EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
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Ten thousand Romans invade England and eighty thousand Pict-Celts (Britons) are massacred.
Paul (Saul) (10-67), the leader of the Paulist Cult is responsible for establishing a harsh condemnation of women in the western world that would perpetuate until the twenty first century. Based on the Second version of the creation of mankind Saul (10-67), the heretic classified women as the reflection of man's glory. He said that women came from man and that woman is created for the sake of man. Based on this misunderstanding he proclaimed Roman Church Law that stated: Women are to remain quiet at meetings since they have no permission to speak. They must be subject to their husbands and fathers. They must keep in the background as the Law (Judah) says. Woman caused the fall of man from God's grace and therefore changed what was known as good is now known as evil. This distorted Paulist logic established the destructive doctrine of hereditary guilt. This Brotherhood or Christian tradition divided the early church into two camps. The Brotherhood led by James the younger (d-62) preached to remain faithful to the Judah Law. The Paulists led by Stephan wanted to break away from temple tradition. As a compromise the Roman Hellenistic Churches forced the Principle of Salvation through Faith in Christ thereby dispensing non-Judaic Christians from obeying the Law of Moses. This it is claimed had been established at the Council of Jerusalem in 49 A.D. but this alleged ruling would continued to haunt the Church for many centuries.
These early Messianic sects of Jerusalem are socialists and later Roman Christian Church descendents would condemn these practices as being pagan and heathenish. The early Jerusalem Community James Sect's practice can be compared to the North American Indian Potlatch. They shared their food gladly and generously. They owned everything in common. No members are in want. They met by common consent. The Church of Rome became Romanized and would call these traditions a squandering of ones belongings and ban the practice. Those who later followed these early Essene and Christian principles would be persecuted by the Roman Church.
The High Priest for only a few months Ananus the younger a Sadducees, a very cruel man, instigated the death of James the righteous. Jeshua son of Dammaeus replaced Ananus.
James the most righteous of men and oblias, the brother of Jesus, the righteousness in the year of the death of Festus in Judaea is murdered. James had been elected by the apostles to the Episcopal Throne of Jerusalem. The Jews, Scribes and Parisees conspired against James. James (d-62) the Just, Brother of Jesus, the Righteous and a Nazarite is claimed to be holy from birth, he drank no wine or intoxicating liquor and ate no animal food; no razor came near his head, he did not smear himself with oil and took no bath. He alone was permitted to enter the Holy Place, for his garments were not of wool but of linen. James is thrown from the parapet of the Jerusalem Temple and clubbed to death.
A simple Aramaic Ossuary burial box is uncovered 2002. These burial boxes were used from 20 B.C. to 70 A.D. The inscription on the box reads "Ya'akov (James), son of Yosef (Joseph), brother of Yeshua (Jesus)". Some believe "brother of Jesus" was added later. James the brother of Jesus was stoned to death 62 or 63 A.D. A mass spectrometer examination suggests the inscription was added later making the inscription a fake but the box is authentic. In 2006, Professor Wolfgang E. Krumbein, of Oldenburg University, Germany, the world’s foremost expert on stone accumulated patina, declared the inscription to be authentic. He explained that the “isotope reading” that led the IAA to declare the inscription a forgery, was most probably due to the fact that the letters had been cleaned—rather than forged—by an overzealous antiquities dealer (and possibly Oded Golan’s mother). In any event, there is no issue concerning the authenticity of the ossuary, or the first part of the inscription i.e., “James, son of Joseph”. The controversial words are “brother of Jesus.”
Caesar sent Albinus to Gudaea as Procurator upon the death of Festus.
Ananus the High Priest of Jerusalem assembled the Sanhedrin of the Judges
(including the prefects Porcius Festus (59-62) and Albinus) to condemn
James the Brother of Jesus the Christ and some others of his companions.
After the untimely death of Porcius Festus (59-62) as Procurator of Judea
and before Albinus arrived James (d-62) the younger (40's-60's), second
Papa of Jerusalem, the brother of the Lord who heads the Judo-Messianic
Church of Jerusalem is stoned to death by the Sadducean High Priest, Anas
or Ananus son of Ananus. James the Righteous was thrown down from
the parapet and beaten to death with a fuller's club. He was accused
of breaking the law. Neither the High Priest nor the Sanhedrin has
the authority to kill so this decision is murder. Only the Procurator
of Judea has this authority. Agrippa took the high priesthood from
Ananus for this crime and gave it to Jesus the son of Damneus. Albinus
the Procurator of Judaea shut his eyes to the seditious activities of Jews
against Jews provided they offer bribes. He released from jail all
those who could afford ransom. Albinus at first acted firmly against
the Zealot Sicarii sect. Albinus cooperated with the high priest,
Ananus, the son Nebedeus so the Sicarii sect attacked Ananus' circle in
order to pressure Albinus to release Sicarii prisoners. Large numbers
of rebels are released into the country. Tyranny reigned everywhere
as numerous gangs terrorized the country. Even the various High Priests
and anti high priest are seen physically fighting in the streets.
