Universal love - condemnation of all wars - treat people with dignity
Rule by moral force not physical force - moderation and harmony
If rulers lose morality they should be overthrown
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
The Ch'in dynasty (480-221) the first real empire from a European perspective begins. Confucius alias Kung Futsze (551-479) firmly established the paternal authority concept in China. He stressed practical human inclinations to morality and humanitarianism. The five virtues of benevolence (inclination to do good), righteousness (doing what is right), propriety (quality of being proper), wisdom and trustworthiness. Confuciusism would come to dominate Chinese culture and would pose a major contradiction to Christianity and its abstract spiritual inclination to morality in later centuries. Confucius had his own set of commandments, a good ruler loves people, a wise ruler knows people, and rule by moral force not physical force. Confucius continued by saying have no evil thoughts, treat people with dignity, show piety towards parents, kindness to children, promote only the worthy, train the incompetent. If you want to be perfect relinquish wealth and rank, accept poverty and obscurity.
Confucious argued that man is fundamentally good. He wanted to return to the ‘Golden Age’ of loyalty, reciprocity, dutifulness, filial and fraternal. We must strive for moderation and harmony. If rulers lose morality they could be justifiably overthrown.
The Ch'in dynasty is also referred to as the age of the Warring States. China is divided into Ch'in in the northwest, Ch'u the barbarian in the south and Chung Yuan in the central states. The Mongolian steppe is occupied by men with the hearts of beasts living where not even a hair can grow. Mo Ti called for Universal Love and condemnation of all wars of aggression.
The Persian King Xerxes son Darius (517-481 B.C.) marched against those who revolted in 481 B.C. (Egyptians, Ionians, Aeolians and Dorians) and laid all Egypt under a far harder yoke than ever his father had put upon them. He gave the government to his brother Achaemenes. He proclaimed that God guides us and we obey his guidance and prosper greatly. We shall extend the Persian territory as far as God's heaven reaches.
The Persian King Xerxes son Darius (517-481 B.C.) attacked Greece with an army of 2.3 million men, only to be defeated at land and sea. He had captured Athens but lost Greece. This is in retaliation for a previous attack by the Greeks on Persia. The wars are the result of kidnappings of each other’s women. The Asiatics considered it no great trouble assuming the women went on their own consent. The Greeks considered it a great wrong and went to war over the issue. The Greeks considered women more of a possession.
The Celts defeated the armies of the Etruscan Empire at Ticino.
A Chaldean priest reports seeing Noah's Ark's remains at the bottom of a mountain glacier (Mt. Ararat?)
The Warring States Period of China covered the period of 476 to 221 B.C. Other suggest it 475 to 221 B.C.
The Latin-Etruscan Empire of Italy suffered a disastrous defeat at sea off Cumac at the hands of the Syracusans ending their domination of the Western Mediterranean trade. The Latin-Etruscan are believed to be gentle, intelligent people who publicly expressed affection between men and women and this belief shocked the paternal thinking Greeks. The few writings of the Etruscans have yet to be translated. The Romans took their religious beliefs from the Etruscans who were a very religious peoples. The Etruscans blended the Greek and Celt religious beliefs. The Etruscans were into fortune telling and had predicted their own demise as an Empire. The Etruscans were heavily into the use of slave labor. The banquet is a religious event and the high use of wine represented rebirth. It is said they played music at all events including while hunting or fishing. It is believed that from the Etruscian death ceremonies evolved the games to the death that the Romans adopted into the gladiator games to the death.
You may be surprised to learn that Newton wasn't the genius behind the law of inertia. But humble Newton himself wrote that he was able to see so far only because he stood on "the shoulders of Giants." During the period of (470-390 B.C.) the Mohist (Mohism) of China defined the first law of motion, they deduced the cessation on motion is due to opposing force.
The Mohists (470-391 B.C.) held the following views:
All people are equally deserving of receiving material benefit and being protected from physical harm.
A person should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their actual relationship to him or her.
Confucians contended that love should be unconditional, but it should not be indiscriminate. As an example children should hold a greater love for parents than for random strangers.
