If you follow these Principles then one cannot error or be evil.
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Salvation is by obeying the will of God.
The Sumerians conclude that man is intrinsically corrupt and violent.
It is believed that Guardian Angles are attached to every person.
The caste system is created to maintain control of the people.
Fu-hsi (2852-2738) a sage, inventor and ruler in China is attributed with teaching the people how to hunt, cook, make nets and other skills. Nu-kua is thought to be his sister or consort. Others suggest Nu-kua predates Fu-hsi and saves the province of Chi (Hopei and Shansi) from flooding thereby bringing harmony to the country. Others give Nu-kua credit for the creation of all mankind. The Yellow Emperor Huang Di from Northern China is sometimes given credit for establishing civilization in China.
The Sumerian (Sumer or Shumer) speaking people occupied southern Mesopotamia (Iraq). Central Mesopotamia (the region called Akkad after 2,400 B.C.) is occupied by the Proto-Semites. They are more nomadic than the Sumerian. The Eblaite speaking people occupies Northern Mesopotamia. These Mesopotamia people appear to be a mix of Armenoid and Mediterranean peoples. The Sumerian people nurtured the idea of guardian angles attached to every person. They also had a story of the Tower of Babel or confusion of tongues when rivalries between Enki and Enlil developed. The Sumerian tradition points to this time or possibly as late as 2,600 B.C. as the time of the Great Flood in Ur region of Mesopotamia. This year the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers experienced a great flood and all settlements a buried beneath a thick layer of mud. The Sumerian tradition suggests this is the time the family of Shem (Semitic speaking people), the Elamites (Persians), Assyrian (Sumerians), Aramacan and the ancestors of the Semitic-Hebrews differentiated. It further claims the peoples to the South are the Ham's being composed of Ethiopia, Arabia and Egypt who also gave rise to the Semitic-Canaanites. The Mediterranean peoples are called the Japheth. The Great Flood mythology firmly entrenched in the minds of the Sumerian that man is intrinsically corrupt and violent. The Great Flood legend also attempted to established Mesopotamia as being the Center of the world and the only peoples having a covenant with God, the chosen people. It is noteworthy that no independent mention is made of a covenant between God and the Israelites. The Semitic Elamites (Persians) are basically Sumerian in culture but are frequently defeated and subjected by the Sumerians and Akkadians. They believed in individual and universal salvation by obeying the will of Spirit-god Ahura Mazda the Lord of Wisdom. They also believed in evil spirits. It is noteworthy that early Christians about 200 A.D create the legend of the final resting-place of the Ark as Mount Ararat in northern Turkey.
A tablet from Assyria reads, our earth is degenerate in these latter days. There are signs that the world is speedily coming to an end. Bribery and corruption are common.
In support of the flood legend at Ur, dating to this year is a 12-foot water deposit of stratum of Euphrates clay, poised between two levels of civilization. Other pits over thirty miles from Ur suggest this is just one of multiple floods, some separated by centuries. It is estimate that one flood is about 400 miles long by 100 miles wide.
The city of Ubar or Iram, Arabia is believed built this year and survived
until about 100 A.D.
Timber posts were erected within Stonehenge about this time. Stones were not used at this time. The stones came from Carn Menyn in the Preseli Mountains in southwest Wales about 140 miles from Stonehenge. They were believed to have healing properties. It is not sure when the stones were actually moved but likely between 2400 to 2200 B.C. The Romans likely altered Stonehenge in 370 AD.
Jerusalem is occupied at this time as a four-room house is excavated and dated to this period.
Some believe the Prytani or Pict People are constructing Stonehenge about this time. It is believed by some to be built over a long period of time.
The patriarch of the Cainan II tribe (2792-?) is a descendent of the tribe of Arphaxed (2927-2489) according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.). The tribe of Sala who lived 433 years follows him.
Reign of King Peribsen (Seth name) (ca. 2788-2754 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt. He is not the immediate successor of King Ninetjer. He maybe an outsider or an usurper.
