EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 500 - 999
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The armies of Gregory IV (827-844) bishop of Rome and Lothair I (840-855) faced the army of Holy Emperor Louis I at Rotfield near Colmar. The brothers persuaded the bishop of Rome to negotiate reconciliation with their father Louis. The bishop of Rome is duped and Emperor Louis is forced to surrender unconditionally only to be deposed and humiliated. Gregory IV (827-844) bishop of Rome returned from the field of lies bitterly regretting his grievous sins of intervention. Holy Emperor Louis I is restored to power in 834 and by inference the bishop of Rome is excommunicated by the French Bishops. The brothers would enter into bloody conflict partly as a result of the scandalous actions of this bishop of Rome.
The first Papal Bull from Rome referring to Christians on Iceland and Greenland is issued this year.
King Louis I (814-840) died and his three sons divided the Frank Empire at Strasbourg by the Treaty of Verdun. The Franks are the most successful of the Germanic invaders of the Roman Empire. They had assembled an empire from its heartland of Austrasia astride the lower Rhine including the West Franks Kingdom of Charles the Bald (840-877), East Franks Kingdom of Louis the German (840-876), and the Central Kingdom of Lothaire (840-855) covering most of Europe.
The first documented split of French and German languages into separate realms resulted from this treaty of Verdun where the brothers swore friendship in the native tongues of their troops. The brother Lothair (840-855) was given the untenable strip of territory running from Rome to Aix-la-Chapelle which is called Lorraine (Lotharii regnum) between the French and German speaking territories.
Charles II the Bald (823-877) received the western third of the Frankish empire and was in almost constant war with his neighbors and vassals. 844 war with the Vikings and Bretons; 850 executed two counts to acquire Acquitaine (southwest France); 856 war with Louis the German restored order by 864; 869 annexed Lotharingia (Lorraine); Emperior by 875 and crowned king of Italy by 876; attempted to take Germany but was defeated.
Four groups of people occupied Scotland at this time:
The Picts lived in the Highlands, spoke Celtic as well as a much older language, completely unconnected with any known language and they appeared to be the oldest inhabitants of the land. These Picts had a maternal system inheriting names and property from their mothers. The Picts system is similar to the North American system and there is some evidence to support North America as their origin.
The Scots are Irish-Celtic settlers who had started to move into the western Highlands from Ireland in the fourth century. The Pictish and Scottish Kingdoms are united under a Scottish King Kenneth MacAlpin whose mother is Pict. They established their capital at Dunstaffnage castle, Perth, Scotland.
The third group is the Roman-Celtic-British in the Lowlands and they called their kingdom Strathclyde. The three Celts had a tribal economy where the Clan held land and animals in common.
The fourth group is the Angles from Northumbria who are pushing north into the Lowlands and like the rest of the Germanic-English practiced personal ownership.
Vikings settled in Ireland at this time.
841: The Viking built Linn Duachaill Fortress 45 miles north of Dublin in Ireland was discovered. It was built the same year as Dublin and was used to organize attacks against the inland Irish Monasteries, and to send captive Irish slaves abroad. This longphort dominated the area for over 70 years.
Some believe that French as a distinct language began about this time,
The populace of Rome with violent demonstrations elected John (844-844) as bishop of Rome. Another segment of the Roman populace elected Sergius II (844-847) as bishop of Rome. The nobility sided with Sergius and seizing John bishop of Rome threatening him with death and crushed all opposition. Emperor Lothair (840-855) reacted angrily to this flouting of Roman Christian law. A punitive Frankish army began to march on Rome pillaging papal territories as they passed. The bishop of Rome is placed under guard until a synod of twenty Italian Bishops ratified his election. The synod had to accept that no bishop of Rome could be concentrated until ratified by the Holy Emperor. The bishop of Rome after swearing allegiance to the Emperor is allowed to anoint the young Louis King of the Lombards. Simony and corruption flourished under Sergius bishop or Rome reign. Bishoprics and other Church offices are sold to the highest bidder.
This year Paris is sacked by the Vikings.
Emperor Xuanzong of China reigned (846-859)
Muslim (Saracens) pirates landed in force at the mouth of the Tiber storming the fortress of Porto and Ostia. They plundered St. Peter's and St. Paul's stripping them of all their treasures. Many believed this is punishment for the abuses rampant in Rome by the bishop and clergy.
St Leo IV (847-855) a Roman is unanimously elected and consecrated without Imperial consent due to the threat of another Muslim attack.
Leo IV (847-855) bishop of Rome organized the fleets of Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta and defeated the Muslims in a sea-battle just outside Ostia. Noteworthy the Papacy deferred religious decisions and Episcopal appointments to the Frankish Emperor. This is likely a ploy until he achieved sufficient power to establish a stronger papal authority from a position of power. Leo IV (847-855) bishop of Rome however decreed that warriors pure in heart who died fighting for Christ would inherit the Kingdom of God.
The Viking occupied many of the Islands of Scotland, Shetland, Orkneys, Hebrides and the Isle of Man as well as the north east coast of Scotland proper. The result is that the Orkney are 60% of Norwegian Vikings. About this time the Germanic-Anglo-Saxon tribes began using family names that would eventually by 1750 be the norm for England. Emperor Louis II (855-875) is claimed to have been anointed in Rome this year.
Benedict III (855-858) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome when Hadrian refused to be bishop of Rome. Another group disallowed his election and elected Anastasius Bibliothecarius (855-855) as bishop of Rome. Bishop of Rome Benedict is dragged from the papal throne and imprisoned. Bishop of Rome Anastasius had been excommunicated in 850. It eventually become clear that more support existed for Benedict and the Imperial support shifted to his camp. Aethelwulf King of Wessex (839-858) made a pilgrimage to Rome.
St. Cyril (d-869) of the Eastern Church and St. Methodius (d-885) of the Western Church are Christian missionaries sent to preach the gospel and culture to the heathen Slavic tribes who are descendents of the Scythian people. They introduced the alphabet to the Slavic peoples.
An earthquake at Damghan, Iran killed 200 thousand people.
Nicholas I (858-867) a Roman is elected to bishop of Rome being approved by Emperor Louis II (855-875). He believed he is Gods representative on earth and synods serving merely as organs for carrying out his decisions. He invoked the False Decretals attributed to Isidore of Seville (d-636) that are in fact compiled about 850 in France to assert the superiority of the bishop of Rome over the authority of synods and metropolitans. He most likely is fully aware these documents are forgeries. He also employed the anti-bishop of Rome Anastasius Bibliothecarius (855-855) as Vatican librarian there he destroyed documents incriminating him and is later involved in a scandal, dismissed then restored. Nicholas bishop of Rome however vigorously held an uncompromising position of the sanctity of marriage. He even excommunicated two Archbishops for conniving at bigamy. Photius (858-867; 878-886) replaced Ignatius (847-858; 867-877) as patriarch of Constantinople and Nicholas I (858-867) bishop of Rome refused to recognize Photius and excommunicated him. This inevitably contributed to the final separation of the Eastern Churches from the Western Churches. The forged 'Donation of Constantine' conferred the imperial insignia on the bishop of Rome giving him all the provinces of the Western world.
Emperor Yizong of China reigned (859-873)
King Olaf the White who died in battle in Ireland, son King Ingjald, son Helgi, son Olaf, son Gudrod, son Halfdan White-Leg, King of the Uplanders, went on an expedition to the British Isles, where he conquered Dublin and surrounding region. Viking raids and occupation forced the Irish to unite and build towns and ports for trade. He made himself King, married Aud the Deep-Minded, daughter of Ketil Flat-Nose, son Bjorn Buna; they had a son called Thorstein the Red, who is killed in Scotland. Torstein the Red son of Olaf the White and Aud the Deep-Mind; married Thurid, daughter Eyvind the Easterner. They had many children in the Hebridies.
The first of many Viking ships arrived Iceland where they wintered. Included in this group are Floki Vilgerdarsson, Ingolf and his foster brother Hjorkief including ten Westman slaves. One version of history credits Naddod the Viking as the first visitor, another Gardar Svavar. It is believed by some that the Vikings drove many of Iceland's Westman on to Greenland. The Viking sold so many people into slavery the word slav became the root ward for slave. It is noteworthy that for every slave sold there was a willing European ready to buy. To their credit the Viking introduced the concept of trial by jury and majority rules.
Another Mongol migration, the Magyars, reached German this year. Harold Fair Hair (863-933) Germanic-Norwegian Viking King sought domination overseas. In the Hebrides Ketil Flatnose became King and his daughter Aud went on to Iceland.
The Viking from Norway and Denmark began conquering and settling in Scotland, Ireland and England. The Viking quickly accepted Christianity. King Torstein the Red son King Olaf and Earl Siguard the Powerful conquered Caithness, Sutherlawd, Ross, Moray and nearly half of Argyll.
Hadrian II (867-872) a married Roman is elected bishop of Rome. He was elected bishop of Rome twice in 855 and 858 but had declined office. He accepted office as a compromise candidate to stop the violent disputes between critics and supporters of the late bishop of Rome's forceful policies. Emperor Louis II (855-875) fighting the Saracens in south Italy readily gave his consent. Duke Lambert of Spoleto pillaged Rome and the brother of anti-bishop of Rome Anastasius raped the bishop of Rome Hadrian's II daughter and then brutally murdered her and the bishop of Rome's wife. The anti-bishop of Rome is fired as librarian and excommunicated but again restore to office. This suggests he held papal secrets such as the 'False Decretals' and used the threat of exposure to retain his position. Hadrian's bishop of Rome reign as a result lost its authority and effectiveness.
The Viking from Ireland sacked Dumbarton, Scotland enslaving the people. The Irish abandoned Iceland moving on to Greenland.
The Germanic-Anglo-Saxon King of Wessex, Alfred the Great (871-889) conceded a large section of Northeastern England to the Germanic-Danish-Viking, called Danelaw meaning under Germanic-Danish law.
John VIII (872-882) an elderly Roman son of Gundo is elected at an uncertain interval after Hadrians bishop of Rome death in November or December of 872. Bishop John is the first confirmed bishop of Rome to be assassinated. It is recorded that he is poisoned by members of his entourage and then clubbed to death. Some claim John VIII bishop of Rome elected as bishop of Rome is discovered to be a woman when she gave birth and she is stoned to death. If true its not likely this elderly bishop of Rome or the records are falsified. John VIII (872-882) decreed that warriors pure in heart who died fighting for Christ would inherit the Kingdom of God, this is originally decreed by Leo IV (847-855) bishop of Rome.
Emperor Xizong of China reigned (873-888)
Ingolf and Hjorlief brothers established permanent residence in Iceland.
Only King Alfred the Great (871-900) in the west of Wessex held out against the Viking, who by then had taken most of England. Oleg the Viking captured Kiev, Russia.
John VIII (872-882) bishop of Rome excommunicated the future bishop of Rome Formosus ((891-896) Bishop of Porto to prevent intrigue and plots of power-hungry nobles against the papacy. Formosus is considered the most dangerous of the nobles. Its possible he had a hand in the assassination of John VIII bishop of Rome. Carloman son of Louis the German (828-880) marched into Italy to assert his dynastic claim. Emperor Charles the Bald (823-877) fled Italy and died crossing the Alps. The bishop of Rome is imprisoned but escaped to Provence.
The edict of Quierzy makes fiefs hereditary in France.
John VIII bishop of Rome crowned Louis the Stammerer (846-879) then Boso (d-887)
John VIII bishop of Rome found the German Franks repugnant but crowned the son of Louis the German second son Charles the Fat (839-888) as King of Italy and eventually Emperor in 881.
The Westman are permanently settled in Greenland. Some of the first sites are on the southeastern shores. These lands are referred to as Hvitramannaland (White man's land), Ireland Mikkla (Greater Ireland) or the Icelanders called it Albabia. One wonders if Iceland had non-white inhabitants at one time?
John VIII (872-882) bishop of Rome is murdered by an assassin. Marinus I also Martin II (882-884) born the son of a priest at Gallese in Tuscany is elected bishop of Rome. He is the first bishop of another see to be elected bishop of Rome in violation of ancient canons prohibiting the translations of bishops from one see to another.
Rurik the Northman who had penetrated as far South to the Black Sea but established himself at Novgorod. Two of his companions Askold and Dir took possession of Kiev and are murdered along with Rurik this year by Oleg. Rurik is considered as the founder of Russia. These Viking newcomers are assimilated.
St. Hadrian III (884-885) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome. He ordered the blinding of George of the Aventine a high official of the Lateran Palace and enemy of former bishop of Rome John III. A high noble woman is order whipped naked through the streets suggesting she may also be part of the bloody vendettas against the enemies of Bishop John III. Hadrian bishop of Rome died in 885 and foul play is suspected and it is noteworthy that his body is not brought back to Rome.
Stephen V (885-891) a Roman of an aristocratic family is elected by acclamation. Emperor Charles the Fat (881-888) sent Liutward to Rome to have him deposed. The bishop of Rome convinced Liutward that the Imperial envoy had assisted him to take possession of the papacy and the matter is dropped.
Emperor Zhaozong of China reigned (888-904)
The Empire of Charlemagne disintegrated and Stephen V (885-891) bishop of Rome pleaded to the King of the East Franks to rescue Italy from the devastation of pagans and evil Christians.
Guido III duke of Spoleto (d-894) seized the throne of Italy and in 891 the bishop of Rome crowned him the Holy Roman Emperor. He immediately secured the supremacy over the papal state. The bishop of Rome a victim of intrigue he did not understand allowed the formation of the Slav-speaking church that eventually spread to include Russia that is alien to Rome but maintained close ties to Orthodoxy.
Formosus (891-896) a Corsican excommunicated in 876 for treason and likely involved in the assassination of John VIII bishop of Rome is elected bishop of Rome. He is of another see and by canon law not allowed to run for any papal office.
An earthquake at Ardabil, Iran killed 150 thousand people.
Boniface VI (896-896) a Roman son of a bishop had been twice degraded once for immorality is elected bishop of Rome by the rioting populace. Stephen VII (896-897) bishop of Rome, a Roman is elected bishop of Rome and is completely mad having dug up his Corsican predecessor Formosus (891-896) bishop of Rome being dead for over nine months. The corpse is condemned as an anti-bishop of Rome in what is called the Cadaveric Synod, all his acts are declared invalid and he is then thrown into the Tiber River. All clergy that are ordained during Formosus reign had to produce a letter renouncing their orders as invalid. The people rose against the bishop of Rome. Stephen VI (896-897) Bishop of Rome would be strangled in prison the following year.
Romanus (897-?) born at Gallese near Civita Castellana is elected bishop then deposed and imprisoned. Theodore II (897-897) a Roman is elected bishop of Rome and called a synod to condemn the cadaver synod of Formosus bishop of Rome. He destroyed the letters of renunciation on file against the Formosus clergy. He also ordered the body recovered and reburied. His reign is very short likely a violent death.
The followers of Stephen VI bishop of Rome elected Sergius bishop of Cacre (Cerveteri) as bishop of Rome. The Formoscan party expelled the bishop of Rome and elected John IX (898-900) as their bishop of Rome. John a monk was ordained by Formoscan bishop of Rome therefore one of those priests who is considered not ordained. Violent clashes continued between Formosans forces and Stephen forces.
John IX (898-900) bishop of Rome called a synod that annulled the cadaver synod, pardoned those who supported it except Sergins and five associates who are deposed and placed under ban. Trial of the dead is prohibited in the future. The anointing of Arnulf, King of the East Franks as Emperor is rejected as barbaric. Consecration of bishops of Rome are only valid when taken place in the presence of Imperial emissaries. Any deposed clergy could appeal to the Emperor and have his jurisdiction restored.
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