EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1 AD - 499
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The Black Plague strikes the Roman Empire and deaths in Rome numbered five hundred per day and before it ended in 265, much of the empire is depopulated. There is some evidence to support the contention that the Mongolian peoples brought the Black Plague with their western intrusion. The Romans under Emperor Decius (249-251) however blamed the Jews and Christians beginning another session of persecutions. Fabian Papa of Rome (236-250) is one of the first to be executed. Few people are executed but many left the faith. The Lapps and Finns are displaced from Denmark by Germanic tribes.
Cyprian of Carthage (250-258) is Papa of Africa. He wrote that the Papa of Rome is no more than a Papa among other Papas. At this time there is no papa in Rome as most candidates are in jail including Moses the most likely next papa of Rome. Novatian papa of Rome (251-258) acted as spokesman during this period and Moses died in jail.
Sibylline Oracles (181-267) said that Mary mother of Jesus, the Virgin is called co-redeemer; it states that after death, souls reside with her for seven days, to repent before being presented to Christ for judgment.
Mongoloid people from Korea continued to enter Japan (150-710) and mixed with
the older Jomon populations.
The Goths invaded the Balkans and overthrew Decius. Cornelious (251-253) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome. A schism developed over how to treat Christian prisoners who had renounced their faith and now wanted to be reinstated. Cornelious favored their readmission after suitable penance whereas Novatian wanted their complete exclusion. Novatian (251-258) an anti-Papa of Rome held the title Founder of Roman Theology, had expected to be elected as he was the official spokesperson during the fourteen months when no Papa of Rome ruled. He believed that serious sin after baptism could not be forgiven. Papa Cyprian of Carthage and papa Dionysius of Alexandria supported Cornelious. As a result of the support Cornelious Papa of Rome excommunicated Papa Novation at a synod of sixty Papas’. A rigorist group of Romans both clergy and laity refused to accept Cornelious over-lenient position. Roman Emperor Trebonoanus Gallus (251-253) banished Cornelious Papa of Rome to Centumcellae near Rome in 252.
King Feidi of China ruled the kingdom of Wu (252-258)
The Alemanni and Franks had penetrated as far as Spain and are believed to have originally come from Sweden. The Franks are a group of people who do not wish to be enslaved by Rome and therefore formed a confederation. The Franks are a group of various Scandivian warriors, distinguished by their long hair, blue eyes and largeness of limb. The Frank confederation is slave traders, sellers of swords, mercenary raiders and farmers. They established their leaders by elections, by the assembly of free men.
Lucious I (253-254) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome. Roman Emperor Gallus (251-253) immediately banished Lucious I from the capital. He made no concessions to the anti-Papa of Rome Novatian. Valerian (253-260) became Caesar of the Roman Empire. Gallienus (253-268) became co-ruler of the Roman Empire.
King Gao Gui Xiang Gong of China ruled the Kingdom of Wei (254-260)
Stephen I (254-257) an ardent Roman is elected Papa of Rome
and clashed with the influential Cyprain, Papa Cyprian (200-258) of Carthage.
Papa Cyprian, the Churches of Syria, Asia Minor and the Churches of North
Africa believed baptism administered by heretics is invalid and therefore
need to be re-baptized by a non-heretic baptism. The Church of Rome,
Alexandria and Palestine are adamant that heretical baptism is valid.
Papa's held two synods in 255 and 256 that reaffirmed his position.
Stephen Papa of Rome determined to impose Roman theology on the churches
held his own synod and excommunicated the Churches of Asia Minor.
Many Papas's put the blame on Stephen for splitting the church due to his
uncompromising position. Cyprian (d-258) claimed that Papa's of Rome
are no more Papa among other Papa's. Stephen I (254-257) attempted
to establish his authority by adopting the phrase 'the Chair of Peter’
means the Papa of Rome has authority over the other churches. This
move failed to impress anyone and the issue is laid to rest until Damasus
(366-384) and Leo I (440-461) again raised the issue. The Federation
of Christian Churches held to
they’re own customs and usage, loosely ruled by synods with no special authority vested in any one Church.
