200,000 BC TO 35,001 BC
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 35,000 BC - 3001 BC
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Some linguists argue that modern cognitive universal grammar originated about 200,000 B.C. as a result of a genetic mutation in Asia spreading to Europe and Africa. Some argue that there are no primitive languages in the world today, other disagree. Others argue that it takes about 2,000 years for a language to diverse, so that they can't understand each other. They appear to agree that dialect is an interim step between differing languages. Still others argue the a language can change in 2-3 generations depending on circumstances. They point to deaf and dumb children developing a complex sign language in a short time frame. It is believed that 7,000 languages exist today in the world, others will argue a different number. This naturally conflicts with the out of Africa theory so debate and argument is heated. Only time will resolve this conflict. Keep in mind that Homo Neanderthal man had the genetic ability to communication orally and is believed to have lived at this time and was blood type 0, as a result of DNA studies in Spain, therefore maybe not out of Africa.
Molecular biology suggests modern man originated about this time from an African tribe (Lucy theory) with little or no interbreeding with other existing humanoid groups. This theory requires that the descendants of Lucy displaced and replaced all people throughout the world. How all these people are eliminated is not explained. Others suggest Lucy is an extinct side evolution and is not part of the evolution to modern man. Evidence is mounting that the Lucy theory is not viable. No physical evidence supports the Lucy theory. Others suggest genetic findings can be rationalized to fit any theory. Fossil evidence as interpreted by conservatives does not support this contention and suggest modern man emerged about 100,000 B.C. Other evidence suggests modern man evolved independently at several sites much earlier including Africa, China and Indonesia. China also dates Homo Erectus to this period. Homo Erectus is located in Clacton eastern England and is using wooden spear tips or the artifacts could be used for probing.
The out of Africa theorists suggest that 99.9% of all human genetic code in humans is identical. Little is mentioned of the epigenetic code or epigenetic markers as they are called. Africans have twice as much genetic diversity as other regions of the world and therefore modern humans must have lived in Africa twice as long as anywhere else? If this assumption is valid then the aboriginal of Australia likely only have 10% or less genetic diversity and only existed for 5,000 years rather than 50,000 years or more based on that logic. Others believe modern man only started in 150,000 B.C. The out of Africa theory suggests modern man left Africa 70,000 to 50,000 B.C. and replaced all other humanoids world wide. Some even suggest the humanoids in Ethiopia and Israel died out about 90,000 B.C. The DNA studies suggests America is populated 18,000 to 13,000 B.C. which is not supported by the hard facts that supports a much earlier population. The African DNA diversity could be the result of migrations to Africa. The earliest traces of Homo Sapiens are from Ethiopia, Africa. However teeth found in Israel suggest Homo Sapiens were there in 400,000 B.C. going against the out of Africa theory.
Anthropologists analysis of ancient skulls from this time to modern times throughout the world write a different story. Modern man descended independently from common ancestors that lived on nearly every continent and mingled with earlier human types like Homo Neanderthal. Distinctive Homo Neanderthal markings are still evident in skulls of today, we are they. The disappearance of Homo Neanderthal is partly the result of interbreeding. There was no evidence of a single wave of modern man out of Africa. It was more of a dribble going both ways, some say, but Neanderthal doesn't appear to have enter Africa..
The evolutionary patterns of three different regions - Australasia - China and Europe show their earliest modern inhabitants do not have the complex features that characterize Africans.
At the beginning of the third ice age (Riss-wurm) the Abbevillian returned to Europe. These returning people are now called the Acheulian culture. Their modified hand-axe is found as far as India. Some contend that Homo Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens began to differentiate about this time. Dakhleh, Egypt contains evidence of human activity (tool making). Conflicting evidence suggests this differentiation could be as late as 100,000 B.C. An Archaic Jinniushan skull in Liaoning province of China suggests these Homo Sapiens coexisted with Homo Erectus in this region. The northern India Peoples genetically have more in common with the Chinese and Japanese than Europeans.
It is speculated that the Homo Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens split from a common ancestor about this time. DNA research in 2008 indicated that shortly after this time Homo Sapiens split into 2 groups. Most people in 2008 represented one group, while the bushmen of southern Africa represented the other.
A broken wooden spear found at Essex, England is believed older than this period.
In Maastricht Belvedere in the Netherlands the Homo Neanderthal were using iron oxide. Iron oxide was used as a red pigment for painting, foe glue and for tanning hides, amon other things. Some believe this is an indication of modern human behavior.
Some believe prehistoric Malaysia may be traced back as far as 200,000 years ago from stone tools found at Kota Tampan, an archaeological site in Lenggong Perak.
Near Omo, Ethiopia is uncovered the remains of modern man (Homo Sapien). It is noteworthy that Ethiopian's got their name from the Greeks and it means burnt faced people.
The Sumerian tradition suggests their kingship moved from Eridu, Iraq to Bad-tibira about this time and three king clans, one being Dumuzi reigned for the next 108,000 years.
Stone tools are being used in Australia suggesting seafaring technology is in use much earlier than previously believed. Others suggest these are not real tools.
It is believed that humans began wearing cloths about this time especially in northern climates.
Homo Neanderthal who descended from Denisovan Man (400,000 B.C.) and about this time in the East they developed the use of fire and cooked wild grasses, roots and tubers the same as Homo Sapiens, as well as meats. This Neanderthal technology was spread from China, to Malaysia to Northern Europe and into the Middle East but not into Africa, which is interesting. It is noteworthy that the Eastern Homo Devisovan (Neanderthal) are genetically different than Western Homo Neanderthal. There must have been something that caused this cultural mutation. Homo Neanderthal is believed to have began interbreeding with Homo Sapiens about 100,000 to 80,000 B.C. I suspect the interbreeding was continuous during this period of evolution. They stopped being classified as an independent culture by 30,000 B.C. because they are us.
Herto Man dated 160,000 to 154,000 B.C. is argon dated to this period in Herto, Ethiopia. Some consider them the oldest Homo Sapiens in Africa. They unofficially called them Homo Sapiens Idaltu. They suggest these people were practicing mortuary practices of cutting and polishing the skulls.
Evidence of the use of fire is discovered in the Middle East. Genetic DNA studies suggest a second major migration out of Africa from now until 80,000 B.C. They theorize the first major migration was 840,000 B.C. to 420,000 B.C.
In 1980 evidence of Aboriginal habitation in Australia were discovered in charcoal remains deep in the bed of the Great Barrier Reef and dated to this time.
Genetic Anthropology suggests the mitrochondrial (mtDNA) and Y chromosome genetic tree first started to branch out.
