EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1600 - 2000
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The French policy of intervention in the European wars to the greater glory of France led to higher taxes then riots at Dijon in 1630, Paris in 1631, and Lyons in 1632.
During 1630/1631 there was a great famine in India. Cannibalism was so rampant that human flesh was sold on the open market.
There was a great famine in India (1630-1631) . Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh was sold on the open market.
November 1: In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months.
The Holy Roman Empire in May besieged the walled city of Magdeburg. The Protestant Germans and Swedes refused to surrender. Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632) of Sweden fielded 100,000 men and expected to double this number by 1632. The Catholics slaughtered 25,000 residents so brutal that Imperial army commander Count Johann Tilly began hiding women and children in a cathedral. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) of France is determined to contain Spanish power and influence even if that means aiding and abetting Protestants. He pledged funds this year to the Protestant army of Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632) of Sweden and at the same time insisting Catholic Bavarian be spared from attack and that Catholics in conquered countries be permitted to practice their religion. Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) worked diligently to prevent any alliance between France and the Protestant Sweden and took no action against Cardinal Richelieu until its consequence became apparent.
Almost all the inhabitants of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland, were captured in 1631, by Muslim slave traders.
Conditions around Poitiers, France are deteriorating because of the wars, pestilence and overcrowding. All the cultivated land is already cut up into very small pieces and the district has few surplus lots to offer. The second or younger sons had little chance of inheriting a small piece of the family farm or of becoming a craftsman or exercising a trade. Another pestilence decimated a large part of the population in the district this year but did not relieve the over crowding situation. Paul Le Jeune said that before the Roman faith is received in Germany, Spain or England these nations are not more civilized than the Indians of New France. He wisely omitted France in his analogy.
Two gallons of beer were included in the weekly ration for each child in the children's hospital in Norwich, England.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) a personal friend of the pope is forced under threat of torture by Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), seven Cardinals and fabricated evidence to recant that the sun is not the center of the world and that the earth moves. Galileo is forced to deny truth to save himself from torture and hell. This Church decision would hold until 1992 when Pope John Paul II would declare that the Church had made an error.
Sweden is growing poorer every year, in spite of the fact that war is supposed to pay its own way. Sweden wants peace but France wanted war and Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) backed France in the war. France declared open war on Spain but avoided attacking Spain until 1638.
Japan isolated itself from all traders except the Dutch traders.
Englandís attempt to impose Anglicanism on the Scottish Calvinists sparked a rebellion in Scotland. This rebellion would eventually escalate into full-scale war.
The first anti-Gypsy law in Sweden is enacted. All Roma should be expelled from the country within one year. If any Gypsy (Roma) are found in Sweden after that date the men will be hanged and the women and children will be driven out from the country. This evolved into the gentlemen sport of Gypsy-hunting throughout Europe..
France and Sweden formed an alliance that prolonged the war and the people's sufferings. Uprising of the Scots, who joined in the Covenant to defend themselves against the introduction of the Anglican Church into Scotland by William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Japan's feudal government actively opposed the spread of Christianity. Christians of the Shimabara Peninsula revolted against the persecution and some twenty thousand made a last stand in a deserted castle. The Christians killed some ten thousand persecutors before being overpowered and only about one hundred survived. The rebellion only increased Japan's hostility toward Christianity.
January 23: Francisco Maldonado de Silva, a surgeon, a Portuguese, a Jew but a prominent citizen of Spain refused to recant his religion is burnt and becomes a true martyr.
April 22: Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), Commissum Nobis ruled that Indians not be deprived of liberty or their possessions in violation of Canon Law so no one paid attention. See 340, 600, 655, 1187, and 1548.
France supported the revolts of Catalonia and Portugal against Spain including direct invasion. Portugal broke away from Spain. Jerome Le Royer de La Dauversiere a poor tax collector scoured Anjou, Aunis and Normandy, France for unmarried men who for wages, food and lodging would defend the mission and clear land for three years in New France. The expedition of forty-two men, two families and two girls departed Maisonneuve in May 1641. Another twelve would depart a little later.
