EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 5000 BC - 4001 BC
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Some believe a fourth and final major migration into Europe occurred about this time.
The Basque culture settled into Britain and appeared to have mingled with the Beaker Culture by 5,000 B.C.
Sheep is domesticated at Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq at this time. The Shanidar Cave people are eating goat, sheep, pig and deer. The also eat fish, mussels and turtles. At Zawi Chemi, Iraq eight adults are buried each accompanied by a child suggesting some awful ritual. The skulls suggest a proto-Mediterranean type of people. They all suffered from tooth decay. Syria, Iran and Palestine are all occupied during this period. The Natufian culture of the Palestine region suggests agriculture and fishing dominates. Wheat and barley is being processed and consumed.
Dead Sea, Jordan grain storage structures were exvicated that predates domestication of wild grains.
Forty Archaic (Homo Erectus) skeletons at Kow Swamp (Lake Mungo), Australia indicates a different migration than the earlier Homo Sapiens of 32,000 B.C.
The Mekong River migration is believed to occurred this time period. The Mekong River originates in Tibet, flows through the Yunnan Province of China, Myanmar, Thiland, Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam. The Proto Mayays were seafarers, sailed boats (canoe or perahu) along the Mekong River from Yunnan to the South China Sea and eventually settled down in various places.
In 2007 French archaeologists discovered an 11,000-year-old wall painting underground in northern Syria which they believe is the oldest in the world. The 2 square-meter painting, in red, black and white, was found at the Neolithic settlement of Djade al-Mughara on the Euphrates, northeast of the city of Aleppo
At Muretbet, Iraq evidence suggests people until 7,300 B.C. continuously occupy this site. During this period they evolved from semi-nomads' hunters and fishers to farmers' villagers. The Syria, Palestine and Iraq people are hunting and fishing using Natufian type stone tools. This cultural tool kit lasted to about 5,000 B.C.
Spain is occupied by the Iberian Capsin culture and France by the early Tardendsain (Tardenoisian) culture. This culture is closely related to cultures in Africa who migrated north through Spain.
8,500 to 7,000 B.C: Monsoon rains begin sweeping into the Sahara, transforming the region into a habitable area swiftly settled by Nile Valley dwellers. This sudden burst of monsoon rains over the vast Sarah Prairie transformed the region into habitable land. Climate change turned a non productive land, most of the [3.8 million square mile] large Sahara into a savannah-type environment happened within a few hundred years only, certainly within less than 500 years. Plants, lakes animals and man flourished.In the more southern Sudanese Sahara, lush vegetation, hearty trees, and permanent freshwater lakes persisted over millennia. There were even large rivers, such as the Wadi Howar, once the largest tributary to the Nile from the Sahara
Genetic studies suggest all the worlds domesticated cattle originated about this time from 80 wild ox called aurochs now extinct in Persia (Iran). Other claims are Egypt at 7,000 B.C., Fertile Crescent 6,000 B.C., Indus Valley (Pakistan) 5,000 B.C. Africa 4,500 B.C. and China, Mongolia and Korea 3,000 B.C.
8,200 B.C. .
Archaeologists in 2007 found tools in the seabed off Cyprus at two sites indicating they were used by seafaring foragers who frequented the island well over 10,000 years ago, before the first permanent settlers arrived around 8,200 BC.
Lets remember only about 10 million people occupy the planet at this time and by 2010 we number 6.8 billion.
Human mutation and evolution has occurred 100 times more quickly than in any other period in the history of our species. The mutations relate to the brain, the digestive system. life span, immunity to pathogens, sperm production and bones. Teeth are getting smaller, skull size is shrinking, statue is getting smaller. Many DNA variants are unique to the continent of origin. We are getting less alike and may account for significant cultural differences.
A genetic mutation among northern Europeans about this time made lactose tolerance continue beyond childhood. Others suggest it was about 6,000 B.C. and rapidly spread to Asia and Africa. 80% of Europeans have this tolerance vs. 20% for Asia and Africa.
Ireland is believed settled between 8,000 to 7,000 B.C. likely from France.