The Roman Rhine frontier shattered and the Gaul are overrun by the Franks and Alemanni confederation. The Franks and Alemanni penetrated toward Spain and Italy. The Celts struck toward the Balkins into Anatolia. Licinius Valerianus (253-259) who became Roman Emperor is the general who fought unsuccessfully against the Franks this season.
St Sixtus alias Xystus (257-258) a Greek is elected Papa of Rome. Roman Emperor Valerian (253-260) ordered Christians to take part in Roman ceremonies and forbid them to assemble. The Emperor issued a second edict ordering the execution of Christian Papa's, priests and deacons. The Papa of Rome and six deacons are executed August 6, 258 in the cemetery of Praetextatus. The Emperor effectively eliminated the whole Diaconal College of Rome driving the Roman Church underground. It would be many months before the Roman Church is rebuilt.
King Jingdi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wu (258-264)
Thascius Caecilianus Cyprinus (Cyprian) (c205-258). He converted to Christianity in 246 and was Bishop of Carthage (248-258). He was forced into hiding because of a succession of persecutions by Roman Emperors. He believed no one can have God as Father who does not have the Church as Mother. He also wrote there is no salvation outside the church. He was first exiled then condemned to death and beheaded.
Roman Emperor Valerian (253-260) ordered anyone who would not renounce Christianity to be put to death.
King Yuandi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wei (260-264) thus ending the Wei Kingdom (220-265)
St. Dionysius (260-268) a Greek became Papa of Rome and reorganized the church. Roman Emperor Fallienus (260-268) restored the church property and positions.
King Modi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wu (264-280)
Paul of Samosata, Papas of Antioch (260-272) is condemned at the Synod of Antioch this year. He retained his position with the support of Queen Zendbia of Palmyra.
The Western Jin Dynasty begins (265-317)
Emperor Wudi of China ruled (265-289)
Claudius II (268-270) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.
St. Felix I (269-274) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome.
Aurelian (270-275) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He would kill thousands of Christians during his reign.
The Roman Empire attempted to impose the Sun God as a single God concept in an attempt to unify the splintered Roman religions. December is chosen to celebrate the one true Sun God. The Roman Christians would later select December 25 to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ the Sun of God likely to align with this Roman initiative.
St. Eutychian (275-283) a native of Tuscany is elected Papa of Rome. Some suggest he decreed that only beans and grapes could be blessed at mass.
Probus (276-282) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.
St. Gaius alias Caius (283-296) a Dalmatin possible relative of Emperor Diocletian (284-305) resulting in a peaceful reign. Carinus and Numerian held co-rule of the Roman Empire.
Diocletian (284-305) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He would kill thousands of Christians during his reign including Marcellinus (296-304) Papa of Rome. Tetrarchy is the co-ruler of the Roman Empire.
The first recorded Viking raids are on the Lower Rhine. The Viking era is traditionally considered as 789 – 1100 A.D.
Emperor Huidi of China ruled (290-306)
Zhang Hua (232-300) of China recorded the phenomena of spontaneous combustion and its cause. Up to this time arson was suspected.
Marcellinus (296-304) is elected Papa of Rome. Athanasius (296-373) is elected Papa of Alexandria.
The first mention of Picts by the Romans is made this year. These northern Peoples of Britain were called Picti (Pict). The Scots called them Cruithni, the mother of Gaelic, Irish and Manx. The Picts were part of the Celtic culture that flourished from the sixth to ninth century. Some believe the Pictish stone elaborate decorations are really a form of writing. Only about 250 Pictish stones are known. Skeptics disagree with this interpretation.
The Scandian-Frank confederation settled on the edge of the great forests of Northern Europe near the Rhine river. To the south are the Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) or Burgundian peoples. The Celts and Picts from Scotia (Ireland) and Scotland are making regular trips to Iceland. Germanic-Saxon savages are plundering the Roman British shores. They are considered fierce and cruel and women and children are included in their plunder.
Roman Christianity began to dominate as it offered more to the average person as a result of its absorption policy concerning other religious traditions. The Christian faith and dogma suppressed the useful image of the world so painfully drawn by ancient geographers.