DNA evidence in 1997 indicated that the modern dog has been around since about this time.
Some say the world is in a warm period. Others suggest a ice age started about 200,000 B.C., peaked about this time, and returned to hot conditions by 115,000 B.C.. Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.
The island of Crete appears to be occupied about this time. This implies man (Homo erectus) must have boated to the island. Some believe man could boat about 40 miles at this time. It's possible the tools and artifacts found might date as far back as 700,000 B.C.
Some believe the early inhabitants of Crete (the Minoan) settled as early as this and it is believed they originated in Asia Minor. Their culture was more Asian than Greek and were not Indo-European in nature. They were related to the pre-Greek dwellers and Western Antolia, the so called Pelasgians.
Homo Neanderthals were hunting elephants and hippopotamuses in Italy.
This was a global warming period that lasted until 115,000 B.C.
Some suggest a migration out of Egypt of Homo sapiens might have occurred to the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula based on stone artifacts at Jebal Faya which show signs of occupation 125,000 to 34,000 B.C. near the Straits of Humuz but is based on the assumption that there was a land bridge to Africa at the time. They assume that Homo Neanderthals and adverse conditions would prevent a northern migration.
Jebel Faya at the Straits of Hormuz was occupied by Homo Sapians from eastern Africa from 125,000 to 90,000 B.C. they think these are the same people who ended up in India in 78,000 B.C. Jebel Faya was reoccupied about 34,000 B.C. from the north.
Between 120,000 to 81,000 B.C Homo sapiens occupy Skhul and Qafzeh, Israel.
The Dead Sea almost disappeared during a drought.
Coastal caves at Klasies River Mouth and Nelson Bay in South Africa is occupied until 70,000 B.C. and the people lived on vegetables, game and fish resources. Modern man would occupy these caves about 13,000 B.C.
A Chinese skullcap of a human was discovered at Maba, China and dated to this time period.
The out of Africa theory dated to 60,000 B.C. disagrees with
archaeological evidence that show modern human activity well before this theoretical
date. Some are now suggesting the DNA evidence that supports this theory
mutates at a constant rate. They suggest that the genetic clock may
actually run about twice as slowly as previously believed, at least for the last
million years or so of primate history. The out of Africa hypotheses is
now suggested at 120,000 B.C. This sounds to me like trying to create
facts to support a theory?
Even if this were true Modern man, Homo Floresiensis, Homo Neanderthal and Homo Denisovan man dates back to 350,000,000 B.C. outside of Africa which gives the Out of Africa hypotheses another great problem.
The worlds oldest art is discovered in Northwest Australia (60,000 B.C.) and older tools are dated to 116,000 B.C. This is just about when modern man supposedly emerged from Africa or else the molecular biologists don't have the correct sediment dates or the tools are not man made.
Controversial data from the Jinmium rock-shelter in northern Australia suggests humans may have reached the continent at this time.
Flint tools have been in use for some time in the
upper Tigris Valley (Iraq) located north of Mosul.
Homo Neanderthal man is burying their dead which indicates they had a social system requiring a formal buried system. It's also noteworthy that Homo Sapiens might have learned buried practice from Homo Neanderthal man. Early hominins such as Homo erectus and Homo Neanderthal had shovel-shaped incisor teeth, but this trait only appears in Homo sapiens after they encountered these groups suggesting interbreding.
Homo Neanderthal has a brain size of 1,560 cubic cm whereas modern man has a brain size of 1,350 cubic cm. Homo Neanderthal is a flute-playing, story-telling, and spirit-seeking human. Homo Neanderthals reigned over Europe from 250,000 B.C. to 36,000 B.C. Evidence of Homo Neanderthal Man still exists until 1,300 B.C. Some suggest as man shifts from being a carnivore to being a herbivore brain size diminishes due to inadequate protein intake.
Homo Neanderthal interbred with Homo sapiens during the period 100,000 to 80,000 B.C. Their genes are spread throughout Europe and Asia but not Africa. Only about 60% of Neanderthal DNA has been sequenced but it suggests just one gene might account for differences in the shape of the skull, rib cage, and shoulder joint between Neanderthals and modern humans. There was suggestions that red and blond hair may also be from the Neanderthal.
Some believe that modern man was present in India about this time but others say evidence is wanting.
Chert (silica) is being mined at Nazlet Sabaha, Egypt.
A human skull positively dated to this period is discovered in a cave in Qafzeh, Israel. The cave appears to be occupied on and off from 100,000 to 90,000 B.C. They use red ochre (iron oxide) in their burial ritual. 21 individuals found in Qafzeh Cave and they are believed to be Homo Sapiens. This predates the Klasies River, South Africa Homo Sapien finds that demonstrate that early members of our species varied in size more than contemporary humans. Maybe Homo Sapiens had various sub species?
Ancient shells discovered in Algeria suggests jewelry in the form of necklaces was in used 50,000 years earlier than previously thought
A human skull is found in Xuchang, China.
A genetic clan of mtDNA came out of Africa settling in the Mediterranean and Greece about this time. Some question the validity of genetic identification over 50,000 years, yet others suggest it is valid to 100,000 years. Still others question the accuracy of the 1 genetic mutations in every 10,000 years..
African genetic input into the Melanesian culture is believed to have entered about this time.
The New Cave Man Site was found in Locality Four, 100 meters (328 feet) south to the Apeman Cave, China. The New Cave Man lived 100,000 years ago. The discovery of this site bridges the gap between Peking Man and Upper Cave Man, and the succession of Peking Man's evolution. One tooth, fossils of amniotes and other animal fossils were unearthed here.
Homo Sapiens is living at Hsuchiayao, Datong, province of Shanxi, not far from Peking (Beijing). These and other findings suggest the evolution of Homo Sapiens from Homo Erectus is not confined to Africa. Micoquian culture (La Micoque, Dordogne) evolved in Europe spreading to Africa, the Middle East, Palestine and Syria. At Jebel Qafzeh, near Nazareth there are indications that Homo Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens are living in the same localities. Later research from the period 40,000 to 30,000 B.C. indicated they did not or could not interbreed. Many disagree with this assumption and suggest they did interbreed. The mixed tool usage indicates that they did associate through trade and that historically results in interbreeding. A 12-year-old boy anatomically similar to modern man is discovered in Israel. These people live 25 km from and share the same type tools as Homo Neanderthal man. Homo Neanderthal man at Tata, Hungary made a carved and polished ivory tooth art object, likely an amulet or charm dated between 100,000-80,000 B.C.
In 2007 a human skull from this time, consisting of 16 pieces, was dug up after two years of excavation at a site in Xuchang in China’s Henan province.
