EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 500 - 999
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Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas sailed from Ethiopia to China (650-651) to establish the first mosque in China.
The Islamic slave trade across the Sahara involved some 5,000 African slaves per year. During the period of 650-1600 the numbers of slaves are estimated as 7.25 million. One Islamic slave caravan was noted as containing 600 women slaves. These slave routes were lined with parched skeletons of those who succumbed to exhaustion and thirst. Many women would become concubines but unlike European slaves once a concubine produced a child she could not be sold and became a freed woman upon the death or her master. Islamic law prohibited the taking of Islamic slaves so this is the reason they went so far a field. Christians had no comparable law or dogma. It is noteworthy that the common practice of male slave castration resulted in a mortality rate of 90%.
Theodore Calliopas seized the anti-bishop of Rome Martin I (649-655) and sent him to Constantinople for trial on the charge of having illegally making himself bishop of Rome. He is found guilt of treason, publicly flogged and sentenced to death. The dying Paul II (641-653) pleaded for Martin's life and the sentence is commuted to banishment to the Crimea where he suffered and died in 655. The anti-bishop of Rome Martin complained that the Roman Catholic Church had abandoned him, even electing a new bishop of Rome before his death. He is the last bishop of Rome to be venerated as a martyr by the Roman Church.
Eugene I (654-657) a Roman is elected an anti-bishop of Rome while Martin bishop of Rome is imprisoned. Under these conditions either Martin or Eugene is officially listed as anti-bishop of Rome. The elections are the result of pressure from the Byzantine court. To avoid the fate of Martin he issued a compromise position that Christ's two natures had its own will, considered as a person possessing only one will. The Roman Catholic clergy and people are outraged by the bishop of Rome and prevented him from saying mass until he recanted. Emperor Constans II said when the fighting of the heathens is completed he would administer the same treatment to Eugene as to Martin. He died or is killed before this edict is carried out.
The Ninth Council of Toledo decreed that the children of clerics are to be enslaved.
King Childebert of Austrasia (656-656) son Grimoald (d-656) Mayor Austasia. King Chlothar III (656-670) son King Clovis II (638-656) ruled Neustria (district of Paris, France) and Austrasia (656-660) a District North East of Paris.
In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthmanís murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthmanís cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Aliís right to rule. Ali prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning "the party of Ali." Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
Vitalian (657-672) Roman is elected bishop of Rome.
Three churches existed in the British Islands:
. The Old Briton Church in Wales.
. The Iro-Scotch Church in Ireland and Scotland, which is a monastic church with severe asceticism.
. The Germanic-Anglo-Saxon Church that is in close contact with Rome.
Only Sussex and the Isle of Wright had not accepted the Roman Catholic Church.
King Childerich (660-673) son King Clovis II (638-656) ruled Austrasia a District North East of Paris.
Constans II is the last Emperor of Constantinople to visit Rome and this is after an interlude of almost two centuries.
A synod at Whitby (664) decided that England should follow Roman Catholics rather than Celtic Christianity. The bishop of Rome backed these efforts endorsed by Osway King of Northunbria (655-670) to make the region Roman Catholic with a Germanic-English flavor rather than Cletic Christian.
Many Christians predicted this as the end of the world.
Emperor Constans II (641-668) proclaimed Ravenna as the Holy See of the East independent of Constantinople with the authority to elect its Bishop, subject to Imperial confirmation.
Much of Gortyn, the Roman capital of Crete, was destroyed be an earthquake. It was 1st inhabited around 3,000 BC and was destroyed by an Arab invasion in 824.
Theodore of Tarsus is assigned Archbishop of Canterbury, England (668-690) to ensure Roman culture is established. The African abbot Hadrian and Benedict Biscop accompanied him to ensure that he didn't introduce alien Greek ideas or customs into England.
Constantine IV (668-685) becomes Emperor of the Constantinople Empire with a strong desire to end the incessant doctrinal controversies between Rome and Constantinople fearing these differences will result in the loss of Syria and Egypt.
All of North Africa fell to Islam (Muslim) domination with
some fearing an invasion of Europe.
Theodore of Tarsus archbishop of Canterbury (669-690) rebuilt the Christian Church of England providing unity and organization that Augustine had failed to do.
King Childerich of Austrasia (660-673) son King Clovis II (638-656) ruled Neustria (670-673)a District of Paris (France).
King Clovis III (671-695) son King Theuderich III (673-691)
ruled Austrasia and Neustria, all the Franks.
Brude, son of Bile (672-693) brought all the Picts under his sway, attacked the Scots at Dunadd. Adeodatus II (672-717) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome.
King Theuderich III (673-698) son King Clovis II (638-656) ruled North East of Paris.
