Rome rejects the Greek belief that women are evil and
but do adopt their philosophy of slavery and might is right.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to European & Asia INDEX 1000 BC - 1 BC
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
About this time the Celts mixed with the Prytani of Britain to be called the Cymry (Welsh). Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans based on genetic studies.
The Sarmatian another Iranian people displaced the Scythian from the shores of southern Russia (the Black Sea). A Sarmatian tribe called the Alan is considered the second best horsemen after the Huns. The Alan is a typical nomad yet some of the tribe mixed with other tribes into an agricultural population. They are described as tall, handsome and blond highly skilled armoires and jewelers. Another wave of Celts arrived in Gaul from the East. The Carnute Celts established their capital at Chartres, France. Caesar would later regard this area as the center of Gaul where they hold their annual synod.
The Greek writer Ephorus (400-330 B.C.) referred to the Celts, Scythians, Persians and Libyans as the four great barbarian peoples in the known world.
The Yayoi culture from Korea invade Japan and mixed with the Japanese to become the modern Japanese and force the aboriginal Ainu people from their homeland to the northern isle of Hokkaido.
The city of Rome entered into a twenty five-year conflict with the Greek city of Tarentum in southern Italy. Romans unlike the Greeks did not see women as intrinsically hostile to the aims of civilized political life. Roman women could inherit and acquire real property. Roman marriage is a form of exchange between families whereas Greek marriage is considered a purchase of property that could be sold, killed or otherwise disposed of. We need to understand that the Roman Goddess Venus is the Mother of the Human Race, delight of men and gods, a sunlit, joyous and life giving deity.
The Celtic Empire is at its peak of military power. They believe that all things belong to the brave. They would conquer and plunder but had no desire to dominate, enslave and rule for continuous plunder. The Celts are rural farmers who organized into small villages with greater alliances rather than the consolidation of power into a city-states. The Romans recorded that the Celts are exporting wheat and leather in trade. The Romans adopted chain-mail armor from the Celts. The Romans had a belief in conquest and continuous plunder. They imposed urbanization so that the people can be better controlled.
The Yayoi culture existed in Japan from 300 B.C to 400 A.D.
The Parthians were a nomadic people who arrived in West Asia from the north about this time. These Persian (Iranian) arrived while the region was controlled by Greek Seleucids.
During the period 300BC-68BC: The Dead Sea Scrolls of
Qumran, Jordan, date to this period. The scrolls are usually identified with the
Jewish-monkish cult, the Essenes, know for their pathological aversion to stool.
Rachel Elior theorized that the Essenes, did not exist. She suggested they were
really the renegade sons of Zadok, a priestly caste banished from the Temple of
Jerusalem by intriguing Greek rulers in 2nd century BC. When they left, they
took the source of their wisdom - their scrolls - with them.
The Dead Sea Scrolls dating to this period were discovered by Bedouin at the caves of Qumran in Jordan around 1947. The scrolls predated the Christian gospels, but contained many similarities. They also contained some differences from the traditional (Masoretic) text of the Hebrew Bible. From 1978-1998 over 6,000 books were written about the scrolls. The discovery date was later contested as were many of the historic circumstances surrounding the scrolls.
Celtic Druidism likely predates this period but is a form of Knighthood that excludes military service and taxation but includes education in metaphysics, theology and general education. This education lasted about twenty years and Druids are considered as lawyers and judges.
Pharos Lighthouse, Alexandria, Egypt is constructed and is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
A 30,000 Celt army crossed the Alps from southern Gaul
sweeping through northern Italy, Yugoslavia, and Albania into Greece sacking Delphi.
The Celts as a culture are primarily farmers but built the first road system in Europe
to facilitate trade.
The Celt are amused that the barbaric Greeks are making gifts to their gods as all civilized people knew that God had no need of gifts when he showered them so liberally on men. They are also amused to see the naive Greek depicting the divine in human form and creating images in bronze and marble. It is noteworthy that the Celt is immensely tall and well built compared to the puny Greek of this time adding more irony to this opinion. The women-warriors of the Celt with their fierce, strident-voiced Amazon appearance added to this irony. The Greeks at this time considered the Celts in the same nation class as the Persians and Scythians. The Celt displaced the Latin-Etruscan of northern Italy replacing them with the cities of Turin, Milan and Bergamo.
The Pharos at Alexandria was constructed. The lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was toppled by an earthquake in 1303AD. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the waters off Alexandria in 1996.
