Egypt.
King Amenemhet V (Sekhemkare) (4) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Harnedjheriotef (Hetepibre) (9) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
Reign King Sebekhotpe or Sobkemsaf, Sobkhotpe I (Khaankhre) (12) (ca. 1786-1759 B.C.) (ca. 1750/1738-1717 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Hor or Suibre (Awibre) (14) (ca. 1759-1738 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Amenemhet VII (Sedjefakare) (15) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Sebekhotpe II (Sekhemre-khutawy) (16) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Khendjer (Userkare) (17) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Sebekhotpe or Sobkhotpe III (Sekhemre-swadjtawy) (21) (ca. 1745/1717-1696 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Neferhotep or Neferhotpe I (Khasekhemre) (22) (ca. 1741-1730 B.C.)(ca. 1696-1675 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt. This king is not of royal blood, his father appears to have been a priest in Abydos.
King Sebekhotpe V (Khahotepre) (25) (ca. 1720-1715 B.C.) Dynasty 13 of Egypt.
King Aya (Mereneferre) (27) Dynasty 13 of Egypt is believed to be a vassal of the Hyksos.
King Mentuemzaf (Djedankhre) (32c) Dynasty 13 of Egypt. His son is recorded as having lived at Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos. The city of Avaris is dedicated to the Egyptian god Set by the Hyksos (some believe this founding occurred in 1,730 B.C.).
King Dedumose II (Djedneferre) (37) Dynasty 13 of Egypt and listed as a vassal of the Hyksos.
King Neferhotep III (Sekhemre-sankhtawy (41a) Dynasty 13 of Egypt. He waged war against the Hyksos but the Asiatics are in firm control of the Delta territories.
The Egyptian Dynasty 14 (ca. 1786-1603 B.C.) lists 76 Kings of Xois and Manetho gives it a duration of 184 years. Some Egyptologists question if the 14th and 16th Dynasties even exist.
The Hyksos/Egyptian Dynasties 15 & 16 (ca. 1674-1558 B.C.) (1640-1532 B.C.). Others suggest the Hyksos occupation of Egypt is (ca. 1900-1730 B.C.). The Hyksos used the title Son of Re and even incorporated the name Re in their own names.
King Salitis Dynasty 15 of Hyksos/Egypt.
King Sheshi Dynasty 15 of Hyksos/Egypt.
King Khian or Khyan (Swoserenre) (1674-1598 B.C.) likely a Amorite of Dynasty 15 of Hyksos/Egypt. He is considered one of the Great Hyksos kings who's monuments are discovered in both Upper and Lower Egypt and as far away as Crete.
King Apophis or Apopi (Awoserre or Aauserre) (1598/1585-1558/1542
B.C.) Dynasty 15 of Hyksos/Egypt. He ruled Upper Egypt from Thebes.
During his reign he is forced to retreat northward.
King Khamudi (ca. 1542-1532 B.C.) Dynasty 15 of Hyksos/Egypt.
Dynasty 16 Hyksos/Egypt is a minor dynasty and contemporary with dynasty 15.
Dynasty 17 (Theban) (1640-1550 B.C.)
King Inyotef V (Nubkheperre) (1) (ca. 1640-1635 B.C.)
Dynasty 17 of Egypt he married Queen Sobekemsaf.
King Sebekemzaf (Sekhemre-wadjkhau) (3) Dynasty 17 of Egypt.
King Nebireraw (Swadjenre) (6) Dynasty 17 of Egypt.
King Sebekamzaf II (Sekhemre-shadtawy) (10) Dynasty 17 of Egypt.
Reign King Tao (or Djehutio, Senakhtenre or Seqenenre) (13) (ca. 1650-1618 B.C.) Dynasty 17 of Egypt.
Reign King Tao II (or Dejhutio or Sekenenre or Seqenenre) (14) (ca. 1618-1588 B.C.) Dynasty 17 of Egypt. He married his sister Queen Ahhoteo I daughter Sekenenretao and Queen Tetisheri. They had two sons King Kamose and King Ahmose. The Theban ruler Seqenenre is taunted by the Hyksos King Aauserre Apopi (1598-1558 B.C.) about the noise of hippopotami in a canal. This reflects a refusal to obey the Hyksos King. (pre 1725)?
Reign King Kamose (Wadjkheperre) (15) (1555-1550 B.C.) Dynasty 17 of Egypt. He is the son of Sekenenre Tao II and Queen Ahotop and the brother Ahmose I. He continued the war of his fathers against the Hyksos King Apophis of the 15th dynasty and the Nubian allies. He married his sister Ahmose-nefertiry who became the wife of Ahmose I upon his death.
Phoroneus (1897-1747) of Anatolia (Greece) introduced the practice of offering sacrifices to the Gods. Other evidence suggests this practice is worldwide and goes back to antiquity.
The Hittite (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite) raids contributed to the ends of the Amorite King Dynasty about this year based upon geology. Others suggest based on archeology it is at a later date.
The Shang Dynasty (1,500-1,000) or (1766-1122) or (1816-1172) depending on the source begins in China. Yinxu located near Anyang in the province of Henan is the ruins of the capital of Chinas Shang Dynasty (1766-1050 B.C.) This dynasty had 12 kings over 8 generations. The first king of the Dynasty was King Tang (1675-1646 B.C.). King Di Xin added to the territory of Shang by battling the tribes surrounding it, including the Dongyi to the east.
Jericho is destroyed and remains abandoned until after 1500 B.C.
Austria began to specialize in salt mining and long distance trading of this necessity.
Gao ruled China (1,758-1,747 B.C.) under the Xia Dynesty.
The mythical Biblical Esau & Jacob (1758-1628
B.C.) alias Horus, father of the Egyptian Joseph (ca. 1730-1620 B.C. in
Egypt) is said to be born about this time. Esau & Jacob are the
twin sons of Isaac and Rebekah, alias Isis alleged daughter of Abraham's
brother (1st cousin) married 1778 B.C. Isaac (1818-1638 B.C.) son Abraham
(1918-1733 B.C.) who lived 175 years and had Isaac (1818-1638 B.C.) at
age 100 years. Jacob (1758-1628)would steel the birth right from
Esau and deceive the Palestine King by claiming his wife is his sister.
Jacob married his cousins Leah and Rachel both sisters. This Biblical
account is based on the Egyptian accounts of the struggle between the gods
Horus and Set.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to 2001 - 1001 BC INDEX