The King Agrippa II removed Joseph from the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to this office upon the son of Ananus the Elder high priest (6-15), who is likewise called Ananus. Ananus the High Priest was rash in temper and unusually daring. He followed the school of the Sadducees, who are more heartless than any other Hebrew when they sit in judgment. Ananus killed James the Just without authority and is deposed by King Agrippa after only three months in office and replaced by Jesus the son of Damascus.
Symeon son of Clopas the brother of Joseph therefore the cousin of Jesus is elected the second Papa of the Church of Jerusalem. This is according to Eusebius (260-339). This would make him the second Pope of the Christian Churches if they used such titles in these days.
Simeon son Cleophas and Mary (sister-in-law of the mother of Jesus, third Papa of Jerusalem succeeding James (d-62) the Lesser as head of the Judo-Messianic Church of Jerusalem. The Gospel attributed to Thomas claims the third Papa of Jerusalem is James (d-43) the Just.
Annianus of Alexandria is considered the first Papa (Bishop) of Alexandria. Euodius of Antioch is considered the first Papa (Bishop) of Antioch after James the brother of Jesus.
During the reign of Albinus, Roman Procurator of Judea (62-64), Jesus (d-62), son of Ananias a Sadducee, a peasant spoke against the Temple, is arrested and beaten by Jewish authorities and then released. He had been speaking prophecy for seven years and five months before being stoned to death this year. Annas (Anas) or Ananus II (62) of the House of Annas a Sadducee became the high priest of Jerusalem. Albinus (62-64) relentlessly pursued the Sicarii Jews (Galilian Sect) while heaping praise on the Sanhedrin, the Jewish supreme council and court of justice. Many nonconforming priests are starved to death because their food is withdrawn.
The Romans captured the last remnants of the Babylonian Empire in Northern Syria. The Judo-Messianic sect of Nazareth believed that Satan resided to the Northwest of Nazurith. Rebels killed the High-Priest Ananus (Anas) II (62-63) of Jerusalem hoping to return the Priesthood to the traditional House of Zadokite.
Paul (10-67) alias (Saul the Roman citizen), the self-proclaimed apostle alias a Pharisee, is set free and possibly travels to Spain. Others suggest he is the Paul (Saulus) who played a key role in the events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. Paul the leader of the Roman Church has an obvious inferiority complex that is expressed in his anti-Semitism and defensiveness. It is suggested his attitude is such because he is a convert to Judaism as he aspired to marry the High Priest Daughter but is rejected by most sects of Judaism. Paul basically disappears from history, even his disciples fail to mention his whereabouts.
The Roman-Paulists and Christians are a despised sect and already are a considerable group in Rome. They are spreading a prophecy of an imminent second advent of Christ and a worldwide holocaust. Suetonius writing in 122 AD says that Nero blamed a class of Men, loathed for their vices, who the crowd styled Christians, for burning Rome. The term Christians is not acknowledged in Rome until 111 AD by Pliny and by Tacitus in 115 AD. Tacitus says the Christus. the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberious, be sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for the moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find vogue.
Joseph Ben Matthias (37-100) the historian went to Rome to obtain the release of certain priests who had been sent there by Procurator Felix (52-59) of Judaea. On the way like Paul (10-67) alias Saul, of Tarsus (Turkey) he is ship wrecked. He achieved his goal with the help of Aliturus and the Emperor's wife Poppaea who is God fearing.
The Roman Governor of Syria Florus is determined to fan the flames of
hatred into a blazing war.