Some suggest that Homo Sapiens completely differentiated about this time from the Mongoloid and Negroid base into six basic groups, Mongoloid (Asia and America), Negroid (Africa), Caucasoid (Europe and Middle East to India), Bushman (South Africa), Australoid (Australia) Polynesian (many Islands, Pacific Ocean). This is a gross over simplification as Europe is composed of a blend of mixed people being composed of Mongoloid, Negroid and Caucasoid people. Asia has Mongoloid, Australoid and Caucasoid. This historic classification is based on some external physical features and has little support from genetic research. Race distinction is simply the end points of mercantile trade networks. It is noteworthy that the Sahara region began about this time to turn into a desert from a green and fertile region.
One genetic clan identified by mtDNA lived in Venice and today most live in the Alps.
The Huaxia people have been identified with the North Asian Mongolian group. The Huaxia group (or confederation of tribes) of Neolithic ancients are living along the Yellow River (8,000-2,100 B.C.) who formed the nucleus of what later became known as the Han group in China. The Han Chinese make up 92% of the population of China. Therefore, they are the largest ethnic group in the world. The Han culture itself is very old, outdating many European cultures by at least a thousand years. The Han are a very proud people, creating the longest lasting civilization in history. The Yellow river Basin has an East-West extent of 1,900 km (1,180 miles) and a North-South extent of 1,100 km (684 miles). The Yellow River Basin is sometimes referred to as "The Cradle of Chinese Civilization". Due to the infusion of other ethnic groups from the northwest, north and northeast, these original settlers gradually migrated south and settled in Jiangxi, Fujian, and Guangdong. They were called Hakka by the locals when they first settled in. As a late comer to places initially occupied by locals, Hakkas usually had to struggle and survive on the less desirable lands. Thus, Hakka people are well-known for their perseverance even in the most adverse environment. This implies an aboriginal culture preceded the Huaxia culture?
Malaria is spread from Africa to Melanesia about this time.
DNA analysis suggests the Han Chinese populations, that the pattern of the southward expansion of Han culture is consistent with the demic diffusion model, and that males played a larger role than females in this expansion. The demic diffusion model, involves mass movement of people;
Some believe the total world population is about 8 million at this time.
A dugout canoe is discovered in the Netherlands, the earliest discovered in Europe. The Chinese however were building canoes and rafts about this time among the Baiyue people of South East China
The comb dates back to Scandinavia, from around 8000 B.C. Most early cultures independently developed and used combs - except for the ancient Britons.
For more than 10,000 years, peat bogs, mostly in northwestern Europe, have been the final resting places for hundreds, maybe thousands, of bodies. The oldest discovered today is the Koelgjerg Woman of Denmark dated to 8.000 B.C. Some believe the bog people were criminalsm, social deviants, or human sacrifice who were tortured. Some believe as a result of Celtic religious practice. Commercial peat cutters usually find the bodies. Some peat bog bodies show no signs of trama and not enough research has been conducted to determine cause of some deaths and even the sex. Tacitus the Roman historian claimed Germanic tribes punished homosexuals by executing them and throwing them into bogs.
It is believed that the peoples of the Valley of the Nile River at this time held the belief of One Almighty God called Ntr or Neter with a picture sign of an axe-head. This deity would evolve into the one almighty, invisible God Re (Ra), the Sun God. He is the Great Spirit, a hidden eternal spirit, who spreads truth throughout the world. He begot Himself, and lives in all things. He is the creator of Heaven, Earth and the Deep (Underworld). The Book of the Dead records, "I am the God Temu in his rising; I am the only One. I came into being in Nu. I am Ra (Re) who rose in the beginning. Nu is the primeval watery mass, out of which all spirits (gods) came into being. In some traditions Re is preceded by Apophis also Apep a giant serpent with mystical powers. The Egyptians view Apophis as a genuine threat to Re. Apep is viewed as an image of evil always prepared to attack the righteous.
About this time the mammoth became extinct or very rare in Europe, Asia and America. Some people began to group into larger agricultural centers, primarily at Mexico, Peru, China, Pakistan, Iraq, and Egypt. The Middle East is believed cultivating wheat, barley and peas. Wheat is likely imported from the Black Sea region. Many smaller centers of agriculture also existed at this time. More dynamics are the nomads of the steppes of western North America, and the dynamic mounted peoples of central Asia with their mobile 'city state' tent towns. The lakes and rivers of the Sahara Desert began drying up. Lack of water killed off plant life driving the wildlife and the early peoples from this heavily populated region.