Small stone tools found in Gaojia near Fengdu on the banks of the Yangtze indicate a tool workshop. More than a 1,000 tools have been found and were probably used to collect roots.
Some suggest that the analysis of grammatical structures of 200 of the current 300 languages suggest that modern language arose about this time. They (Johanna Nicholas of Berkely) suggest language spread out of Africa to Southeast Asia about 50,000 B.C. Ultra traditionalists suggest all human racial diversity begins no earlier than this period. To suggest that no humanoid talked until someone from Africa taught or spread the gene for speech is the height of absurdity.
Genetic research suggest two major migration waves out of Africa to Asia occurred, namely 100,000 B.C. and 50,000 B.C. Some suggest a major migration into Europe also occurred about this time. This conflicts with other genetic research that suggest the migration only occurred in 60,000 B.C.
The Ainu people of Japan has a legend that they occupied the Islands from this time to modern time. There is little doubt they are the aboriginal peoples of Japan. An arrival date of 12,000 B.C. is a more believable date by the scientific community.
Some believe Homo Sapiens experimented with rafts and boats about this time.
Some argue a Homo migration out of Africa occurred about this time, other suggest if it did it fizzled out in the near east, likely because of drought.
Digging deeper in a South African cave that had already yielded surprises from the Middle Stone Age, archaeologists have uncovered a 100,000-year-old workshop holding the tools and ingredients with which early modern humans apparently mixed some of the first known paint.
In 2003 a 3-foot-tall adult female skeleton weighting about 60 lbs was found in a cave believed to be 18,000 years old on the equatorial island of Flores, located east of Java and northwest of Australia. Scientists named the extinct species Homo Floresiensis. Scientists in 2005 said the group emerged some 95,000 years earlier and went extinct about 12,000 years ago from modern times. These interesting people roamed Indonesia. They likely interbreed with Homo sapiens. Some think they might be related to Australopithecines or Homo habilis.
Scholars were stunned to discover a descendent of homo erectus called homo floresiensis on the island of Java, Indonesia. The were 1/2 the size of homo sapiens with corresponding small brains yet with cognitive abilities equal to homo sapiens, including the making of fire. They are believed to have been in this area since 93,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C..
Homo Floresiensis (Flores Man) who lived 93,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. is discovered on a Pacific Island. They are a human dwarf species believed marooned from the rest of the world. One female measures 3 feet tall. A volcanic eruption in 10,000 B.C. is believed to have sealed their fate. Flores Man remains were found in a cave known as Liang Bua, Island Flores, Indonesia. They resemble Australopithecus from 3 million B.C. in Africa. They used stone tools, lit fires and organized into hunting groups. They likely built boats to reach Flores, Soa, Basin, Indonesia.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens with strong brow ridges and some archaic features found in Skhul and Qafzeh, Israel may date to this period. They do not however contain features found in early Europeans of Homo Sapien/ Homo Neanderthal extinction. This evidence undermines the Homo Neanderthal replacement theory by middle east migration.
The oldest discovered harpoons date to this period, does this imply the use of boats?
An ice age dramatically altered the environment causing massive changes to the migration of animals and man.
The human population declined suddenly according to evidence from the mutation rate of mitochondria evaluated in 2000. The survivors provided the gene pool for all humans thereafter
In 1983 an international expedition of American, Polish and Egyptian anthropologists in the Aswan region unexpectedly came upon the skeleton of a prehistoric man thought to be about 80,000 years old, the oldest human skeleton ever found in Egypt. Early modern humans were present in the Levant between 130,000-80,000 BP.
Homo Neanderthal Man (150,000 - 1,300 B.C.), had an average life span of forty years, practiced burial rights and is firmly established in Europe from Germany to Baghdad. We need to keep in mind that our belief of a shorter life span of earlier peoples has proven many times to be incorrect. It is likely that all Homo Sapiens has a potential average life span of seventy some years and other perceptions are distorted statistics. Some suggest Homo Neanderthal Man appears to have been assimilated by 25,000 B.C. into Modern Man. Homo Sapiens means "wise, rational man" or modern man. Other evidence suggests they are not assimilated but died out as a competitive people. They have a larger brain and are more muscular than Homo Sapiens and appear to be more suited to colder climates. The Broken Hill, Saldanda, Swanscombe and Steinheim men of this time fit neither Homo Neanderthal nor modern man profiles. History is not as clean cut as the European mind would like it to be. Some of the cold climate adaptive features of Homo Neanderthal man however still exist among northern Europeans and the Inuit and lap peoples of the far north. The Germanic people might find their roots in the Homo Neanderthal culture.
Osaka man is discovered and some claim he is modern man, others dispute this claim.
Barda Balka near Chemchemal (Iraq) is a camping site used for the manufacture of flint tools. Burial sites at this time contained tools, food offerings and other ornaments suggesting a tribal belief in an after life and or a great social kinship culture. Reverence for life appears inherent to most early cultures.
DNA studies suggest modern man began departing Africa about 80,000 B.C. Older studies suggest out of Africa 50,000 B.C. Asia was reached 60,000 B.C. and Europe 40,000 B.C. It is believed they followed the ocean coast and that Europe was populated from Asia not Africa. See 70,000 B.C. for conflicting date studies and migration direction. Folks seem to agree a northern migration path is not likely at this time. Why?
The Migration of 'Out of Africa' assumes that these people replaced local populations but new evidence suggests they interbreed with the local populations. If the Africans replaced local population, why do we all not look like Africans? Why are we not all dark complexion, why don't we all have African blood types?
Seven artifacts of carved ochre discovered in Blombos Cave, South Africa suggests Homo Sapiens had complex and abstract thinking capabilities suggesting modern behavior. Two carved stones, believed to be counting stones, were discovered. This is some 40,000 years earlier than previously thought.
The world is in a warm period. Global Warming?
Human head lice and body lice diverged about this time, which means that human clothing began about this time.
Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C. and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3. The next closest was Yellowstone in 2.2 million B.C. that ejected 2,500 Km3. Others however rank it as the fifth largest in the world. Siberian Traps was #1 and Yellowstone #2
Lake Tobo, on the Sumatra Island of Indonesian is the site of a mega-volcano the largest known in the last 25 million years. It expelled 4,400 tons of ash in a matter of days covering 1/2 the globe. It is estimated that millions of tons of ash and sulfur entered the atmosphere in the following weeks. A super-volcano only produces 1,000 tons of ash. It is believed this caused more than 1,000 year ice age. Ocean temperatures cooled by 5°C within a few years, which normally takes 100,000 years to drop that much. Ash fell as far away as Saudi Arabia and sulfur covered the earth atmosphere for 2-3 years reflecting the sun from the planet. Snow and ice formed as a result and extended the sun reflection. It is estimated that 60% of human life was destroyed. Naturally others scientist are skeptical. Human life was recorded above and below the ash deposits suggesting man in India survived. ASO SEE 74,000 B.C. BELOW:
Evidence suggests prehistoric man in France is burning coal for fuel.
In Blombos cave in southern India overlooking the Indian Ocean is found a human made stone carving. I think this is confused with the African find, maybe not? see 77,000 B.C.
Some Chinese writers date the Pre-Xia Dynasty as (74,000-2,100 B.C.) then comes the Xia Dynasty (2,100-1,600 B.C.)
Early glacial warm phase in Europe is followed by a transition phase from 74,000 to 66,000 B.C.
ALSO SEE 75,000 B.C. ABOVE: The massive super Toba caldera volcanic eruption, (about 75,000 to 72,000 B.C,) spewed 670 cubic miles of ash, occurred in northern Sumatra about this time. It is believed to be the 5th largest Super caldera volcano. It was later believed that this eruption caused a major temperature drop and reduction in the human population. An ice age soon followed. Some suggest analysis of mitochondrial DNA seemed to corroborate a significant reduction in human population around this time. However others suggest this theory is wanting as it suggests the human population of 60 million was reduced to less than 10,000 but few remains are found to support this assumption Others suggest that ancient humans were relatively unscathed. Discovery of common stone tools at Jwakapuram, southern India were discovered above and below the ash deposited as a result of Toba. I suspect the Toba theory is concocted to support the out of Africa theory. It reminds me of the migration to America that can't happen before 14,000 B.C. They are now considering the migration to Americas as 50,000 to 100,000 B.C. not being out of the area of possibility. We continue to underestimate the ability of the human race.
It's noteworthy that Greenland ice core has no ash, and no clear link between Toba and the sulfur spike, which might have come from a much smaller eruption nearby Toba.
Sumerian tradition suggests their kingship passed from Bad-tibira to Larak and one king clan reigned for the next 28,800 years.
The Blombos Cave in South Africa verified that people were making jewelry at this time. They discovered 41 perforated snail shells obviously having been strung.
On the Island of Sumatra a caldera sixty miles long is evident and suggests 670 cubic miles of material was ejected. The largest in the last 25 million years. The ash and gas reached 30 miles into the stratosphere and shrouded the entire planet. It staged a massive climate-changing event that scientists believe might have wiped out much of humanity. The ash rains from the sky in particles so small that they can penetrate an animals lungs. The birds are first to go, then larger animals finally man is effected. This volcanic winter caused global temperatures that lasted 1,000 years. Drought and famine resulted in the destruction of most of mankind leaving only an estimated 15,000 to 40,000 people on earth.
The super-volcanic eruption (Toba Eruption) in Sumatra that produced 2,800 cubic kilometers of ash causing global cooling that lasted a thousand years and killed most of mankind and the few survivors estimated at 10,000 adults resulted in genetic divergence in humans. The animals and food supply in northern hemispheres were decimated. Genetic evidence suggests that all humans alive today, despite their apparent variety, are descended from a very small population, perhaps between 1,000 to 10,000 breeding pairs about 70,000 years ago
The Toba volcano of Sumatra divested south east Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the ash layers in India was 6 meters (16.5) feet deep. Populations living to the north and north west were most likely exterminated.
Tools are found at Jwalapliram in southern India that are the same as those used in Africa about the same time period.
Man learned that fire makes better tools as discovered in the Pinnade Point on the southern tip of Africa near Mossel Bay.
DNA research suggest that Homo sapiens are in souther Asia 70,000 to 50,000 B.C.
The world is in a cold period. Global Cooling? It would appear that global warming and global cooling is a natural, normal cycle or is caused by cataclysmic events. Volcanic eruptions are know to alter global climate, some short term, others longer term..
is believed people were living in the Sahara Region from about this time.
Genetic studies in 2008 estimated that the human population at this time may have shrunk to as low as 2000 in Eastern Africa due to a long period of severe droughts there.
The cave in Le Conte Cliffs show evidence of Homo Neanderthals Man as well as evidence of modern man during the period 70,000 to 10,000 B.C. Barbed harpoons testifies to new hunting skills.
The Blombos Cave of South Africa contained fish bones suggesting occupation between 70,000 to 60,000 B.C. The fish was a large fish called Black Musselcracker.
The Sibudu Cave of South Africa contained a residue of a mixture of plant gum and ocher. The mixture created a type of superglue to attach stone tools to wooden shafts. Researchers suggest its an indication of complex cognition including multitasking and abstract thought in early man.
By 70,000 years ago, the migration out of Africa had gotten as far as New Guinea and the coast and rivers of China. Much of the world is unsuitable for habitation by modern humans. Especially between 65,000 and 55,000 BP, all but the most favorable areas were locked in bitter cold and drought. It is believed the genetic migration variation studies do not take into consideration that more south Africans survived, than say southern Asians..
Some believe that due to climatic change the world population only numbers 2,000 people at this time, others suggest 10,000. Still others dispute these estimates.
Worked bone awls and points are in use on the shores of the Indian Ocean.
Genetic variation studies suggest the migration route out of Africa to Asia followed a southern route along the coast arriving in Malaysia about 65,000 B.C.
The Mousterin tool people are in Mongolia.
Botswana, Tsodilo Region. of Africa is the site of what is believed the first religious artifact, a six meter-long carved serpentine rock.
Some suggest the proto-Basques occupied the traditional Basque Country in Spain about this time. Others suggest there is no proof these peoples are the ancestors of the Basque. Most however believe the Basque are the oldest European culture.
Smallpox is speculated to have evolved to man in Africa and spread throughout the world about this time and was finally eradicated 1979.
Humans are present in India at this time.
Glacial maximum in Europe is from 66,000 to 59,000 B.C..
Liujiang, China is believed to be populated by
Homo Sapiens about this time.
Some believe early man, that: “The crossbreeding likely occurred relatively soon after modern humans left Africa about 65,000 years ago”. This is not very likely! Some scientists are desperate to hold on to the out of Africa theory.
The crossbreeding occurred from 800,000 BC to about 40,000 B.C. between Homo Neanderthal, Homo Devisovans and Homo Sapians, Homo erectus and Homo habilis. Research has suggested modern man contain 4% of Neanderthal DNA and 6% of Denisovan DNA, and they are our ancestors. It’s interesting they can’t find this DNA in Africa. Asia especially Melanesia has the highest concentration of these DNA markers, in modern mankind.
Neanderthals and Denisovians are believed to have shared a common ancestor between 800,000 to one million years ago outside of Africa. The evolution of humans in central, eastern and southern Asia is poorly understood.
Humans are present in Malaysia at this time.
Humans are present in Australia at this time.
Fragments of a human skull are discovered at Tam Pa Ling Cave in Laos dated between this date and 44,000 B.C. No evidence of interbreeding with Homo erectus who were in the area more than one million years.
Nine Homo Neanderthal like human remains are uncovered at Shamdar Cave near Rowanduz (Iraq). Evidence suggests they cared for the sick and disabled. Homo Neanderthal man is also located at Bau de L'Aubesier, southern France. They appeared to hunt or trade in a forty-kilometer radius. This appears to be a deduction based upon animal characteristics. Homo Sapiens Neanderthal as a culture is not anatomically identical. The Shanider Homo Neanderthal of Iraq is quite different anatomically from the Homo Neanderthal of Italy as an example. The Homo Neanderthal culture developed a belief of life after death and began the ritual burial practices that modern man adopted. This life after death or spiritual dimension spread throughout Europe and the Middle East Homo Neanderthal culture. They also used red ocher powder in their burials. The burial sites also included the medical herb yarrow being the earliest record of it use. There appears to be a universal belief in a mysterious supernatural other world and a belief of a life after death. The idea of spirits is also universal and likely an attempt to explain their environment. The Egyptians believed they each had a personal guardian spirit called Ka (an astral being) as well as their own Ka. We still follow this ancient practice but call it a leap of faith. Some believe religion began when ritualized burial practice began. Others suggest that when scientists can't explain an artifact, they give it a religious purpose.
Kebara cave, Isreal contains Homo Neanderthal Man dated to this time period..
Most people believe American natives originated from Mongoloid Asian peoples. The Mongoloid people have a high frequency (11-25%) of type 'B' blood. If this theory is true then this genetic imprint must be found in the Americas. Central and South American people are exclusively type 'O' blood. Only the Eskimos of America have this Mongolian signature. Others argue that the Mongoloid people replaced an earlier culture whose remnants are the Ainu of Japan, Australian aborigines and the American Indian. The Mungo people, modern humans are in Australia at this time. Others suggest the Mungo People date to 40,000 B.C. rather than 56,000 to 68,000 B.C. as previously thought.
There is evidence of an eastern migration into southern Mongolia of the Levallois-Mousterian tool tradition.
The world’s oldest art is discovered in Northwest Australia and older tools are dated to 116,000 B.C. It is interesting to note that Home Erectus never reached Australia, or at least no traces of them are found.
Many believe that evidence suggests oceangoing boats were in use.
Some researchers suggest you need to combine Genetic study, Linguistic study and Archeological findings to truly understand human migration. Current thinking is modern man migrated from Africa about this time based on Genetic studies.
Humans are present in Arabia at this time.
Humans are present in Europe at this time.
The whole of Northern Africa, Arabia and the Middle East into central Asia was a desert up until this time. Some suggest a northern migration out of Africa is not likely. The suggest it must have been via the sea in ocean going boats.
DNA studies suggest modern man began departing Africa about 80,000 B.C.. Asia was reached 60,000 B.C. and Europe 40,000 B.C. It is believed they followed the ocean coast and that Europe was populated from Asia not Africa. However archaeological evidence shows signs of modern human activity well before these dates in Arabia, India and China.
Diepkloof Rock, South Africa ostrich eggshells were used as water containers and were engraved with geometric designs. Experts think the the 270 fragments found might represent them as the property of a particulars community.
The Orang-Asli people of Malaysia and the Andpman Islands in the Indian Ocean, began about this time.
One major problem of the 'Out of Africa' theory is if this is true why
don't we all look like Africans? see 71,000 B.C.
The climate is in a warm stable phase from 59,000 to 44,000 B.C. in Europe.
Some genetic theorists believe modern man emigrated from Africa about this time and dispersed around the world by 50,000 B.C. based on the X chromosome. They also believe women and their Y chromosome predates man and can be traced to 84,000 B.C. Others studies suggested modern women first emerged 143,000 B.C. This study that included 1,000 men in United States, Europe, Israel and Africa suggests fewer men than women participated in the evolution of modern man. It is noteworthy that Asia is excluded from this study. This would also imply women begot modern man not woman from man as recorded in Genesis. This theory appears to be driven by the fact that modern man has been proven to exist in Australia by 50,000 B.C. and the Theory of African Dispersal. The dispersal theory may or may not be true but the emergence of modern man surely predates this time. It is also noteworthy to remember there is no genetic basis to race.
Stage 3, variously known as OIS 3 (Oxygen Isotope Stage 3) or MIS 3 (Marine Isotope Stage 3), covers the central period of the last glaciation from 59,000 to 24,000 years ago. This was the time when anatomically modern humans colonized Europe and when Homo Neanderthals became extinct. I don't believe they become extinct, they are still amound us. What was the climate of Europe like in OIS 3 and to what degree did the drastic changes displayed by the Greenland ice cores influence the European landscape and its flora and fauna? Do the human events of the Middle and early Upper Palaeolithic reflect the OIS 3 climatic and environmental history and in what way and to what degree? However, it is clear that anatomically modern humans did not expand into Europe before 60,000 B.C. and Homo Neanderthals were still here in 28,000 B.C.
Homo Neanderthals are digging graves east of the Tigris River, in Iran and carefully placing their loved ones with finely crafted flint tools, charred animal bones (roasted meat) blobs of pollen likely from flowers. The Homo Neanderthal culture established a reverence for life, a belief in a life after death and compassion for the unfortunate.
56,000 B.C. ± 3,000 yrs. Streptococcus Mutans (causing tooth decay) which is transmitted only from mother to child, can be traced to come out of Africa at this time. Helicobacter Pylori (causing ulcers) but only 50% of the world population has this disease also can be traced out of Africa at this time.
55,000 B.C. to 40,000 B.C. spear point of flint are discovered with mastodons in southern France.
During this period the first humans migrated to Australia from the islands of Indonesia. It is believed that they came in bamboo rafts from Indonesia and also from southern China.
Prehuman fossils from a site on the Solo River near the Javanese town of Ngandong were dated in 1996 to this period of 53,000BC-27,000BC, and identified as belonging to the species of Homo erectus. Brain size was equivalent to modern humans.
Some researchers suggest DNA sampling is only accurate to 50,000 B.C. Others suggest its closer to 100,000 B.C. Some suggest mtDNA is the best chance with ancient samples, however others suggest the accuracy may not survive the test of time because some associated assumptions maybe incorrect. (ie. one mutation every 10,000 years)
(Denisova hominins) were discovered
in southern Siberia but there are traces (4.8% DNA) in modern human populations
of Southeast Asia suggesting that this group of Hominins may have occupied a
large part of Asia at this time. Melanesians have the highest level of
Denisovans DNA ranging 4-6%. It is noteworthy that Denisovans DNA is not
found in Africa. They are believed to have interbred with Homo
sapiens about 50,000 years ago.
Some suggest the white peoples (Aryans) are descendents of Neanderthal man during the period 50,000 to 20,000 B.C. and are found from eastern Asia to the west coast of Europe, but not into Africa.
The DNA found in Siberia doesn't match modern humans or Homo Neanderthals, two species that lived in that area around the same time (30,000 to 50,000) years ago. Their analysis indicated the Siberian species last shared a common ancestor with modern humans and Homo Neanderthals about 1 million years ago. Without a completed analysis of the nuclear DNA, “we are not saying this is a new species,” The new creature could be an early version of Homo antecessor, a forerunner of Homo Neanderthals and modern humans known from fossils in Spain. Or, it could be a new species. In fact, the eventual decision could hinge mostly on the philosophical question of just how different a creature has to be to be declared a new species.
Archaeologists later identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum dating to this period 50,000 to 20,000 BC. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
The stone age culture of Papua New Guinea goes back to this time.
The world is in a cold period. A limited DNA study by Swedish and German researchers of 53 people, using a chimpanzee's DNA to establish a theoretical rate of change for mutations, assuming a steady state environment, supports the hypothesis of out-of-Africa modern man about this time. The unproven assumptions used in this analysis make it almost meaningless. Others however place the exodus at 100,000 B.C. Other DNA analysis suggest all Europeans are decedents of no more than 10 to 50 people some time between 50,000 to 30,000 B.C. The Iberian Peninsula (Spain) has been inhabited since this time, first with Homo Neanderthal Man, then Modern Man. It is noteworthy that pre-Roman languages include Lusitanian, Basque (Aquitan), Iberian, Celtiberian and Tartessian.
Both archaeology and genetics suggest that about 50,000 years ago, people from Iran began moving out in all directions. Some went east towards the Indus Valley, where they mingled with the earlier inhabitants Others traveled in a northwesterly direction, up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers into what is now Kurdistan. These people were of Western Iran, between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, where the people of the Zagros Mountains had developed the set of radically new stone working techniques that characterize what is known as the Upper Paleolithic.
Some speculate a Behavioral Revolution in Europe was taking place about this time. They say this accounts for the appearance of art later on that represents complex and abstract thinking. They go on to speculate this fundamental brain change is the result of adding more protein to the diet with fish. Unfortunately the discovery of complex and abstract art is discovered 77,000 B.C. in Southern Africa.
Some believe Europe is de-populated of Palaeo-anthropic man and replaced by modern man, Homo Sapiens. This alleged sharp revolutionary change appears to have begun in southwest Asia and spread out in all directions. The Cro-Magnon in some cases is over six feet tall and still had some Homo Neanderthal characteristics. Homo Neanderthal like human remains is uncovered at Shamdar Cave near Rowanduz (Iraq). This theory is based on a profound change in their tools, finer blades and projectile weapons. They developed better shelters, tailored clothing and more efficient hearths. Unfortunately to further complicate the issue at Ngandong, Indonesia fossil evidence suggests that Homo Erectus still exists along side Homo Sapiens. Some believe that Homo Neanderthal and Humans are believed to have a common ancestry at this time.
Great controversy surrounds this period of development and cultural biases play a significant role. Historically it is suggested that the Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, Australian and American must have begun differentiation during this period. This sub classification of Modern Man is purely arbitrary based on skin color and superficial physical features. Genetic research suggests there are likely only two sub classifications of modern man, Afro's and all other peoples. The traditional 'race' classifications some believe are just minor regional genetic adaptations to their environment. The origin of the Caucasoid is an anomaly and could be a mutation of Mongoloid or visa-a-versa. The Caucasoid is first isolated as a separate people in 1795 being separated from the four classifications of African, American, Asian and European peoples. It is noteworthy that this is a geographic definition. Johann Frieorich Blumenbach a German based his race distinction on his criteria of beauty. Caucasoid is based on a Georgian female skull found near Mount Caucasus that he considered the most beautiful formed skull. He considered other peoples degenerate from this Germanic ideal. The Caucasoid is found in Europe, the Hamites and Semites of Northern Africa and as far east as India. The Indians of northern India have genetically more in common with the Chinese and Japanese that with the Europeans. This is supported by genetic studies, linguistic, archaeological and to some degree, historical evidence.
The Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman are closer related to the Chinese, south Asians than to Europeans, Japanese or Tibetans based on genetic studies..
Mongolian tradition suggests they are descendants from the Gray Wolf clan (male) and the Tawny Doe Clan (female). It is noteworthy that the Gray Wolf or for that matter all wolves originated in America.
Stone tools are being used in Northern China, Mongolia and Manchuria.
The Shanidar skull, a Neandertal is located east of the Jordan River and dates to this period.
The First Nation People may have reached Australia and America on boats from Asia about this time. The aborginal of Australia are believed to have used bamboo rafts from Indonesia and also from southern China. Australia was joined not only to Tasmania but with New Guinea. The island of Indonesia was larger and closer at this time. The aborigines of Australia however believe they came on the path of the rising sun across the water from an island away to the Northwest. The first people are the Djanggau sisters who made the first people. The aborigines practiced circumcision as did the early Egyptians. The American Indian by contrast contends they have always lived in the Americas. The land bridge advocates are hard pressed by this occurrence. Some migrants to Australia are thin-boned of light build. Other groups are sturdy and robust suggesting different origins or geographical groups. Some believed the Mongoloids became the Asians and American Indians. No evidence supports this belief. The Australia peoples include the Ainus of Japan, the Veddoids of southern India and some of the American Indians many be descendants of the Archaic White stock that is older than the Cro-Magnon stock of man. Some experts suggest the Australia's paintings of hands, symbols and animals date to this period, and others suggest its more likely 40,000 B.C. Some believe that with art came religion. The God of the Sky or Great Spirit of the Sky is universal across all cultures about this time. It is believed the Australians represent about 200 different cultures and the only commonality is rock art. There are over 5,000 rock art sites.
This great diversity of modern man may never be fully explained due to the great mobility of man. Both infusion and defusing likely contributes to the diversity of man. Because of the great infusion of Mongoloid blood into Europe their family of languages needs to be considered. The historic bases for the various human races are not supported by modern science. As an example all Homo Sapiens has the genetic machinery to be black or white. Skin color differences are caused by very minor genetic variations affecting the melanocyte cells that produce the pigment melanin. Black and brown vs. red and yellow are pigment families and white is an absence of melanin. White skin appears to be a genetic defect as black is the more prevalent.
The Mongoloid family of languages of Palaeo-Siberian is as follows:
Chukchi Koryaks Kamchadals Yakuts Samoyeds Ostyaks Voguls
It is believed that the Negritos or Arta (Australo-Melanesian) Peoples, a small dark skinned People first settled the Philippine Islands between 50,000 and 40,000 B.C.
The first indication the Ainu who some think are of Caucasoid in nature arrived Southern Japan via the Korean Peninsula. The Ainu had large amounts of body hair. Some believe the Ainu people also migrated to North America, maybe before the American Indians. It is believed the Ainu occupied much of China at this. These people are called prehistoric hunters gathers from China who migrated to Southern Japan.
Genyornis newtoni the last of the giant birds of Australia went extinct with the arrival of man. It was over 6 feet tall and was a herbivorous. Its predecessor was Dromornis stirtoni a goose. It had legs the size of tree trunks, a body the size of a wine barrell, a head the size of a horse's, sporting a huge beak. It is believed to have dined on plants and fruit.
Evidence is growing that this is the first significant out of Africa migration that did not fizzle out.
Modern Homo sapiens have lost 10% of their body average mass since this time. Out teeth are the smallest, relative to body size, of all hominids.
A genetic split between two lineages in Europe occurred about this time. One branch arrived about this time and a second arrived 37,000 B.C.
48,600 B.C. to 45,300 Homo Neanderthal found in El Sidron Cave in Spain showed he inhaled wood smoke and ate cooked plant food including bitter-tasting medical plants chamomile and yarrow.
Homo Neanderthal Man is active in eastern England near Thetford.
Kebara cave, Isreal contains Homo Neanderthal Man dated to this time period..
A people from Ethiopia, Africa and the Arabian peninsula and India share the same genetic clan of mtDNA. But matches were not found in the Middle Eastern populations. A different genetic clan of mtDNA came out of Africa settling in the Mediterranean and Greece about 100,000 B.C..
Some time before this date Homo Neanderthal ventured into a deep subterranean cave in Les Gorges de l'Aveyon in southern France. In northern Spain 11 Homo Neanderthals were murdered and became a cannibalistic feast about 700 feet inside El Sidron cave and 1,700 bones were recovered. Much of what we know about genetics of Homo Neanderthal is based on these 11 individuals. The were butchered with stone tools. There bones suggest they were subjected to several periods of severe starvation. Homo Neanderthal had a unique variant of the gene for pale skin and red hair. They had type 0 blood. Humans and NHomo eanderthal share a gene called FOXP2 which is associated with language ability, suggesting Homo Neanderthal likely had spoken languages. They had brains about 3 ounces larger than modern man. He was larger and stronger. They are believed to have reached physical maturity earlier maybe by age 15.
47,000 B.C. At a high-altitude settlement, 1.2 miles up in the chilly Ivane Valley of Papua New Guinea were discovered five camps, leaving behind stone tools and charred nutshells and bones.
Some claim the latest known remains of a Homo Neanderthal like human in Iraq are uncovered at Shamdar Cave near Rowanduz. I is noteworthy that remains of Homo Neanderthal woman was evident in Speyer, Germany in 1,300 B.C.
At Baude L'Aubesier, southern France Homo Neanderthal man is carving bone tools and chipping stone tools. They have periodically occupied this site for the past 15,000 years. The Levallois-Mousterian people are still located at a number of sites in Siberia.
Homo Neanderthal man is believed to have disappeared in Europe, Africa and Asia, including northern China about this time. No Homo Neanderthal man remains have been discovered in America therefore some assume America is not likely populated before this date. No Americans were tested for DNA. However Homo Neanderthal remains were discover in Europe as late as 5,500 B.C. which postdates man in America. DNA studies suggest they are still with us. We have to be very careful of assumptions used vs. hard facts. Others argue that Homo Neanderthal man and so-called modern man shared Europe about this time and interbreed. DNA evidence supports this belief. They are believed to number 15,000 to 20,000 spread between the Atlantic Ocean and the Ural mountains. They thrived for thousands of years in some of the most brutal environmental climates of the late ice age. It's noteworthy they didn't migrate into a more warmer climate in Africa.
Cro-Magnons are moving into the heart of Homo Neanderthals occupied lands. It was assumed they replaced Homo Neanderthals but we now know that with Homo Neanderthals higher cognitive, greater strength and survival skills they likely helped the Cro-Magnon to survive. They had fully articulated speech and some believe that blond and red hair came from Homo Neanderthals. The gradual disappearance of Homo Neanderthals is likely due to disease not wars. The fact they both shared DNA likely suggests they shared technology.
Some DNA studies suggest an out of Africa migration to China occurred this date. The fact that Australia is believed peopled by 60,000 B.C. They revised the departure date to between 60,000-100,000 B.C. This hypothesized argument is that there was likely two migrations out of Africa. Others suggest two migrations are not likely.
Sumerian tradition suggests their kingship moved from Larak to Sippar and one king clan reigned for the next 21,000 years. Molodova in the Ukraine contains Mousterian dwellings with mammoth bones and tusks that date earlier than this era.
44,000 B.C. The climate in Europe is in a transitional phase from 44,000 to 37,000 B.C.
Some Soviet geologists believe the climate of Siberia is relative warm (Global Warming) from this period until 33,000 B.C. This they believe makes it a highly probable period for migration to (or from) the Americas. Homo Neanderthal man at Slovenia likely played a flute dating 82 to 42,000 B.C. They also used bitumen as a glue by 40,000 B.C. a feat not equaled until 8,000 B.C. in Syria by more modern men.
A flute-like instrument made of bear bone was found by archeologist Janez Dirjec at the Divje Babe site in the valley of the Idrijca River in Slovenia. It was believed to be about 45,000 years old.
Archeologists in 2007 reported on human teeth, tools, beads, carved ivory and other artifacts dug up at the Kostenki archeological site on the Don River in Russia, about 250 miles south of Moscow. They dated these artifacts to 45,000 to 42,000 years ago, an age similar to other items found in Western Europe.
Most Middle Eastern People's trace their origin by M89 DNA to migration out of Africa at this time. In 10,000 B.C. people with M-172 DNA from Iran mixed with the Middle East People's.
At Kostenki, Russia a ivory carving appears to be the first figurative art in Europe. The carving was found with primitive tools and two teeth. This location is one of the coldest, driest places in Europe.