King Zoser (reign of 50 years) of Egypt commissioned at Saqqara (Sakkara) the first Egyptian pyramid. This venture would be a construction failure. Pyramids are considered a pathway to the Sun God later known as Re. It provided a tangible connection between God and Mankind. This appears to represent a universal belief in one form or another. Horus the hawk of lower Egypt became the Egyptian symbol of Spirit-god. Horus first is a spirit-god of heaven then of the sun.
Reign of King Kasekhemwy or Khasekhem (ca. 2754-2720 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt. He records the defeat of a northerner named Besh, likely a Libyan prince.
The Beaker Culture at this time spread through the coast of Spain, southern France, Sardinia, northern Italy and the Low Countries including Britain. The Battle-Axe and Beaker Cultures appear to merge over time. One Northern Chinese tradition suggests the Yellow Emperor (Huang Di or Ti) founded modern civilization about this time or perhaps as early as 3500 B.C. Confucius however begins his history with the Perfect Rulers 2400 B.C. and ignores the Yellow Empire. The Emperor however is identified as a harsh warlord implying that civilization brings repressive harsh government.
After the great Sumerian flood the Sun God Utu (Shamash) again lowered Kingship from heaven to the town of Kish about 16 kilometers east of Babylon (Babel). Thus began the great Kish dynasty that included about 23 kings including 12 Semitic, 6 Sumerian, 4 unknown and 1 unreadable named from 2750 to 2340 B.C. One King Etana who lived 1560 years and ascended into heaven. King Etana is alleged to have flown to the cities of Anu, Enlil, Ea, Sin, Shamash (Sun God Utu), Adad and Ishtar before flying to heaven. Before being taken to heaven he had a son named Balikh. Kish is considered to be the focus for religious and political power. To be King of Kish is synonymous with King of Sumer and Akkad or King of the Whole Country. Even though Nippur is the seat of Summer's supreme God Enlil it didn't have the political significance of Kish. The Semitic Elamites (Persians) live east of the Sumerians and the Akkapians to the north and west.
The Phoenicians claimed to have built a temple to Spirit-god Hercules at Tyre about this time according to Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) the Greek.
The Human Sovereign of China was Shennong (2,737-2,698 B.C.). It is said he taught the people agriculture, after the lands had drained from the Great Flood, and acupuncture and pharmacopoeia, medical herbs and poisonous herbs.
Reign of King Kasekhemwy or Khasekhemwy alias Khasekhem (Horus and Seth name) (ca. 2720-2686 B.C.) Dynasty 2 of Egypt. It is written that the two lords (Upper & Lower Egypt) are satisfied with him. He is a vigorous military campaigner. Prosperity and control of Egypt is achieved during his reign.
The Harappin peoples of the Indus-valley had mastered the basic problems of irrigation and flood control. They cultivated rice, cotton and dates. They also kept cattle and water buffalo.
The 22 King of Kish, Iraq is listed as En-Mebaragesi being preceded by Etana and followed by Agga his son. King Mebaragesi conquered Elam.
Megalithic monuments appear in Crete about this time and the technology may have originated in Spain or Britain five or six hundred years earlier. Megalithic technology included the principle of the arch which may have influenced the Anatolia (Greeks) and Roman tradition.
Historical claims to this point in time, especially as to being first, should be viewed with great skepticism (a Anatolia (Greek) endorsed belief).
The beginning of the Chinese calendar dates to this year being created by the Emperor Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) (2698-2599 B.C.)
Legend has it that the Yellow Emperor who was Huangdi (2,697-2,598) of the clan of the bear is ancestor to all the Han Culture in China. Yawdi ruled the clan of the Bull but was defeated by Huangdi and absorbed into his clan. Legend then says that the Chinese culture began with these two tribes. Chi You's tribe engaged in war against Huangdi's Han tribe who called upon 8 tribal neighboring clans to join forces against the Chi You clan. The Han tribe was victorious. The 9 Tribes joined together as one tribe under the leadership of Huangdi.
Emperor Huangdi (Hwang Ti) sent his Prime Minister, a member of the Louie family, to the Fong San territory to settle troubles and disturbances. The Emperor's Prime Minister was the son of the Aye Yee Mong. After success in settling the problems of the Fong San territory, he decided to remain and made his home there. He changed his name to Fong, and therefore became the first Fong. This is Mary Dik Ping Shu (wife of the author), mother's name. The origin of the Fong family is in the north-east part of China close to the Yellow River (Huang He)
The list of Egyptian Kings suggests that twenty-two kings ruled Egypt since the founding of Memphis, the White Walled City.
