The Essene Sect settle at Qumram awaiting the Messianic Age.
The Greeks attempt to re-align themselves with Roman and Egyptian treatment of women.
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It is noteworthy that lying is considered the most evil of evils among early cultures.
Only priests can reprimand, flog or imprison
The Judaean Essenes Sect established their center at Wadi
Qumran, near the Dead Sea and only 16 miles from Jerusalem, to await the
coming of the promised Messianic Age. Their community is built upon
the ruins of a Judaean town.
The Essenes practiced a form of ritual purity like Baptism except they repeated it periodically with some conducting the ritual daily.
The Celts are proficient in metal working, wheeled plow and reaper,
carpentry and wagon building. They manufactured trousers or breeches,
cape and hoods, wooden clogs and had holy-men. A clan called the
Cimbrians of North Germany who intermixed with the Teutones disappeared
about this time. The Romans called the Celtic people as Germanic
Teutons and the Belgae or Bastarne Teutons meaning that they came from
that region but didn't belong to the Germanic Teuton linguistic group.
Chinese Emperor Wu (140-87 B.C.) invaded Korea.
The Pharisees of Judea normally supported the ruling party but this year they revolted and that precipitated into a six-year civil war with the Sadduceans.
A Greek marriage contract from this period reflects a fundamental shift from traditional beliefs. The contract between Apollonia and Philiscus claims common possessions, no other wife but Apollonia, no concubine, no boyfriends or beget children from any other woman, nor reside in any other household, nor repudiate her or do violence to her or treat her badly or alienate any of their property.
Minority Italia formed a Republic against the Latins, Etruscans, Umbrians and some southern Greek cities. The Roman Senate had voided a bill to extend citizenship to all Italians.
Posidonus of Apamea (135-51 B.C.) the Roman first named the (Indo-Europe family of languages) people of Scandinavia, Denmark and Schleswig, the Germanic speaking peoples. They are the Alamanni, Saxons, Franks (Salians, Ripuarians, Moselle and Main Franks, Chatti), and later, Thuringians and Bavarians. It is noteworthy that Franks means free of the Romans and not a clan or tribe of people. These Indo-European peoples are believed descendants of the Celts or from the same source. Posidonus traveled extensively throughout Celtic lands and recorded abhorrence with their practice of human sacrifice and the displaying of decapitated heads of their enemies. The Celt called this the crop of warfare. He is astonished at their immense appetites for roast boar, insatiable thirst for wine and their uninhibited public sexual displays. Publius Cornelious Tacitus (55-116? A.D.) a Roman historian wrote in 98 that these Germanic people arrived by sail and not by land into present German lands. They have blue eyes, red hair and huge frames. Only the priests can reprimand, flog or imprison. Authority is based upon ability but the King is by birth but has no authority. The priests however claim their authority from God. Their women are fierce and inflict horrors on captives. Assemblies are called to establish rules of conduct. Only one wife is allowed and the man brings the dowry, not the woman. A wife is considered a partner in peace and war. They frown on vice or corruption and clandestine action is unknown to men or women.
Northern Germans are Scandinavia, Eastern Germans those who migrated from Scandinavia into the region east of the Elbe is (Vandals, Burgundian, Goth (Mongolian), Rugian and others).
West Germans are divided into three cults based on the three sons of Mannus:
Ingaevones on the coast of the North Sea.
Istvaeones along the Rhine.
Herminones in the interior.
These groups included: Cheruscan, Ubii, Batanian, Chatti, Frank (Usipetes, Tencteri, Sugambri & Buctri) Chauci, Frisians, Saxon, Suevi, Semnoni, Hermunduri, Lancobardi, Marcomanni, Quadi and others.
Mithridates VI Emperor, ruler of the kingdom of Pontus along the Black Sea conquered Roman territories in Asia Minor and modern day Syria. He ordered and orchestrated the genocide massacre of about one hundred thousand Roman men, women and children. It is said 80,000 are killed in a single day.
King Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.) with an army of 20,000 Jews waged war with Demetrius and his army of 40,000 including many Jewish allies. King Alexander returned to Jerusalem with many Jewish prisoners. He committed sacrilege when he crucified 800 Jews in the heart of the city and butchered their wives and children before their eyes while he reclined with his concubines. Fear took hold of the people and 8,000 people of the opposing factions fled Jerusalem and Judaea. It is believed the Essene sect first retired to Qumran as a result of these civil wars.