Spain refused to receive the Popes nuncio when Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) and Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667) both declined to recognize John IV of Portugal (1640-1656) or to fill the bishoprics with his nominees. The King left them unfilled, appreciated their income, and even discussed setting up a New National Church.
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) ordered Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
Swedish and French armies co-operated with a combined penetration of Bohemia (Austria) in the hereditary countries of the Imperialists of the Holy Roman Empire.
Cornelius Jansen at Louvain published his Augustinus based on St Augustus teachings on free will.
The Puritans of England suggested husbands and wives be equal.
(I)-Louis Garnaud, is born 1641, son Pierre Garnault and Jeanne Barrault of Grimaudiere, that is five miles from Mirebeau in the district of Leveche De (Vienna) Poitiers, France. He is probably a Calvinist. Louis died April 2, 1698 L'Ange-Gardien, New France.
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) driven by greed went to war over the papal fief of Castro on the pretext that Odoardo Farnese had defaulted on his debts to the Vatican. Castro allied with Venice, Tuscany and Modena with support from France and imposed a humiliating defeat of the pope armies. This petty war financially crippled the papal state. The Roman populace broke into riotous jubilation at the news of the death of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) in 1644.
Ireland exploded in rebellion against the Protestant English and Scottish settlers who were forcing the Catholic Irish off their land. As many as three thousand men, women and children were killed, most of them in Ulster. King Charles and Parliament quarreled over who should control an army to defeat the rebels in Ireland. Parliament was fearful of Charles friendship to the Catholic Church and was fearful Charles would use an army against the Protestant Parliament. London locked its gates against the King and Charles moved to Nottingham. Civil war had started.
Soap is being manufactured in England and prior to this time bathing was rare in Europe. The Roman Catholic Church considered it a sin to expose the body, even to oneself. Some called the Middle Ages as 1,000 years without a bath.
The Dutch built Fort Anthonio on Formosa (Taiwan), they effectively controlled the Island and drove the Spanish from the Island.
The Rebels who are battling the Ming Dynasty rulers deliberately broke river dikes at the city of Kaifeng in China's Honan province, flooding the city, hundreds of thousands died as a result.
Cardinal Richelieu (Armand Jean du Plessis) (1585-1642) held the power of France from 1624-1642. Richelieu is considered a pitiless warmonger who sided with the Protestants and plotted for war if peace threatened to break out if it suited his political ambitions. The English summarized Cardinal Richelieu's reign, France he subdued, Italy he terrified, Germany he shook, Spain he afflicted, Portugal he crowned, Lorraine he took, Catalonia he received, Swethland he fostered, Flanders he mangled, England he troubled, Europe he beguiled. Cardinal Mazarin (d-1661) replaced Richelieu and his policies would also continued to cause riots, treacheries and civil wars between 1648 to 1653.
Leonard Torstenson ended the Saxon at the second battle of Breitenfeld and they ceased to exist as an independent state.
The English Civil War begins (1642-1649).
Chinese floods kill 300,000 people.
Louis XIV (1643-1715) reigned under one formula "One King, One Faith, One Law" in France. He owed account neither to Church nor to the people. He continued the persecution of the Christian Protestants using the secret police for Royal orders of arrest and political detention, driving out many skilled craftsmen. Louis is called the Sun King and believed himself to be God's Lieutenant called to rule. He proclaimed I am the state and insisted on absolute hierarchical power where each man had a superior to whom he paid all deference and loyalty.
Dutch navigator, Abel Tasman landed Fiji (Cannibel Island). It is noteworthy that only one European was killed and eaten, the Reverend Thomas Baker, a Methodist, who insulted one of the chiefs.
(I)-Marie Mazoue, was born December 8, 1644, baptized a Calvinist in La Rochelle (the Huguenot strong hold), Aunis, France, daughter of Etienne Mazoue and Marie Merand. Marie would marry (I)-Louis Garnaud, July 23, 1663 Quebec, New France.
