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The Egyptians consider the Sumerian as barbarians, they have a regular standing army.
In Egypt the King becomes the main link between man and the Gods.
In Mesopotamia authority is in the King High Priest Cult.
Cities are now considered the center of the world and the home of the Gods.
Sometime prior to 3,100 B.C. amidst the highlands of northern Hindustan dark skinned men from the East brought the ancient knowledge of astrology to the west or so reported the Egyptian and Anatolia (Greek) tradition. Some contend that the belief of a god-King emerged during the Egyptian 1-3 Dynasties (3100-2613 B.C.) after extensive contact with the Sumerian culture. The Egyptians believed that the after life would be similar to the present life. The god-King prepared for the after life by taking his concubines, trades people and servants into death with them. This would include 100 or more people. Other Middle East cultures the King ruled for the Spirit-gods not as a God. These fundamental differences justified opposing cultural beliefs. If God is viewed as a jealous vengeful God then the Priests and Kings can perform acts of violence in the name of their God with impunity. If the after life is the same as this life the god-King must seek a just society. The Egyptians considered the God concept as a good God whereas the Sumerians considered God as a vengeful God distinct and apart from mankind. If the after life is fundamentally different God's people can exploit their environment to destruction with no impact on their after life. The Sumerian King High Priests unwittingly began a cultural shift toward a Patriarchal Religion that would sweep the world nearly to its destruction. About this time a fundamental change is taking place in Mesopotamia. Egypt regarded its women as equals whereas Mesopotamia cultures began to treat their women as property. Early Mesopotamia culture impaled the citizens of conquered cities to instill the fear of God into the people to ensure their allegiance to authority. It is noteworthy that the native peoples of America also considered God as a good God and also believed heaven is similar to earth yet better. It is noteworthy that when early Canadian Indians are told their friends will go to hell refused Christianity so they could be with their friends. The Sumerian-Semite-Hebrew tradition basically destroyed tribal cohesion. Bickering and war is an inevitable result.
Egypt's first dynasty is believed to have started at this time.
Abydos (Abedju). Egypt is the religious center of the god Osirus and predates the Kings of Egypt who were buried here from 3,100 to 2,613 B.C. The first kings had their courts killed upon their deaths and buried at Abydos. Most were younger than age 25 and likely killed by poison. Abydos was considered the most sacred place in all of Egypt.
Egypt has a complex writing system at this time suggesting it preceded the Sumerian system. Upper and Lower Egypt are viewed as two goddesses. Most people considered the fertile land as feminine. The Egyptian historian Manetho (about 280 B.C.) wrote that the first ruler of Egypt named Menes (Narmer) (meaning angry catfish) (ca. 3100-3072 B.C.) from Hierakonpolis began his rule about this time in Thinis. Kaa who also campaigned for unity in Egypt precedes Narmer. Legend suggests he is the first king to unite upper and lower Egypt. This first dynasty lasted for two hundred years (3100-2890 B.C) and included eight Kings. Menes is listed as the first human King after a line of divine rulers. The town of White Walls later called Memphis in Upper Egypt is believed built about this time. Egyptian pottery is being traded at this time to Tell Gat, Palestine. It is believed that the Hatiua (Libyans) separated from Egypt about this time. Hatiua means Princes likely because of their splendid attire. Narmer recorded victories over the people of Tjehenu (land of the Libyans).
The Sumerian tradition dominated the Middle East yet about this time new dialects began to appear as though being influenced by the rapidly evolving written language. The Semites first appear as a distinct dialect of Sumerian. They are neither religious, political, artistic nor culturally different at this time from the other Sumerians but would gradually differentiate. They are presently living in Akkad that would later (2400 B.C.) again differentiate into another dialect. The Semitic tradition of the tower of Babel likely represents this period as linguistic differences leads to misunderstanding and eventually war. The people appear to be a mixture of Armenoid and Mediterranean people with Mediterranean being most predominant. These Sumerians are therefore a culture and not a race of people. Most reputable scientists conclude that by this time there is only one race of man, the human race. Linguistically Sumerian can be found from Hungary to Polynesia (many Islands of 1,200 languages) but bears no close resemblance to any known language, dead or living.
The Greek Island of Crete was occupied by the Minoans from (3100-1050 B.C.). Others suggest it was more like 128,000 B.C. The first ruler was King Minos, the "master of the seas". He is said to have rid the seas of pirates and conducted ocean trade with Egypt, Ansatolia and the Levant. The Minoans worshiped mostly female deities. They had their own form of writing, the first known in Europe likely linked to Persians (Iran and India). They were not Indo-European in nature but believed to originate from Asia. They were a highly advance culture and traded as far as Spain. The Thera (Santorni) volcano in 1620 B.C. caused a tsunami which destroyed the culture on the Island of Crete by killing an estimated 30,000 citizens. The volcano released the energy of 200,000 H. bombs the greatest eruption known in Europe. Modern science suggests it was 4 times larger than Krakatoa in 1883.
Reign King Aha (meaning fighting hawk) (ca. 3072-3046 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt son Queen Neithotpe and likely Narmer. King Aha married Berenib and Hent the mother of King Djer. King Aha is considered to be a divine spirit-god similar to the kings that preceded his human father King Menes (ca. 3100-3072 B.C.). King Aha firmly established the city of Memphis on the ruins of the wooden town of White Walls. The timber used in White Walls and later in Memphis likely came from Syria to the north via trade. The hippopotamus is a great symbol of this period and royalty enjoyed hunting the great animals. Legend suggests King Aha is killed at the age of sixty-two by a hippopotamus. The hippopotamus became known as evil evolving into the evil spirit Seth. King Aha is buried three hundred miles south in a place called Abydos (city of the dead). Egyptians believed in a life after death, a resurrection into the next world to rule with God and keep order in the universe. The kings wives, concubines, servants and pets were killed to continue providing service to the king in the after life.
Clay jar remains from Toshka are found near Buhen in the Republic of Sudan.
Reign King Djer (ca. 3046-3020 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. King Djet the son of Aha married Herneith. The noble class consumed large quantities of beef while the lower class consumed barley breads. He led a military campaign into the Sinai.
Reign of King Djet (Wadji) (ca. 3020-2994 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. King Djet likely married Merneith regent and likely mother King Den.
Smallpox first appears in Egypt about this time.
Evidence of a temple culture exists in Malta.
Taiwan is trading raw jade via a 1,800 mile (3,000 km) trade route around the south China Sea. The research does not identify the traders (freighters).
Archeological digs suggest Troy, Turkey was built about this time.
Some believe the proto-Indo Aryans as used to identify language and culture originated in southern Russia and Central Asia. The northern culture about 40,000 B.,C. and the southern culture about 60,000 B.C. and were well mixed about 20,000 B.C. The language (Sanskript) is believed to have originated about this time in the Indo-Iranian people. Others suggest it was closer to 1,800 B.C. The only thing for sure is there is no consensus of opinion. DNA studies have not been conclusive. Others suggest Aryanism is more a myth. We often forget there is only one race the Human Race.
Chinese exploration over the next 500 years is conducted in Northern China, Siberia and some believe as far as Alaska. Some content these expeditions returned from America with the Folsom Points technology. China, Indus-valley, Mesopotamia and Egyptian cultures begin rapid advancement. Legends suggest that the silk industry started about this time in China. By 2,000 B.C. evidence suggests silk production is in full swing. Some say Peking is being populated with northern tribes migrating south. Some believe the Ural-Altaic (Mongols, Huns, Tungusic tribes) are settling into northern Japan. Southern Japan is believed populated by a different peoples. These early people like those of the Americas held it all-important to remain in harmony with nature. They stressed the importance of the quality of tranquility and beauty of their surroundings rather than those of turbulence or menace. The earth is viewed as a Garden of Eden and most caretakers know a rose has some thorns.
It is believed the Mongolian people have domesticated the horse about this time. A burial site north of Mongolia in Siberia suggests these people may have first domesticated the horse in Asia. It is noteworthy that their burial practices including embalming techniques similar to the Egyptian technology, and Peruvian burial practice. The horse quickly appeared in Mongolia to Turkey and Switzerland. It is unknown where the the domestication of the horse really originated. Some speculate the Botai people herded the horse for food maybe since 6,000 B.C. and may have been the first to ride them. Kazakh drink fermented horse milk since 6,000 B.C.
The culture called the Lapps of northern Europe developed the ski. Some suggest a significant Indus Valley civilization existed that covered Western Asia, Eastern Mediterranean and India being obliterated by the Aryan invasion. The Aryans are believed to have invaded the Punjab (upper Indus) about this time.
The Iberian culture arrived in Spain from Africa. They eventually mixed with the Celts to become the Celtiberian Culture. Neolithic people probably Iberian (Spanish Basque), small dark and long headed people inhabited Wales and Cornwall. The Chalk Land people are building great circles of earth banks and ditches, inside are wooden buildings and stone circles that are called Henge's. The Kurgan culture of southern Russia is a copper using agricultural community. They used wheeled vehicles, copper and stone battle axes and used burial mounds. These people are probably the Battle-Axe people.
The Euskal Herria (between Spain and France) or the land of the Basque language usually dates their beginning from this period.
Some conservative linguistics speculates the first Indo-European speaking migrations began from the area between the Baltic and Black Sea. They believe the Indo-European originated from the Battle-Axe people. The Battle-Axe culture at this time spread through Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Denmark. Others speculate this culture did not reach Denmark and the Rhine valley until 1,600 B.C. to mix with the Beaker People. The Western Semite (Cananeo-Phoenician, Eblaites and Amorites) is living in Mesopotamia and the Syria-Palestine region. The city of Ebla (Syria) has a strong Sumerian flavor in its architecture and the library contained both Sumerian and Semitic texts in standard cuneiform writing. The same can be said of Mari (Iraq) on the middle Euphrates where script is purely Sumerian yet the people are known to be Semites. The Semitic Cananeo-Phoenician also known as the Sidonians by the Anatolia (Greek) became known as the Canaanites and eventually the Semitic-Hebrews. These Semitic-Canaanites occupy Beirut, Lebanon as evidenced by the remains of the city gates.
Some believe the Hamitic people evolved into the Egyptian people. Egyptian culture prior to this time is called Later Naqada or Naqada II civilization. It is noteworthy that the Palermo Stone lists 120 Egyptian Kings that predate 3,000 B.C. The Naqada used burials, implements, pottery and figurative art. This time period of the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt is the advent of writing and the potter's wheel in Egypt. The Egyptian religion adopted the idea that the King is a Spirit-god. The King became the main link between men and the Spirit-gods. It would appear this belief is borrowed and evolved from the Mesopotamia culture of the King High Priests. It is a short evolution from a King Priest to a priest King then the ultimate King Spirit-god. Surprising little cultural contact exists between the Mesopotamia culture and Egyptian culture. There is evidence of cultural dispersion East to West but little if any from Egypt to Iraq. The Sumar religion held that lands to the East are the lands of the living and lands to the West are the lands of the dead. They likely considered the Egyptians primitive people not worthy of analysis. This would tend to support a historic Sumar migration of East to the West.
Minoan Culture with their Asian origin lived on the Island of Crete during the period from 3,000 B.C. to 1,400 B.C. Egypt considered them civilized and called them Keftiu. All others are considered barbarians including the Sumerian who are an abomination against God Re. Remnants of this society lingered on until 1,200 B.C. They followed a religion based on the Great Mother and all indications suggest they are a very peace loving people. Minoan pottery can be found in Egypt's Middle Kingdom and other artifacts suggest they had an extensive seafaring empire. On the Island of Crete an agricultural society also flourished. Evidence suggests that women equaled men in the Council of Elders and in economic, social and religious spheres they predominated. Women engaged in hunting and agriculture. The Minoan is unmistakably matrilineal and matriarchal in nature. Some of these people became the Philistines. Minoan tradition suggests Europa (a female) is brought from Palestine Region by the Spirit-god Zeus to Crete and brought forth King Minos through divine birth. This is the Minoan and Canaanite creation story. Others suggest the Minoan culture existed Crete from 128,00 B.C. (this might be a streach?) and had agriculture since 7,000 B.C. They were established on the Island of Santorini aka Theria from 3,500 B.C.
The Sumerian culture is believed the first culture to maintain a regular army. The Sumerian exercised authority through their God based on might is right. Each city had its own God perception. They believed in three great tenets, building of temples, building of canals and waging of war. There is evidence to support the belief that the Sumerians are trading into the Indus Valley about this time. Some suggest Jerusalem is first settled about this time. The Sumerian's evolved their pictograph writing into truly abstract symbol writing. Their writing believed to be the first in the world looks like Chinese and Japanese writing.