Northern Italy, the valley of Po, is controlled by the Celts (Gauls).
A man and woman in China of the same clan-name could marry each other but they could not if they were the same surname.
The Seleucus Dynasty lost Pergamum (Turkey) to local revolts resulting in their independence.
The Parthians, a branch of Scythian from Turkestan, settled in Northern Iran breaking the area from the Seleucus Greek Dynasty.
It is suggested through carbon dating that the Dead Sea Scroll documents date from this time until 66 A.D. This doesn't suggest it is written by the Essenes. They likely collect early copies and produced later copies.
Lee Bing a revered official is credited with establishing the first well that was drilled for salt in Sischuan, China. Methane gas is also produced and captured as fuel.
The Parthians defeat the Greek Seleucids, and Arsaces I and settle east of the Caspian Sea.
Qin Shi Huang aka Yine Zheug (247-221 B.C.) was the king of the state of Qin officially under the Zhou Dynasty and later the first Emperor (221-210 B.C.) of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) He is known for introducing legalism, unifying China, building the great wall of China, a city size mausoleum, a terracotta army and a massive road system, at the expense of numerous human lives. To ensure stability, he outlawed Confucianism (551-479) and buried many of its scholars alive, banning and burning all books other than those officially decreed.
The Romans with the support of the Sicialian Greeks invaded Sicily and acquired their first Province outside Italy. They also seized Corsica and Sardinia.
Arsaces I was the first kin of a Caspian steppe tribe called the Parni. He overthrew the Greek Seleucid governor of Parthia this year and founded the kingdom of Partha. He reigned for 36 years (247 B.C. - 211 B.C.).
The Desi, Celtic people from southern Ireland and the Pict of Caledonia (Scotland) are very efficient at sea and made many trips to Thule (Iceland) and possibly beyond. A 20,000 man Celt army had ravaged and held Western Asia Minor for the past 46 years.
From the East, the Bastarnae and Skiri moved to the Black Sea to be followed later by the Cimbri, Teutones and Ambrones.
The Bactria (Afghanistan) broke from the Seleucus Greek Dynasty.
An earthquake toppled the one hundred feet high bronze statue of the Greek God Apollo that stood at the entrance to the island of Rhodes. All efforts to restore the statue to an upright position failed.
Qin Shi Huangdi (259-210 B.C.) alias Ying Zheng, declared himself Emperor of China (221-210 B.C.) after defeating six warring states and unifying China. Qin Shi Huangdi (meaning First Emperor from the state of Qin) The Ch'in dynasty 221-206 B.C. (others suggest 221-207 B.C.) is short lived but it organized a strong central government, standard weights, measures, laws and language and extended political control into south Manchuria and the central section of south China as far as the present Canton. He built the Terra-cotta army consisting of some 7,000 statues. He also combined and strengthened various early walls, began in 700 B.C., to form the Great Wall, to shield China from the Hsiung Nu, or Huns. The Great Wall was expanded during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Most important the Chinese culture had developed the ability to assimilate conquerors and the conquered into its own traditions. There are also numerous references to maps and their uses. In contrast the Romans built their Empire on the groaning backs of slaves that would collapse when attacked by the Nomads. Qin Shi Huang was a cruel ruler, burned all books from previous regimes and banned any discussions of the past.
The word "China" may derive from Qin (pronounced "chin"), a state near the western frontier. In 221 B.C. the king of Qin united squabbling, disparate kingdoms to create China's first centralized government. The empire he established was consolidated during the ensuing Han dynasty and lasted until 1911.
During the Qin Shi Huangdi (259-210 B.C.) reign, surnames slowly became common among the lower classes. Prior to this time, surnames were restricted to royal family members or high ranking officials. Emperior Qin Shihuangdi introduced the country's first currency, the 'Ban Liang' coin. However illegal private mints sprang up all over the empire undermined the 'Ban Liang'.
The territory of Hong Kong was incorporated into China during the Qin Dynasty (221-210)
The Chinese are sailing the Indian Ocean in exploration and trade.
The city of Chang'an served as the Han capital from 220 B.C. to 11 A.D. and rivaled Rome in both size and grandeur. Emperor Gaozu minted the Wu Zhu a copper coin, a currency that was used for 700 years and was considered as pivotal in the rise of ancient China's economy.
The Romans pushed the Gaul out of northern Italy. Hannibal begins to mobilize in Cartage, Tunnas in North Africa.