Innocent X alias Giambattista Pamfili (1644-1655) is elected pope despite serious objections from the French court and the pope immediately sequestered the riches amassed by Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) relatives. Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) the French minister took the family under his protection and induced the pope to pardon them. Pope Innocent himself then practiced nepotism loading the papal offices with his kinsmen. Many accused Pope Innocent with immoral conduct toward his sister in law Donna Olimpia Maidalchini who dominated the papal decisions.
The Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty in china began (1644-1912). Others say Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
The Manchu emperors of China ordered all subjects to shave the top of their heads and wear the rest of their hair in a braid. The men complied until 1911 but the women did not. Many Chinese mandarins fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
Shizu of China with a Reign Title of Shunzhi, Reigned (1644-1661) of the Qing Dynesty.
According to one report, 7,000 English people were abducted into theMuslim slave trade between 1622 to 1644, many of them ship crews and passengers.
King Charles Royalist army is finally defeated as he had no method of raising funds. Oliver Cromwell from East Anglia captured King Charles I but him in prison but did not know what to do with him. The Puritans wanted the Kingship eliminated and the King's death for treason believing they could build God's kingdom in England. The majority of people wanted the King back and two thirds of the MP's did not want the King put on trial. The army removed the objectors and the remaining minority of fifty-three found him guilty of making war against his kingdom and the parliament.
Matthew Hopkins a Suffolk lawyer of little note claimed the title Witch Finder General. He is responsible for the strip searches and interrogation and the hanging of fifty-eight women in Suffolk, St, Edmunds, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdon and Bedford. Hopkins is later charged with cruelty and torture of women and enriching himself at the expense of the country. At last Hopkins himself was tested by his own rule. Being cast into a river, he floated, and was declared to be a wizard, and was put to death.
The Manchu siege of Yangzhou, China in May resulted in the death of 800,000 residents of the city. Chinese missionaries began adapting some traditional Chinese rituals and Pope Innocent X issued his Propaganda decree condemning the practice.
Italy is the main theatre of war this year.
An ordinance passed in Berne gives anyone the right "personally to kill or liquidate by bastinado or firearms" Roma or Heiden (heathen) malefactors.
Naples revolted against Spain and Pope Innocent X (144-1655) sided with Spain less Naples fall into the hands of France. He provided financial aid to Venice and Poland against the Turks.
England passed a law that abolished Christmas. Sometimes entire congregations were arrested for protesting the abolishment of Christmas.
Gypsy (Roma) are punished by the Louis XIV regency of France for being "Bohemians." Punishment is the galleys.
Adam Olerius reports seeing the petrified remains of Noah's Ark.
July 22: About thousands of Jews of Polannoe are massacred by Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593-1657) starting the Khmelnytsky Uprising which is generally referred to as the Deluge (1648-1657). The Jews are intermediaries of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It is estimated that 4 million died of which 100,000 were Jews. The original estimates were 10 to 12 million but this was a gross over estimate. Polish nobles, officials and priests are killed or driven from the region. Some areas were totally depopulated and many women and children were sold into slavery. Sweden, Russia and France also warred against the Poles. This revolution effectively turned the Ukraine over to Russian domination.
A French-Swedish army devastated Bavaria. France and Spain continued their bloody struggle. An acute famine struck Ferrara.
Peace of Westphalia is concluded allowing religious freedom to the Calvinists, changes in denominations are to be tolerated however lands of the Emperor where the Catholic faith alone is acceptable and the year 1624 is to be considered the point-in-time determining the state of Ecclesiastic possessions and denominations. More important an ideal is born, reason is born, the courage to be critical with freedom of thought and that religious toleration must overcome religious dogmatism, ecclesiastic and government authority and moral and class prejudices, humanism is born. The Roman Church would continue to resist religious freedom even though the Catholic Church received its position in Rome through Roman Empire freedom of religion laws. Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) condemned this freedom of religion treaty and began working to undermine the treaty and ferment more war supporting Spain against France. Emperor Ferdinand III (1637-1657) and Elector Maximilian I of Baveria (1623-1651) deemed the compromise unavoidable yet the future Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667) would also condemn the treaty. It is noteworth that Pop Innocent claimed he didn't have enough money to support Emperor Ferdinand III. The war had cost German some five million people in some areas as much as 70% of the population (widespread robbery, brutality, dissipation and delusions about witchcraft). Germany is turned into the Holy Roman Empire from 1648 to its final dissolution in 1806. There are about three hundred states in the Empire acting as sovereign units. The treaty recognized the Republic of the United Netherlands, part of which is now modern Belgium. Cromwell defeated the Scots at Preston.
In Sweden the violin was introduced, likely by the French musicians at the court of Queen Christina. The violin would become the preferred instrument of the Metis in America.
The German region at this time is composed of some three hundred individual sovereign city-states.
Russia serfs were made part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed them to be sold with the land.
October 24: Chmielnicki Hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine) massacred 12,000 Jews.
Paris Parliament initiates the Fronde rebellion of 1649-1652 along with segments of the French nobility and townspeople. Their aims are to reversing the draft towards absolute monarchy and to preserve some local autonomy.
Port Royal, France: This poor country is a horrible site, it is stripped of everything. The soldiers steal everything. It is impossible to plough.
The British Parliament invoked a law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather.
In Seville, Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague.
January 31: King Charles is executed and Oliver
Cromwell created a Republic that would last until 1660. Cromwell
believed he is called by God to rule the nation. He had no problem
in killing 100 women whose husbands are part of the Royalist Army.
They had eliminated the monarchy and they now got rid of the House of Lords
and the Anglican Church. King Cromwell however allowed Jews to again
settle in Britain, the first Jews allowed in over three hundred and fifty
years. Scotland was shocked and King Charles II joined them to fight
against Cromwell's gang, they lost and Charles fled to France. Scotland
was brought under English Republic rule. Oliver Cromwell took an
army to Ireland to punish the Irish for killing of Protestants in 1641.
He captured Drogheda and Wexford and his soldiers killed the inhabitants
of both, about six thousand in all. The English soldiers used Irish
children as shields to keep themselves from being shot or brained.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) headed up the Commonwealth of England (1653-1658). He was a religious genocidal fanatic, he seized Drogheda, Ireland and massacred 3,000 Catholics with cannon fire. He captured 50,000 Irish men, women and children and sold them into slavery to the Bermuda and Barbados. He married Elizabeth Boucher and two daughters died before his painful death. He was so hated that upon his death his body was dug up, hanged in chains and beheaded. His body was dumped in a pit and his head put on display. Some modern English honor this evil man.
England imposes the Penal Laws on Ireland. Catholicism is outlawed as is the exporting of Irish commodities. This oppressive law is designed to impoverish and degrade the Irish Celts.
French Bishop Jacques Benigne (1627-1704) in his Universal History proclaimed that royal power is absolute and need render account of his acts to no one. He counsels his flock to keep the kings commandments. Unite in a single person, behold this holy power, paternal and absolute, and see the image of God in the King.
Cyrano de Bergerac (1620-1655) is believed to be the first to suggest the use of rockets to travel from the earth to the moon.
Last known execution for being Gypsies, in Suffolk, England. Others are banished to America.
The English navigation act is directed against the Dutch forbid foreign goods to be brought into England except by English vessels or vessels from the country of the goods origin.
Normandy, Saint Quentain, France; We only give bread to those who would otherwise die. The staple dish here consists of mice, which the inhabitants hunt, so desperate are they from hungar. They devour roots which animals cannot eat. Not a day passes that at least 200 people die of famine in the two provinces. Herds of men and women wander the fields between Rheims and Rhetel turning up the earth like pigs to find a few rotten roots. Some live on chopped straw mixed with earth, others on diseased bodies of dead animals.
Port Royal, France: People massacre each other daily with every sort of cruelty. Soldiers steal from one another, spoil more property than they carry off, they themselves are reduced to starvation.
A schism within the Russian Orthodox Church led to the traditionalists being called the Raskolniki that would evolve into the Doukhobors that would migrate to Canada.
Matiasz Korolewicz is conferred the title "King of the Gypsies" by the Polish Royal Chancery.