Sites in Quetta, Baluchistan and Rajastan in northern India have evidence of domesticated animals by the ancestors of the Mehrgarth peoples. The goat is domesticated at Asiab, Iran and Mehrgarg, Pakistan. Alikosh (Iran) is occupied until 7,000 B.C. and contains houses built from mud bricks.
In Northwest Britain the people are using a type of canoe and build platforms out toward the waters edge. The people of Diyarbakir, Turkey are raising pigs.
A Neolithic culture existed on the island of Crete dating to this period. It has not been established that if they evolved into the Minoan Culture with their Asian origin that covered the period 3,000 to 1,400 B.C. Some believe the Minoan had agriculture on the island of Crete from 7,000 B.C. They followed a religion based on the Great Mother. Most early people in all four corners of the earth considered the earth as a mother. The sky and sun are normally thought of in masculine terms. This belief is a natural universal type of belief based on the fertility of the earth and women.
Jericho is believed occupied about this time making it one of the oldest cities known. A mud brick wall to keep the nomads out is built at some later date. It is speculated an organized civilization must have existed in this region by 10,000 B.C. to have developed Jericho at this time.
The Old city of Lod (Lydda) in central Israel was occupied about this time. It is noteworthy that it is now one of the worst areas in the country and is very poor. It likely was different at this time? Saint Peter was said to cure a paralytic man here.
The Jomon culture, Initial phase in Japan spans 8,000 B.C to 5,000 B.C. As a result of rising sea levels, caused by postglacial global warming, the occupants of the Japanese islands add marine and coastal resources to their diet as, demonstrated by large amounts of seafood refuse deposited in shell mounds. They still had established hunting and gathering activities.
Ireland is scoured by the last ice age removing most traces of early man and animals. Ireland is connected to Europe by a land bridge and people are again inhabiting the land presumably following the red deer the only large animals to survive.
A grave yard with 200 graces dating from 8,000 B.C. to 2,500 B.C. from two different peoples the Kiffian and Tenerian, was uncovered in the Sahara desert, Gobero in northern Niger. The burial site was beside an ancient lake teeming with 6 foot long pike fish, turtles, crocodiles and an array of other wildlife. This period was called the Green Sahara when a fluctuation of the earths orbit changed Africa's weather patterns and brought more rain to the desert. The Kiffian settled first in Gobero, Green Saraha and the Tenerian settled late in the Gobero, Green Saraha The Kiffians were taller and more hearty build than the Tenerians. One Kiffian male was well over 6 feet tall.
Asian peoples settled the island of Taiwan aka Formosa about this time
DNA studies of six Tibetan populations suggest they came from the east about this time (8,000 B.C.). The Tibetan Plateau had an indigenous population dating to 19,000 B.C. who mixed with these later settlers.
DNA studies suggest that China's pigs are direct descendants of the region's first domesticates about this time. Chinese pigs dominate the global port market.
Jericho a village north of the Dead Sea had an extensive six-foot wall around the village suggesting a defensive structure. This site appears to have been continuously occupied until 6,850 B.C.
Catalhoyuk, Turkey is believed to have been occupied from 7.500 to 5,700 B.C. It was a matriarchal culture where women and men were treated as equals. No indication of a ruling class existed. Up to 18 levels of settlement have been uncovered. An average population of between 5,000 to 8,000 people is a reasonable estimate. The people were skilled in agriculture and animal domestication. They grew crops of wheat, barley and peas. They harvested almonds and pistachios. Sheep and cattle were domesticated. Pottery production was evident. We need to keep in mind the Black Sea Valley at this time was not a sea and is believed to contain an estimated 140,000 people. The Black Sea was created about 6,400 B.C. and is believed to have occured in about 30 years.
Halafian painted ware appear over a wide area of northern Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Anatolia (Turkey). A Maglemose people occupied Ulkestrup, Denmark living in huts with bark and wood floors. They had canoes, fished and hunted red deer, wild ox and pig.
The west coast of India in the Gulf of Khambhat is found the remains of two large cities. Initial tests date the artifacts to this period. Previous old remains were dated to 2,500 B.C. These finds are causing a stir among archeologists.
A Cyprus buried contained a man and what appears to be his pet cat. This predates Egyptian indication of domestication of cats by 3,500 years. The cat is a wildcat of a type common in Africa today but close enough related to breed with domestic cats.