Emperor Xuandi ruled Western China (87-74 B.C.)
The Pharisees opposed King Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.) the high priest and his wars and conquests on religious grounds although he controlled almost as much as the ancient kingdom of David (1096-1056). The Sadducees and upper classes supported Alexander. Alexander (103-76) appointed his wife Queen Alexandra (Salome) (76-67 B.C.) as his successor. She appointed her son Hyrcanus II (76-67) as high priest along with the Pharisees who quickly displaced the Sadducees. The Pharisees would later contest this decision. The Queen being overly pious allowed the Pharisees to gain control of the kingdom. The Pharisees systematically executed allies of Alexander who had instigated against the Pharisees during his reign. They bound and loosed men at their pleasure. The Pharisee followed the Halakhot or Oral Law being the official interpretation of the Torah or Written Law. The Oral Law is not written until the second century A.D. The Mosaic code (the Torah) is in the hands of the Scribes.
Emperor Xuandi ruled Western China (74-49 B.C.)
Roman gladiators led by Spartacus, a Thracian soldier, began a general uprising among one hundred thousand escaped gladiators and slaves. They avenged themselves by pillaging and raping their former masters. They crucified any prisoners they took or forced them to slaughter each other in combat. This is just as the gladiators themselves had been forced to do by the Romans. The crass and rich slave trader Marcus Licinius Crassus eventually defeats them and six thousand slaves are crucified along the road from Capua to Rome as an example to all other slaves. Marcus Licinius Crassus is the biggest property owner in Rome and to celebrate the end of the revolution he set up 10,000 banquet tables in the Forum, feeding all of Rome for days. Crassus also funded the young up-and-coming Julius Caesar (100-44).
Herod born 73 B.C. and King of Judea (40-4 B.C.) is the son of Antipater and Cypros an Aribian. Antipater had four sons, Phasaelus, Herod, Joseph and Pheroras and a daughter Salome.
Phraates III (70-57 B.C.) was king of the Parthians at the time of Pompey's campaigns in Asia Minor.
The Romans took Crete and Cilicia whose pirate activities in the Mediterranean are seriously interfering with Roman grain supplies. These pirates are slaves trading to the markets at Delos.
The high priest Hyrcanus II (76-67) the son of Alexander is the heir to the Kingdom of Judaea but his brother Aristobulus II (76-67) warred with him for control and won to become the high priest of Jerusalem.
Rome annexes the Kingdom of Seleucid as the province of Syria.
Cneius Pompeius (Pompey) (100-48) Roman Governor of Asia takes Antioch, Greece (Anatolia) ending the Greek Dynasty (650-64 B.C.). The Romans are invited into Judaea to settle a internal dispute of who should be king. The Roman historian Tacitus (?70-100 A.D.) records that Pompeius obtained Jerusalem by victory. He found the temple empty and destroyed the walls.
As soon as a Roman army set foot on Jewish soil both fighting factions (Antipater and brother Hyrcanus) sent delegations seeking the Roman General Scaurus aid. The Pharisee party sent their own delegation opposing both brothers. Antipater gained a leading position in the political life of Judaea through a gift of 300 talents to the Romans. Antipater became procurator of all Judaea. Hyreanus II (64-40 is high priest of Jerusalem according to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
Pompey (100-48) Roman Governor of Asia takes Jerusalem, in order to pacify the Judah Sect and imposed a Roman Protectorate over the Maccabean Jew named Hyrcanus II (64-40) then being the High Priest. Some 12,000 Jews are killed most by other Jews of rival factions. Very few Romans are killed. The Pharisees are killed while conducting offerings and burning incense. Many threw themselves down precipices. Scaurus is Pompey's adjutant at this time. Hyrcanus II (64-40) is restored as High Priest in recognition of his cooperation during the siege of Jerusalem. The chief perpetrators of the civil war are beheaded. Governor Pompey then invaded the Arab Kingdom of Petra. Scaurus is Governor of Judea under the supervision of the Governor of Syria and is lightly taxed.
The historian Strabo the Greek writes of an ancient legend that described an army drowned in the sea on the coast of Canaan near Egypt and not the Red Sea as the legend of Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) recounts. It is noteworthy that no reference to Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) is made outside of Scriptures.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (d-53) raised his own army to fight the treacherous Parthians in Syria.