I suspect Christ is more aligned with Mohism than Confucians on this philosophy.
The Carthaginians launched an expedition under navigator Hanno to sail West to found new trading colonies. Sixty ships with 30,000 men and women sail through the Straits of Gibraltar and down the Africa coast.
A meteorite crashed to earth and convinced Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (500-428) that heavenly bodies were not divine beings. He was accused of contravening the established religion and was forced to flee.
An earthquake of magnitude 7.2, leveled the Greek city-state of Sparta killing twenty thousand people about one half the population and only five houses remained standing. The slaves seized the opportunity to revolt and resisted recapture for three years by retreating to the countryside.
Rome is depopulated when a plague this year wiped out much of the city's population.
The leaders of the Wei, Han, and Chao clans of China attacked the ruler of Chin and defeated him at Chin Yang (modern Taiyuan, in Shanxi Province) in 453 bc, dividing his realms among themselves. He was beheaded and his skull used, as was the custom, as a drinking cup. At this time there were eight large states in China, but Yen in the north and Yüeh in the east played no decisive part in the wars which raged for the next two and a quarter centuries. The states involved were therefore Ch'I, Ch'u, Ch'in, and and the three Chin states—Wei, Han, and Chao. A dozen smaller principalities were rapidly absorbed into the ‘big six’.
The Celts from Gaul now living in the Westward Islands (Britain) had a religion called Druidism and the island is called Tin Island and by 350 B.C. Aristotle (384-322) referred to it as Aibon. Some believe the Druid worshipped nature and practiced human sacrifice. The Roman Etruscans is also believed to practice these same beliefs. They are credited with the introduction of corn to Britain.
Babylon is now composed of Medes, Arabs, Jews, Egyptian and Urartian with a strong influx of Persian blood. The common working language is Aramaic. Only learned men and temple scribes could read and write Akkadian (Semitic) or Sumerian languages.
The historian Herodotus (about 480-430 B.C.) the Greek from Persian Halicarnassus wrote "the Egyptians are religious to excess, beyond any other nation in the world". Egyptian women attend the market and trade, a practice unknown in the known world. Egyptians practice circumcision for the sake of cleanliness. The Greek historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) by 440 B.C. had visited most of the Middle East from Egypt to Babylon and Greece. A Egyptian woman cannot serve the priestly office, either for god or goddess. A man can be a priest to both. Other cultures allow women into the priesthood. The Egyptians established dietary laws much like the Jewish kosher laws. The Egyptians sacrifice a pig before the door of their house on the eve of the Dionysus feast. They do not sacrifice cattle.
The Romans concluded they would rather rely on laws than the human whims of their rulers. This year the governing class is forced to issue a written code of law called the Twelve Tablets. The Roman Code clearly defines the authority of men over their children:
The Chinese held a belief that each individual had an immortal soul. To provide an attractive dwelling for this soul, tombs were fashioned after palaces and furnished with goods made more for the well-being of the deceased in the afterlife than for offerings to ancestors. Yi's tomb, dating to about 433 B.C., was laid out in four chambers. The room to the east, representing his private quarters, held his coffin as well as those of eight concubines and his dog, furniture, silk, zithers, and other objects for personal use. A magical bronze creature -- part crane, part deer was found near his coffin, probably to protect him from evil spirits. The tomb's central chamber, evidently corresponding to the ceremonial hall of Yi's palace, contained the bronze ritual vessels and musical instruments. The north chamber, serving as Yi's armory, was filled with spears, halberds, and other weaponry, while the room to the west, where the skeletons of thirteen young women were found, was apparently the servants' quarter.
The Greek city Athens while under siege from Sparta fell victim to typhoid fever that probably came from North Africa. The plague lasted three years killing as many as one third of the one hundred thousand refugees living in the crowded and poor sanitation conditions of Athens.
The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (490-430) proposed a number of paradoxes to support the claim of Parmenides that the world was a motionless, unchanging unity. It is noteworthy that this solid state earth theory was held until 1963 when the theory of continental drift just couldn't be ignored. Science just couldn't use the term continental drift is it would be a constant reminder of their stubbornness of mind.