A belief developed that cities are the Center of the world and the home of the Spirit-gods. This belief is critical to paternalistic religious beliefs. The Mecca, Jerusalem and Rome syndrome is traced to this belief. During the reign of king Pepi I of Egypt the belief that Pepei is a spirit-god, the son of God (Neter or Re) is recorded. The Egyptians however believed that God is One and alone, and none other exists with Him; God is the One who made all things. Pepei as god, likely means God like. The Egyptians believed that God provided everything to man and man is the mere guardian of the earth’s riches. It is noteworthy that the natives of North America share this same belief. The Egyptians believed that neither man nor woman should be afraid as God is opposed to fear.
The first traces of the Phoenicians culture are noted in Lebanon, Syria and Israel. The peoples called the Canannites and Boat Peoples are in fact the Phoenicians. DNA analysis suggests that Lebanon Muslims and Christians of the 21 century are descendents of these people.
Some contend the Iranian culture began about this time in Sumer southern Mesopotamia.
A ditch encircling Stonehenge is believed dug using antlers date to this period. The actual construction lasted about 400 to 800 years. There is indications of burnt pine wood dating back to 8,000 B.C. suggesting the area was in use for a long period of time The earliest human remains date to 3030 B.C.
The Ainu (the unwanted) of Japan know the killer whale (orca) as the god of the sea (repun-kamuy). They hunt the whale for food. They are believed to have occupied Japan from this date.
The Mesopotamians are using rock oil as an adhesive, for caulking, medicine and on roads.
Hinduism a religious tradition of Indian origin is believed to have originated about this time. Others suggest it originated 4,500 B.C. Some suggest the Aryan people introduced Hindu (Sindhu) to India about 2,000 B.C.
A door with sophisticated joinery design was found well preserved under a new parking garage in Zurich, Switzerland.
Reign of King Den (Wedimu, Dewen) (ca. 2994-2968 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. Conducted a military campaign in the Sinai.
Reign of King Adjib or Anedjib (ca. 2968-2942 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. He married Betresh or Tarset the mother of King Semerkhet. He claimed to be King of Upper and Lower Egypt but the Nome Prince clans offered resistance to unity.
The Heavenly Sovereign was Fu Xi who reigned in China (2,952-2,836 B.C.) or (2,852-2,737 B.C.). He is claimed to have invented writing, fishing and trapping. He is said to have been born on the Yellow River in a place called Chengi.
A 20 foot wooden boat was discovered in the cemetery of Abu Rawash in Egypt.
Reign of King Semerkhet (ca. 2942-2916 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. King Smerkhet of Egypt recorded the establishment of mines in the Sinai Peninsula.
The great flood or deluge occurred at this time according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.). Geologists suggest the flooding of the Black Sea occurred about 5,540 B.C. The patriarch of the Shem tribe (?-2329) is a descendent of the tribe of Noah (3529-2579) according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
The patriarch of the Arphaxad tribe (2927-2489) is a descendent of the tribe of Shem (?-2329) according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
Reign of King Qa or Qaa (ca. 2916-2890 B.C.) Dynasty 1 of Egypt. It is known that the first dynasty kings are trading with Syria. The Libyans at this time are called Hatiua Princes who live in the land of Tjehenu.
The Royal Cemetery at Ur, Iraq suggests the death of a Spirit-god-King demands the death of musicians, soldiers, court ladies and servants up to 74 attendants to accompany a divine person into the after life.
Early Kings of Uruk, Iraq (3,000 to 2700 B.C.) prior to Gilgamesh are Meskiangasher, Enmerkar, Lugalbanda & Dumuzi all Spirit-god-Kings. The Epic of Gilgamesh (2900 or 2700 B.C.) of Uruk, Iraq likely predates this period but is attributed to the King-Spirit-god of Uruk. Gilgamesh son of Spirit-goddess Ninsun and High Priest Kullab of Uruk is the fifth king of the first Dynasty of Uruk, Iraq and speaks of the land of the dead (Hell) and his search for immortality. The Egyptians also pursued immortality. The Mesopotamia culture believed man once had immortality and lost it.