Seven million Celts occupied Gaul, their decedents include Wales (Welsh), Ireland (Erse), Scotland (Gaelic), England (Breton) and despite centuries by England and France to annihilate their culture it still exist to this day. The Celts are shipbuilders, Sailors and metal workers. The Celts at this time wore trousers to protect their legs.
The Celts of Switzerland are conquered by the Romans, as are the Celts from Gaul who invaded across the Rhine. Julius Caesar (100-44) killed over one million Celts in his conquest of Gaul (France). It is noteworthy that the Celtic Empire has been in decline since its peak power in 300 B.C. Julius Caesar (100-44) is also reported to have captured and sold 1,000,000 slaves into the Roman political infrastructure that supports this culture.
Julius the future God-Caesar (100-44) invades Tin Island (Britain) and noticed that the Celtic-Belgic are different from the older Celtic inhabitants. The Romans noted the Celts are very careful about cleanliness and neatness, neither man nor woman however poor is seen either ragged or dirty. Julius Caesar (100-44) noted the Celt have a custom of sharing one woman among groups of ten to twelve men usually among brothers and among the sons of brothers. The Celts referred to this as the friendship of the thighs.
Marcus Licinius Crassus is defeated at the battle of Carrhae. When the Parthians of Syria realized they had killed the richest Roman of all times they poured molten gold down his throat so that his lifelong thirst for gold should be quenched in death.
The Roman general Crassus invades Partha, but is defeated, thus began the Roman-Parthian conflicts that lasts for the next 270 years. The Persians defeated the Romans in the Battle of Carrhae. Some 20,000 Romans under Crassus were killed by the Parthian army and 10,000 were captured. The Parthians then used the Romans as guards on their eastern frontier in what later became Turkmenistan
Caesar claimed to have wiped out the Celtic Eburones after they conspired with other groups in an attack that killed 6,000 Roman soldiers. The Eburones lived in an area that later came be known as part of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.
This year, possibly 53 B.C. a confrontation began between the Romanian Empire and the Parthian Empire which lasted until 217 A.D.
The Celts from Gaul (France) sided with the Romans against the Vandals, Mongolian-Goths and Mongolian-Huns.
Herod born 73 B.C. and King of Judea (40-4 B.C.) is appointed governor of Galilee and his brother Phasael Governor Judaea son Antipater. Herod immediately captured the brigand chief Ezekias a Jew who is ravaging the district bordering on Syria. At this time the Jewish community is split between anti-Roman and pro-Roman factions. It is noteworthy that Galilee is overpopulated at this time resulting in general unrest.
Emperor Yuandi ruled Western China (49-33 B.C.)
Rome subdued Spain in a six-week campaign. The Pharisee Aristobulus son Alexander Jannaeus (104-76 B.C.) and Shelamzion (Salome Alexandra) (d-67 B.C.) is poisoned on his way to Rome to regain his Kingdom by supporters of Pompey (100-48 B.C.) Roman Governor of Asia.
Herod (40-4 B.C.) son Antipater is appointed Governor of Galilee at 25 years of age. His brother Phasaelus is appointed Governor of Jerusalem. The Jew Hezekias led a great band of robbers that ran over Galilee and parts of Syria. Herod marched upon the Galilian rebels killing many of the robbers including Hezekias. The people were so grateful that Phasaelus also imitated Herod and won the appreciation of the people of Judaea. The Pharisee high priest Hyrcanus II (64-40) son Alexander Jannaeus (104-76 B.C.) became envious that he is not given the authority to kill rebel Jews and began to plot against the King and his sons.
Julius Caesar (100-44) traveled from Rome to Egypt and fell in love with Cleopatra.
Julius the God-Caesar (100-44) the barbarian invades and destroys the Great Alexandria Library. He then marched on Africa to fight the partisans of Pompey. He also destroyed the Great Library of Egypt that contained ancient texts and documents. The wealth of the recorded material lost is incalculable.
After a struggle for control of the Roman Republic in February Julius Caesar (100-44) is proclaimed Roman dictator for life. Julius the God-Caesar (100-44) is assassinated on the Ides of March. Civil war broke out in the Roman Empire. Octavian and Mark Antony share power after defeating the army of Brutus and Cassius. Parthian armies seized Antioch, Jerusalem and Phoenicia. Heavy taxes are imposed on the people to fund the growing armies.