The Greek philosopher Plato (428-347) who would study under Socrates (d-399) is born this year. Plato like Socrates complained about the youth. What is happening to our young people? They disrespect their elders, they disobey their parents. They ignore the law. They riot in the streets inflamed with wild notions. Their morals are decaying. What is to become of them? Old Andrew says these sayings "are not genuine, although they are widely quoted".
A major earthquake struck Greece destroying many villages and cities, changing river courses. The peninsula Euboea became an island causing a small river to became the Euripus Strait. The war of Delo by Athens resulted in purification by taking up all the graves and it is determined that half the graves are Carians. At this time Carians and Phoenicians colonize most islands.
Reports about Atlantis are circulating throughout the Mediterranean region. These stories are the same as those circulated in 1,000 B.C. out of Egypt. Plato wrote that in a day and night Atlantis disappeared into the sea. It is a great and wonderful Empire that had conquered all of Africa and most of Europe. Plato likely influenced by East Indian philosophy believed the soul is a fallen, polluted deity incarcerated in the body as in a tomb but capable of regaining its divine status by purification.
The 'city states' (Polis) of Sparta and Athens turned on each other resulting in the total defeat of Athens this year. The Athenians relative decent treatment of their slave population astounded and dismayed the Spartans. Spartanism however would prevail in the Roman tradition.
In a wave of Celtic expansion tribes poured through the Alps into Italy. The Celts told the Romans that their law says that anything they take by force of arms was rightfully theirs. By this time the Sarmatians were occupying outposts of the Roman empire in the Balkans.
The Belgae an iron age Celtic tribe established themselves
in Belgium. Brythonic Celts settled in England driving the Gaelic
Celts to Wales and Ireland. The Celts intruded into Italy and settled
in the Valley of the Po. The Proto-Huns fanned out to China, India
and Europe, and the Turks closely follow them from central Russia who is
kinsmen of the Mongols.
Arabic (Semitic) traders using horses and donkeys crossed the Sahara desert to trade salt and cloth for Sudanese gold and ivory in the Bilad as-Sudan that means land of the Black People. It is noteworthy that the camel was not used until 100 A.D. being imported from Asia.
A freestanding, aboveground barrel vault is discovered at Hellenistic, Sicily and it was always assumed Rome invented this form of construction about 200 B.C.
The Egyptians in 600 B.C. recorded the existence of Atlantis. This alleged myth was passed down through Solon to Plato who recorded it in 400 B.C. An epochal flood is believed to have swallowed up Atlantis.
A nomadic tribal chief was buried at Pazyryk in southern Siberia. This tomb in the Altay Mountains was later found and discovered to contain wool fabrics, a carpet, a saddle of felt and leather, felt figures of swans, a horse harness with carved wooden rams' heads. and a fleece in near perfect condition. The origin of the carpet with its 1,125,000 knots is under debate. It might have come from Assyria or Iran.
The Chinese began suffering from fierce attacks of nomadic herdsmen over the next 100 years, the Hsiung-nu, from the north and west. They began to build parts of what came to be called the Great Wall for protection.
The Yayoi culture (400-250 B.C.) is identified by its pottery. Mongoloid people from Korea entered Japan and mixed with the older Jomon (14,000-300 B.C.) populations likely the aboriginal Ainu people of Japan. Some believe the Ainu people decended from the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures but many racial issues cloud the Ainu people.
The philosopher Socrates (d-399) is condemned to death for teaching a new European culture or as the Greek authority said for corruption of the youth of Athens and neglect of the Gods. He attempted to understand right conduct as opposed to priestly rules of conduct. Socrates is classified as a martyr of freethinking as compared to orthodox absolutism that is based upon custom, superstition and fear. Socrates wrote Children are now tyrants. They no longer rise when elders enter the room. They contradict their parents, chatter before company, gobble up dainties at the table, cross their legs, and tyrannize over their teachers.
Over the next fifty years the Etruscan cities fell to the Romans and the Etruscans became Latin. The Etruscan gave the Romans the arch, the Roman numbering systems and the aqueduct. Much of the Roman culture is really an Etruscan culture and technology.