Daxi Hongtong of China sailed to the Arabian Peninusla. He recorded visiting 36 countries west of the South China Sea.
King Dagobert II (674-678) son King Sigibert III (632-656) ruled Austrasia a District North East of Paris.
Donus (676-678) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome.
Agatho (678-681) a Sicilian and monk is elected bishop of Rome. King Theuderich III of Neustria (673-698) son King Clovis II (638-656) ruled Austrasia (678-691) the District of Paris.
The Slav-Bulgars, remnants of the Hun who retreated into the steppes of Southern Russia are mixing with the Ugrians. They established a Slav-Bulgars State that reached its greatest power this year. Southern Russia is also peopled by the Scythians an Iranian Mongolian speaking people who practiced a Turko-Mongol life style.
The Sixth General Council of the Roman Catholics and Christian Churches is called by Emperor Constantine IV (668-685). The Emperor could see no hope in recovering Syria and Egypt and decided not to alienate the Western Church. The Council concluded the two wills and operations in Christ and the true faith, written by Gods hand, had been also been given to the church in Rome. This is likely a compromise for unity over doctoral issues but the bishop of Constantinople is still effectively head of the Universal Church for all practical purposes.
The prophet Muhammad's favorite grandson Hussein bin Ali, had his head chopped off in Karbala in central Iraq by the soldiers of the Caliph Yazid. The severed head was put on a silver platter and sent to Damascus, Yazid's capital, before being sent further to Cairo for inspection by the governor of Egypt. Source Amir Taheri.
It is commonly assumed that finger printing for identification is a modern invention. Not so, finger printing was used in Korea this year in deeds for sale of slaves.
Leo II (682-683) a Sicilian is elected bishop of Rome.
Emperor Zhongzong of China reigned 684, and later (705-710)
Emperor Ruizong of China reigned (684-690) the son of Emperor Wu Zetian who acted like the Emperor during her sons reign. She had killed anyone who was a threat to her reign even her own childred.
Benedict II (684-685) a Roman priest is elected bishop of Rome. The Visigoth Christian Church in Spain is considered fiercely independent of the Roman Catholic Church.
During the Sufyandi period (661-684) there is no mention of Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad (570-632), its as though he never existed.
John V (685-686) a Syrian is elected bishop of Rome, likely being imposed by the bishop of Constantinople and is short lived.
Conon (686-687) from Sicily is elected bishop of Rome as a compromise between Peter and Theodore representing the two rival political parties.
Theodore (687-687) a Roman supported by the militia is elected anti-bishop of Rome. Based on tradition, being the first elected bishop of Rome he likely is a legitimate pontiff. Paschal (687-687) (d-692) bribed John Platyn with a hundred pounds of gold and is the second elected anti-bishop of Rome. The same people attempting to resolve the conflict conducted a third election naming Sergius I (687-701) as an anti-bishop of Rome. The militia stormed the gates and installed Sergius. Theodore submitted to force and Sergius finally submitted but wrote to John Platn to correct the situation. John journeyed to Rome but discovered Sergius held the power so had no choice but to ratify the situation but demanded the hundred pounds of gold, the current price of the papacy. Sergius imprisoned Paschal on a charge of magical practices to silence him.
Emperor Wu Zetian of China reigned (690-705) she called herself a Sacred and Divine Empress Regnant. She was a concubine of Emperor Taizong (626-649) and Emperor Gaozong (649-683). As well as acting Emporor for her son Emperor Ruizong (684-690)
King Childebert III (695-711) son King Theuderich III (673-691) riled the Franks.
The Islam Arabs conquest of Northern Africa secured Carthage this year from the Berbers who quickly converted to Islam and joined armies.
A Great Council is called by Emperor Justinian II (685-695; 705-711) that excluded the Roman Catholic Church and adopted 102 disciplinary and ritual canons. These canons are oriental in inspiration and ignored traditional Roman law. Sergius refused to ratify the Council canons so the Emperor seized and deported his advisors then sent a contingent under Zacharias to bring the bishop of Rome as captive to the capital city. The Roman Imperial troop intervened and captured Zacharias. Emperor Justinian could not retaliate because he is overthrown in 695 and exiled. This is the first serious threat to the head of the Universal Christian Church in Constantinople since 555 A.D. but did not restore the papacy to Rome.