Based on current archaeological evidence, Japanese potters begin around this time to decorate pottery cooking vessels, made using the coiling method and probably fired in open bonfires at approximately 600–900ºC, by pressing strands of plant fibers against the still-damp surface. These ornamental "cord-markings" jomon are the origin of this culture's name and were used in addition to the decorative methods of relief appliqué, rouletting, incising, indenting, and scraping.
The first significant signs of agriculture in Iraq appeared between the Tigris and Euphrates (Perat) Rivers. Some suggest wheat is imported from the Turkey region as it is not indigenous to Iraq. This area is believed by many to be the location of the lost Garden of Eden and the Samara peoples occupy it. The people first lived in round mud huts then evolved to square limestone huts.
7,000 to 5,300 BC: Continued rains, vegetation growth, and animal migrations lead to well established human settlements in the Saraha, including the introduction of domesticated livestock such as sheep and goats.
The Minoan culture on the Island of Crete is believed to have started agriculture about this time.
It is believed the first peoples to migrate into Ireland occurred about this time.
Rotterdam Port in the Netherlands has turned up evidence of human occupation.
The Jiahu culture is descended from the Neolithic people called the Huaxia. The Jiahu culture spans (7,000-2,599 B.C.) and divided into phases:
Old Jiahu (7,000-6,600 B.C.) where the following is evident;
Cultivated foxtail millet and rice.
Alcohol was produced from rice, honey and hawthorn
Flutes were produced and are still playable
Middle Jiahu culture, also called the Peiligang culture.
Proto-writing is evident
Last Jiahu culture, also called the Peiligang culture.
Excavations at Jiahu in Henan Province of China show that paddy (rice field) cultivation had been invented 7,000 B.C. by Neolithic people living in the Huaihe River Valley, a region lying between the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys.
The most widely-accepted hypothesis, based on data
from the deep basin floor sediments of the Black Sea is it started as a trickle
about 7,000 BC. to full flooding before 5,150 B.C.
Some speculate the Black Sea creation was the result of Global warming in Canada causing the release of 163 trillion tons of water, from Lake Agassiz, into the Atlantic Ocean within one year. It raised the ocean levels separating the United Kingdom from Europe and flooded the Back Sea Valley. Some contend it took just 30 years, (some time between 7,700 to 6,400 B.C.) to fill the Black Sea Valley with salt water. Some believe the flood caused the Black Sea culture to be forced into Europe beginning the agricultural age. It’s noteworthy that by 5,550 B.C., farming, was well established in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and along the coast of the Marmara Sea
China and India are growing rice and at the same time America is cultivating corn, beans, peppers, pumpkin, squash and gourds. Over fifty percentages of all world cultivated crops come from the Americas. American Natives would cultivate corn, tomato, chocolate, vanilla, tobacco, avocado, peanut, pecan, cashew, pineapple, blueberry, sunflower and wild rice to name a few, in fact their agriculture, and irrigation technology is first rate by any standard. The word tomato comes to us from Aztec People. The ancestors of the Chinese are farming on the banks of the Yellow River in the north. Some believe that flax may have been the earliest crop of the Middle East. Some speculate that as agriculture developed women's importance increased in stature. Women historically are the gatherers whereas men are the hunters. It is important to understand that women usually represented the tribe and the inheritance of property is usually passed on through the woman’s family as a natural understanding of fertility. Archeology suggests there are a 100/1 examples representing women as fertility symbols versus men in the Mesopotamian region. A Maternalistic autonomous culture prevails throughout most of the world.
Durum wheat the main ingredient in pasta was developed from emmer wheat in central Europe and the near east. It is believed to have originated in Abyssinia or the southern Mediterranean basin.
Evidence suggests the Chinese are making wine and beer about this time. Small agricultural villages, (7,000 B.C. - 5,000 B.C.) such as those excavated at the sites at Cishan and Peilingang, China on the central plain, have simple pottery traditions sometimes with cord impressions or other decorative markings. Some evidence suggests that wood and other perishable materials are used in these early societies as well. Six exquisitely preserved flutes and fragments of many others made from the ulnae (bone of the lower leg) of the red-nosed crane are excavated at Jiahu, an extensive site in Henan Province of China with multiple dwellings and a massive cemetery. These are the earliest complete, playable, multinote instruments that are preserved.
Pakistan dentists were drilling near perfect holes in teeth. This is 4,000 years earlier than previously thought.