Reign of King Horus Zanakht or Sanakhte (ca. 2686-2669 B.C.) (2649-2630 B.C.) Dynasty 3 of Egypt. Egypt is governed not by the God concepts but by principles. The overall principle is 'Maat', the idea of order, justice and truth. It is believed if you follow these principles one cannot err or be evil. It is noteworthy that the Egyptian language lacks a word for religion therefore to apply religious concepts to the understanding of Egypt is unthinkable. The first kings of dynasty 3 opened up the turquoise quarries. Two unexcavated pyramids at Sakkara may represent two new kings or one may belong to Sanakhte.
King Agga son Mebaragesi the last of the first Kish Dynastic period sent Gilgamesh of the first Uruk Dynastic period an ultimatum that Uruk submit to Kish. Agga lost the siege of Uruk and Kish had to submit to Uruk. Other evidence suggests this incident took place during the fifth King of Uruk, Gilgamesh that would be closer to about 2,580 B.C. Uruk also had strained relationship with Aratta a far away country from Sumer by seven mountains likely located in Iran. The Lord of Aratta would not trade gold, silver, lapis-lazuli and precious stones for grain or by threats. There is also a threat by the Semitic-Amorites of the Syrian desert. The Amorite is a tent dweller of the mountains, warlike, uncouth and generally strange to the Sumerians. The Amorites would later be called the Hyksos.
Reign of King Horus Djoser (Netjerykhet or Neterirykhet) (meaning the most sacred one) (ca. 2669-2655 B.C.) (2630-2611 B.C.) brother of King Sanakhte Dynasty 3 of Egypt. He has absolute power over Egypt and subdued the Nome Princes to the south. He fought the Libyans to the West and the nomads to the East. He built a step pyramid at Sakkara (Saqqara). Imhotep who served Djoser as a master builder and physician is remembered by his countrymen for over two thousand years for his wisdom and ability. During his reign a famine that lasted seven years is recorded. The sun God Re is firmly established as the supreme deity in Egypt. Temples are built with their entrances facing east to greet the rising sun. Egyptians viewed their world as having four corners, East, West, North and South.
The patriarch of the Eber tribe (2662-2258) is a descendent of the tribe of Sala according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
Reign of King Horus Sekhemkhet (ca. 2655-2641 B.C.) (2611-2601 B.C.) Dynasty 3 of Egypt. He also built a step pyramid at Sakkara.
This is called the Age of the Pyramids (2650-2190 B.C.) dynasties III-VI. King Zoser (2700-2650 B.C.) built the step pyramid of Sakkara. King Snofru or Snefru dynasty IV (2650-2500 B.C.) (2575-2551 B.C.) built the pyramid of Medum and developed navigation, his three successors Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus built the three colossal pyramids at Gizeh. The Prophecy of Neferti in the reign of Snefru foretells a period of natural disasters and anarchy in Egypt. The lands is in lamentation and overrun by Asiatic, at the end a king called Ameny from the south, placate the spirit-gods, and drives away the Asiatic and Libyans. He actually invaded the lands of Libya to the West.
The Greek historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) suggests the predecessor of Cheops is Rhampsinitus whose reign is excellently governed and Egypt flourished. Cheops plunged Egypt into all manner of wickedness, closing the temples and forbade the people to offer sacrifice and compelled them to labor in his service. A hundred thousand men labored constantly being relieved every three months by a fresh lot. His brother Chephren during his reign continued this wickedness. The Egyptians in Herodotus visit to Egypt detested the memory of these kings.
In earlier times maintaining good trade relationships with ones neighbors is considered the single most important belief principal. The Sumerian peoples shifted from a sharing philosophy to a might is right belief. Constant warfare became a significant factor to control agriculture and trade routes. This constant warfare led to centralized control, dominant priesthoods and kingships. Many believe the principle objective of warfare is commercial in nature beginning to control trade routes, source of supply and eventually people. This evolved from a universal principle of sharing to a practice of greed and power that many called civilization.