The Great Fire of Rome, in six days leveled the city and some blamed Nero (54-68). Nero in turn blamed the fire on the Messianic Judaism sects and so began their persecution. It is noteworthy that Nero (54-68) married Poppaea a Judian. Until this time the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sects, Roman Paulists and the various other Judo-Messianic sects are still considered the same sect by the Romans. This growing Roman scorn is because these Roman-Christians and Paulists are waiting for the last judgment and failed to participate in political and social life of the Empire. The Roman-Christians and Paulists are rumored to hold orgies, killing small children to provide the blood and body they consumed during their services. Those Roman Messianic sects also welcomed inferior beings, women and slaves into their culture and proclaiming all other traditions false. Beliefs became truths and became the basis for judgment of who is or is not civilized. The persecution of Judaism and Messianic sects in the Roman Empire would continue sporadically, often brought on by a calamity, such as an earthquake, flood, or even a loss in battle, for which the Judah Sects are then held responsible. The Edict of Milan in 313 is finally granted giving official sanction to Roman-Christianity within the Empire. Roman Christianity and some other Messianic cultures like the Paulists would begin to merge and the Roman-Christians would become essentially a New Roman Culture basically void of most Judah or Judo-Messianic traditions. Publius Cornelious Tacitus (55-116? A.D.) a Roman historian wrote that the Roman Christian Sects are being severely punished not to protect public welfare but to satisfy the ferocity of Nero (54-68) the Emperor of Rome.
Publius Cornelious Tacitus (55-116? A.D.) a Roman historian writing
about the Great Fire of Rome noted; Christus, the founder of the name had
undergone the death penalty in the region of Tiberious, by sentence of
the Prefect Pontius Pilatus (26-36), and the pernicious superstition was
checked for the moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea,
the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible
or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue.
Simon Peter the Apostle who most likely died 64 or at the latest by 67 AD had urged the Gentiles to abide by Judah dietary Laws. Peter (d-64-67) accepted the correction and changed his ruling establishing the precedent that Church officials are not free from grievous error in matters of faith and morals. Peter is surly aware of the schism developing within the Judo-Christian community. It is also noteworthy that Peter (d-64-67) never claimed to be Papa of Rome.
There is no evidence to support the claim by Irenaeus and Dionysius of Corinth in 170 A.D. that St. Peter visited Rome. Simon Peter (d-64-67) the apostle is crucified on the Mons Vaticanus. Christianity is spreading from Antioch to Syria and Edessa, from Ephesus to Asia Minor and Gaul, from Alexandria to the south and south east of the Roman Empire, from Rome to Italy and Africa and from there to Spain. Constantinople became the center for the spread to the Balkans (Goths and Slavs.). The early Church held fast to the doctrine of the Kingdom of God being different than the Kingdom of Man. Jesus had refused to make sacrifices to the Roman Emperor God person. The Churches would later abandon this fundamental doctrine.
Pliny the Younger writing to Emperor Trajan noted that fraternities
are forbidden in Bithynia in Asia Minor yet he arrested two female Judo-Christian
deaconesses. It should be noted that female priests are fairly common
in the early Jerusalem Judo-Christian Church sects. The Roman Christian
Sect would abandon this practice and most Jewish tradition.
Rebels killed the High-Priest Jesus (63-64) of Jerusalem hoping to return the Priesthood to the House of Zadokite. Gessius Florus (64-66) is appointed Procurator of Judea. He exceeded the evils of Albinus by declaring that anyone might become a bandit as long as he received his share of the spoils. Many Jews fled the region to foreign provinces. The Galilean Sect (Zealots) began to go wild and revolt against Rome during Florus reign. Josephus the historian suggests that Gessius Florus (64-66) the Procurator started the rebellion in Jerusalem. He ordered his soldiers to sack the upper market. About 3,000 men, women and children are killed. He ordered senior Jews with Roman status to be whipped and then nailed to the cross.
Matthias (65) son high priest Theophilus (37) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem of the Sadducees Sect.
Paul (10-67) alias Saul, a Pharisee, a Roman Citizen and a self-proclaimed apostle is believed to have written 1 Timothy and Titus while not captive in Rome. Paul believing his life is near its end established Timothy as his successor. He warns of hypocrites who say marriage is forbidden among the clergy. This will later cause a schism between the Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches.
A widespread conspiracy against Nero (54-68) is discovered and many senators are executed or forced to commit suicide this year. The revolts, conspiracies and executions would continue to Nero's suicide in 68.
The Judah Zealot Sect revolt against Rome rule (66-73) is triggered by the spread of the Messiah prophecy stories circulating throughout the Empire according to eye-witness Flavious Josephus (37 -100). The Judah prophecy said that a world ruler would come out of Palestine from the House of David. These stories are likely intensified to differentiate the Judah Sects who believed the Messiah had not yet come from the various Judo-Messianic Sects who believed Joshua is the Messiah. Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian and son of Matthias is appointed General of 100,000 men to defend Galilee against the Romans. John of Gischala with a band of 400 men tried to depose General Josephus. The Gischala army grew to 3,000 as the army of Josephus began to desert and they nearly succeed in overthrowing the Josephus army. These followers of John likely became known as the Zealot sect. This First Jewish War is well documented by the historian Josephus.