During the life time of Eusebius (Eusebiau) (260-339) the Christian Churches are divided concerning which books are canonical, not canonical and out right fraud. The gospel according to John who died about 98 is considered the first of the Gospels and the greatest of the four. Disputed books include Revelations of John, James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Shephard by Paul, Revelations by Peter, Epistle by Barnabas, Teachings of the Apostles, Gospel of Hebrews, Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John and other Apostles. The second Epistle of Peter is still being used in many Churches. The Epistle to the Romans is also rejected. The Shephard by Hermas is also not canonical but some consider it indispensable. Eusebius believed all the tribes of Israel are hostile to the tribe of Judah and The Christ, Essenes, Galilaeans, Hemerobaptists, Masbotheans, Samaritans, Sadducces and Pharisees. This is according to Hegesippus (160) and Irenaeus of Lyons (180).
Pict's and Celts are visiting Iceland on a regular basis believed to be engaged in fishing.
Armenia is the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion.
Roman Emperor Diocletian (284-305) ordered the destruction of churches, the surrender of sacred books and the offering of sacrifice by those attending courts of law. It is believed that Marcellinus Papa of Rome and future Marcellus I Papa of Rome (306-308), Miltiades Papa of Rome (311-314) and Silvester (314-335) complied with the order and offered incense to the Roman Gods. In retaliation Marcellinus Papa of Rome is removed from the official list of Papa of Rome. Surrender of sacred books disqualified anyone from the priesthood, a form of self-excommunication. It is note worthy that the Papa of Rome is rich and would eventually become the wealthiest of all the Churches.
The death of Marcellinous Papa of Rome (296-304) saw the Papacy vacant until 308 due to internal bickering.
Constantine (274/280-337) and Tetrarchy co-rule (306-313) the Roman Empire.
Emperor Huaidi of China ruled (307-312)
St. Marcellus (308-309) is elected Papa of Rome even though he is excommunicated for surrendering sacred books. He likely survived by passing the blame to Marcellinous Papa of Rome and having him removed from the official Papal list. His harsh hard-line judgments aroused majority church opinion against him. Emperor Maxentius (306-312) to prevent more public disorder and bloodshed banished the Marcellus Papa of Rome from Rome. Some historians suggest he is not a Papa of Rome but some quasi-papal functionary.
St. Eusebius (310-310) others suggest 308 or 309 a Greek is elected Papa of Rome. Bloody rioting continued and Emperor Maxentius (306-312) had no alternative but to deport the Papa of Rome to Sicily. Heraclius a sort of anti-Papa of Rome is also deported.
St Miltiades alias Melchiades (311-314) an African or Roman is elected Papa of Rome even though he is also excommunicated for surrendering sacred books under the reign of Marcellinous Papa of Rome. Emperor Maxentius (306-312) likely approved because he immediately restored all church properties including land and buildings confiscated in 303. During this reign many other Papa's are accused of being Christian traitors by having surrendering sacred books. Miltiades Papa of Rome appears to have escaped the wrath of such allegations. Synods excommunicated some and absolved others but the Roman Emperor Maxentius did not consider the Papa of Rome verdict final.
The Celtic Seminary for Druids at Bordeaux, France is still functioning in the fourth century and is believed started by the Celts from Armdrica.
Some believed Rome would change their position on slavery after becoming Christian but it was not to be. Under Emperor Constantine slave masters were absolved from responsibility for any death that may result from use of chains, whippings and beatings. Masters were discouraged from using torture because that was reserved for judicial uses.