At Phanagoria, Greece on the Black Sea was the home of Mithradates VI the King of Pontus (119-63 B.C.) the most powerful king in Asia Minor. He was called Rome's greatest enemy. he fought three wars against the Roman republic.
Great wall of China is started as an attempt to keep the northern people out of China. Hannibal's surprise attack, crossing the Pyrenees and Alps with 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and 37 war-elephants are frustrated when the Celts slashed their numbers to 26,000 stalling their plans. Rome declared war on the advancing Hannibal army.
North Africa is rocked by an earthquake demolishing one hundred cities and killing more than fifty thousand people.
The battle of Cannae saw the Roman army of 86,000 cut to 36,000 by the Carthaginian cavalry under direction of Hannibal. Some claim the Romans lost between fifty and seventy thousand men and Hannibal lost six thousand.
The first Emperor Ch'in Shih Huang Ti (259-210 B.C.) of the Ts'in Dynasty of China ordered the burning of all books and the extermination of all intellectuals who preached the philosophies of the past. The works of Confucius (K'ung Fu Tzu) (551-479 B.C.) and Mencius Mengtzu (327-289 B.C.) that are specifically targeted. The instigator of these repressive actions is the Grand Councilor Li Ssu. This action is to abolish all knowledge of the past to establish the Ts'in Dynasty as the first Dynasty of China. Years after Ch'in Shih Haung Ti is known as he who burned the books and buried the scholars. It is from Ch'in that the name of China derived. It is noteworthy that he abolished the ritual sacrifice of bodyguards along with their dead masters.
Arsaces II (211-191 B.C.) of Parthia was forced to submit to the rule of the Greek Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III.
Ch'in Shih Huang Ti (221-210) the paranoid Emperor of China died and court intrigue headed by Li Ssu raised his inept son Hu Hai to power. China would be driven into famine, despair, murder and rebellion. Some suggest the 2nd Emperor of China is Qin Er Shi (210 to 207 B.C. the son of the first Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Under the advice of the chief eunuch Zhao Gao and prime minister Li Si, he forged a fake decree of his father, which ordered his brother, the heir Fusu, which by the time served general Meng Tian, to commit suicide and appointed himself to be the heir. He acted like a puppet Emperor.
Greater Greece (Southern Italy) is overwhelmed by the Roman army.
The Greek Seleucid King Antiochus IIIthe Great invades Parthia and takes the capital Hecatompylos.
The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC to 93 AD) in southern Italy with DNA studies suggest its occupants had European and Western Asians genes. It appears a linguistically and ethnically diverse culture. One grave site was of an east Asian descent.
The Western Han Dynasty of China covered the period 206 B.C. to 9 A.D. Emperor Gaodi ruled Western China (206-195 B.C.)
A soldier, Liu Pang (Bang) began the Han dynasty that lasted for four hundred years (202 B.C.-9 A.D. & 25-220 A.D.). The Emperor said "at last the whole world is mine" This dynasty brought unity of speech, custom and ethnic character. The Emperor became head of the paternal as well as political sense. Confucius teaching of loyalty is widespread as a doctrine. A legitimate heir is the right, is moral is sanctioned by heaven and his opponents are evil, ambitious, depraved and cast out by heaven. Some believe the Turkestan trading routes linking East and West is established about this time.
The Dead Sea Scrolls (850 scrolls) are begun by a Jewish Sect called the Essenes who lived 200 B.C. to 70 A.D. around Qumran near the Dead Sea. Some believe this Jewish Sect eventually evolved into some of the early Christians. Judaism and Christianity are largely indistinguishable during the first century after the death of Jesus Christ. One Dead Sea Scroll that carbon dates to this period is a copy of the Book of Isaiah. Only thirteen minor variations can be found in the modern versions. This doesn't imply that only minor variations exist to the 400-350 B.C. original many separate sources. Among the texts are parts of every book of the Hebrew Canon, what Christians call the Old Testament, except the book of Esther. They were written on animal skins, papyrus and forged copper. The Essenes were known to devote their lives in writing and preserving sacred text. Some dispute the Essene connection. Some believe some text dates to 300 B.C. before the Essenes. A few scrolls are written in Greek rather than prosaic a form of Aramaic or Hebrew. One scroll mentions a messianic figure who is called the "Son of God" and the "Son of the Most High", this was written during the time of Jesus.. Flavious Josephus mentions both the Essenes and Jesus.
