EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1600 - 2000
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Measles reached Hawaii killing 1/5 of the population.
Between (1850-1868) 10,000 English who were considered hardened criminals were sent to Australia.
Those who desired power in Austria believed the State is the highest manifestation of human existence and the fate of individuals who composed it is of little importance. Frederick William's ideal model is the creation of a German Federation under a Catholic Habsburg Emperor with a Protestant Hohenzollern King as hereditary commander in chief. We need to keep in mind that Austria proper at this time is a multicultural Empire being composed of Germans, Czechs, Poles, Ruthenians, Slovenes, Serbo-Croats, Italians and Rumanians. Austria has a standing army of 600,000 men. In October, Austria mobilized and marched on Bavaria and Wurttemberg winning them to her side.
The Falloux Law in France gave the local Roman Catholic priest the right to provide religious education in public schools. Pius IX (1846-1878) appealed to the Catholic powers and French troops restored papal rule in Rome. The pope set a paternalistic regime in the Papal States and frowned on any nationalistic aspirations. He thereby alienated himself from the educated people.
Even as late as this date many scientist believed the universe to be 6,000 years old vs. modern estimates of 15 billion years.
The aboriginal people of Japan, the Ainu on the Island of Hokkaido, were forced to take Japanese names. Their lands were confiscated and they were forced into slave labor camps
The Boers dream of freedom from British rule culminated in the founding of the Boer Republic in the Orange Free State of South Africa, this decade.
The Gypsies aka Roma slaves of Romania are freed this yeaer.
The great London Expedition presented the ice-making machine to demonstrate that with heat you can produce cold.
The Irish potato famine combined with typhus is estimated to have killed 1,500,000 people since 1846.
Wenzong of China with a Reign Title of Xianfeng, Reigned (1851-1861) of the Qing Dynesty.
The China floods 1851-1866 killed up to 50 million people.
Disraeli writing on the life of Lord George Bentinck summarized the European situation. Let us not be deluded by forms of government, a republic in France, constitutional monarchy in Prussia, absolute monarchy in Austria. The government is the government of the sword with vast standing armies, the irresistible law that dooms Europe.
In Glengarry, Scotland whole families were put into ships and sent across the ocean, those who tried to escape were hunted down like deer. During these Violent Land Clearances the people believed the Chiefs preferred the well being of sheep to men, whose ancestors had served their ancestors for generations.
Anesthesia was being used to diminish the pain of childbirth but Churchmen objected because the Bible says "in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children" as one of the punishments for eating forbidden fruit. Queen Victoria the head of the Church allowed herself to be chloroformed while giving birth to her seventh child, and all criticism stopped.
Pius IX (1846-1878) defined the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary as being free from original sin. This established the precedent that all mankind is not conceived of original sin. There is no reason to believe that North American Indians, as an example, are not also free from original sin. The concept of original sin or mans fall from Gods favor appears to be confined to the Middle East having originated in Iraq.
The Crimean War (1853-1856) begins.
October 1: Russia declared war on Turkey under the pretext of a holy war to liberate the Christians under the Turkish yoke. This tactics forces the French and English into the infamy of fighting for the Crescent. Austria is perplexed with the Crimean war wanting to remain natural believing nothing will be gained by doing violence to the existing order.
December 2: Emperor Franz Josef of Austria (1848-1916) is forced to sign a treaty of alliance with the Maritime Powers (Western Powers). The Austrian Emperor however had no intention of fighting except as a last resort. Austria never did get sucked into the Crimean War but still lost thousands by disease and cholera that is killing the French and British troops.
An earthquake at Ansei Nankai, Japan killed 85 thousand people.
England supported the Turks against Russia in the Crimean war in the Black Sea. Austria had a standing army of 450,000 men that is slowly driving the Empire into bankruptcy. The Austrian neutrality caused most other Empires of Europe to regard Austria with disdain. Austria under King Francis Joseph (1848-1916) therefore aligned herself with Rome and Pope Pius IX (1846-1878). The Concordat with Rome surrendered to the Church part of Austrian sovereignty. Schools are handed to the Church, bishops are allowed to communicate privately with the Vatican. Marriage became the sole responsibility of the Church.
Pope Pius IX proclaimed that Mary b-18-20 B.C. the wife of Joseph when conceived received the priviledge of almighty god and was born free from sin. The Orthodox churches believe this is nonsense, it would have taken away her free will and taken away her yes to Gods request.
Cavour leads Piedmont into the Crimean war on the side of France and England bringing pressure on Austrian neutrality.
Gobineau publishes his book Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines, which argues that human beings fall into higher and lower races, with the white "Aryan" race, and particularly the Nordic people, ranking at the top. This had particular impact upon German philosophical and political thinking.
A decree issued in the Duchy of Baden warns the citizens that "in recent times, Gypsies, especially from Alsace, have frequently been re-entering and travelling about with their families, purportedly to engage in trade but mostly for the purposes of begging or other illegal activities."
The Slobuzenja. Abolition of slavery in Romania; large-scale emigrations of Roma to western Europe and America begins.
South African Republic is declared.
Two British scientists climb Mt Ararat to disprove the existence of Noah's Ark but report a chest-like shape of petrified wood at 15,000 foot level on the northeast side of Mt Ararat.
March 30: The Czar Alexander II (1855-1881) of Russia announced his decision to emancipate (free) the serfs (slaves) of Russia. He said it is better to begin abolishing serfdom from above than to wait for it to begin to abolish itself from below. The treaty of Paris concluded the Crimean War and forbid Russian Orthodox Christians to make claims of protection over Christians in the Ottoman Empire. France as a Roman Christian nation held that position. The issue is Greek Orthodox Christianity Vs Roman Orthodox Christianity. Russia also lost control of Moldavia and Walachia.
Britain under Queen Victoria (1837-1901) put down what they called the Indian Mutiny of Hindu and Muslim Princes and the British behaved with great violence and cruelty in punishing the defeated peoples. Others call it the Indian Rebellion (1857-1859) against British occupation.
Over 100,000 died in an earthquake and fire in Tokyo, Japan.
An earthquake of magnitude 6.9 hit Naples, Italy killing 11,000 people.
Coco (Keeling) Island 800 miles west of Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean is a possession of the Clunies-Ross family and is placed under British rule this year. Later it became a territory of Australia.
Cavour of Piedmont and Napoleon III (1851-1870) of France plotted to provoke a war in Italy that would permit their two nations to intervene against Austria. France is to receive Nice and Savoy for its part. Piedmont is to receive Lombardy. Later Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna voted to unify with Piedmont.
Antonio Snider a geographer proposed 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' and published a map depicting Pangaea.
Four women regarded as social visionaries implemented Robert Chambers proposal of 1826 to export child labor to Canada. The infamous women were Annie MacPherson, Rachel MacPherson, Louisa MacPherson and Mara Rye. They established way stations in London and Liverpool to basically collect the children for deportation into a form of slave labor. Maria Rye specialized in young girls who were shipped to Niagra on the Lake to work the farms in Southern Ontario.
April 26: War is declared between Piedmount, France against Austria. About 138,000 French faced 129,000 Austrians. One day of fighting saw nearly 40,000 dead and wounded on the field. Napoleon III (1851-1870) is the Emperor of France and Francais Joseph (1848-1916) is King of Austria.
Garibaldi lands his forces in Sicily and invades southern Italy. The Kingdom of Italy is created with its capital at Florence. Victor Emmanuel II (1861-1878) becomes King. Jews in England for the first time were given equal rights with other citizens.
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) newly raised army is defeated at Castelfidardo. The Vatican lost all their dominions with the exception of Rome to the New Kingdom of Italy. A French garrison protects the pope for the next ten years.
Italy becomes a Kingdom.
Muzong of China with a Reign Title of Dongzhi, Reigned (1862-1874) of the Qing Dynesty.
Twelve thousand priests signed a petition to make Rome the capital of a new Italy, and to say a word for peace, Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) reaction is to discipline these rebels, everyone.
Otto Van Bismarck (1815-1898) prime minister of Prussia said the great questions are decided not by speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood. He is credited with making Germany a united nation by drawing Prussia into three wars.
King Franz Joseph (1848-1916) and his minister of Austria foolishly permitted themselves to be drawn into the war against Denmark, from which Prussia alone stood to profit.
A cholera pandemic spread worldwide in 1863 to 1866.
The pope demanded a return to the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas that the popes should not reconcile to or agree with progress, liberalism or modern civilization. This dealt a fatal blow to liberal Catholicism leaving no alternative but separation of church and state. Pope Pius IX's (1846-1878) issued his Syllabus of Errors condemned most modern social theories and institutions, such as labor unions and parliamentary democracy. The Austrian Chancellor, Metternich classified Pope Pius IX as warm of heart, weak of head and lacking utterly in common sense. Pope Pius IX however directly ruled nearly three million people as their absolute monarch, there is no freedom of thought or expression, no elections, books and papers are censored, Jews are locked up in ghettos, a police state flying the Papal flag. It is respectfully pointed out to him that Jesus said my kingdom is not of this world and begged him to save Italy and the Papacy before it is too late.
The Danish War lost Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia and Austria.
October 5: A cyclone struck Calcutta, India with a loss of 60,000 lives.
February 15: Pius IX (1846-1878) proclaimed that liberty of conscience and toleration I condemn (in Rome), I claim in England and other foreign countries for the Catholic Church.
The Finnish famine of (1866-1868) resulted in 150 thousand deaths.
The Austrian navel battle with the Italians included 26 Austrian ships and 28 Italian ships. The Austrian Admiral Tegethoff ordered his ironclads to ram the Italians flagship. The Italian flagship is breached and sent to the bottom. The rest of the Italian fleet made off as best they could. Bismarck ordered Prussian forces to do whatever is necessary to be obnoxious to the Austrians to instigate war. As a result of the Prussian-Austro War Piedmount (Italy) obtained Venetia.
The Holy Office declared that slavery is not at all contrary to the Natural Law. This is consistent with Canon Law see 340, 600, 655, 1187, 1548 but is the opposite of Canon Law see 1537, 1591, 1639, 1741, and 1839. It is noteworthy that numerous antislavery texts are placed on the Forbidden Reading Index in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The compromise of February 18, 1867 divided the Habsburg Empire into two great segments, Austria and Hungary, under a single monarch, Franz Joseph (1848-1916) as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, with a common army and common foreign policy. The standing army is based on conscription for a two-year term and a ten-year commitment to the reserves. This political arrangement would last for fifty years. The people showed little interest in the political changes. They lived under absolute police rule and heavy press censorship. Vienna, Austria and surrounding areas are predominately German speaking. North of Vienna is the Czechs, to the east Slovaks and to the south Magyars (Hungarians). In August Napoleon and Eugenie came to Salzburg, Austria to establish contact with Emperor Franz Josef (1848-1916) with a view to future alliance against Prussia.
Diamonds are discovered in the Boer Republic of South Africa.
In Holland, Richard Liebich's work on Gypsy (Roma) introduces the phrase "lives unworthy of life" with specific reference to them (Gypsy), and later used as a racial category against Gypsy (Roma) in Nazi Germany.
New South Wales (Australia) became a penal colony for Britain in 1788. It is estimated that 161,000 English, Irish and other convicts were forced to settle there. Prison transport ended in 1868. Other regular emigrants began to settle the country.
India suffered famines (1769-1771), inc. Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa resulting in 15 million deaths.
The independent Police Ministry in Austria is abolished, Jews are largely emancipated, compulsory and free elementary education is established. The Roman Church authority is gradually whittled away. Civil marriage is legalized and schools are taken away from Church control. This is followed by a law putting all Christian creeds on an equal footing. Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) denounced the new laws as truly unholy, as absolutely null and void as destructive, abominable and damnable. The Bishops of Austria instructed their flocks to disobey the laws. One outspoken Bishop is sent to prison and subsequently pardoned.
The British Juvenile Emigration Movement commenced this year and over
the next 60 years 80,000 (70 years 100,000) alleged pauper and criminal children are deported to North America into slavery (indenture). Thousands of children aged 2 to 15 years old were transported to Canada without their parents knowledge or
consent. This system only collapsed during the Great Depression and with the threat of World War II. Some suggest the Earl of Shaftesbury started the practice in 1868 by sending indentured boys to Toronto, Canada. The agencies involved are the Liverpool Sheltering Home, the Catholic Emigration Association and the Church of England Society for Waifs and Strays. The shame attached to this wave of deportees is so strong that most when released from their indentures hide their background even to their own children and spouses.
Others estimate the numbers total 150,000 when deportation to Australia, New
Zealand and Africa are included. The evangelist Anne MacPherson opened her
Home of Industry in London's east end and began shipping children to
Canada. She also worked with the infamous Dr. Thomas Barnardo who is
responsible for shipping 30,000 children to Canada.
For more information go to: British Home Children
Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck circulates a letter dated November 18th demanding the "complete prohibition of foreign Gypsies crossing the German border," and that "they will be transported by the closest route to their country of origin." He also states that Roma in Germany be asked to show documentary proof of citizenship, and that if this is not forthcoming, they be denied traveling passes.
Rome becomes the capital of Italy.
Pius IX (1846-1878) proclaimed infallibility during the first Vatican Council (1869-1870) or twentieth General Council convinced that no Pope, himself included, could ever make a mistake in matters of faith and morals. This means infallibility is the Divine Right to proclaim wrong. Many believe Pius has moved the church into the darkness by placing himself above God. He is fully aware that the tradition leading up to this position is based on lies and forged documents. Infallibility is grounded in the ancient philosophy of an unchanging universe. This solid state theory is based on the understanding that the sun is the center of a unchanging universe. Things of earth may change but the Sun God does not change. This blunder has the disadvantage that no claim can be withdrawn, no doctrine denied, no moral decision reversed, even when new facts suggest a radical change. Many feel that it goes against all that is known about the early Christian church. Others contend even Peter made errors concerning Church matters of faith and doctrine and when an error is pointed out by Paul he saw no loss of face or faith in admitting his error. Five hundred thirty two bishops met to vote on the issue, one hundred and forty refused to vote, three hundred titular Bishops supported the Pope, two thirds of the American Bishops are opposed. One historian of the times counted ninety-five Popes who claimed to have divine power, based on Scripture, to depose kings. Pius IX spoke angrily of the many malicious errors regarding infallibility, disposing sovereigns is a matter of authority, not infallibility. As a result of Vatican I the issue of Church control of education in Europe is hotly debated and many countries eliminate the church control of education. Church control of education is eliminated in Germany in 1871 and France in 1886.
Prussian troops advanced on Austria and in five days are pushed back nearly to the Elbe. Ten thousand men and 279 officers are lost in the attack. Prussia now occupied Bohemia (Austria). Bismarck goaded the French into a declaration of war. France declares war on Prussia.
The French garrison protecting the pope is withdrawn because of the Franco-Prussian war.
Some historians suggest European unity of nations changed about this time from dynastic links to ethnic, cultural, linguistic and historical bonds. It could also be said this is the beginning of a change from a religious military nation linkage to political bonds.
Thomas John Barnardo set up an agency in London east end and sent 30,000 children into slave labor conditions in Canada. He established homes in Peterborough, Ontario and Russell, Manitoba.
The newly unified Kingdom of Italy expelled all but one Jesuit as a result of pressure from most European Countries. Pietro Angelo Secchi an important astronomer was spared as his skills outweighed the fact of his membership in the order.
September 30: The Italian troops took Rome, the people are jubilant, the Jews, by royal decree, is given the freedom that the Papacy had denied them for over fifteen hundred years. The last ghetto in Europe is dismantled. The Italian government assured the pope of personal inviolability, the tenure of the Vatican and other buildings. The pope considered himself a prisoner of the Vatican and never set foot outside. Pius IX speaking on matters of faith forbade Catholics to engage in the democratic processes of the new Italy, whether as electors or as candidates.
Germany removed the clergy from controlling education. Not to do so would eliminate scientific, political and social advancement because of the Church's position on infallibility. Austria is described as a mosaic of nationalities and provinces without an inner unity. Although Austria had been at relative peace since 1866 the fear of a war with Russia remained a distinct possibility.
The Augustinian Friars in the Philippines installed Rafael de Izquierdo as Governor. He said he came to the Islands "with a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other". He immediately rescinded all liberal laws.
The Russian government repealed the military exemption status that Hutterites and Mennonites had enjoyed, they decided to look for a new home.