October 27: Constantine (312-337) (born a bastard in 274 died 337) entered Rome in triumph as the new Emperor. Sylvester I (314-335) the Papa of Rome had no conflict in a warrior coming to faith by slaughtering his enemies. So began the fatal alliance between Caesar and Papa of Rome. Throne and Altar became part of orthodoxy and the Roman Church. Emperor Constantine (312-337) retained his title Pontifex Maximus, head of the pagan state cult. Constantine establishes religious freedom for everyone without distinction thereby allowing the Christian Church and the Jewish Church to come out of the catacombs in Rome. The tragedy is this fundamental Christian principle is never accepted by the Roman Catholic Church until the late 20 century. It is noteworthy that Constantine is a pagan throughout his life and is alleged baptized by a heretical Arian Papas named Eusebius just before his death. Emperor Constantine the pagan established the idea of a council of all Christian communities as the only way to formulate the faith incontestably and forever. He saw the church as an instrument of political and cultural cohesion, a pillar of the Imperial structure he is building. He would call the first Ecumenical Council in 325. The Emperor Constantine ordered that the Roman Paul's letters and other manuscripts be placed into one book. The Emperor's actions represent the Roman obsession with order rather than any religious conviction. It is noteworthy that future Kings of Europe would also view the Church as one of their tools of Empire building. It is noteworthy that some considered him the thirtieth Apostle.
Emperor Mindi of China ruled (313-316) to end the Western Jin Dynasty (265-317)
Constantine and Licinius co-rule (313-324) the Roman Empire.
Cyril (313-386) created the Creed of Jerusalem (Apostles Creed).
The Edict of Milan by Lucinus in 313 finally granted official sanction to Christianity within the Roman Empire, putting and end to the persecution. This milestone marks the beginning of the Roman Church that would be built upon many of the historic Roman Empire beliefs and values including many that are in direct conflict with the Jesus teachings. The violent killing games of the Roman Christian Colosseum continued with a vengeance. More capital crimes are added to ensure a continuous supply of human victims. These early Roman Christians would support this barbaric practice for the next three hundred years. No less than 28 Papa of Rome would condone this practice with some maintaining their own gladiators. Traditional Roman Human executions included crucifixion, burning and exposure to wild beasts. The Roman Christians dropped crucifixion as unbecoming slaves and criminals. This is considered the final conversion of Christianity to the Roman Tradition. Emperor Constantine would solidify this conversion. Emperor Constantine (306-337) informed the Papa of Rome Miltiades alias Melchiades (311-314) that the Church is entrusted to the Emperor by divine providence and he intended to leave schism or division in any place. It is made very clear that the Papa's of the church will be forced into one doctrine.
St. Silvester (314-335) a Roman is elected Papa of Rome even though he is also excommunicated for surrendering sacred books under the reign of Marcellinous Papa of Rome. Most evidence suggests he is a puppet Papa of Rome under complete domination of the heathen Roman Emperor. Roman Emperor Constantine (306-337) called the first Ecumenical Council of Arles in August to resolve Church problems, naming Chrestus Papas of Syracuse as chairman excluding Silvester Papa of Rome. Silvester Papa of Rome is ordered to endorse and circulate the results of the First Council. The Papa of Rome is also excluded from the second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (Turkey) in the summer of 325. Some suggest he is invited but declined and that he had called the Council but this is an unproved legend.
The Council of Aries (314) passed an edict condemning the veneration of trees, fountains and stones under threat of excommunication. The edict would be repeated until 658. This appears to be directed against the Celtic Church. In the end the Roman Church aligned with the Celtic belief by proclaiming the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Pines, Our Lady of the Water and Our Lady of the Mounds, most Druidic of all.
Eusebius Pamphilus catalogue of the books of the New Testament suggests that the Epistles of James and Jude, the 2nd of Peter, the 2nd and 3rd of John are generally accepted yet there is still doubt as to their authenticity. Some still reject Revelations but some accept it. Eusebius himself accepts all of them. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria accepts all the present books.
Hilary (315-367) is elected Papa of Poitiers.
The Eastern Jin Dynasty is (317-420)
Constantine is the sole ruler (324-337) of the Roman Empire.