Reign of King Horus Khaba (ca. 2641-2627 B.C.) (2603-2599 B.C.) Dynasty 3 of Egypt. He is believed to have built a layer pyramid slightly to the north of Sakkara.
Reign of King Huni (Nisuteh) (ca. 2627-2613 B.C.) (2599-2575 B.C.) Dynasty 3 of Egypt. He pushed the southern boundaries of Egypt to the town of Aswan. He built a step pyramid later converted to a true pyramid at Medum. He married Queen Meresankh I the mother of Snofru. Some say he left no male heir to the throne. King Snefru who married King Huni's daughter actually did the completion work.
Reign of King Snofru or Snefru (meaning the bringer of beauty) (ca. 2613-2592 B.C.) (2575-2551 B.C.) Dynasty 4 of Egypt married Hetepheres the daughter of King Huni. This 4th dynasty includes 17 kings. The Egyptian Pharaoh Sneferu (Snefru) (2613-2592 B.C.) claimed to have subdued the Nubia (south of Aswan) in revolt. He returned with 7,000 Nubia prisoners and 200,000 head of cattle. He fought the Libyans to secure his lumber supplies and chased the Asiatic from the route that led to the Sinai Peninsula and the mines of that region. Snefru built three pyramids, converting the step pyramid at Medium, the Bent pyramid at Dahshur between Medium and Sakkara and the third the North Stone pyramid at Dahshur a mile north of the Bent Pyramid. The building of pyramids linked the Sun God Re with the Son of God, the King and therefore the people. Offerings to the spirit-gods are a form of business transaction for order in the environment. Snefru is buying lumber likely from Syria and ordered the construction of sixty ocean going merchant ships to support this trade. One record notes the arrival of forty sailing ships filled with cedar logs. At this time body odor is considered a sign of sinfulness so frequent bathing and the use of perfume is wide spread. Trading with the people of Punt (Eastern Sudan or Ethiopia is recorded about this time.
Snefru (Snofru), son of Huni, was the 1st king of Egyptís 4th Dynasty. Snefruís scribes left a description of 40 ships bearing timber arriving to Egypt from Byblos aka Gebal and Gubla, Lebanon founded 5,500 B.C., during the period of 2,613BC-2,589BC
It is believed that the practice of embalming occurred about this time.
Some linguistic specialists used this date as a start point for the beginning of the Indo-European family of languages. This linguistic differential is based on deduction rather than archaeological evidence and the differential likely evolved over many thousands of years. The Celts occupied Spain, France, Germany, Netherlands and the British Islands; the Germanic peoples occupied Denmark, Sweden, Norway and northern Germany; the Balts occupied Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian (Russia); the Slavs occupied Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary; the Veneti occupied northern Italy, and Austria; the Latin's occupied southern Italy and the Illyrians, Yugoslavia. The Hittite (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite) occupied Turkey. The Luwian people arrived before the others. The town Ashshur, Assyria is Sumerian in culture but is evolving over the next 600 years into a Semitic Akkadian culture. The Sumerian and Semitic cultures are nearly identical suggesting much intermarriage.
The Indus (Harappan) civilization flourished (2,600-1,900 B.C.) covered 250,000 square miles in what is now Pakistan and Northwestern India was one of the first civilization, built on agriculture and pastoralism, strengthened by trade. Among the more than 1,500 known Indus sites are large well planned towns and cities. They had a written language, about 2,000 B.C. that has yet to be deciphered. Some believe the Indus culture rivaled both the Egypt and Mesopotamia culture. Mohenjo Daro had an estimated population of 100,000 people. The Indus empire covered 625,000 square miles and likely included a million people. They admit the more they discover "Every day, we know less and less about the Indus".
We need to keep in mind the Pict occupied Scotland and the Basque is in Portugal both being non Indo-European. There are probably many more indigenous peoples in Europe who are absorbed or eliminated. These early people appear to believe in a hierarchy of spirits with the God of the Heaven being the supreme deity. Some believe the Basque are largely absorbed into the Irish and Welsh traditions.