Gaul is absorbed into the dying Roman Empire. A Roman army of 40,000 men occupied England determined to conquer the whole Tin Island. The Romans considered the Celts, war-mad, high spirited and quick for battle. Rome could not conquer Caledonia so Emperor Hadrian planned a wall along the border between England and Caledonia (Scotland) to keep the barbarous Picts out of the south.
Rome declared the assassinated Julias as divine and Octavius, his adopted son, became the son of god.
Mark Antony (83-30) met Cleopatra VII (69-30), the Greek Queen of Egypt at Tarsus and altered the whole course of history. Cleopatra is the mistress of the God-Julius Caesar (100-44) and had his son. Cleopatra is ambitious and hopes to create a dynasty. Rumor spread that Antony is planning to transfer the capital of the empire to Alexandria. It is noteworthy that Cleopatra used Galatian (Celtic people) as her personal bodyguards.
The Roman Senate officially gave Herod the Great the title King of the Jews having the support of Antony and Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.). (1)-Antigonus (Ananelus)(40-37) is high priest of Jerusalem appointed by Herod the Great, according to the Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
Mark Antony's generals after two years of campaign drove back the Parthian army regaining Antioch, Jerusalem and Phoenicia. The habitual troublemakers (Zealots) in Galilee attacked General Ptolemy and slew him. King Herod destroyed a large number of the insurgents, destroyed all their strongholds and imposed a tax on towns that supported the rebel Jews.
The Jewish historian Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.)
calculates the beginning of King Herods reign as 37 B.C.
The Galileans again rebelled killing King Herodís brother Joseph. King Herod engaged the Galileans destroying their towns and killing the rebels en masse. Two Rabbis Pollio and Sameas and their Pharisee supporters advised the people of Jerusalem to open the gates to Herod the Great (40-4 B.C.). Herod King of Judea (40-4 B.C.) by appointment of the Roman Senate rewarded the Pharisee and executed other groups such as the Sadducee. Herod King of the Jews rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem but is hated by the Sadducees, Pharisees and Zealot sects. The Judah-Essene Sect of Qumran (Palestine) during the reign of King Herod (40-4 B.C.) appear to have gone into hiding. Some suggest they moved to Damascus (Syria). It is noteworthy that Herod King of the Jews is paranoid about any threat to his throne and the Essene is noted for their belief of an imminent Messianic Age. This is likely an erroneous story created by the Pharisee as King Herod held the Essene Sect in high regard even building and Essene gate to the Jerusalem temple through the old wall.
(2)-Aristobulus is appointed high priest of Jerusalem.
The worlds largest artificial mound is built as a memorial to the Seleucid King Antiochus I (69-34 B.C.) south east of Malatya, Turkey.
Emperor Chengdi ruled Western China (49-7 B.C.)
Caesar Octavian (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) turned Rome against the Egyptians. He claimed the Egyptians are conducting barbaric practices and that Cleopatra used sorcery and seduced Mark Anthony. Antony it is said became a slave to his passion.
An earthquake struck the middle east (Actium) killing countless cattle and 30,000 people. The Arabs assumed the destruction is more wide spread and used this opportunity to invade Judaea. King Herod killed 12,000 and captured 4,000 Arabs.
Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) struggled for Roman power with Antony who allied with Cleopatra of Egypt. The forces of Antony and Cleopatra are crushed. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt and committed suicide to avoid capture. The reign of Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) is viewed by some to be the Golden Age of Rome. They consider it a peaceful reign with political calm, much justice and literary excellence. Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) had annexed Egypt before he became First Citizen in 27 B.C. Caesar Octavian named himself the Son of God. It is noteworthy that Italy at this time is built on the labor of some two million slaves. Poor Romans sometimes subjected themselves into slavery to avoid starving to death. Abandoned babies and children were also added to the ranks as slaves.
The Esseine Sect's community of Qumran is being rebuilt after a disastrous earthquake. An earthquake occurred at the Qumran caves by the Dead Sea when Herod ruled in Jerusalem. This was the site where fragments of scrolls from the books of Psalms and Numbers were later found, as well as a human skeleton beneath boulders from the earthquake.
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