The Celts from Sens in Burgundy (led by the Celt-Brennus) defeated the Roman army, captured Rome, sacked and burned the city, except for the citadel. The sacking resulted after Marcus Papiriou hit an inquisitive Celt in the head with an ivory scepter. The Celts penetrated as far south as Sicily. The Celts withdraw after seven months receiving much ransom. Livy wrote, there is a great slaughter in the left wing on the banks of the Tiber and many, overweighed by their armor, are drowned. Rome is rebuilt in 380 B.C.
Helice, Greece sank into the Gulf of Corinth during an earthquake, so reported Strabo. Near the towns of Eliki, Nikolaiika, and RizomylosGreece). It is the center of the Poseidon cult. For five days, during the winter, Helike citizens watched in amazement as beetles, snakes, mice, rats, weasels and every other creature of that kind fled the coastal city for higher ground. On the fifth night, the earthquake struck, the coastal plain sank, and as the city crumbled the sea rushed in. A towering tidal wave struck, killing everyone. At dawn the next day two thousand men from neighboring cities rushed to the rescue but found only the tips of the trees in Poseidon's sacred grove poking above the waves. Helike's fate is said to have inspired Plato's legend of Atlantis. This area has been occupied since 2,400 B.C. and many towns in turn were destroyed by earthquakes
Romans fought four wars with the invading Celts from Cisalpine, Gaul into central Italy until 349. Peace is finally concluded by about 334. Rome also fought the Hernici and the revolting Latin cities. Southern Etruria is brought under Roman control.
Plato had a chance to test his idea of a constitutional kingship when Dionysius II ruled Syracuse summoned him as royal advisor. The monarch got tired of philosophy and restraint and dispatched Plato back to Athens.
The legend of the "lost continent" of Atlantis was recorded this
year by Plato. He said Atlantis was a navel power lying "in front of
the Pillars of Herciles' that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa
about 9,600 B.C. Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and
night of misfortune. Others suggested the island's of Atlantis were
greater than Africa and Asia. I assume this was in influence, technology
and trade. Most folks of the day didn't believe the legends.
Modern science believes Atlantis was the Island of Santorini aka Thera in the Aegean Sea that was destroyed about 1627 to 1620 B.C. when the volcano exploded. The resulting tsunami killed 30,000 people on Crete. It was believed to be three times larger than Krakotola. It was peopled by the Minonas since about 3,500 B.C.
The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was destroyed by arson. Herostratus the culprit was captured and asked why he did it. He replied he did it so his name might live in history. The man was executed and it was ordered his name be erased from all records and never be spoken again..
Alexander III of Macedonia, (Greece) (356-321 B.C.) later to become Alexander the Great. His mother claimed his ancestor included Achilles and his father claimed Hercules as an ancestor.
During the period 400-350 B.C. the Book of Isaiah, assembled from many separate collections, including late additions, reached its near present form, more than 300 years after the death of Isaiah.
The Greek Metrodorus wrote that to consider earth the only populated world in infinite space is as absurd as to assert that in an entire field sown with seed, only one will grow.
King Philip of Macedonia marched south toward Greece.
Alexander of Macedonia lead his fathers army and gained control of Greece this year.
Philip of Macedon conquered Greece with plans to invade Asia (Turkey) but is assassinated this year. His son became King Alexander (336-323) would continue his fathers plans in 334. Seventy-two Jewish Tribal Elders are invited by Ptolemy II to Alexandria to produce the first Greek bible (Oral Law), which means the books. It is noteworthy that Hebrew tradition suggests that the Torah should not be condensed to the written word but past down by word of mouth. The Greeks called Yahweh Lao and named the bible Septuagint. Others scholars suggest the Septuagint are written later between 300-250 B.C. In the beginning the Greeks showed great religious tolerance. The Juda Sect considered the Greek Gods as nonexistent. This insult would led the Greeks to consider the Judas Sect as atheists and enemies of society. It is noteworthy that the Greek Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) believed the Greeks borrowed their Gods from the Egyptians as did the Juda Sect.
Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) entered into treaty with the Celt near Bratisland.
Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) defeated the Persian army at the Granicus River.