Slavs are Mongol speaking Indo dialects and slowly penetrated Eastern and Northern Europe. They are followed by the Avars and Slav-Bulgars, a more mobile Mongol peoples. The Celt-Pict traded with the Viking (Varangian) and stimulated the Viking (Norsemen) expansion dreams and the Viking journeyed to the Westman Land (British Isles). The Khazar are offered Islam from the Arabs, Christianity by the Greeks but select Judaism as it carried no political threat. The Slavs and Alans look to the Mongolian Khazar as their protector. The Norsemen or Viking are established around Iaroslavl, Rostov and Suzdal and are sharing control of the native Finnish tribes with Slavic settlers from Novgorod and Smolensk.
Venerable Bede an Englishman is believed to be the first person to to date historical events from the birth of Christ.
It is believed the Polynesians reached Easter Islands about this time and appeared to remain until 1600 A.D. Easter Island is just 14 miles long and 7 miles wide, 2,000 miles from South America and 1,100 miles from the nearest Polynesian neighbor, Pitcairn Island.. They left nearly 1,000 colossal figures, called Moai, some nearly 30 feet high and weighing 80 tons. Why did they topple these Moai? They left a written record (petroglyphs) but none can interpret the writings. Legend suggests Hotu Matu'a arrived Easter Island (Rapa Nui) from Marquesas because of fighting at home. He had seen it in a dream. Lack of food caused them to abandon Rapa Nui. The population peaked at 20,000 but only a few thousand existed when Europe first visited the Island. By 1877 only 110 natives remained on the Island. Scottish ranchers introduced sheep and herded the natives off the land. Chilean government claimed the Island in 1888. The Easter Island decedents numbered 2,000 in the 21 century..
The Chinese gained control over Manchuria from the Koreans about this time.
The sweet potato from South America is being distributed among the Polynesian Triangle. A sweet potato found in the Cook Island was carbon dated to 1000 A.D. This implies a return to trip to America. South Asian chickens defined by DNA would be discovered in Chile (1304-1424) by carbon dating. These chickens are also found in Hawaii and Easter Island. We continue to underestimate ancient peoples accomplishments.
The Austronesian speaking peoples out of Taiwan arrived Hawaii about this time based on linguistic studies.
John VI (701-705) a Greek is elected bishop of Rome. Lombard duke Gisulf I of Benevento invaded Campania in 702 and the bishop of Rome spent enormous sums to ransom his prisoners and persuade him to withdraw.
Emperor Zhongzong of China reigned 684, and later (705-710)
John VII (705-707) a Greek and the first bishop of Rome of the son of a Byzantine official. He enjoyed excellent relations with the Lombard Ging Aribert II (701-712). Emperor Justinian II (685-695; 705-711) sent the Christian canon's of the Great Council of 692 to bishop John of Rome for endorsement allowing him to reject those he didn't approve. Bishop John of Rome knowing the inevitable result of refused to endorse or reject the canons. John VII bowed to the authority of the Christian Church of Constantinople. His critics would labeled him a coward.
Sisinnius (708-708) a crippled old man is elected bishop
of Rome but died within a month of being confirmed.
Constantine (708-715) a Syrian is elected bishop of Rome.
Felix the Archbishop of Ravenna refused to provide the required oath of obedience and other tokens of submission in customary form to Constantinople. Emperor Justinian II (685-695; 705-711) had him arrested, putting out his eyes and sending him into exile.
Self imposed King Roderick of Southern Spain marched north to secure the northern half of Visigoth Spain and the Basque under his rule.
Constantine (708-715) a Syrian is the last bishop of Rome to visit Constantinople.
The Islam Arab (Bergers) of Northern Africa under command of Tariq a Barber and a former Arab slave, with an army of 700 men invaded southern Spain. Their objective is to test the defenses of the Visigoth under Roderick before a full invasion force is assembled to conquer Spain. They found little resistance and southern Spain quickly fell. The full Arab army arrived and began to subject Spain. After four months siege Merida, Spain fell and all men are killed, women and children are enslaved. The Visigoth Kingdom (466-711) is for all intent finished. The balance of the Visigoth Kingdom is reduced to economic self-sufficiency (poverty) ruled by minor warlords being the most prized occupation. The influence of Islam rule of Spain would last 700 years by bringing them out of the dark ages.
The bishop Constantine (708-715) of Rome journeyed to the East on command of the Emperor to ratify the 692 eastern canons. The modified canons are verbally approved by the bishop of Rome being altered to eliminate those things repugnant to the Roman Catholic Church. Emperor Justinian is murdered by mutinous troops and Emperor Philippicus Bardanes (711-713) is installed. He immediately sent a mandate to the bishop of Rome of his belief in one will in Christ and demanded his endorsement. This no win demand is likely designed to remove this bishop of Rome. The bishop of Rome refused and bloody fighting broke out in the streets of Rome.
King Dagobert III (711-715) son King Childebert III (695-711) ruled the Franks.