The Galileans attacked Sepphoris and Tiberias venting their hatred on the cities, setting fire to the houses and looted everything. Tiberias is friendly to King Agrippi II.
Cestius Gallus led the Roman Twelfth Legion against Jerusalem but is routed and retreated causing a great disgrace to the Romans. The Roman General Titus Flavius Vespasianus born 9 A.D. began to march on Galilee. During his campaign against the Jews he is recorded by the Roman historian Tacitus (?70-100) to have cured the lame and a blind man by putting some of his spittle upon the balls of his eyes. He ended his days as a moneylender among the Helvetii, ancient Swiss.
The Hebrew people did not unite against the Roman threat but rather began to attack fellow Hebrews who followed differing beliefs. The Masada Zealot Sect considered the most violent of the Zealots attempted to take Jerusalem but failed and fled to Masada. The captured Masada from the Romans and slew them.
John the Essene commanding northwestern Judaea in the revolt against Rome, died in an assault on the coastal city of Ascalon.
Judaism has a strong position in the Roman Empire. About ten percent of the Empire is Jewish. Alexanderia as an example is forty percent Jewish. The Judah Sects of the Essenes and Qumran believed that Jerusalem had become venal and corrupt. The Dead Sea Scrolls from cave #3 listed the Temple treasure suggest the Messianic Essenes may have been attempting to sequester the Temple treasures for hiding because of the coming Roman armies. The Ark of the Covenant is not on the list. This listing suggests the Messianic Essene is a mainstream Judah activist group, and likely militant. No evidence suggests the Essenes are militant. The Judo-Pharisees also rejected the temple in favor of self-governing communities such as Jabneh. The Dead Sea Scrolls speak of one God-like the Judeo-Joshua Messiah. Flavious Josephus (37 -100), the Roman historian of this period writing about the Judah Wars said the chief inducement to go to war is an oracle found in their sacred writings, announcing that at that time a man from their country would become King of the whole world. These Messianic Essene are without women renouncing all sexual desires. They have no money yet day by day the throngs of refugees are recruited to adopt their manners. Many would suggest these are the earliest Judo-Christians.
The Judah Zealots, a strict religious sect, captured the Roman stronghold of Masada by the Dead Sea. King Herod the Great originally built Masada about 40 B.C. The Zealots used this as their base to attack the Romans. Others suggest they didn't attack the Romans from this stronghold. Most Judah Sects at this time considered these zealots as extremist rebels.
The tenth Roman Legion marched on the Judah Zealot stronghold of Masada by the Dead Sea. Eleazar the leader of the Judah Zealots ordered on April 15, 67-73 AD the suicide of all the defenders of Masada Zealots so as not to fall into the hands of the besieging Romans. Two women and five children hid surviving the killings to tell their story. It is recorded that about 960 killed themselves but archeological digging only turned up 29 bodies suggesting they either escaped or are taken prisoner. Many Judah citizens at this time would emigrate to Italy and Germany to avoid persecution.
Linus (about 66-78) a soldier and companion of Paul (10-67), the self-proclaimed apostle and heretic, is listed as the first Papa of Rome (bishop) being given this position by Paul (10-67). This is according to Pothinus who claims Eusebius (260-340) as his authority. Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) claim St. Peter (d-64-67) appoints the Paulist Clement (64-95) as the first Papa of Rome. This claim is likely because Linus (66-78) and Anacletus (79-91) are Paulists and are not endorsed by Peter or his church. Simon Peter and Paul differed concerning theology so it is unlikely he would endorse a follower of the Paulist Church. Saint Peter most likely died before Linus is made Papa if he ever was. Most early Papa's of Rome are highly suspect and likely retro invented much later. Irenacus of Lyons about 180 and Hegesippus about 160 are alleged by Eusebius (260-340) to have listed Linus as the first papa of Rome. It is noteworthy that Paul (10-67) never recognized or followed the Judo-Christian Church headed by James the Just, brother of Christ or St. Peter and it is highly unlikely Peter would endorse any follower of the heretic Paulist Church. The first listing of Roman Papa's lists them as Paul, Linus, Anencletus then Clement as the first Papa's of the Roman church. The Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians is attributed to the Paulist Clement (64-95). Clemens Alexandrinus call him an apostle. Jerome says he was an apostolic man, and Rufinus that he was almost an apostle. Eusebinus calls this the wonderful Epistle of St. Clement, and says that it was publicly read in the assemblies of the early church. It is included in early Canon Scriptures but later rejected by the Catholic Church. Clement (64-95) places St. Peter and Paul as Apostles of the Catholic Church but suggests schism between the two churches. It is noteworthy that there is no indication that early Christian communities in Rome were presided over by a bishop. Bishops as an authority hierarchy did not appear until another one hundred years and then first in the Eastern Churches. The Roman Paulist Church didn't have Bishops until Hippolytus (217-235).