In Shuruppak, Iraq clay tablets record slave, land and building sales transactions. Freemen held land from one to 240 hectare depending on their status. Workers or peasants held no land and slaves obtained as a result of conquest is the lowest class of people. The King maintained a standing army of six to seven hundred soldiers. The High Priests usually held 1/3 of the surrounding lands. The Dynasty of Ur, Iraq begins this year and the Royal Cemetery indicates the Kings burials include human sacrifices from 3 to 74 attendants mostly females. The Sumerian city state temples owned about 1/3 of the land surrounding the cities. Much of the produce went to support the slaves and laborers working in the workshops milling grain, spinning and weaving wool, brewing beer or as cooks, gardeners and servants. A standing army of six to seven hundred men per city is not uncommon. This early feudal system would provide the blueprint for later generations. To secure the temple people must be bound to the land. To avoid revolt the peasants are given captured slaves and the priest kings must provide a form of cast system to ensure stability. Sumerian King Meskalamdug of the City of Ur claims to be subordinate to God. Their God is always associated with a female companion to symbolize creative powers.
The age of the great pyramid building (ca. 2650-2190) commenced in Egypt. This is during the Egyptian dynasties of III to VI. Egyptians believed in an existence after death including a final judgment. The king of the IV dynasty is considered to be the son of the Sun-God. The Sumerian culture built small pyramid structures but did not use them as burial chambers.
A statue of a Sumerian (Mesopotamian) worshiper is recovered and believed to be placed in temples as perpetual prayers of the donor.
Reign of spirit-god-King Khufu (Cheops or Khnum-Khufwy)
(ca. 2592-2563 B.C.) (2551-2528 B.C.) son Snefru Dynasty 4 of Egypt.
He built the largest pyramid at Giza. Man would not equal its height
for the next 4,480 years. Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) the
Greek records his rule as fifty years and classified him as a cruel monarch.
This is likely based on the erroneous assumption that slave labor built
this great pyramid. The pyramids built by his father exceed the volume
of the great pyramid and likely represent a time of great prosperity.
Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) suggests that King Khufu closed all
temples to spirit-gods other than the Sun God Re likely to focus all effort
to the one supreme God and the King as the son of God.
Some suggest the Giza pyramid was built (2575-2467 B.C.) and the ancient Greek Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) described the pyramid builders as 100,000 slaves. Recent research suggests they were not slaves but artisans based on graves in the backyard of the great pyramid. They determined they ate cattle and sheep, were buried with honors had signs of hard workers. They estimated it only took 10,000 workers 30 years to build the pyramid. Others suggest because of the limited number of graves, these might represent the overseers or management rather than true workers.
Egyptians are building 143 foot wooden ships at this time.
Reign of spirit-god-King Radjedef or Redjedef (Djedefre) (meaning enduring light ray) (ca. 2563-2552 B.C.) (2528-2520 B.C.) Dynasty 4 of Egypt being the son of King Khufu. He murdered Prince Kewab who is the rightful heir to the throne and married his wife Queen Hetepheres II. The unfinished pyramid at Abu Rowash or Rawwash, north of Giza is assigned to his brief reign.
Reign of spirit-god-King Khephren or Khafre (Rakhaef or Chephren) (meaning appearing like Re the sun God) (ca. 2552-2532 B.C.) (2520-2494) son of King Cheops, Dynasty 4 of Egypt. He built his pyramid at Giza just south of that of Cheops and is just ten feet lower than the Great Pyramid. Historian Herodotus (480-430 B.C.) the Greek records his rule as fifty six years. His sons Hordedef and Baefre may have reigned but if so only for a short period. He is supposedly hated by his contemporaries for his autocratic nature.
Czechoslovakia is mixing tin and copper to make bronze. Bronze workings soon appeared in southern Germany and Switzerland where deposits of copper and tin can be found.
Some suggest the Giza Monuments were built over an 80 year period with a work force of 20-30 thousand during the 4th dynasty during the reigns of Kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkare
The patriarch of the Phaleg tribe (2528-2289) is a
descendent of the tribe of Eber (2662-2258) according to the historian
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