Geological evidence of water erosion of the Great Sphinx in Egypt suggests it is created about this time. Egyptologists are horrified at these findings as they erroneously place the construction at 2,500 B.C. and this changes the basic understanding of the evolution of civilization. If true these people had the technology to move two hundred-ton blocks of stone. Most do not consider this possible.
Central Catalhoyuk, Turkey has a town of 8,000 people being housed in 2,000 apartments all attached like a big apartment. There are no streets as access is via the roof much like town construction in the South/west of North America. Excavation has uncovered 18 levels of habitation so far discovered. The apartments are filled with wall paintings and sculptures. They had a remarkably modern knack of sharing tasks between the sexes. This culture existed 7.500 to 5,700 B.C.
Neolithic man is evidenced on the Anatolian plateau, Greece (Hacilar, Catal Huyuk, Kizilkaya) south of the Black Sea and in the plain of Cilicia (Mersin, Tarsus). Their pottery does not appear to be influenced by Syria-Palestine or Mesopotamia culture. Neolithic people occupied Cappadocia, Turkey creating wall paintings and wall maps the oldest known maps.
Most of Europe is peopled with the Basque culture believed descendents of the Iberian culture. The few inscriptions that the Iberians left cannot be read. The highest concentration of Basque is in the Bay of Biscay region. It is noteworthy that the present Basque have blood type RH negative in 35% of their population vs 15% in the rest of Europe and 1% in Asia.
By the Neolithic period, beginning in about 7000 B.C., small settlements of hunters, fishers, and foragers are established near rivers or coastal areas of the Korean peninsula. Occupation sites have yielded a variety of artifacts, including pottery, chipped and polished stone tools, and bone needles and fishhooks. Objects identified as agricultural tools suggest the incipient stages of the transition from foraging to food production. The variety of pottery shapes and decorative techniques reflects the diversity of material cultures of the Neolithic period and points to contacts between populations living in different areas of the peninsula as well as those on the continental mainland to the north and west and the islands to the south that constitute modern Japan..
The pig, sheep, goat and dog is domesticated in Jarmo, Iraq. Jarmo a village of 150 people is also believed to be cultivating wheat and barley. Trade items are from a distance of 200 miles suggesting they are part of a wide trading network.
Damaidi (大麥地) is a small village in China located in Zhongwei County in Ningxia, among the Weining Mountains on the north bend of the Yellow River. Over 8000 early Chinese petroglyphs dating back 7,000 to 8,000 years have been found here. These petroglyphs were shown, in 2007, to possibly be the earliest writing system in China.
The village of Catal Huyuk in Southern Turkey is raising
crops of barley, wheat, lentils and peas.
Cattle are being domesticated in Greece.
The aboriginal people of Formosa (Taiwan) the Pinyan (meaning original inhabitants) originated about this time and exist to modern times.
A dugout log-boat is discovered in Pesse, Netherlands.
The hydrological cycle (world wide water-circulation system) slowed down, stopped and started again resulting in wide spread drought in Western North America, Asia and Africa.
Another brief ice age occurred about this time.
In the Danube Georges Region, Romania and Serbia foreigners began arriving from the south and east bringing farming to Europe via colonization which was verified by strontium isotopes of human teeth to verify point of origin.
The Basque Culture of Europe is believed to be speaking Euskara which is unique in the world. They were fishermen, farmers and traders, some believe they introduced the horse, cattle and farming onto their region. They believed the first people were horse-men, a belief also shared by the Greeks.
A more advanced Neolithic people migrated to Europe from the Middle East bringing with them a new Y chromosome pattern and an agricultural way of life.
A pirogue, a small, flat-bottomed boat, was discovered in Lake Bracciano, near La Marmottam, Italy. This was a common boat used with or without sail by the Polynesians and west Africa peoples.
Evidence of rice cultivation and the use of pottery are evidenced at Pengtoushan, China. Herbal medicine is in use at Kuahuqiao in Xiaoshian county, Zhejian province of China.
In Scandinavia the Maglemusian culture (7,500-5,700) flourished with trading patterns up the Rhine and Elbe rivers and as far as Mesopotamia. The used fishing boats including hooks, nets, spears and harpoons. Some of their trade items originated in the Tigris Euphrates Valley indicating a extensive trading network existed at this time. This supports the contention that rapid cultural and technical diffusion is likely from very early times.