Gilgamesh (2900 or 2700 B.C.) recorded that to be civilized one must
bathe, anoint themselves with perfumed oil, eat bread and indulge in strong
drink. He also frequented the Family House to sleep with the virgins.
Those who don't practice these rituals are brutish, wild beasts living
uncivilized lives. King Gilgamesh (2900 or 2700 B.C.) claimed the
ancient birthright to sleep with their brides before the husband is permitted.
Gilgamesh held women in contempt and went to great lengths to degrade them.
The Code of Hammurabi would institutionalize this evolving subjection of
women that would eventually dominate the Bible. The decline of the
status of women aligned closely with the status of private property, political
centralization and militarism. The Minoan culture suggests a city
state transition is not associated with subjection of women.
Uruk or rather Gilgamesh the King of Uruk meets the immortal Ut-napishtim
(Noah (3529-2579) son of Ubar Tutu the King of Shuruppak in legend.
Gilgamesh is also associated with the period about 2,900-2,800 B.C.
Ut-napishtim builds an ark, is saved from the Great Flood (5,540 B.C.)
sent by the Spirit-god Ea to punish man and the ark eventually landed on
mount Nisir. Mount Nisir is usually associated with mount Pir Omar
Gudruin in the Zagros range south of the Lower Zab. The Noah story
in other Middle East cultures takes the name Ziusudra or Atrahasis meaning
exceedingly wise. All Middle East accounts speak of a gigantic flood
(5,540 B.C.) that swept the earth killing all mankind except for the people
of the ark. This legend records the replacement of all mankind of
one race of men to another. This legend if true could be their
explanation for the disappearance of the Neanderthal culture. Neanderthal
however are still present in Europe in 1,300 B.C. Most
believe this is an accumulation of many flood stores finally being exaggerated
to make a belief point of view. The Atrahasis version of the flood
suggests the spirit-gods are punishing man because of over population and
the solution is to cut birth rates and establish a cult of barren priestesses.
The flood story is universal throughout the world but only the Sumerian
culture reasoned it as a punishment from the Spirit-gods. Hundreds
of copies of this Sumerian biblical story are created and circulated.
Copies of the Chaldean (Noah) flood stories are found as far as Megiddo,
2,890 B.C. Reign of King Hetepsekhemwy or Hotepsekhemwy (meaning the two mighty ones are at rest)(ca. 2890-2856 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt. Some position this 2nd dynasty as 2770-2649 B.C. The new dynasty rulers deserted the royal cemetery at Abydos for a royal necropolis south of Sakkara. There is also a shift from Spirit-god Horus and Seth to the sun God Re. It is believed a new family had control of Egypt. An earthquake struck the region of Bubastis in the Delta during his reign.
Reign of King Reneb (ca. 2856-2822 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt.
Fuhsi is traditionally ascribed as having invented writing in China and Ts'ang Chich the court historian is claimed to have first used the symbols for words.
Chinese surnames originated with Emperor Fu Xi to facilitate census taking. Emperor Fushi decreed that people would be identified with a formal family name as well as a familiar first name.
This is considered the beginning of the Egyptian Old Kingdom (2850-2052 B.C.) by some historians and includes the Age of the Pyramids. Prior to this time Upper and Lower Egypt is united under Menes (3100 B.C.) and his successors establishing their capital at Memphis alias White Walls. The Egyptian dynasties called the Thinis Period (Dynasties I-II) began including struggles with the Bedouins of the Sinai Peninsula for their copper mines, excursions to Byblos (Lebanon) for cedar and advances into Nubia for their gold mines.
The Earthly Sovereign of China is said to be Nuwa (2,835-2,736 B.C). China at this time was a matriarchal society. During her reign a Great Flood covered China. She is said to have mended the heavens and firmament after the Great Flood killed most of the people. This legend is the same as the Noah legend of the Jews. It is said she repopulated the world by taking clay and making people by breathing life into them. Similar to the Genesis legends. Dr. Immanuel Velikovasky b-1895, in his 1950 book's 'Ages in Chaos' and 'Worlds in Collision' concluded a global cataclysm had taken place. It speaks of a wall of water coming over the mountains into China. The bible speaks of a time when the sun 'Stood Still', the heavens were in disturbed. .
Reign of King Ninetjer or Nyneter (ca. 2822-2788 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt.