EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC
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The Syrian King Benhadad erected a monument in the city of Dan on the Jordan proclaiming his victory over the towns of northern Israel. Dan had been built by the Philistines and captured by the Israelites. The Israelites will recapture Dan about 750 B.C.
The reign of Egyptian Libyan Pharaoh Takelot II (850-825 B.C.) or (676-651 B.C.) dynasty 22. Civil war occurred during this reign according to the Egyptian Libyan High Priest Osorkon at Karnik.
During the 8th century B.C. (800-701 B.C.) a Greek monumental funerary building in Orthi Petra at Eleutherna Greece contained four females ranging in age from 7 to 70 years of age. They are believed related to a dozen women unearth nearby. The are believed to be part of a powerful female bloodline, uninterrupted for nearly 200 years.
The Biblical King Jehoash (Joash) (842-826) son Jehoahaz (857-842) ruled Israel. Israel warred with Judah.
The Biblical Prince Amaziah (Amasiah) (840-811 B.C.) son Joash (879-840) and Jehoaddin ruled Judah. He avenged the killers of his father but did not kill their sons. He defeated the Edomites, 10,000 of them. Amaziah (Amasiah) (840-811) and Jehoash are at war and Judah is defeated.
Biblical King Solomon is believed to have died about this time according to Egyptian records
The Assyrian Empire is in revolt with the rural nobility and free citizens against the great barons of the kingdom. Shamshi-Adad V (823-811 B.C.) would take five years to subdue the twenty-seven cities. It would take the balance of his reign (823-811 B.C.) to assert his authority over the Babylonians and the rulers of the mountains north and east.
The Biblical King Jeroboam II (826-773) son Joash (842-826) ruled Israel. Amos the prophet from Jugah is reported to have warned the northern Semitic-Israelites in Beth El that they would be slaughtered and die in exile far from Israel. This is during the forty-year reign of King Jeroboam II (826-773).
The reign of Pharaoh Sheshonq III (825-773 B.C.) or
(651-599 B.C.) dynasty 22
Using uranium-thorium dating at Nuku;eka in Tonga they determined the Lapita peoples settled remote Oceania between 817 B.C. to 833 B.C. to the founding of Polynesia
The Semitic Cananeo-Phoenician at Carthage worshipped Baal Hammon that means master or king of the city. Their supreme God the Creator is usually El, the King, and father of years. The God Baal demanded the sacrifice of children. At Carthage (Tunisia) the child sacrifices ran into the tens of thousands.
Expanding westward the Phoenicians from Tyre founded Carthage, Africa, naming it Qaer-hadasht meaning New City.
The Biblical Prince Azariah (Uzziah) (811-759 B.C.) son Amaziah (Amasiah) and Jecoliah at age 16 years ruled Judah. He later developed leprosy and his son Jotham (759-744) ruled the country.
The Assyrian Adadnirari III (810-783) invaded Syria subjecting the Neo-Hittites, Semitic-Phoenicians, Minoan-Philistines, Semitic-Hebrews and Semitic-Edomites. Ben-Hadad III of Damascus paid heavy tribute. The Medes and Persians in Iran are also brought into submission. The Kings of Kaldu are listed as vassals. This would be the height of the Assyrian Empire.
The Latin-Etruscans migrated from Asia Minor before this time to settle among the Indo-Europeans in the Italian Peninsula. It is believed their migration is the result of the breakup of the Hittite Empire. These Proto-Romans are claimed by legend to begin the Empire by 753 B.C. Evidence suggests the City-State of Rome is established before 1000 B.C. Latin-Etruscan Kings ruled Rome until 500 B.C. before being expelled by the indigenous people. Others suggest the Etruscan is the indigenous people of Italy.
The Semitic-Phoenicians is establishing colonies throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Carthage (Tunisa, North Africa) is believed established by the Semitic-Phoenicians this year. It is believed they are still trading the Celts of England for tin.
The Austronesian speaking peoples out of Taiwan arrived Fiji in the mid-pacific, 5,000 miles southeast of Taiwan about this time.
A major cultural center on Tonga's southern Island shows it was the founding settlement of Polynesia. The 'Polynesian Triangle' is bounded by Hawaii, in the north, New Zealand, in the southwest, and the fabled Easter Island, in the far southeast not far from the coast of South America.
The Urnfield culture of Hungary began to expand their homeland.
Their burial custom is cremation and urn burials. They used horse
drawn vehicles, metal helmets, shields and devastating slashing swords.
They expanded to Italy, Balkins and the Aegean.
The Scythian invaders from southern Russia destroy a bronze age culture of Romania. Scythians are an Iranian speaking people who practiced a Turko-Mongol life style being closely tied to the horse.
The Greek culture adopted the Principle of Legitimate Reproduction (marriage) vs. other forms of unions (concubine). Marriage was monogamous and recognized as such by the clan, tribe or community. Concubine could be polygamous (multiple mates), polyamory (unlimited mates) or homosexual (mates of the same sex). The Principle of Legitimate Reproduction in the Greek culture appears to be driven by economic factors mostly the Principle of property ownership. The Greeks formalized Legitimate Reproduction Unions by the bride-gift or didomi, based on pandora that also required the husband to give other riches epididomi. The types of unions appear to be driven by concerns for safety, economic factors, political strength or sexual attraction. The ideal union appears to be monogamous, based on equality and freedom. The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans attempted equality but had trouble with freedom.
A great change in climate overcame Europe around this time. A catastrophic flood destroyed agriculture cannels in Tucson, Arizona, America.
Experts are beginning to decipher Late Assyrian tablets from Ziyaret Tepe, Turkey on the Tigris River. They include names of 144 women who likely were in the palace harem. They didn't have Assyrian names and were likely slaves of some distant conquered territory.
Civil war began that eventually divided the Northern Kingdom of Israel from the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The book of Chronicles, written about 400 B.C. suggests that the North defeated the South taking the Judah King captive. This civil war made the Judo-Israel state vulnerable to the Babylonians.
The first Olympiad is conducted in Anatolia (Greece) on the plain of Mount Olmpus and they began counting time from this date. It honors their God Zeus, the Lord of the Sky, the God of Gods. The Anatolia (Greek) are settling Great Anatolia (Greece) (Southern Italy) and Sicily. Living among the Anatolia (Greeks) are Semitic-Phoenician artisans. They would control this region for the next five hundred years. Another account suggests the Olympaid was started by Heraces (Hercules).
It is noteworthy that the Celtic people have been conducting games for 1,000 years before Greece.
The reign of Pharaoh Pami (773-767 B.C.) or (599-593
B.C.) dynasty 22
King Zachariah (773) ruled Israel 6 months and King Shallum (773) ruled one month.
The Biblical King Menahem (772-762) son Gadi ruled Israel. Menahem sacked Tappush killing all that are in it and its territories onward and ripped open all the pregnant women. He paid tribute to King Pul of Syria to prevent invasion.
The Eastern Zhou Dynasty of China covered the period of 770 to 221 B.C. Others suggest its 771 to 256 B.C.
The Spring and Autumn Period Dynasty of China covered the period of 770 to 476 B.C. Others suggest its 770 to 475 B.C.
The king of Zhou moved his capital east to Luoyang, China. The Western Zhou kings had wielded considerable power; the kings of the Eastern Zhou period, by contrast, were largely puppet figures
As the Assyrian Princes squabbled among themselves the Persians of Iran migrated from the north to the south towards the Bakhtiari mountains. The Medes thereby extended their control over the whole plateau. At Lake Urmiah the Mannaeans (Mannai) a non-Indo-European people with an advanced civilization established a solid nation.
The Kingdom of Urartu in Turkey and Russian Armenia
speak Vannic an offspring of Hurrian. Their wealth comes from the
copper and iron mines of Armenia, Georgia, Commagene and Azerbaijan that
The prophet Isaiah (b-765 B.C.) is believed born about this date and began to prophesy about 740 B.C.
The Biblical King Peka (Pekahiah) (762-760) son Menahem (772-762) ruled Israel two years when Pekah (760-731) son Remaliah struck him down and became King.
Roman Empire is founded this year according to Greek-Roman tradition. The Greek-Romans began counting time from this date. Evidence suggests Rome is occupied by 1000 B.C. and this century it is a Latin-Etruscan (Greek) stronghold, ruled by Kings. Others suggest the Etruscans are indigenous to Italy and the Greeks as trading partners only influence their culture. The Etruscans also traded with the Celts of western Europe.
Another wave of Celts arrived Albion (Briton) from Gaul. This group is taller than the last wave and had fair or red hair as well as blue eyes. They would dominate the Westward Islands Albion and Ierne (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland). The early Ierne (Irish) worshipped the Sun God a symbol of life whereas the early Albion Celts (Britons) worshipped the axe a symbol of war.
The Assyrian growing power into an Empire is attributed to King Pul of the Old Testament and is believed to be the Assyran King Tiglath Pilesar III (744-727). He is believed to have perfected a wheeled battering ram to assault fortified cities.
Heliopolis of Kush swept north and King Piye ruled Egypt.
The Urnfield culture is settled in southern France, in Spain and is working the copper mines in Tyrol, Austria.
The prophet Jeremiah (b-646 B.C.) is born of a priestly family near Jerusalem.
The Assyria King Tiglathpileser III (744-727 B.C.) claims
to have subjected (smashed like pots) the Syrian allies of Urartu and Medes.
He established a standing army and included a cavalry to deal with the
During the reign of Pekah (760-731) son Remaliah and the reign of Tiglath-pileser King of Assyria (744-727) he captured many Israelite towns deporting the people to Assyria.
The Biblical Prince Achaz (Ahaz) (744-728 B.C.) son Jotham ruled Judah. He ruled Jerusalem for 16 years. Israel, Rezen King of Aram and Pekah (760-731) son Remaliah King of Israel attacked Jerusalem. The King of Edom attacked Judah and the Edomites occupied the conquered cities.
The Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III (744-727 B.C.) believed that God gave him the authority to clear the lands for the chosen Assyrian Nation. The Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III (744-727) initiated the practice of mass-deportation. This year 30,000 Syrians of Hama are sent to the Zagros mountains while 18,000 Armaeans from the left bank of the Tigris are transferred to northern Syria. In Iran in 744 B.C. 65,000 people are displaced in one campaign and another year the exodus affected no less than 154,000 people in southern Mesopotamia. This is not an isolated reign of deportation for during the three centuries of this Aramaization of Assyria it is estimated that four and a half million are deported against their will. This cultural conditioning is intended to prevent rebellion and break old religious and political ties to land or other people. The provincial governors are instructed that deportees and their military escorts are to be well treated, supplied with food, clothing and protected against harm. The deportees are not slaves but people of Assyria distributed throughout the empire as needs arose. Many rose to Imperial administration positions and remained faithful to their new empire. Most deportees are Aramaic speaking people and this led to the Aramaization of Assyria.
The Biblical Prince Jotham (759-744 B.C.) son Uzziah (Azariah) and Jerusha ruled Judah.
Assyrian invaders destroyed Kunuluna aka Calno southern Turkey.
The Anatolia (Greeks) established a 'city state' (Polis) at Syracuse (Siracusa, Sicily) based on Imperialism (clans and absolutism) that would evolve into a Roman, Mafia and Catholic tradition. The city-state historically excluded foreign residents, women and slaves.
The Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III (744-727 B.C.) imposed an embargo on the export of Tyre and Sidon timber to Philista and Egypt. Troops are required to enforce the embargo. The province of Palestine and trans-Jordania revolted and are crushed. The Prince of Ascalon is killed and the man of Gaza fled like a bird to Egypt. The Arabs of Edom, Moab and Judah all paid tribute.
Achez (736-716 B.C.) sent the temple treasury to Tiglath-pileser King of Assyria to war against Israel. The King of Assyria granted his request and captured Damascus deporting the population to Kir. The Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III (744-727 B.C.) took Damascus, annexed half of Israel and established Biblical King Hoshea (731-722 B.C.) son Elah as King of Samaria and the last king of Israel.
Hoshea (731-722) son Elah murdered the King to succeed him.
A new strong culture called Hallstatt named after a site near Salzburg, Austria evolved from the Urnfield culture spreading to France, Belgium, Netherlands and parts of Spain.
The reign of Egyptian Libyan Pharaoh Osorkon IV (730-715 B.C.) or (593-578 B.C.) dynasty 22
The Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III (744-727 B.C.) took the hand of Bel (Marduk) and is proclaimed King of Babylon. Shalmaneser V (726-722 B.C.) succeeded his father as King. He made war on King Hoshea of Israel (731-722 B.C.) who submitted and paid tribute.
The Biblical King Ezechiah (Hezekiah) (728-699 B.C.) son Ahaz ruled Judah. He rebelled against Assyria and harassed the Philistines as far as Gaza.
The Assyrian King Shalmaneser V (726-722 B.C.) discovered King Hoshea of Israel (731-722 B.C.) had sent his tribute to King So of Egypt. The Assyria sieges Samaria for three years and captured the last King of Israel and imprisoned him in chains. The King deported the Israelites to Northern Syria replacing them with people from the Babylon region. The destruction of Israel is attributed to Judah and the temple treasures. Judah diverts the blame to Yahweh.
Between 722-481 B.C. the Chinese were building Castle Ships, large rectangular barges, with multi decks and with guarded ramparts. Some were five stories high.
The Assyrian King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) controlled most of Palestine as well as Syria. To maintain order cities are razed and burned, populations slaughtered or moved forcibly to be resettled far from their homelands at the will of the new masters. The Israelite tribe of Menashe is forced out of Palestine and is believed to have eventually settled in India. Their descendants in India, Eritrea and Burma now number some 300 million. Those Israelites driven into Europe are called Ashkenazin Jews. Those who remained in the Middle East are called Sephardim Jews. Some believe the ten tribes of Israel are assimilated into the Assyrian culture. Others suggest many are assimilated into the Judahian Sect. The Assyrian King Sargon having conquered the ten tribes of Israel some 30,000 people disbursed the people who are assimilated into the surrounding Assyrian tribes. This deportation action is a long-standing policy to deal with troublesome people and has been highly successful as the deportees are not treated as slaves but equal citizens of the Empire. Some suggest that many of the ten tribes are settled into the eastern edge of the Mediterranean. Others suggest they are absorbed into the two Judah tribes and other neighboring tribes.
The Assyrian King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) marched against Marduk-apal-iddina (Merodach-Baladan) of Babylonia formally a Chalden ruler from Bit-Iakin and Humbanigash King of Elam. Sargon claimed complete victory but the Babylonian Chronicle say the Assyrians are defeated by the Elamites alone. Marduk-apal-iddina (Merodach-Baladan) in another text declares he smote to overthrow the widespread hosts of Assyria and smashed their weapons. Marduk-apal-iddina (721-710 B.C.) reigned as King of Babylon for eleven years. The King Ilubidi of Hama and King Hanuna of Gaza, Syria assisted by the Egyptian army revolted are defeated at Qarqar. The Egyptian General Sib'e fled back to Egypt abandoning his army.
King Rusas I (730-714) of Urartu, Antolia replaced Mannaean rulers friendly to Assyria for his own rulers.
The Assyrian King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) marched against Antolia taking the Urartu's most sacred city Musasir, south of Lake Van. At this news King Rusas I (730-714) of Urartu overwhelmed with shame with his own dagger stabbed himself through the heart like a pig thereby ending his own life.
Egypt fomented another revolt in Palestine with King Iamani of Ashdod followed by Judah, Edom, Moab and supported by Pi'ru of Musru. King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) is again victorious and put down the rebellion.
King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) controlled the whole of Syria-Palestine except Judah, the Medes are regarded as vassals, Urartu is still dressing their wounds and Egypt are friendly. The Elamites and Phrygians are hostile but peaceful. King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) marched on Merodach-Baladan of Babylon. The Chaldaean of Babylon enlisted the help of all tribes in the region of Sumer to defend against the Syrians.
Babylon fell to King Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) of Syria. The repercussions of his victory are enormous as the known world pledged homage. Midas the Phrygian offered friendship, King Uperi of Dilmun (Bahrain) sent gifts, and seven Kings of Iatnana (Cyprus) sent presents and swore allegiance. It is noteworthy that the Iatnana are a seven-day sea journey toward the setting sun. The House of Sargon (Sargonids) would ruled the Assyrian Empire until 609 B.C.
Marduk-apal-iddina (Merodach-Baladan) (721-710 B.C.) departed Elam with Elamite troops raised the entire Aramaean population of southern Iraq against the Assyrians and again proclaimed himself as King of Babylon. The Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) son of Sargon II marched against the Chaldaean at Kish. The Chaldaean fled to the Elamite, the palace is plundered, 208,000 people are deported to Assyria and a new king established, Belibni the son of a master builder from Nineveh. Belibni is later replaced in 700 B.C. by a Sargon named Ashur-nadin-shumi son of Sennacherib.
Egypt again instigated trouble in the Middle East by persuading King Lule of Sidon, King Sidka of Ascalon, King Ezekiah of Judah and the Philistine of Ekron to sever their allegiance with Nineveh. It is noteworthy that Isaiah the Prophet is the war advisor to King Ezekiah. These Kingdoms refused to pay tribute to the Assyrians of Ashur in northern Iraq. The Assyrian King Sennacherib (704-681) went forth to chastise these rebels. King Lule fled to Cyprus, King Sidka is carried away to Assyria, and an Egyptian army that is sent to rescue the Philistine city of Ekron is defeated. He seized 46 cities and fortresses, impaled the leaders on poles and deported 2,000 of the Judah Sect. He established more friendly rulers in each city. He then turned his armies against Jerusalem. The Assyrians mock the Judahians who placed their trust in the bruised reed of Egypt. The city is spared when King Ezekiah (Hezekiah) (728-699) of Judah pays 30 talents of gold, 800 talents of silver, all kind of valuable treasures as well as his daughters, his harem, his male and female musicians and he had to give up several cities to the Minoan-Philistines.