Emperor Constantine (312-337) called the second World Council of Christians May 20, 325, attended by the 300 Papa's of the entire christianized world is held at Nicaea (Nicene), near Constantinople. Sylvester Papa of Rome did not attend. It is held under the presidency of the Emperor Constantine I (331-337) who at this time is not Christian. It is claimed he is baptized on his deathbed in 337. Constantine the pagan is horrified that after being freed from persecution there is bloody fighting between various Christian factions. Arianism as an example claimed that Jesus is subordinated to God the Father. A priest named Arius from the Egyptian church proposed that Jesus is adopted by God. Athanasius bishop of Alexandria championed the view that Jesus is fully human and fully divine. The majority of Papa's favored the Arian position but Constantine the pagan for no apparent reason other than to show his authority proposed the doctrine that the Son of God is of one substance with the Father. The vote by the slimmest of margins supported bishop Athanasius position. All dissident Papa's caved in except two who are promptly deposed and sent packing. He later wrote to Axexandria the Arian foothold saying "what has pleased three hundred Papa's is nothing other than the will of God." The Arian heresy as it is later called continued for generations (more than 60 years) as did the immersion of the state in church affairs. The result wrote Burckhardt is a "Church rapidly disintegrating in victory." This position would not become official dogma until the Council of Chalcedon 450 A.D. Some historians believe the decision to remove all references to re-incarnation in scriptures is made about this time.
Another major issue is when to celebrate Easter with a lunar calendar that ensures it falls on a Sunday. The Bishop of Alexandria is assigned the task to resolve the issue. He failed to find a compromise. The bitter quarrel that resulted split the Roman Church from the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
The major issue however is the question of who is Papa of Rome. The Papa of Rome and Papa of Alexandria both claimed the title. It is agreed that the puppet Sylvester I, Papa of Rome, the ancient Capital of the Empire and the fact that St. Peter, the Chief Apostle is martyred in Rome made him the logical choice. In reality at this time the Four major Patriarchs (Papa's) Papa of Rome, Papa of Constantinople, Papa of Alexandria and Papa of Antioch at best are considered the first among equals. Later Roman Papa's would claim St. Peter as the first Papa of the Roman Church but this is historically incorrect. St. Peter is never listed as a Papa of Rome. Linus (66-78) is the first Papa of Rome most likely appointed by the Roman Saul. St. Peter is more of a spiritual advisor focusing on the Jewish element of the Church. St. Paul is more of a theologian focusing on the Roman (Gentile) element of the Church. They were following Christ’s command to focus on the message not worldly things like running Caesars domain.
Emperor Constantine (312-337) is determined to end 1,300 years of religious squabbling by demanded the completion of one Bible and ordered 50 copies be completed. At this time each Christian Church had its own sacred books with significant differences leading to differing beliefs and values. If Rome is to use the Church to dominate the world it must have one common law.
Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor are seized by a fierce theological belief that God the Father is inaccessible, unique and greater than the Son of God. This is understandable give their strong Jewish traditions.
Jerusalem under Byzantine rule.
The first council of Nicaea (Nice) called to adjudicate the case of Caecilian of Carthage. Athanasius (296-373) is banished from Alexandria to Trier, Marcellus of Ancyra (d-374) and other leaders of the Christian Nicene orthodoxy are deposed. Arius is commanded by the bishop of Alexandria to quit his beliefs or be declared a heretic, and his writings are ordered destroyed. It is important to remember that throughout the writings and compiling of the Gospels and Epistles those not consistent with the ruling authority are rejected and destroyed.
Emperor Constantine I (274-337) son concubine Helena murdered his son by his first wife Crispus, drowned his second wife, killed his 11 year old nephew and his brother in law breaking his oath. Some consider Constantine a Great Christian?
The infamous forgery of the Roman Catholic Church dated to 326 called the 'Donation of Constantine' among many other dogmas including the confirmation of the bishop of Rome over all the Christians. It is composed over the period of 754 to 796 but many suggest it is finalized in 774. The Roman Catholic Church would cling tenaciously to this deception until the twentieth century.
Queen Helena (mother of Byzantine Emperor Constantine) visits Jerusalem and begins building major churches-- including Holy Sepulchre.
Helena the mother of Emperor Constantine I (274-337) went
to Jerusalem claimed to have found the Mount of Calvery, the Holy Sepulcher
and pieces of the True Cross. Her son built the first Church of the
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA HISTORY INDEX 1 AD - 499 AD