The Essene sect differed from the later Rabbinical Juda Sect in that they followed a solar based calendar (364 days) whereas the House of Judah adopted a Lunisolar calendar (354 days). It would appear the Judah Sect adopted a much earlier Pharisaic Lunar-oriented calendar and the Essene adopted the Egyptian calendar from 4,241 B.C. It is noteworthy that the Judah Sect didn't adopt the Solar calendar until the end of the fourth century AD. The advantage of the solar system is that festivals can be fixed and not conflict with a Sabbath. The Essene maintained both calendars to point out errors in the inaccurate Judah calendar.
A Greek Hercules cult believed he is the Son of God born of an earthly woman and ascended into heaven. Some believe the Roman Church incorporated this Greek tradition into the Catholic tradition to attract converts.
The Celtic Empire at this time is building forts on ramped hills that contain 2,000 square foot structures. These buildings are used to store grain, conduct celebrations and for collective defense if required.
It is believed the Polynesians reached Marquesas about this time
It is noteworthy the there are no revolts by the people of Jewish tradition who have been dominated for the past 340 years.
Judaea a small protectorate of the Ptolemies of Egypt is annexed to the Syrian Seleucid Empire by Antiochus III this year. Antiochus III by edict strengthened the high priest powers and made the Torah commandments the official law. This resulted in a class of Jews inclined toward Hellenism.
The Romans defeated the Macedonian King at Cynocephalae (Greece).
Emperor Huidi ruled Western China (195-188 B.C.)
Phriapatius (191-176 B.C.) regained Parthian independence from the Greek Seleucids and began to expand the kingdom.
Lu Hou was regent of Western China (188-180 B.C.)
The Romans gathered up 7,000 Etruscan sect members and executed their leaders.
In Spain, Roman expansion met with resistance from Iberian Basque Celts.
Emperor Wendi ruled Western China (180-157 B.C.)
Jason (175-171 B.C.) the high priest of Jerusalem influenced his countrymen to accept Hellenistic ways of life. He gave permission to have Antiochus IV the privilege of authorizing the appointment of future high priests.
The Ptolemies of Egypt attempted to retake Judaea and Coele-Syria but Antiochus Epiphanes IV (175-163 B.C.) of Syria counterattacked taking the capital of Egypt Memphis and Ptolemy VI. Antiochus Epiphanes captured Jerusalem and slew a great multitude of those who favored Ptolemy of Egypt. He held Jerusalem for three years and six months when he is driven out by the Hasmoneans. Onias the high priest fled to Ptolemy. Antiochus abolished the laws of the country. Antiochus IV became angry with the High Priest Jason and gave the priesthood to Menelaus who ruled by terror after civil war broke out between different factions of the priesthood.
Mithradates I (171-138 B.C.) was the greatest Parthian king; he turned his kingdom into a major power. A large part of Parthia's wealth came from its control of the Silk Road, an ancient trading route to China. The Silk Road was more common 600-1200 A.D. but few if any actually traveled the full route. Most traders only traveled from city to city.
Matthias a priest from Modin the son of Asamoneus raised an army and drove the generals of Antiochus Epiphanes IV (175-163 B.C.) out of Judaea. Upon his death his son Judas assumed command of Judaea.
It is noteworthy the there is only one revolt by the people of Jewish tradition during their domination under the Greco-Syrian Empire (198-167 B.C.). This is in contrast to the three revolts under Roman occupation.
This year 150,000 Epirotes are taken to Rome and sold as slaves.
Some believe one cause of the Maccabean rebellion was the Seleucid king, Antiochus IV, built a gymnasium, a place for exercise in the nude. The Jews were deeply shocked at the sight of open nudity.
Judas the son of Matthias commanded Judea and made a league of friendship with the Romans. He then repelled a second expedition of Antiochus Epiphanes IV (175-163 B.C.) of Syria into Judea.
Roman soldiers returning from the eastern Mediterranean brought smallpox to Rome, spreading out throughout Europe and Persia, killing unknown thousands over the next ten years.
Antiochus Epiphanes IV (175-163 B.C.) of Syria died being replaced by his son Antiochus Eleazar V who marched on Judaea taking Jererusalem. Judea is killed in battle and his brother Jonathan succeeded him. Jonathan is killed and the Jewish leadership in Judaea passed to his brother Simeon.
The House of Zadok from Solomon's reign (1056-977 B.C.) to date held the position of High Priest. As there is only one God so there is only one Temple and one High Priest. The Jewish dynasty of the Hasmoneans restored national control they assumed the High Priest-hood and excluded the Zadokite lineage. The House of Zadokite withdrew on protest to Qumran and joined the Essene Sect. After this date the High Priest of Jerusalem are chosen from four main families. According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Jacimus (160-157 B.C.) became the high priest of Jerusalem this year.
A Jewish settlement is located in Rome (Italy) this year and remained occupied to modern times. It is noteworthy that the Jews built catacombs beneath Rome. Some say to avoid persecution. Like the Christian catacombs, the walls are covered with graffiti.
Emperor Jingi ruled Western China (157-141 B.C.)
According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) no high priest ruled Jerusalem (157-150).
Iberian Basque Celts revolted against Roman rule.
About 165-150 B.C. the Book of Daniel is written as is the present form of Book of Psalms. According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Jonathan (150-143 B.C.) became the high priest of Jerusalem this year.
King Demetrius of Syria confirmed Simon (143-135 B.C.) as high priest the son of Judea, military and civil governor of Judaea. He called a Great Assembly of priests to declare the Simon's office a hereditary position thereby establishing the Hasmonean dynasty (a monarchy).
Emperor Zhaodi ruled Western China (141-87 B.C.)
The sacred books of Ancient Egypt are copied (140-124 B.C.) to the House of Life (temple or library). Some of the Books are the temple inventory, the threatening, plan of the temple, guardians of the temple, protection of the body, protection of the King, averting the evil eye, knowledge of the recurrence of the two stars and the control over the recurrence stars.
Parthian King Mithridates I (171-138 B.C.) captures the Greek Seleucid king and holds him captive for ten years. Parthia takes Mesopotamia and Media.
China's Emperor Wu Ti sends an expedition to the West and Southwest to gather information concerning the peoples of these regions. Chang Chien spends 12 years gathering information on the Western peoples. The object is trade rather than conquest.
The First Slave War (136-132) the Syrian Eunus brought the slaves of Sicily together and led them against Rome. At times there are 200,000 slaves in revolt and when defeated 20,000 slaves are crucified. A second Sicilian slave war of 101 B.C. is put down with the same barbaric severity.
According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Hyrcanus I (135-104 B.C.) became the high priest of Jerusalem this year.
In Sicily 6,000 slaves of Syrian origin rebelled because of brutal treatment by the Romans.
The Hasmonaean dynasty reigned over Judaea and some contend their persecution of the 'Doers of the Law' resulted in the creation of the Essene Sect.
Turkey is named the Province of Asia by the Romans having been bequeathed it by the Pergamum King Attalus I a few years earlier.
Artabanus II (128-124 B.C.) reasserted his authority over Iran and would remain in Parthian hands, except for two brief period of Roman occupation. until 227 A.D.
The Psalms of King Solomon (1056-977 B.C.) a minor tribal warlord are written about this time.
Mithradates II (123-88 B.C.) was the second most powerful Parthian king, who consolidated the empire. Parthia included moderan day Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, the coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and U.A.E. Parthia was a superpower of its time second only to Rome.
The second book of Maccabees is written about this time.
China to clear the Turkestan trade routes to the West drives the Hsiungnu Tartars from the corridor to north of the Gobi Desert. Chang Chien the commander in chief of all the Western Religions established garrisons at Kashgar, Khotan, Kucha and Karashar securing the western trade routes to the Middle East. These trade routes are known to be in use over the next four hundred years. Control of the Kingdom of Saba (Yeman) passed into the hands of the Himyarite Arabic (Semitic)s.
The Cimbri a Celtic or Germanic people originally located east of the Rhine moved to the Alpine regions and across the Rhone ravaged Gaul defeating two Roman armies at Arausio, on the Rhone. The Cimbri later merged with the Germanic-Teutones and other peoples against the Romans.
The Gaul attacked Rome, it is called the second Celtic Storm, and the Gaul is annihilated a few years later.
According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Aristobulus I (104-104) became the high priest of Jerusalem this year.
In Sicily 30,000 slaves rebelled and it took 17,000 Roman Legionnaires two years to put them down. It is noteworthy that Rome like Greece before it institutionalized slavery and their culture was built on the labor of slavery.
Roman law concluded that any child born of a slave became a slave regardless of the status of the father. The child therefore is of the mother, this would appear to be one of the last traces of maternalism in this culture. The Romans deliberately encouraged slave breading for the value of future slaves. Females slaves were regarded no more than breeding cattle for their property value.
According to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.) became king and the high priest of Jerusalem this year.