Some suggest Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was the first to have considered desalination of sea water by filteration.
Alexander of Macedonia (336-323 B.C.) defeated Darius II of Persia and the Greeks began to colonize Asia and Africa. Alexander put Tyre, Lebanon (Phoenicia) under siege of 7 months and executed 8,000 people and sold 30,000 into slavery. Alexander founded the city of Alexandria, Egypt but its growth began after his death. An Egyptian oracle proclaimed Alexander a God. It is noteworthy that Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) only conquered 25% of the lands that the Great Gingis Kon (Con) conquered.
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition during their domination under the Persian Empire (539-331 B.C.
The Macedonian Greek armies led by Alexander the Barbarian (366-323) attacked Persia's King Darius and it is estimated that ninety thousand Persians and five hundred Greeks died in battle. So demoralized is Babylon that Alexander the Barbarian (336-323) won the city without a fight. The people saw him as their liberator. The Persian Empire fell to the Greek's. Alexander's grand plan died with him in 323 B.C. and Babylon continued to decay.
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition during their domination under Alexander and his generals (331-302 B.C.).
The Greeks believed in 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' and it is noteworthy that the writers of the biblical Genesis also contains reference to 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' and Pangaea.
Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) became King of Persia. When Alexander reached the Indus Valley (Pakistan) his men refused to go further, they were near mutiny..
The Celts from Ireland establish Scotland (Caledonia) this year. The Scots are called the Pict or painted men named by the Roman for the blue paint on their face when they went into battle. Greek mathematician, astronomer and geographer named Pytheas set sail from Massilia (Marseilles) and discovered and circumnavigated the Tin Islands (Britain). Local sailors told him of land laying six days sailing to the northwest. The Pict helped Pytheas the Greek sail to the land he called Thule (Iceland). Pytheas also visited Denmark.
Pytheas (c380BC-310BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer, made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe around this time. He traveled around Great Britain, circumnavigating it between 330 and 320 BCE. He claimed to have sailed past Scotland and mentioned a land called Thule, where the surrounding ocean froze and the sun disappeared in winter.
Weakened by fever, exhaustion and earlier wounds Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) died. Likely the near mutiny in the Indus Valley contributed to his demise at age 32.
Pytheas the Greek went to Egypt as viceroy. Seleucus the Greek is given the Persian Empire and his dynasty basically lasted until 63 B.C. The barbaric Macedonian basically adopted the Persian culture to become the Hellenistic Greeks culture. Alexandria is peopled with Hellenes (Greek), Egyptian and Hebrew.
Greek scholars from very early in the fifth century concluded that the earth is a globe because a sphere is the most perfect mathematical form. Aristotle (384-322) agreed for reasons of pure mathematics and physical evidence. Aristotle (384-322) a Greek philosopher died this year. Aristotle believed that religious are not required to learn any facts but to experience certain emotions and to be put in a certain disposition.
316 B.C. The Shu State in what is now Sichuan, China was conquered by Qin this year. Legend states that Shu was ruled at one time by the mythical king, Duyu (杜宇), and his descendants. Shu was later ruled by the Kaiming (開明) kings.
Pytheas the Greek proclaimed himself King of Egypt establishing a Greek dynasty that ended 30 B.C. with Cleopatra, a red headed Ptolemy Greek. The Greeks absorbed many of the Egyptian God concepts as their own. The Egyptian priest is also considered as philosophers. They dedicated their entire lives to the thought and contemplation of God. This contemplation endowed them with dignity, piety and a feeling of security. They acquired knowledge making them strangers to greed, calm the passions and encourage a life of wisdom. The Egyptian priests cultivate frugality and moderation, continence and steadfastness, and they make justice and hatred of greed the ruling principles of their lives. They spent the night in the observation of the heavens and the days in the study of arithmetic, geometry and scholarly investigation of new things.
Wheat is first introduced into Egypt some time after this period. Prior to this period bread is made from emmer (Triticum dicoccum).
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition during their domination under Alexander and his generals (331-302 B.C.).
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition
during their domination under the Greco-Egyptian Empire (302-198 B.C.).
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC