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They never thought it necessary to love God.
The North American Indians held the same belief but didn't need King or Pharaoh.
Reign of spirit-god-King Menkaure (Mycerinus) (ca. 2525-2504 B.C.) (2490-2472 B.C.) Dynasty 4 of Egypt. He built the third and smallest pyramid at Giza. King Menkaure allowed the opening of other temples and some attribute the smaller pyramid a result of this decision. The followers of the sun God Re claimed that the opening of the other temples is an affront to Re and would result in the decline of the Egyptian Empire. It was predicted he would only live six years but he cheated the spirit-gods and lived over twenty years but some claim he is responsible for ending the 4th dynasty.
Zhuardou ruled (2,514-2,436 B.C.) and joined with the Dongyi Clan or the Eastern Bow People of China. He changed the matriarchal system into a patriarchal system. Some suggest there are no known examples of matriarchies from any point in history. From a purest point of view this is true but the North American Indian culture was a matriarchal system based on the principle of shared leadership. The women could vote out the leader of the clan who was not living up to tribal standards. Zhuardou forbade close-kin marriage and opposed shamanism.
Abraham is born to Terah and clay tablets suggest the name Abraham is a very common name used in the Middle East for the next 500 years. It is noteworthy that Genesis 12:16 suggests the Egyptians gave Abraham camels and camels are not domesticated until the fourteenth century B.C. This would suggest the Abraham legend likely covers many Abrahams and incidents over a thousand year period or more. The Koran accepts Abraham as a great prophet and his mixed blood son Ishmael by the Egyptian slave girl Hagar as their common ancestor with the Hebrew. Islamic tradition suggests Ishmael and his mother are buried at Mecca. The Koran claims Abraham and Ishmael are ordered by Allah to journey to Mecca where they build the First Temple enclosing the sacred black rock from paradise.
Reign of spirit-god-King Shepseskaf (ca. 2504-2499 B.C.) (2472-2467 B.C.) Dynasty 4 of Egypt. He did not build a pyramid but rather a sarcophaguslike, rectangular super structure south of Giza and Sakkara. His reign marks the end of the great pyramid builders.
The Black Sea violently turns from a fresh water lake to a salt water sea. The new sea settled into two layers, a blackish upper layer and a deeper salty layer without oxygen and life. These poison waters of hydrogen sulfide can be found from 65 feet to a depth of 300 feet at times and on average 500-600 feet and some suggest the Black Sea could be totally dead by 2015.
At this time in history weather patterns which caused monsoon conditions in the region allowed much more vegetation to grow in the Sahara Region
The Hittite (Luwian, Palaic and Nesite) people are believed to occupy the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas and begin to radiate out from this general location to Persia, India, Asia Minor and into Europe. They are believed to have originated from the Asianics an unknown peoples to the far East. Their use of the chariot gave them great mobility. The Hittites worshipped a storm God and protected the individual rights of their citizens. They were good administrators and capable statesmen and diplomats.
The Chinese are believed building sea worthy ships about this time.
Mongol-Indo tribes (Proto-Hatti people) are settled in the area of the Black and Caspian Sea having replaced the indigenous peoples driving them north and west. They are horrific soldiers with battle axes and horse drawn chariots that gave rapidity of movement. They spread out from this base and some went westward into Europe to add to the Proto-Celtic tradition. Thracian tribes are settled in the vicinity of Troy near Hellespont. About 200 years Troy becomes a major fortified city.
The presence of Semite-Akkadian among the Sumerian speaking people of Iraq is linguistically impacting the Sumerian language. Prior to this time Semite had a very minor impact. The Sumerian or their ancestors are said to have first originated the story of the Great Flood and Uta-Napishtim (Noah) is the only one saved by building a boat through the help of God. Noah is also called Atarhasis, Ubar-Tutu, and Ziusudra of the city of Shuruppak, southern Iraq. The earliest version has the King riding out the flood in a boat and ultimately achieving immortality. There is little doubt the Semitic-Israelite story of Genesis is based on this Sumerian legend. An unknown Sumerian between 2500-2000 B.C. proposed the creation occurred between 500,000-60,000 B.C. The Sumerian town of Ur the people recorded that evil is descending on our land, bodies dissolve like fat in the sun, the spirit-gods have abandoned us like migrating birds, smoke lies on our city like a shroud. It is suggested the soil is poisoned with salt, waters are being diverted upstream into new irrigation grids and down stream towns are receiving inadequate supplies. The people fled the town.
Jirofit Mesopotamis is as big as Sumer and reached it peak 2,500-2,200 B.C. some think it maybe the ancient city of Aratta. It is believed that drought brought down Jirofit.
The Jomom culture Middle phase of Japan lasted 2,500 B.C. to 1,500 B.C.
Caucasian men settled in Japan, their decedents are called Ainu and
they are forced to the northern island of Hukkaido. It is not known when
they arrived. Most Japanese
do not realize that they are not native to these Islands.
Egyptian and Anatolia (Greek) people shared a common belief in life after death. The Greeks practiced cremation whereas this was not practiced in Egypt. The Greeks had freedom of thought and the Egyptians had a very centralized rigid society. The people of Elba, Anatplia (Greece) and other towns are occupied by a Semitic Sumero-Akkadian type people called the West Semitic. It is suggested the West Semitic may have occupied this region since 2800 B.C. or earlier.
The Egyptians sent an expedition sailing down the Red Sea to the mysterious Land of Punt (likely the Coast of Somalia). The Lands of Punt cover the east and west coasts of the Red Sea and the north-east coast of Africa.
Egypt is building the great pyramids and the builders are an elite group of families that were treated like nobility and not as slaves as previously believed. It is estimated that only 20,000 people built the pyramids not 100,000 as previously believed. This was accomplished buy strapping on portioned wheels to the huge stone blocks and using block and tackle to move the stones.
Ethiopia is a thriving trading Center that is trading as far as India. Egypt refers to Ethiopia as the Land of Punt or God's Land. Trade items included ivory, ebony, gold, panther skins, cosmetics, cinnamon, frankincense and myrrh.
The oldest surviving map is a Babylonian clay tablet. It is believed that nearly every culture developed mapmaking from their antiquity.
Byblos, Sidon, Tyre and Beirut emerged as independent City States of Phoenicia.
Egyptian herbalist dates to this period and by 1,500 B.C. 876 herbal formulas are recorded from 500 plants including 1/3 of modern western pharmacopoeia.
The Longzhu culture in the East Coast of China existed from 2,500 B.C. to 1,700 B.C.
The Shandong Longshan culture of China existed 2,500 to 2,000 B.C.
The Taosi Longshan culture of China existed 2,500-1,900 B.C.
Reign of spirit-god-King Userkhaf or Userkaf (meaning his soul is powerful) (ca. 2499/2465-2473/2458 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt who built his modest pyramid near the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Sakkara, Egypt. King Userkaf is the great grand son of King Khufu (Cheops or Khnum-Khufwy) (ca. 2592-2563 B.C.). Dynasty 5 reflected an even more marked emphasis on the royal preoccupation with the Sun God Re. Some suggest this dynasty is based on a triplet of a priest of Re. Re is now considered the King of the World requiring the trappings of an Egyptian pharaoh in the form of a Sun Temple. Copper is being used in the temples likely obtain in trade. The obelisk replaces the pyramid as a symbol of Godís relationship to the King. This return to the sun God Re resulted in the 5th dynasty lasting 150 years.
Sargon the Great (Sharru-kin) (2334-2279 B.C.) is born of the Semitic insurgents from the western deserts who settled among the Akkadians who had established themselves on the Euphrates at Akkad, Iraq. Cuneiform tablets bearing the name Ibrahim (Abraham) are found throughout the Tigris-Euphrates region from this time until about 1274 B.C. The tablets list an Egyptian and a Cypriot among those named Abraham. Abraham as a person likely did not exist and is likely a composite of multiple Abrahams telescoping time and places as perceived by later biblical compilers who needed a story line to put forward a moral and spiritual lesson.
Reign of spirit-god-King Sahure (ca. 2473/2458-2457/2446 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt. He records a successful mission to Syria returning with bears and jars of oil. Later accounts would turn this trade mission into a conquest of the Libyans or it could represent another event. He conducted a trade mission to the Land of Punt on the Red Sea. He built a temple pyramid at Sahure that contained 330 yards of copper drain pipe.
Reign of spirit-god-King Kakai (Neferirkare) (ca. 2457/2446-2441/2426 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt.
The Akkadians rule ancient Babylon (Babel). Others suggest the Akkad Dynasty starts 2334 B.C.)
The Egyptian pyramid of Khafre is believed to be built about this time.
Reign of spirit-god-King Ini or Isi (Shepseskare or Shepseskate) (ca. 2441/2426-2425/2419 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt.
Ku ruled (2,436-2,366 B.C.) the eastern clan of China.
Reign of spirit-god-King Raneferef or Neferefre (ca. 2425/2419-2416/2409 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt.
Reign of spirit-god-King Izi (Neuserre) (ca. 2416/2409-2393 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt. He built a sun temple at Abu Ghurob near Giza. He conducted military campaigns against the Libyans on the Western Desert and against the Asiatics in the Sinai.
The Beaker people's first arrives in the Westward Islands (Britain) this year. They are characterized as having roundheads, being strongly built, and taller than Neolithic Celts. They introduced barley into the Westward Islands.
A stone statue of a Sumerian scribe in Mesopotamia and other artifacts suggest that had a system of weights and measures.
The Syrian town of Aleppo is believed to be first built about this time as a religious site to the god Adda (a storm god). It was rebuilt over the centuries and commands a position on a natural hill. It is noteworthy that Yawheh was originally considered a storm god.
The Pharaoh's of Egypt about this time embraced the God Re, listing themselves as the Son of God. It is believed the Priests of Heliopplis are obliged to relinquish some power to the Pharaoh to achieve this elevation of their God. Egyptians believed God loved their King and God loved the people but they never thought it necessary to love God.
During the reigns of Yao and Shu (Shun) (2,400-2,300) Miao, a tribe or confraternity created oppressive punishments throwing the Chinese people into disorder. Miao is eventually exterminated. Ti K'u succeeded in defeating the barbarian general and is given the emperor's daughter as a wife. Their descendants became the Miao and Yao tribes of Southern China or so records Chinese legend. This period including the Emperor Yu (2205 B.C.) is recorded according to Confucius as the reign of the Perfect Rulers a Golden Age of peace and virtue. The Miao are believed to exist in the extreme northwestern corner of the known Asian world. They are said to have wings but are unable to fly. Perhaps this is a symbolic reference to sailing ships. The Emperors during this period are not absolute and council and other important men of the reign often oppose his wishes.
The patriarch of the Ragau tribe (2398-2159) is a descendent of the tribe of Phaleg (2528-2289) according to the historian Josephus (37-100 A.D.).
Reign of spirit-god-King Menkauhor Akauhor (ca. 2396/2393-2388/2377 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt. He built his temple pyramid at Sakkara. He sent a mining expedition into the Sinai to obtain materials for his tomb.
To keep things in perspective the Early Dynastic Period of Iraq (2900-2384 B.C.) lists eighteen cities from north to south Sippar, Kish, Akshak, Larak, Isin, Nippur, Abad, Zabalam, Shuruppak, Umma, Girsu, Langash, Nina, Badtibira, Uruk, Larsa, Ur and Eridu. The largest city Langash numbered 30,000 to 35,000 people. Other towns and settlements will likely be unearthed in the future.
Reign of spirit-god-King Izezi or Isesi (Djedkare) (ca. 2388/2377-2356/2361 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt.
Reign of spirit-god-King Wenis (Unas or Unis) (ca. 2361/2356-2345/2323 B.C.) Dynasty 5 of Egypt. King Unis introduced text to the subterranean chambers of the temple pyramids. The text includes a conflict with the Shashu nomads east of the Delta, an expedition by sea to Syria, and a group of famine stricken Bedouin. These texts also provided the basis for the Egyptian Book of the Dead that would be used for the next two thousand years. This marked a fundamental shift in beliefs in that King Unis had a body of the earth to remain of the earth but his essence (soul) is in the after life separated from the earth so says the sacred Book of the Dead.
During the Egyptian Sixth Dynasty (2345-2180) or (2323-2150 B.C.) Egypt employed the Libyan and Nebsiu to conduct raids upon Asiatic territories. The use of foreign mercenaries over the next 1,000 years as scouts, policemen and in the regular army is entrenched.
The Harappan Empire of the Indus Valley and India had an extensive long distance trading Empire including the use of deep sea vessels. They frequently traveled the India Ocean and the Persian Gulf many departing from Lothal, India in the Gulf of Cambay. Evidence suggests they traded with Ur and other Sumerian cities. This culture appears to have no bombastic rulers, boasting of their achievements. There is no evidence of the ardent militarism of the Semitic Assyrian (Sumerians) Kings or the slavish glorification of the Pharaohs of Egyptian culture. One fundamental difference is the Harappan organized around a 'village state' versus a 'city state' culture. They did have 'merchant cities' but did not attempt to centralize agriculture. The merchant class maintained a low profile in public with a lifestyle far from lavish. They appear to have a communal ownership of property with a strong network of kinship ties. Their writing a Proto Dravidian language believed to have greatly influenced Sanskrit has not been deciphered.
Tao aka Yaotang Shi, Yi Fangxum, Yi Qi and Tang Yao, who ruled Eastern China (2,358-2,258 B.C.) Some suggest this may represent Leader-Chiefs of allied tribes who established a united and hierarchical system of governing.
In Ireland tree ring analysis showed a strange anomalies occurred this year. For about a decade (2354 - 2345 B.C.) in Ireland tree ring analysis suggests that tree growth virtually stopped. This has been interpreted as Global Cooling The real question is was this phenomena regional or global, and was it caused by cold, lack of sun or lack of water. If it was global then Siberia and Canada tree ring data would support the Ireland data. Also southern hemispheric data would also support the Ireland data. If not then it might be northern hemispheric only or just regional. If regional then the Gulf Stream is suspect. Some think the warming gulf stream may have stopped. Others think that the sun was masked by a comet or asteroid striking the earth. Others suggest it was caused by volcanoes but critics say that only lasts for a year or two before settling out. The other option is drought. See 50 A.D. for a similar tree ring anomaly.
July 17; some claim that Noah came ashore on Mt. Ararat on the 17th day of
the seventh month, 2,348BC. Some suggest the rising Mediterranean broke
through a natural dam in the Bosporus Strait and flooded a freshwater lake that
expanded into the Black Seaat this time
November 25; Some biblical scholars have long asserted this to be the day of the Great Deluge, or Flood.
The Sumerian Empire of Lugalzagesi of Umma is believed to be viable only with the support of the Semites of Mari and the Semites of Syria. The cities of Lagash and Umma fought each other for 150 years over who owned the field and canals between their borders. Warfare became endemic in the region.
Kish, Iraq (2750-2340 B.C.) lay in the heart of a Semitic region yet
most Kings bore traditional Sumerian names. The title
King of Kish is almost synonymous with King of Sumer and Akkad or King of the whole country.
Reign of King Teti (ca. 2345-2333 B.C.) (2323-2291 B.C.) Dynasty 6 of Egypt. Estimates of his reign are 12-32.5 years. His tomb is in the crowded area of Sakkara. This uncertainty as to reign is likely associated with the rising power of the nobles and a decrease in power of the King.
Sargon I The Great (2340-2316 B.C.) is born Azupiranu on the banks of the Euphrates. He is placed in a basket of rushes sealed with bitumen. He is cast into the river and carried to Akki, Iraq. He grew up and is appointed gardener and rose to kingship. Sargon I The Great (2340-2316 B.C.) or (2485-2562), a Semitic Prince became King of Akkad also Accad on the Euphrates River. He called himself Sharrukin meaning the righteous or legitimate King. He dealt the fatal blow to the Sumerian Empire of Lugalzagesi of Umma. Everywhere he is victorious and of every town he tore down the walls. The King is proclaimed ruler of the four quarters of the earth. He conquered Mesopotamia, part of Syria, Asia Minor and Elam. He established his capital city as Agade, Iraq. Sharru-kin ruled the Sumerian people of the Persian Gulf (Iraq) to Northern Babylon (Babel). His people considered themselves as the tenant farmers of God. Sargon of Akkad like Moses is claimed to be cast into the Euphrates River in a basket, rescued by Akki who reared him as his son. He is also claimed to have crossed the Western Sea to Cyprus and Crete. The Akkadian (Semitic) replaced the Sumerian culture in these regions. They would eventually evolve into the Babylonian and Semitic Assyrian (Sumerians) peoples. These Babylonian also followed the world wide belief in Mother Earth in their deity Ishtar. The Canaan-Hebrew people would call Mother Earth Anat. Egypt called her Isis, Anatolia (Greece) called her Aphrodite and ancient Sumerians Inana. The Babylonians held the God of the Sky, the creator as responsible for all their cultural achievements. Babylon (Babel) they believed is an image of heaven. This they celebrated in their new year sacred festival day on the 7th day of Nisan (April). Sibyl according to Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian attributes the confusion of the language to Babel because they built a high tower to ascend up to heaven. This resulted in the great migration of peoples throughout the lands.
Sargon I The Great (2334-2279 B.C.) or (2485-2430) Semitic King of Akkad also Accad on the Euphrates River now resided at Ebla (Mardik) Northern Syria who spoke Eblaite-Semitic that differed from Akkadian-Semitic and from West-Semitic (Amorrite-Cananaean) but is highly influenced Sumerian Kish. Sargon I The Great advanced deep into the heart of Asia Minor against the King of Burushanda. Sargon I claimed to have crossed the Sea of the West to Cyprus and Crete to establish a standard for others. In his words "Now, any king who wants to call himself my equal, Wherever I went, let him go."
Tell Mardik the Semitic city of Ebla (2400-2250 B.C.) represents a relatively large and powerful Northern Syrian Kingdom.
Reign of King Userkare (ca. 2333-2328 B.C.) Dynasty 6 of Egypt. His reign is likely brief.
Reign of King Pepi or Pepy I (Meryre) (ca. 2328-2289 B.C.) (2289-2255 B.C.) Dynasty 6 of Egypt married two daughters of an Abydos official named Khuy. It would appear that the loyalty of provincial governors is required to maintain the Kingship. A harem conspiracy occurred involving a judgement against the principal Queen. Estimates of his reign vary from 20-49 years. Some contend Userkare and Pepy may have jointly ruled for a period of time. It is noteworthy that the nobles are gaining power at the expense of the King. Pepi I attached whole units of Nubians to his own forces. He sent his general Weni with his Nubian troops into the Sinai and southern Palestine as far as Mount Carmel to pursue rebellious Bedouins. Troops are landed on the Palestine coastline to trap the enemy armies. Weni and Pepi I also led a campaign in Nubia to establish garrisons and trading posts.
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