Homo Neanderthal at El Sidron, Spain show signs of cannibalism. DNA analysis of Homo Neanderthal bones suggest they were fair skinned people perhaps with freckles and red or ginger hair and could communicate orally. More importantly they were blood type 0 so maybe not out of Africa. It's interesting that fair skinned, freckles and red or ginger hair reminds me of the Irish, Scottish, and Germanic folks. Keep in mind that Homo Neanderthal man has been in Europe and Asia since 200,000 B.C. Is it possible they came from the Americas, or migrate to America??? Research indicates they were as advanced as modern humans in intelegence, tool building and a variety of food acquisitions.
The earliest traces of modern human occupation are dated to around 43,000-39,000 BP in the southern part of Siberia.
In 1992 rock engravings in South Australia are carbon dated at 42,700 years.
DNA studies suggest modern man began departing Africa about 80,000 B.C.. Asia was reached 60,000 B.C. and Europe 40,000 B.C. It is believed they followed the ocean coast and that Europe was populated from Asia not Africa.
Some suggest the oldest Asian Homo sapiens are about this age.
Others suggest the first people after Homo Neanderthal was the Aurignacian, which arrived shortly after 40,000 years ago, from the east.. Others suggest the Aurignacian culture that reached Europe soon after 40,000 BP originated in the Iran region..
Some believe a second major migration into Europe occurred about this time. Other genetic research suggests Europe was populated in three waves, 40,000 B.C., 20,000 B.C. and 7,000 B.C.
It is believed that some groups of Homo Neanderthals began evolving into modern humans in western France about this time.
Paupa, New Guinea is believed to be populated by Homo Sapiens about this time.
Man from Lake Mungo, Australia does not match any living human DNA. Some
suggest this does not support the 'out of Africa' theory. The aging of
Mungo Man was previously dated to 56,000 to 68,000 B.C. The theory is that this group of individuals represented by
"Mungo" combined with other groups arriving later to form the present Aborigines and Melanesians. Presumably settlement of the Australian continent would have occurred thousands of years before Mungo Man showed up.
Australian National University researchers published the results of mtDNA testing on Lake Mungo 3. The DNA did not match that of living humans. Either the Mungo lineage evolved in Australia, not Africa, or it could mean that the Mungo lineage went extinct.
Homo Sapiens, Modern Man, exists from 100,000 B.C. to present time, and many say he is well established in Europe, Africa, Asia, America and Australia at this time. Homo Sapiens appears to have emerged and spread throughout the world from two primary sources, South East Asia (Mongoloid) and or Africa (Negroid) during the Pleistocene age (600,000 to 10,000 B.C.). Genetic research seems to support this two subspecies of modern man theory. The Y chromosome studies in men suggest modern Europeans migrated to Europe from central Asia and the Middle East in two major waves of migration. Others however contend Australiod Man and therefore Caucasoid Man predates this assumption. Some believe Caucasoid culture is penetrating into Siberia at this time. China's land, domestic animals and tools are believed to be held in common, a clan culture. This common belief in a sharing culture would dominate America for the next forty thousand years. Weapons however are believed to be privately held. Keep in mind during this period the earth is nearly one-third covered with glaciers compared with 1/10 of today. It is noteworthy that recent research suggests the transition from Ice Age to warmer weather took only a few decades and this will significantly affect many time dating assumptions. Bottom line, there are more questions than answers concerning the real beginning of man, your ancestors.
Devisova Hominin was discovered in Denisova Cave aka Aju-Tasch (Altai Kras, Russia) and is believed to be from a common ancestor of Homo Neanderthal dating back to 1 million B.C. They interbred with the Melanesian people as they have 4.8% DNA of Denisovans as well as 2.5% DNA of Neanderthal man and was well spread out over Asia by 50,000 B.C. or earlier. This cave has been occupied by homo sapiens since 280,000 B.C.
About 7% of genetic adaptation has occurred from this date until modern times.
Apollonia, Albania unearthed stone tools dated to this period.
The people of Kakadu, Australia is rock-painting handprints and symbols.
Some believe red hair first appeared between 38,000 to 18,000 B.C. in Europe They speculate it may have originated among Homo Neanderthal man as it does not occur in African cultures. Others suggest the supporting evidence is sparse to support this theory. Homo Neanderthal evidence is sparse for any study, but it is believed they were better tool builders than modern man and likely more intelligent. Homo Neanderthal and Homo sapiens lived together for 5 to 7 thousands years, don't tell me they didn't interbreed.
Some suggest stone-age humans came to Europe, probably from central Asia and the Middle East, in 2 waves of migration that began about this time. DNA evidence from Y-chromosomes in 2000 AD suggested that 4 of 5 European men shared a common ancestor from this 1st wave.
The Republic of Komi, on the banks of the River Usy, in the arctic circle is a site with a mammoth tusk with human markings. Other bones include deer, and horses, with one bone having an arrow-head stuck in it. Some speculate Europe was populated from the north rather than the south which is commonly believed.
Some believe the Basque culture originated about this time from Cro-Magnon man and completed their evolution as a distinct culture by 5,000 B.C. The Basque are genetically and blood type different than other Europeans. Most Basques have type 0 blood with a high incidence of RH negative. The Basque speak Euskara which is unique and not related to any other language of the world. The Basque called their country Nafarroa (Nauarre). The Basque appear to be the indigenous people of Europe.
Some believe the first modern Europeans arrived via Turkey into Romania that had Asian and African features and their DNA can be found in 10% of modern Europeans. This belief is based on one site that included a skull dating to this period.
The world is in a cold period. Global Cooling? It's called an early cold phase in Europe that covers the period 37,000 to 27,000 B.C. The real glacial Maximum occurred 27,000 to 16,000 B.C.
A genetic split between two lineages in Europe occurred about 49,000 B.C. The first branch arrived Europe 49,000 B.C. and the second branch arrived 37,000 B.C. Archaeological date suggests 33,000 B.C. for the populating of Europe. Others contend there were numerous migrations into Europe during the period 20K to 30K B.C. Some suggest the shear numbers of eastern Homo Sapien peoples limited the number of Homo Neanderthal as the food supply demised, as a result of global cooling. The coolest period in Europe was 18-20K B.C. and most survivors were forced into southern Europe especially southern France. Homo Neanderthal appears to have been forced into southern Spain.
A tool making site on the Sai Kung Peninsula, Hong Kong dates from this time to 33,000 B.C.
In 2002 the jawbone of a cave-man living in what is now Romania was found in Pestera cu Oase. It was reported as the oldest fossil from an early modern human to be found in Europe and was carbon-dated to this time.
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