In Mesopotamia (Iraq) the Hussuna peoples are settling in the northern regions. The Indus-valley is being settled at this time and agriculture is evident. Some speculate the Brahanas culture of India originated about this time. It is believed that the Brahmanus and Aryan tribes shared a common caste system cultural belief. This belief likely originated from the Mongol belief divine ruling leadership that evolved into a belief of cultural purity. This is likely the basis of the King-god belief that would later dominate Egypt, the Middle East and then Europe. The Egyptians originally believed that all things belonged to the Son God Re and man is only the caretaker of the world. As time progressed the Kings began to claim many of the attributes of God to maintain domination over their subjects. This domination philosophy continues into the twentieth century.
The cat is domesticated at Khirokitia, Cypress. The domesticated chicken is evidenced at Ohmshan, Hebei, China and the pig at Chishan, Hebei, China and Mehkgarh, Pakistan. It is noteworthy that this is indications of agricultural settlements and people likely occupied these regions for tens of thousands of years. A people who migrated from the East occupy Turkey.
At Damaidi in Ningxia, China 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6,000-5,000 BC have been discovered "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing." These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese
Ireland is believed to be settled about this time. They would develop into a Gaelic Culture being a mixture of Celt, Pict and Erainn. Some suggest the Lapp culture originated about this time differentiating from other Finno-Ugrian speaking peoples. At this time they occupied the northern regions of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. The Lapps over time culturally subdivide into coastal, forest and mountain people. The mountain Lapps retained the ancient methods of following the migrating reindeer.
In 2005 archaeologists in northern Greece uncovered traces of two prehistoric farming settlements dating back to this period of 6000BC-5500BC.
In 2008 scientists reported that robust hunter-gathers, known as Kiffians, apparently abandoned the Gobero region of Niger during a long drought that dried up a lake about this time. The dried-up lake in the Sahara was found brimming with the skeletons of people, fish and crocodiles who thrived when the African desert was briefly green.
Copper objects are in use throughout the Near East.
Ulsan, South Korea is engaged in whaling. The significance of this find is that sea worthy boats were in use.
Agriculture is evident in the Philippines and the women own and operate the farms. The culture is predominately maternal in nature.
A genetic mutation is believed to allowed Europeans to digest lactose, the primary sugar in milk about this time. Some suggest it was earlier but the fact remains that 80% of Europe has this ability whereas Asia and Africa has only 20% with this ability.
Genital mutilation of both male and female is traced to Egypt about this time as a puberty rite for females and as a right of passage for males. It was wide spread in northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula. It was a common practice but by 3,200 B.C. it was limited to the ruling class in the Sudan region. Some believe it was to reduce sexuality and sexual pleasure. Others suggest it was a symbol for men of war.
Dadiwan in the upper reaches of the Yellow River near Shaodian in Qi'nan country, Gansu province, China was domesticating dogs (5,900-5,200 B.C.) and were feeding them millet. They didn't start feeding pigs millet until 4,900 B.C.
A massive landslide off the coast of Storegga, Norway triggered a tsunami causing destruction in Scotland and cutting the land bridge between England and the rest of Europe.
warming period caused thawing and rains with warmer weather in the Sahara Region.
The Semitic-Canaanite-Hebrew celebrates Rosh Hashanah as the beginning of the World. Ancient people usually consider the beginning of the world as about the same time that they believe their culture originated.
Maglemose culture is being replaced by Kongemose culture in the Baltic Sea and these larger sites are exemplified by the Segbro, Swedish remains. The sites are believed occupied all year round.
The Anatolia culture of Turkey centered in the town of Catal Huyuk controlled trade over a huge area, hundreds of miles around.
Some believe farming began about this time in Europe as a result of migrating farmers when the Black Sea flooding driving out the people. Some believe the flooding was caused by the ice dam holding Lake Agassiz, in Canada broke flooding the world.