The Dutch East India Company founded Cape Town (South Africa) as a provisioning station. Wars, loss of land, and disease decimated the native Khoisan population. Dutch colonists born on African soil became known as Afrikaners.
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) commissioned a special commission in 1651 to examine five propositions of Jansenism based on the teachings of St. Augustine's on grace and free will. Any semblance of free will, equality or democracy is considered the most serious of heresy. In 1653 he issued a bull unconditionally condemning the five propositions that effectively also condemned St. Augustine in many believers eyes. Pope Innocent X (1744-1655) declares the Jansenism movement in France having so confronted the Jesuit Order on matters of principle and faith as a heresy. The Order is ultimately disbanded and suppressed.
Disagreement between the army and Parliament resulted in its dissolution this year. The army wanted a new equality among all men, those over twenty-one would have the right to elect MP's, and they wanted complete religious freedom. These people are called Levellers and they are defeated. King Oliver Cromwell ruled as a monarch with his army forbidding people to celebrate Christmas and Easter or to play games on a Sunday.
Queen Christina of Sweden (1632-1654) daughter of the Protestant Gustavious Adolphus (1594-1632) abdicated, converted to Roman Catholic, move to Rome and became a burden on the Church.
The religious peace of Augsburg is now to include the Calvinists. Alexander VII alias Fabio Chigi (1655-1667) an Inquisitor of Malta is elected pope. The French minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) objected to the election.
It is estimated that a hundred times more people have been sent to the public gallows in France than were killed in war.
Blaise Pascal a Jansenist attacked the Jesuit as condoning lying, adultery, murder and degrading religion into the observance of empty forms. This is an extremist position but containing elements of truth as history would confirm. Pope Alexander VII originally opposed nepotism but the curia convinced him that the pope's family should live in style and thus strengthen his own position. The pope had poor relations with Louis XIV of France because the Vatican sheltered Cardinal de Retz his rival who had escaped France in 1654. The pope also is known to firmly refuse to enter into discussion with those he considered heretics. He convinced Venice to allow the return of the Jesuits who had been expelled in 1605 during the reign of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). The pope bent to the Jesuit missionaries in China allowing the performance of certain indigenous rites as being effectively civil ceremonies.
Plague kills 400,000 in Naples.
Emperor Ferdinand III (1637-1657) is followed by Emperor Leopold I of Austria (1658-1705) who is violently opposed by Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) but supported by Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667).
King Oliver Cromwell died hoping his son King Richard Cromwell would begin a new dynasty but Richard is not a good leader and the army commanders began to quarrel among themselves. Philip IV arranged peace November 24, 1658 with Louis XIV, Mazarin, at Lyon. Leopold I (d-1705) ruled the Austrian Hapsburg dominions. England in alliance with France defeated the Spanish in the battle of the Dunes.
Starvation, pestilence and war plague France. The peasants are paying a large portion of their crop for local seigneur feudal dues, church tithes and the kingís taxes. The average life expectancy is about twenty-five years. Twenty five percent of children did not live past one year of age. France at this time is still a patchwork of overlapping and conflicting jurisdictions. Royal authority is mostly restricted to Paris. Brittany, Provence and Normandy had their own parliaments, estates, laws, and liberties. Thirty-five years of religious rule left disorder throughout the land.
(I)-Louis Garnaud departed France for the New France colony Quebec. His most probable departure point is La Rochelle (a former Huguenot strong hold), France that was considered a sordid town, at that time, because of it crowded and shabby streets packed tightly about the waterfront. Family tradition suggests he left France due to religious persecution. On November 7, 1659 France and Spain signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
August: Turenne seized Gravelines, that is still part of France. He then took Oudenarde and Ypres. He threatened Ghent and Brussels. Flanders is almost completely conquered. This period is described by some as the universal shaking days, a religious war of every man against every man. Life is described as solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. The Thirty Years of War changed from a simple religious war to a primary power struggle. The Spanish civil war begun in 1640 only ended this year ending hostilities between France and Spain under the Treaty of Pyrenees. Louis XIV of France excluded Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667) from any participation in the peace process.