Emperor Xuanzong of China reigned (712-756)
Gregory II (715-731) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome. He persuaded Liutprand the Great Lombard King (712-744) to return papal patrimonies.
King Chilperich II (715-720) son King Childerich (660-673) ruled Paris District Neustria.
Bishop Gregory II of Rome between 717-726 led a tax revolt
against Emperor Leo III (717-741) who attempted to have the bishop of Rome
deposed or assassinated.
King Chlothar IV (717-719) son King Dagobert II (674-678) ruled Austrasia a District North East of Paris.
King Chilperich II of Neustria (715-720) son King Childerich (660-673) ruled Austrasia (719-720) a District North East of Paris.
King Theuderich IV (720-737) son King Dagobert III (711-715) ruled the Franks.
The Moslems began counting time from this Hijra date.
Gregory II (715-731) bishop of Rome issued a new policy on iconoclasm (banning sacred images and their veneration) as heresy and the Emperor Leo III threatened to depose him over this theological issue he himself had created. Northern Italy sided with Leo III.
Rebellion broke out in Italy and Gregory II (715-731) bishop of Rome brought it to heel both this year and in 728. These rebellions added to the East and West Church differences.
The Arab attempt to forcibly convert Transoxiana (modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstanto) to Islam, resulting in general revolt.
Liutprand the Lombard King and Eutychius united to march on Rome. Gregory II bishop of Rome visited the Lombard camp and convinced them to abandon the siege. The bishop of Rome agreed to crush Tiberius Petasius a rebellious aspirant to the throne.
Gregory III (731-741) a Syrian and priest is elected bishop of Rome by acclimation. He called a synod that denounced iconoclasm (a Jewish tradition) and excommunicated anyone destroying images. This by implication included Emperor Leo III and the Christian patriarchs of the East. Emperor Leo III confiscated the Papal estates in Sicily and southern Italy. These included the archbishoprics of Thessalonica, Corinth, Syracuse, Reggio, Nicopolis, Athens and Patras that are taken from Rome in 732-733 and given to Constantinople. Rome became for all practical purposes a suburbicarian bishopric having been effectively expelled from the Christian Church.
The Islamic Arabs and Berbers swept through Spain destroying the last of the Visigoth (Western Goth) Kingdom then began raiding France, being halted this year by the Celtic Franks. The Islamic Arabs however would not totally be expelled from France until 759. The Islamic Kingdom of Spain is firmly established.
From this date untill 1,000 A.D. Slavs from Bosnia became the major source of slaves for the Islamic society.
Patriarch Anastasius (730-754) and later Constantine V (741-775) decided to use force to deal with bishop of Rome Gregory III. An armed fleet sent to Italy is wrecked in the Adriatic. He sequestered the roman patrimonies in Calabria and Sicily and transferred the ecclesiastical provinces of Illyricum and Sicily from Rome jurisdiction to Constantinople. Ravenna the seat of Byzantine rule fell to the Lombards. The bishop of Rome supported Eutychius to recapture Ravenna obtaining the gratitude of the Emperor. The bishop of Rome entered into alliances with the dukes Spoleto and Benevento both enemies of the Lombard King Liutprand (712-744). This infuriated the Lombards who again marched on Rome.
The Arabs defeated the Khazar sweeping through the north Caucasus as far north as the Don. Some 20,000 Slavs are taken prisoner and transported to Syria.
Gregory III (731-741) bishop of Rome appealed to Charles Martell (716-741) Mayor of Austrasia and Neustria (714-741) de facto ruler of the Franks to assist Rome but his appeals went unanswered as the Franks and Lombards already had an alliance. The bishop of Rome aligned with the treacherous Duke Trasamund of Soleto thereby inflaming the Frank King.
Zacharias (741-752) a Greek from Calabria is elected bishop of Rome. He immediately reversed the policy of Gregory bishop of Rome towards the Lombards promising Roman militias support and obtained the return of conquered territories and twenty years of peace. Some suggest he effectively restored the Papacy to Rome from Constantinople. Bishops Gregory II and III of Rome contributed to the Roman Catholic Church regaining its independence. The plague of 742 likely is the major factor in returning the papacy from Constantinople.
King Childerich II (742-752) son King Chilperich II (715-720) ruled the Franks.
Constantinople the capital of the Byzantine Empire is visited by plague (likely the Black Death or Bubonic Plague (Bacillus Yersinia Pestis)) that then spread to Italy and Greece killing some two hundred thousand people by 748..
Pepin (III) the Short, Mayor of Neustria son Charles Martel,
Mayor Austrasia and Neustria (714-741) became King of the Franks (747-768).
An earthquake cause great damage in the area of the Sea of Galilee.
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