The town of Uruk alias Erech & Warka (Iraq), a proto-Sumerian culture, is organized in distinctive, stratified social classes. Early Sumerian language belongs to the same category as numerous dialects spoken from Hungary to Polynesia (many Islands), though it bears no close resemblance to any known language, dead or still living. Sumerian literature presents a picture of highly intelligent, industrious, argumentative and deeply religious people but offers no clue to their origin. Sumerian carvings reveal winged angles suggesting a belief in spirit entities. This tradition would be passed in the future to the three great Sumerian religions, namely the Jews, Christian and Muslim. Uruk culture worshiped the love goddess Inanna that the Semites (Jews) would call Ishtar. Others suggest the Uruk culture is later (3750-3150 B.C.) It is noteworthy that Buddhism, Hinduism and Zoroastrianism would also contain spirit angels. The Sumerians believed that only God owned the land. The Egyptians also held this belief. North American Indians still hold this belief. Kings and Governors believed they are tenant farmers of the Sun God. Sumerian culture includes Inana the Mother Earth Spirit suggesting they shared the worldwide belief of a maternal order.
At Byblos and Jericho some men with large-toothed and long-headed Mediterranean characteristics are living.
The Black Sea at this time was a fresh water sea. The Azov Sea was a prairie. This year it was violently flooded by the salt water Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea, swollen be melted glaciers, breached a natural dam that separated it from the fresh water lake later known as the Black Sea. Sea water from the Mediterranean poured in for as long as 2 years. An ancient coastline with this date was verified in 1999. See 2,348 B.C. for a 2nd occurrence.
Black sea is flooded again, 1st in 14,000 BC and again about this
date. Some believe this is the Noah
deluge (flood) of the bible. Another
source was captured in the stories of the Epic of Gilgamish.
The Yangtze Valley of China was only 1-2 degrees C. from modern temperature. This global warming period sparked agriculture development world wide.
In Japan the Sannai Maruyama site in northern Honshu uncovered postholes of houses and longhouses, graves, figurines and animal remains of the early to middle Jomon period of 5500BC-4000BC.
Hahnhofersand Man was dated in 2001 to about this time by Oxford University’s Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit. German Prof. Reiner Protsch von Zieten had earlier dated the fossils to about 34,300BC. In the 1980s the Hahnhofersand fossils were said to have both Neanderthal and human characteristics.
Geologists confirm that the Black Sea rose about 460 feet in less than one year leading to the Noah story to explain this event. Prior to this time the Black Sea was a fresh water lake. This massive flooding caused the world oceans to drop one foot. The first record of this great flood is in the Epic of Gilgamesh (2,900 B.C.). Ruines 312 feet below the Black Sea have been discovered. A new theory has emerged that the giant Lake Agassiz, in Canada contained behind a km high ice dam broke in 6,000 B.C. causing world wide flooding.
At Merimdeh Beni Salameh in the southwestern margin of the Egyptian delta is a village of oval huts. Evidence suggests they lived with a community sense of property. They are growing barley, emmer wheat and vetch. Flax is grown for spun cloth. Evidence suggests animals are domesticated but hunting and fishing still provided a considerable portion of their diet. These people physically showed relations to the Hamites, the Semites and the Mediterraneans. Linguistically they include Semitic, Berber, Galla and Somali dialects. They eventually copied or developed the belief that each village or tribe had its own deity. Most spirit-gods are represented as animals. Early Egyptians called these ancestors Intiu meaning Pillar People.
A Neanderthal skeletal remains at Hahnofersand, Germany thought to date to 34,000 B.C. is now dated by the Oxford University as 5,500 B.C. Chris Stringer says we will have to rewrite European prehistory.
The Han Chinese migrated (5,450-3,590 B.C.) from the Jiahu culture of Yellow River Basin to Fujian in the South-Eastern corner of China and Guangdong in the south of China. The aboriginals of FuJian were Austronesians who were fishermen. They form a diverse group of peoples stretching 57% around the globe west-to-east, ranging 206° from 44°E in Madagascar to 110° W on Easter Island. The territories settled primarily by Austronesian peoples are known collectively as Austronesia. The original inhabitants of southern China are lost to history. Some of them may have been assimilated, driven further south, or exiled during Han Dynasty to eastern China (north of present-day Shanghai). The Han Chinese learned fishing from the Austronesia and likely seamanship. The Guangdong in the south was populated by the people known as the Hundred Yue Tribes. The Yue are everywhere, each with its own clan and no common identity.
Bandkeramik (Danubian) culture arrived on the Danube River with small-scale farming and domesticated cattle. They appeared to avoid areas where Mesolithic people lived.