Eleazar, son Ananias the high priest, holding the position of captain persuaded the officials of the Temple to accept no gift or sacrifice from foreigners. This effective blocked any sacrifices offered for Rome and the Emperor. The Pharisees and leading citizens of Jerusalem feared they face an irreparable disaster as a result of this position. All experts agreed that their ancestors had accepted offerings from aliens. The Temple leaders and Zealots would not change the new religious law. The Pharisees sent Saul, Antipas and Costobar all members of the royal family to beg the Romans to come to Jerusalem before the revolution gets out of hand. Florus is delighted that a pending war is kindling and ordered more troops into the city. Seven days of mutual slaughter resulted. The Sicarii infiltrated the Upper City. The house of Ananias the High Priest and the palaces of Agrippa and Bernice are burnt. The public archives are also burnt so that the moneylenders are prevented the recovery of debts. The High Priest Ananias along with his brother Eezekiah are killed. Menahem, and Absalom also died this day.
The Judah in revolt executed the Judo-Sadducees as pro-Roman collaborators and drove the Romans from Jerusalem. The Messianic Essene knowing that Roman legions would retaliate with vengeance, hid their script collection to become known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Jewish Zealots attacked the town of Scythopolis (Bethshean) an ancient Canaanite town where the resident Jews sided with the town folks. A well known man Simon, son of Saul a Jew went out day by day and killed many Jews who were attacking the city. The city folks eventually turned on their own Jewish citizens and put them to the sword. As a result other cities attacked their resident Jews.
The Dagger Men, a terrorists group, murdered Roman officials and high-ranking Jews they considered enemies of the fight to liberate the Jewish People from Rome's control.
Paul (10-67) the Pharisee-Christian alias Saul the Roman citizen,
a self-proclaimed apostle, writes 2 Timothy and the Letters to the Hebrew
just before his death. Paul (10-67) alias Saul the Roman, and self-proclaimed
apostle, traveled from Jerusalem to Rome where it is believed he died this
year. His ship is wrecked on the way at Melita (Malta) south of Sicily.
The Roman Saul's journeys spanned the years 46-62 (67?). It is noteworthy
that there is no direct evidence that he is executed in Rome in A.D. 67.
Irenaeus and Dionysius of Corinth established this tradition in A.D. 170.
Some suggest he is Saulus alias Paul who played a key role in the events
leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. If this is true it explains
why the Paulist Church writings are strangely silent about his death or
whereabouts after this time.
Paul (10-67) the Roman-Paulist is alleged killed in Rome under orders of Nero (54-68) the Roman Emperor. Others say Paul (10-67) is beheaded on the road to Ostia. Others suggest he escaped to Spain. At this time it is alleged Linus (about 67-76) is appointed by Paul (10-67) as the first Papa of Rome and headed the Roman Greek Paulist Christian Church not Peter as is commonly assumed. Simon Peter (d-64-67) is never once recorded as Papa of Rome and likely only spent 3-4 years in Rome. Most evidence suggests that James the Just is Papa of the Christian Churches. The writings attributed to Saul (10-67) comprise nearly 1/3 of the New Testament and are not edited and compiled until nearly five hundred years after his death. Some think Paul is likely killed as being a member of the Roman conspiracy and revolution of 64-68. It is noteworthy that Emperor Nero (54-68) toured Greece executing more conspirators. It is noteworthy that Flavious Josephus (37 -100) the Jewish historian makes no reference to Paul alias Saul but does speak of Saulus.
Flavious Josephus (37 -100) the Jewish historian is in charge of the Jewish revolt in Galilee holding out at Jotapata for six weeks and eventually surrendered to the attacking Roman General Vespasian this year. He predicted that one day Vespasian Flavious would become the Emperor. He is jailed but released in 69 having accurately foretold that his captor would become Emperor. He remained in Rome (69-96) where he wrote his histories. He believed God had abandoned the Jews and he now sides with the Romans.
The historian Appian says that Gaul is populated by 400 Celt nations. Josephus the historian says 305 nations comprise Gaul. They had all the means of production in their own lands and flooded almost the whole world with their merchandise. There are over 800 towns in Gaul.
The Roman Governor of Spain proclaimed that the Emperor of Rome is unworthy and began to march on Rome.