The Iceman (Otzi) of Italy is carbon dated (5,298-5,348 B.C.) or ( 3,200 B.C. as some suggest) and he has a flanged copper axe in his possession, previously believed not in use for another 2,700 years. Latest research suggests the use of copper in Italy predates 4,000 B.C. The Iceman’s skin is tattooed and includes a symbol of a cross. Evidence suggests that he was killed by an arrow into his back. It is noteworthy that the Iceman is genetically related to the Inuit and South American Indians. DNA studies suggest he has no descendents in Europe.
5,300 to 3,500 BC The monsoons retreated south in the Sahara region leaving it dry and desolate. Others suggest they came back about 5,000 BC. Retreating monsoon rains initiate desiccation in the Egyptian Sahara, prompting humans to move to remaining habitable niches in Sudanese Sahara. The end of the rains and return of desert conditions throughout the Sahara after 3,500 coincides with population return to the Nile Valley and the beginning of pharaonic society. The Sahara transformation from desert to a productive period then back to desert demonstrates the power of climate chamge. It's hard to believe; "Wildlife included very demanding species such as elephants, rhinos, hippos, crocodiles, and more than 30 species of fish up to 2 meters (6 feet) big, existed in the Sahara Prairie.
The Oueilj or southern Ubaid culture (5000-3750 B.C.) is believed to have begun about this time likely having split from the Half, Samarra (5600-5000 B.C.) or Hassuna (5800-5500 B.C.) collectively known as the northern Ubaid tradition. These are the ancestors of the Semitic peoples. The Hussuna built no houses and likely lived in huts or tents yet some of their implements suggest some farming. The few skulls studied suggest like those of Byblos and Jericho of a large toothed variety of long-headed Mediterranean people. This suggests a unity of people throughout the Middle East. The Samarra is believed indigenous to Iraq although some claim Iran as their origin. They used a primitive form of irrigation.
The late Neolithic period in China covers the period of 5,000 B.C. to 2,000 B.C. During the Late Neolithic period, numerous settled cultures, which increasingly interact with one another and are often highly stratified, flourish throughout China. In the early part of the twentieth century, only two such cultures were known. Currently, more than thirty have been identified. They are distinguished from one another by the types of ceramics or jade carvings they produce, are usually named after specific archaeological sites, and are often subdivided into phases
The Yangtze River Valley culture dates to this time frame and may equal the Yellow River Culture.
The Yangshao culture in northern and northwestern China covers the period of 5,000 B.C. to 1,500 B.C. Some of the earliest painted ceramics are produced by the Yangshao culture, which flourishes first in north central China and later in the northwest. Early Yangshao designs include masks, dancing figures, frogs, and creatures with feathers. Later examples are characterized by their vibrant geometric motifs. Xishuipo in Henan Province provides two extraordinary mosaics made of river mussel shells. One depicts a tiger, the other a dragon. They are thought to represent the earliest examples of these two perennial themes. This culture developed the production of silk. The village of Hemudu in Zhejiang Province in southeast China features wooden houses raised on stilts, an enormous sacrificial structure, wood and bone artifacts, and weaving tools. The earliest example of the use of lacquer (the resin of the Lac tree) is also discovered during the excavation of this site
Irelands megalithic monument period of structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement including earth mound structures is believed to have started about this time and lasted until 2,000 B.C. at which time earth mound building stopped.
Climate change forced the monsoon north into the Sahara desert
allowing domesticated livestock, leading to nomadic pastoralism
Prior to about 5000 BC, the
inhabitants of the Nile Valley were mostly foragers who practiced fishing,
fowling, hunting and collecting wild plants. The first known farming community
then occupied a site at the edge of the floodplain of the Nile Delta at Merimda
Beni Salama, about twenty-five kilometers to the northwest of Cairo. Some
claim climate change forced the creation of the most progressive
city state, Egypt.
Neolithic Germans near Altscherbitz were accomplished carpenters, capable of felling and working threes three feet thick into planks and carefully fitting then together. They used tusk mortise and tenon joints, a fitted wedge to lock the pieces in place.
A culture existed before 5,000 B.C. at Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria who specialized in the working of gold and silver and traded as far as Spain. The largest recover of gold for this period was recovered, it equaled the total world supply. 294 graves were uncovered dating to 4500-4450 B.C. The graves indicated all citizens were treated equally and shared in the wealth of the culture .
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